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Sample records for mottle virus infection

  1. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

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    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  2. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

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    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  3. Complete genome sequence of a tomato infecting tomato mottle mosaic virus in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genome sequence of an emerging isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting experimental nicotianan benthamiana plants in up-state New York was obtained using small RNA deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity to ToMMV isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader d...

  4. First Report of Carnation vein mottle virus Infecting Dianthus amurensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a tentative member in genus Tobamovirus, was first reported from a greenhouse tomato sample collected in Mexico in 2013 (1). In August 2013, foliar mottle, shrinking and necrosis were observed on pepper plants in several vegetable greenhouses of Lhasa, Tibet Auton...

  5. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

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    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection

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    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A ...

  7. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  8. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  9. Characterization of petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV), a new potyvirus infecting Petunia x hybrida.

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    Feldhoff, A; Wetzel, T; Peters, D; Kellner, R; Krczal, G

    1998-01-01

    With the introduction of cutting-grown Petunia x hybrida plants on the European market, a new potyvirus which showed no serological reaction with antisera against any other potyviruses infecting petunias was discovered. Infected leaves contained flexuous rod-shaped virus particles of 750-800 nm in length and inclusion bodies (pinwheel structures) typical for potyviruses in ultrathin leaf sections. The purified coat protein with a Mr of approximately 36 kDa could be detected in Western immunoblots with a specific antibody to the coat protein of the petunia-infecting virus. The 3' end of the viral genome encompassing the 3' non-coding region, the coat protein gene, and part of the NIb gene was amplified from infected leaf material by IC/PCR using degenerate and specific primers. Sequences of PCR-generated cDNA clones were compared to other known sequences of potyviruses. Maximum homology of 56% was found in the 3' non-coding region between the petunia isolate and other potyviruses. A maximum homology of 69% was found between the amino acid sequence of the coat protein of the petunia isolate and corresponding sequences of other potyviruses. These data indicate that the petunia-infecting virus is a previously undescribed potyvirus and the name petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV) is suggested.

  10. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  11. Different virus-derived siRNAs profiles between leaves and fruits in Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected Lagenaria siceraria

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    Junmin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs playing roles in host antiviral defence are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2,058 or 22-nt (3,996 were identified but only six (21-nt and one (22-nt positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5’-terminal and 3’-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  12. The 96th Amino Acid of the Coat Protein of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Affects Virus Infectivity

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    Zhenwei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV is one of the most devastating viruses infecting members of the family Cucurbitaceae. The assembly initiation site of CGMMV is located in the coding region of the coat protein, which is not only involved in virion assembly but is also a key factor determining the long-distance movement of the virus. To understand the effect of assembly initiation site and the adjacent region on CGMMV infectivity, we created a GTT deletion mutation in the GAGGTTG assembly initiation site of the infectious clone of CGMMV, which we termed V97 (deletion mutation at residue 97 of coat protein, followed by the construction of the V94A and T104A mutants. We observed that these three mutations caused mosaic after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Nicotiana benthamiana, albeit with a significant delay compared to the wild type clone. The mutants also had a common spontaneous E96K mutation in the coat protein. These results indicated that the initial assembly site and the sequence of the adjacent region affected the infectivity of the virus and that E96 might play an essential role in this process. We constructed two single point mutants—E96A and E96K—and three double mutants—V94A-E96K, V97-E96K and T104A-E96K—to further understand the role of E96 in CGMMV pathogenesis. After inoculation in N. benthamiana, E96A showed delayed systemic symptoms, but the E96K and three double mutants exhibited typical symptoms of mosaic at seven days post-infection. Then, sap from CGMMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves was mechanically inoculated on watermelon plants. We confirmed that E96 affected CGMMV infection using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and sequencing, which further confirmed the successful infection of the related mutants, and that E96K can compensate the effect of the V94, V97, and T104 mutations on virus infectivity. In

  13. Survey on The Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Cucurbits in Yogyakarta and Central Java

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    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are grown throughout the Java Island as dry season crops. Plants having mosaic, mottling, chlorosis and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently found in most of the cucurbit fields during the survey which conducted in Central Java including Sleman, Kulon Progo, and Klaten during July–September 2000 and 2001. Using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA; Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV were found infecting cucurbits. CMV was widespread, infecting 48.9% of the samples tested followed by CGMMV (12.8% and KGMMV (6.4%, while others samples (31.9% were not tested, double infections were common with 8.5 % of the samples being infected with two viruses (CGMMV and KGMMV and 34% with three viruses (CMV, CGMMV, and KGMMV. Severe mosaic and mottle symptoms were associated most often with single infection of CGMMV and KGMMV respectively. In addition, these are the first detections of CGMMV and KGMMV infecting cucurbit plants in Indonesia. Tanaman labu-labuan umumnya tumbuh sepanjang musim kemarau diPulau Jawa. Tanaman labu-labuan dengan gejala mosaik, klorosis, mottling dan bentuk daun serta buah yang berubah banyak dijumpai selama survei yang dilakukan di Kulon Progo, Sleman dan Klaten pada bulan Juli sampai September tahun 2000 dan 2001. Deteksi menggunakan metode double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA telah berhasil mengetahui keberadaan dan infeksiCucumber mosaic virus(CMV,Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV dan Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV pada tanaman labu-labuan di tiga kabupaten tersebut. CMV menginfeksi tanaman labu-labuan tinggi yaitu 48,9% dari jumlah sampel tanaman yang dikoleksi, kemudian CGMMV (12,8% dan KGMMV(6,4%, sedangkan sebanyak 14 sampel tanaman (31,9%tidak dideteksi.Infeksi ganda banyak ditemukan dan 8,5 % sampel tanaman terinfeksi oleh dua jenis virus (CGMMV dan

  14. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

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    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

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    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and

  16. METODE PENAPISAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. UNTUK KETAHANAN TERHADAP CHILLI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS (Chi VMV DAN CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV

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    Latifah, Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat, dan Sriani Sujiprihati .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening Method for Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus  (Chi VMV and Cucumber Mosaic Virus  (CMV Resistance in Chillipepper.  ChiVMV and CMV have been reported as the causal agents of main diseases in chillipepper in Indonesia and other Asian countries.  Mix infection of this two viruses was commonly occurred in the field, causing severe disease .  The use of resistance varieties has been proposed for dealing with the yield losses causing by  the viruses.  Breeding program is undergoing for development of chillipepper varieties resistant to ChiVMV and CMV.  Methodology for routine screening activity of chillipepper for resistance to both ChiVMV and CMV needs to be established. This research was conducted in Cikabayan Glass House and Plant Virology Laboratory, Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University from May 2006 to June 2007. Aim of the research was to develop screening method for simultaneous infection by the two viruses, ChiVMV and CMV.  Inoculation of ChiVMV and CMV was done by single inoculation or repetitive inoculation methods.  In both methods, ChiVMV and CMV were inoculated in different sequences, either ChiVMV or CMV first.  The result showed that incubation period was shorter when CMV was inoculated in advance both in single and repetitive inoculation method.  Mosaic, mottle and malformation type symptom was observed in infected plants. Based on disease incidence, infection of ChiVMV was higher compared to CMV in repetitive inoculation as well as in single inoculation.  Repetitive inoculation methods with virus sequence ChiVMV-CMV-ChiVMV-CMV  was selected for resistance evaluation of chillipepper genotypes.

  17. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

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    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is

  18. Rice yellow mottle virus is transmitted by cows, donkeys, and grass rats in irrigated rice crops

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    Sarra, S.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), endemic in Africa, is believed to be spread by chrysomelid beetles, although the infections in a field often cannot be explained by the prevailing number of beetles. We show that the grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus, domestic cows (Bos spp.), and donkeys (Asinus spp.)

  19. Characterization of a Nepovirus causing a leaf mottling disease in Petunia hybrida

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    This report describes the complete genome sequence and characterization of a new virus infecting petunia. Icosahedral virus-like particles were isolated from Petunia hybrida cuttings with interveinal chlorotic mottling. The virus was transmitted by mechanical inoculation from infected to healthy P. ...

  20. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most ... Figure 1. Map of the West Mediterranean region of Turkey showing areas in which the surveys were conducted. showing virus-like symptoms were taken from symptomatic pepper .... SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch D, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds).

  1. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

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    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  2. Infeksi Cucumber mosaic virus dan Chilli veinal mottle virus pada Cabai di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

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    Mimi Sutrawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Chilli veinal mottle Virus (ChiVMV has been distributed widely in chilli in Indonesia and considered as important disease. A research was conducted to investigate the spread and incidence of CMV and ChiVMV in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu and to identify its insect vector. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected systematically from several chillipepper fields for further detection by DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbant assay using specific antibody for CMV and ChiVMV. The result showed that infection of both CMV and ChiVMV was found with disease incidence reached 20-50%, whereas infection only by ChiVMV or CMV were 50-80% and 20-50%, respectively. One species of aphid, i.e. Aphis gossypii was found from the fields.Key words: Aphis gossypii, CMV, ChiVMV, disease incidence

  3. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-12-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A total of 1,621 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in CGMMV-inoculated watermelon, among which 1,052 were up-regulated and 569 were down-regulated. Functional annotation analysis showed that several DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and signaling transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interactions. We furthermore found that some DEGs were related to cell wall components and photosynthesis, which may directly be involve in the development of the symptoms associated with diseased watermelons. To confirm the RNA-Seq data, 15 DEGs were selected for gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR. The results showed a strong correlation between these two sets of data. Our study identified many candidate genes for further functional studies during CGMMV-watermelon interactions, and will furthermore help to clarify the understanding of pathogenic mechanism underlying CGMMV infection in cucurbit plants.

  4. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

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    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Characterization of sida golden mottle virus isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Florida.

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    Al-Aqeel, H A; Iqbal, Zafar; Polston, J E

    2018-06-21

    The genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus yellow spot virus (DQ875869), SiGMBuV (JX162592) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFlV) (HE806443). There was extensive recombination in the SiGMoV DNA-A and much less in DNA-B. Full-length clones of SiGMoV were infectious and were able to infect and cause symptoms in several plant species.

  6. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  7. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon...

  8. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jiyuan; Schmidt, Timothy; Chase, Elaine; Bozarth, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in βC strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

  9. Detection and distribution of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    the evolution as well as the distribution of the feathery mottle virus was followed. Thus, the individuals tested have a high viral ... insured by bees. However, under natural conditions, few flowers are observed as well as incompatibility phenomena that are responsible for a weak seeds production. This plant is grown annually ...

  10. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

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    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  11. Feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations

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    Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Creutzburg, S.; Heereveld, van L.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. To test the feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) particles as a

  12. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  14. Molecular interactions during the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus studied by magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, G.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of 1 H- and 13 C- NMR, EPR, ST-EPR and calculational methods to study cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. This virus consists of RNA encapsidated by 180 identical protein subunits, arranged icosahedrally. The

  15. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe systemic viral symptoms were observed on the leaves of infected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants cultivated in Antalya located in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, in 2008. The symptoms on the diseased pepper plants included, mosaic, mottle, chlorosis coupled with stunting, chlorotic spots, distortion of the ...

  16. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Rafaela S; Abreu, Rayane A; Lamas, Natalia S; Alves-Freitas, Dione M T; Vidal, Andreza H; Poppiel, Raul R; Melo, Fernando L; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P; Campos, Magnolia A; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2018-04-02

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae : passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus . Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12-30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891-921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7-3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina , Arabidopsis thaliana , and Passiflora edulis .

  17. Ocorrência generalizada do Lettuce mottle virus em três regiões produtoras de alface comercial do Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Lettuce mottle virus on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sequivírus são vírus isométricos transmitidos por afídeos. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, um provável sequivirus foi descrito no Brasil em 1982 e causa sintomas de mosaico semelhantes aos observados pelo Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Um levantamento para ocorrência do LeMoV nos campos de produção de alface de três diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas e Bauru foi realizado durante 2002 a 2005. RNA total foi extraído e utilizado na detecção, em RT-PCR, com oligonucleotídeos específicos para o LeMoV. Do total de 1362 amostras, 137 (10,05% foram positivas para o LeMoV. Infecção mista com o LMV foi verificada em 43 amostras (31,4%. Foi verificada a ocorrência do LeMoV nas três diferentes regiões analisadas, porém sua ocorrência foi baixa nas diferentes épocas do ano.Sequiviruses are isometric aphid-borne plant viruses. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, a putative sequivirus was first described in Brazil on 1982 causing similar mosaic symptoms as Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. A survey for the occurrence of LeMoV on open field conditions was carried out during 2002 to 2005 on Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas and Bauru in São Paulo state. Total RNA was extracted and used on RT-PCR with specific LeMoV primers. On 1362 samples tested, 137 (10,05% were positive for LeMoV. Mixed infections with LMV was observed on 43 samples (31,4%. The presence of LeMoV was observed in the three different regions, but with low incidence during the year.

  18. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

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    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    tornou-se vírulífero quando alimentado em planta infetada por 30 minutos. Com o aumento no período de alimentação na fonte de vírus aumentou a eficiência de transmissão. Insetos virulíferos foram capazes de infetar plantas sadias quando alimentados sôbre elas por 15 minutos. Insetos virulíferos alimentados por 1 hora em planta sadia ainda retinham o vírus. Após 6 horas de alimentação já não mais o retinham.The ocurrence of virus strains similar to those of the strawberry mottle virus has been recorded in several strawberry plantings in the state of São Paulo. Old, standard varieties are symptomless carriers and are usually 100 per cent infected. Some new clones, representing various crosses, were partly infected after a Few plantings in the field. The symptoms induced by die virus on Fragaria uesca seedlings were vein clearing, crinkling, and stunting. Most of the virus isolates seemed to resemble curly dwarf. Studies on host range carried out by means of the vector gave mostly negative results, but symptoms were obtained on Cassia occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia, and Leonorus sibiricus Although this happened when inoculations were made with different sources of the strawberry mottle virus, it cannot be stated with certainty that the symptoms obtained on these four species were really caused by the mottle virus, since it was possible that the original sources contained another virus. The strawberry mottle virus was transmitted efficiently by Pentatrichopus fragaefolii and only occasionally by Aphis gossypii. Seed transmission was negative. Tests on mechanical inoculation were also negative. However, the virus obtained on Chenopodium quinoa plants by means of the vector could be transmitted mechanically to seedlings of the same species, but not to Fragaria vesca. A local species of Cuscuta did not transmit the mottle virus and transmission with leaf scions grafted on leaves was generally low because of poor take. Pentatrichopus

  19. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

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    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  20. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  1. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1 was obtained from a chayote (S. edule leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  2. Biological and molecular characterization of a putative new sobemovirus infecting Imperata cylindrica and maize in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérémé, Drissa; Lacombe, Séverine; Konaté, Moumouni; Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Traoré, Valentin Stanislas Edgar; Hébrard, Eugénie; Traoré, Oumar; Brugidou, Christophe; Fargette, Denis; Konaté, Gnissa

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from both the grass Imperata cylindrica and maize plants that had yellow mottle symptoms in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The virus has isometric particles ca. 32 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was restricted to Rottboellia exaltata. Virions were isolated from leaves of systemically infected maize plants. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanically inoculating uninfected Imperata or maize with either purified virus or sap from infected Imperata plants. Virion preparations were used to produce a specific polyclonal antiserum, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was set up. The full genome of the virus was sequenced, and it comprised 4,547 nucleotides. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the virus is closely related to rice yellow mottle virus, a sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons in Africa, and is more distantly related to cocksfoot mottle virus, another sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons. Although the virus can infect R. exaltata experimentally, it differs from Rottboellia yellow mottle virus, a member of a tentative species of the genus Sobemovirus that also infects monocotyledons in Africa. Particle morphology, serological properties, genomic organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of the new virus to the genus Sobemovirus. The name Imperata yellow mottle virus is proposed.

  3. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  4. Inheritance and molecular mapping of an allele providing resistance to Cowpea mild mottle virus-like symptoms in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Cowpea mild mottle virus-like (CPMMV-L) symptoms (family: Betaflexiviridae, genus: Carlavirus) has been of increasing concern in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Soybean cultivars and lines differing in their reaction to the virus have been ...

  5. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

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    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  6. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

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    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  7. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid

  8. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsa Imade Y

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

  9. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

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    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  10. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imade Yolanda Nsa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar White and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu76. The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar White was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods and seeds. CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  11. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

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    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  12. Metal-ion-induced formation and stabilization of protein cages based on the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Wilke, Koos D.M.; Hendriks, Linda J.A.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2011-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a versatile building block for the construction of nanoreactors and functional materials. Upon RNA removal, the capsid can be reversibly assembled and disassembed by adjusting the pH. At pH 5.0 the capsid is in the native assembled conformation, while at

  13. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which result in the capsid stiffening. Dynamic coupling of these modes defines the extent of elasticity and reversibility of capsid mechanical deformation. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function.

  14. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  15. The Significance of Wild Plants in the Evolutionary Ecology of Three Major Viruses Infecting Cultivated Sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tugume Kajungu, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to the understanding of evolutionary ecology of three major viruses threatening cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) in East Africa: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae). The viruses were serologically detected and the positive results confirmed b...

  16. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  17. New Korean isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) differ in symptom severity and subcellular localization of the 126 kDa protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were selected from a nationwide survey of pepper fields in South Korea in 2014 and 2015, in which Cucumber mosaic virus was also detected; the two PMMoV isolates, Sangcheong 47 (S-47, KX399390) and Jeongsong 76 (J-76, KX399389), share ~99% nucleotide ...

  18. High-level HIV-1 Nef transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana using the P19 gene silencing suppressor protein of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Linda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, different HIV antigens have been successfully expressed in plants by either stable transformation or transient expression systems. Among HIV proteins, Nef is considered a promising target for the formulation of a multi-component vaccine due to its implication in the first steps of viral infection. Attempts to express Nef as a single protein product (not fused to a stabilizing protein in transgenic plants resulted in disappointingly low yields (about 0.5% of total soluble protein. In this work we describe a transient expression system based on co-agroinfiltration of plant virus gene silencing suppressor proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana, followed by a two-step affinity purification protocol of plant-derived Nef. Results The effect of three gene silencing viral suppressor proteins (P25 of Potato Virus X, P19 of either Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus and Tomato Bushy Stunt virus on Nef transient expression yield was evaluated. The P19 protein of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus (AMCV-P19 gave the highest expression yield in vacuum co-agroinfiltration experiments reaching 1.3% of total soluble protein, a level almost three times higher than that previously reported in stable transgenic plants. The high yield observed in the co-agroinfiltrated plants was correlated to a remarkable decrease of Nef-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs indicating an effective modulation of RNA silencing mechanisms by AMCV-P19. Interestingly, we also showed that expression levels in top leaves of vacuum co-agroinfiltrated plants were noticeably reduced compared to bottom leaves. Moreover, purification of Nef from agroinfiltrated tissue was achieved by a two-step immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography protocol with yields of 250 ng/g of fresh tissue. Conclusion We demonstrated that expression level of HIV-1 Nef in plant can be improved using a transient expression system enhanced by the AMCV-P19 gene silencing suppressor

  19. Changes induced by the Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus on the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M; Sajnani, C; Barón, M

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry followed by a database search. In order to improve the resolution of the two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, we have made separate maps for the low and the high pH range. At least 200 spots were detected. We identified 72 polypeptides, some being isoforms of different multiprotein families. In addition, changes in this chloroplast proteome induced by the infection with the Spanish strain of the Pepper mild mottle virus were investigated. Viral infection induced the down-regulation of several chloroplastidic proteins involved in both the photosynthetic electron-transport chain and the Benson-Calvin cycle.

  20. Comparative expression profiling of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves systemically infected with three fruit tree viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    Plant viruses cause a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects. Although some of these changes are virus specific, many appear to be common even among diverse viruses. Currently, little is known about the underlying molecular determinants. To identify gene expression changes that are concomitant with virus symptoms, we performed comparative expression profiling experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with one of three different fruit tree viruses that produce distinct symptoms: Plum pox potyvirus (PPV; leaf distortion and mosaic), Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV; tissue necrosis and general chlorosis), and Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV; subtle chlorotic mottling). The numbers of statistically significant genes identified were consistent with the severity of the observed symptoms: 1,082 (ToRSV), 744 (PPV), and 89 (PNRSV). In all, 56% of the gene expression changes found in PPV-infected leaves also were altered by ToRSV, 87% of which changed in the same direction. Both PPV- and ToRSV-infected leaves showed widespread repression of genes associated with plastid functions. PPV uniquely induced the expression of large numbers of cytosolic ribosomal genes whereas ToRSV repressed the expression of plastidic ribosomal genes. How these and other observed expression changes might be associated with symptom development are discussed.

  1. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A. A.; Elkhair, J.; Elfaha, A.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  2. Rapid detection of fifteen known soybean viruses by dot-immunobinding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-11-01

    A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was optimized and used successfully for the rapid detection of 15 known viruses [Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV)] infecting soybean plants in Oklahoma. More than 1000 leaf samples were collected in approximately 100 commercial soybean fields in 24 counties of Oklahoma, during the 2012-2013 growing seasons. All samples were tested by DIBA using polyclonal antibodies of the above 15 plant viruses. Thirteen viruses were detected, and 8 of them were reported for the first time in soybean crops of Oklahoma. The highest average incidence was recorded for PeMoV (13.5%) followed by SVNV (6.9%), TSV (6.4%), BYMV, (4.5%), and TRSV (3.9%), while the remaining seven viruses were detected in less than 2% of the samples tested. The DIBA was quick, and economical to screen more than 1000 samples against 15 known plant viruses in a very short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hespenheide, B M; Jacobs, D J; Thorpe, M F

    2004-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  4. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  5. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  6. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Zhao, Z; Jiang, D; Wu, Z; Li, S

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed to enable the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four viruses that infect peach, namely Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV). In this study, four pairs of primers, one specific for each virus, were designed; the corresponding PCR products were 632, 439, 346 and 282 bp in length for ACLSV, CGRMV, PNRSV and APCLSV, respectively, and the fragments could be distinguished clearly by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were tested using individual RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the identity of the RT-PCR amplification products was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The results of RT-PCR and ELISA, along with batch detection using samples collected from peach orchards, revealed that this rapid and simple technique is an effective way to identify the four viruses simultaneously. The mRT-PCR assay described in this study was developed for the simultaneous detection of four peach viruses from infected peach samples is reliable and sensitive. In contrast to conventional uniplex RT-PCR, mRT-PCR is more efficient, reducing costs, time and handling when testing large numbers of samples. This rapid and simple method is useful for large-scale surveys of viruses that infect peach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  8. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essowè Palanga

    Full Text Available Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae] five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus, two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae, a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae. Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  9. Characterization of burdock mottle virus, a novel member of the genus Benyvirus, and the identification of benyvirus-related sequences in the plant and insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hirano, Shuichi; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Hirai, Makoto; Maeda, Takanori; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the burdock mottle virus (BdMoV) isolated from an edible burdock plant (Arctium lappa) in Japan has been determined. BdMoV has a bipartite genome, whose organization is similar to RNA1 and RNA2 of benyviruses, beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), and rice stripe necrosis virus (RSNV). BdMoV RNA1 (7038 nt) contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 249-kDa polypeptide that consists of methyl-transferase, helicase, papain-like protease, AlkB-like, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. The AlkB-like domain sequence is not present in the proteins encoded by other known benyviruses, but is found in replication-associated proteins of viruses mainly belonging to the families Alfaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae. BdMoV RNA2 (4315 nt) contains six ORFs that are similar to those of benyviruses: these are coat protein (CP), CP readthrough, triple gene block movement and cysteine-rich proteins. Phylogenetic analyses showed that BdMoV is more closely related to BNYVV and BSBMV than to RSNV. Database searches showed that benyvirus replicase-related sequences are present in the chromosomes of a chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum) and a blood-sucking insect (Rhodnius prolixus). Some other benyvirus-related sequences are found in the transcriptome shotgun libraries of a few species of plants and a bark beetle. Our results show that BdMoV is a distinct species of the genus Benyvirus and that ancestral and extant benyviruses may have infected or currently infect a wide range of hosts, including plants and insects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  11. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseong Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea.

  12. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  13. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  14. Genetic variation of eggplant mottled dwarf virus from annual and perennial plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappi, Polyxeni G; Maliogka, Varvara I; Amoutzias, Gregory D; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2016-03-01

    The genetic diversity of eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, was studied using isolates collected from different herbaceous and woody plant species and remote geographic areas. Sequences corresponding to the N, X, P, Y, M and G ORFs as well as the untranslated regions (UTRs) between ORFs were determined from all isolates. Low genetic diversity was found in almost all genomic regions studied except for the X ORF and the UTRs, which were more variable, while interestingly, an EMDV isolate from caper possessed a truncated G gene sequence. Furthermore, low d N /d S ratios, indicative of purifying selection, were calculated for all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the EMDV isolates clustered in three distinct subgroups based on their geographical origin, with the exception of one subgroup that consisted of isolates from northern Greece and Cyprus. Overall, the level of genetic diversity of EMDV differed between seed- and asexually propagated plants in our collection, and this could be related to the mode of transmission.

  15. Evaluation of the suitability of a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus, as a surrogate of human enteric viruses for assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Yamashita, R

    2018-02-01

    Here, we evaluated the removal of three representative human enteric viruses - adenovirus (AdV) type 40, coxsackievirus (CV) B5, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) IB - and one surrogate of human caliciviruses - murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 - by coagulation-rapid sand filtration, using water samples from eight water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The removal ratios of a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) and two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) were compared with the removal ratios of human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of PMMoV, MS2, and φX174 as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV, evaluated via the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, were 0.8-2.5-log 10 when commercially available polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) and virgin silica sand were used as the coagulant and filter medium, respectively. The type of coagulant affected the virus removal efficiency, but the age of silica sand used in the rapid sand filtration did not. Coagulation-rapid sand filtration with non-sulfated, high-basicity PACls (basicity 2.1 or 2.5) removed viruses more efficiently than the other aluminum-based coagulants. The removal ratios of MS2 were sometimes higher than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, whereas the removal ratios of φX174 tended to be smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. In contrast, the removal ratios of PMMoV were similar to and strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. Thus, PMMoV appears to be a suitable surrogate for human enteric viruses for the assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  17. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  18. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  19. Autophagy induction in tobacco leaves infected by potato virus Y{sup O} and its putative roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dabin; Park, Jaeyoung [Department of Life Science & BK21-Plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seonhee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedics, School of Medicine, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyunsook, E-mail: hscheong@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Life Science & BK21-Plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Autophagy plays a critical role in the innate immune response of plants to pathogen infection. In the present study, we examined autophagy induced by potato virus Y ordinary strain (PVY{sup O}) infection in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the number of virus particles in the plant peaked at 2 weeks post-inoculation and then gradually decreased. Additionally, the amount of virus increased significantly in the 3rd and 4th leaves distal to the inoculated leaf and decreased slightly in the 5th leaf. Within 2 weeks of PVY{sup O} inoculation, the tobacco leaves showed typical symptoms of Potyvirus inoculation, including mottling, yellowing, a mosaic pattern, and necrotic tissue changes at the inoculated site. Based on an ultrastructural analysis of the PVY{sup O}-infected tobacco leaves, virus aggregates appeared as longitudinal and transverse arrays and pinwheels, which are typical of Potyvirus inoculation. Moreover, PVY{sup O} infection caused changes in the number, size, and shape of chloroplasts, whereas the number of plastogranules increased markedly. Furthermore, double-membrane autophagosome-like vacuoles, including electron-dense materials, laminated structures, and cellular organelles, were found. The induction of autophagy after the PVY{sup O} infection of tobacco leaves was further confirmed by the expression of lipidated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, an autophagy marker and p62, an autophagy adaptor protein. The LC3-II levels increased daily over the 4-week period. Although virus inoculation was performed systemically on the basal leaves of the plants, LC3-II was expressed throughout the leaves and the expression was higher in leaves distal to the inoculated leaf. Moreover, PVY{sup O} infection caused the activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinases. Therefore, PVY{sup O} infection-induced autophagy was positively correlated with the virus content

  20. Effect of virus infection on symplastic transport of fluorescent tracers in Nicotiana clevelandii leaf epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, P M; Barker, H; Oparka, K J

    1990-07-01

    The molecular weight exclusion limit of plasmodesmata in subveinal epidermal cells of Nicotiana clevelandii (Gray) leaves was estimated by microinjection and fluorescence microscopy using fluorescein isothiocyanate-peptide conjugates, carboxyfluorescein and Lucifer Yellow CH. The largest fluorochrome which moved symplastically between cells had a molecular weight of 749, although movement did not appear to depend purely on molecular weight parameters. Systemic infection of plants by tobacco rattle tobravirus, tomato black ring nepovirus or potato Y potyvirus did not alter the limits of plasmodesmatal conductance of the fluorochromes. However, carrot mottle umbravirus and groundnut rosette umbravirus diminished the symplastic mobility of some fluorescent tracers. These results imply that intercellular movement of these viruses does not involve a long-lasting increase in the plasmodesmatal molecular size exclusion limit.

  1. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  2. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Virus Incidence of Sweet Potato in Korea from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaedeok; Yang, Jung Wook; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Chung, Mi-Nam; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Kyeong-Bo; Nam, Sang Sik; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2017-10-01

    A nationwide survey was performed to investigate the current incidence of viral diseases in Korean sweet potatoes for germplasm and growing fields from 2011 to 2014. A total of 83.8% of the germplasm in Korea was infected with viruses in 2011. Commercial cultivars that were used to supply growing fields were infected at a rate of 62.1% in 2012. Among surveyed viruses, the incidence of five Potyvirus species that infect sweet potato decreased between 2012 and 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Representatively, the incidence of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) was 87.0% in 2012, 20.7% in 2013 and then increased to 35.3% in 2014. Unlike RNA viruses, DNA viruses were shown to decrease continuously. The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) was 5.5% in 2003, 59.5% in 2011, and 47.4% in 2012. It then decreased continuously year by year to 33.2% in 2013, and then 25.6% in 2014. While the infection rate of each virus species showed a tendency to decline, the virus infection status was more variable in 2013 and 2014. Nevertheless, the high rate of single infections and mixed infection combinations were more variable than the survey results from 2012. As shown in the results from 2013, the most prevalent virus infection was a single infection at 27.6%, with the highest rate of infection belonging to sweet potato symptomless virus-1 (SPSMV-1) (12.9%). Compared to 2013, infection combinations were more varied in 2014, with a total of 122 kinds of mixed infection.

  4. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  5. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  6. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  7. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  9. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, R; Krijt, J

    1982-09-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated into two large polypeptides with apparent molecular weights which were different for each virus and even for the two CPsMV strains. Neither the in vitro products from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and CPsMV M RNAs nor the in vitro product from tomato black ring virus RNA-2 were processed by the cowpea mosaic virus-encoded protease, indicating that the activity of this enzyme is highly specific.

  10. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  12. First report of a complete genome sequence for a begomovirus infecting Jatropha gossypifolia in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds-Gordon, R N; Collins-Fairclough, A M; Stewart, C S; Roye, M E

    2014-10-01

    Jatropha gossypifolia is a weed that is commonly found with yellow mosaic symptoms growing along the roadside and in close proximity to cultivated crops in many farming communities in Jamaica. For the first time, the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus, designated jatropha mosaic virus-[Jamaica:Spanish Town:2004] (JMV-[JM:ST:04]), was determined from field-infected J. gossypifolia in the western hemisphere. DNA-A nucleotide sequence comparisons showed closest identity (84 %) to two tobacco-infecting viruses from Cuba, tobacco mottle leaf curl virus-[Cuba:Sancti Spiritus:03] (TbMoLCV-[CU:SS:03]) and tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus-[Cuba:Taguasco:2005] (TbLCuCUV-[CU:Tag:05]), and two weed-infecting viruses from Cuba and Jamaica, Rhynchosia rugose golden mosaic virus-[Cuba:Camaguey:171:2009] (RhRGMV- [CU:Cam:171:09]) and Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that JMV-[JM:ST:04] is most closely related to tobacco and tomato viruses from Cuba and WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05], a common malvaceous-weed-infecting virus from eastern Jamaica, and that it is distinct from begomoviruses infecting Jatropha species in India and Nigeria.

  13. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  15. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  16. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  17. Functional replacement of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro with the corresponding cistron from a diverse array of viruses in the family Potyviridae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, Drake C.; French, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Wheat streak mosaic virus strain Sidney 81 (WSMV-Sidney 81) was systematically replaced with the corresponding cistron derived from four strains of WSMV (Type, TK1, CZ, and El Batan 3), the tritimovirus Oat necrotic mottle virus (ONMV), the rymoviruses Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV), or the potyviruses Tobacco etch virus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). These HC-Pro proteins varied in amino acid sequence identity shared with HC-Pro of WSMV-Sidney 81 from high (strains of WSMV at ∼86-99%) to moderate (ONMV at 70%) to low (rymoviruses and potyviruses at ∼15-17%). Surprisingly, all chimeric viral genomes examined were capable of systemic infection of wheat upon inoculation with RNA transcripts produced in vitro. HC-Pro replacements derived from tritimoviruses did not alter host range relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, as each of these chimeric viruses was able to systemically infect wheat, oat, and corn line SDp2. These results indicate that differences in host range among tritimoviruses, including the inability of ONMV to infect wheat or the inability of WSMV strains Type and El Batan 3 to infect SDp2 corn, are not determined by HC-Pro. In contrast, all chimeric viruses bearing HC-Pro replacements derived from rymoviruses or potyviruses were unable to infect SDp2 corn and oat. Collectively, these results indicate that HC-Pro from distantly related virus species of the family Potyviridae are competent to provide WSMV-Sidney 81 with all functions necessary for infection of a permissive host (wheat) and that virus-host interactions required for systemic infection of oat and SDp2 corn are more stringent. Changes in symptom severity or mechanical transmission efficiency observed for some chimeric viruses further suggest that HC-Pro affects virulence in WSMV

  18. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, Rob; Krijt, Jette

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  19. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme involved in resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, through a tomato mottle virus VIGS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Janeth Esparza-Araiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI transcript in resistant S. peruvianum compared to susceptible S. lycopersicum following infection by Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of the gene from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS vector based on the geminivirus Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV. Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, which resulted in leaf bleaching. The ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in approx. 61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. VIGS of SCEI in S. peruvianum resulted in unilateral wilting (15 dpi and subsequent death (20 dpi of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. SCEI-silenced plants also showed higher Cmm colonization with an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of WRKY transcription factors, which may lead to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  20. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to activity of fungi.

  1. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.F.P.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to a combination of bacteria, fungi, and

  2. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  3. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  4. Comparative Pathology of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-30

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) cause acute, self-limiting hepatic infections that are usually spread by the fecal-oral route in humans. Naturally occurring and experimental infections are possible in a variety of nonhuman primates and, in the case of HEV, a number of other species. Many advances in understanding the pathogenesis of these viruses have come from studies in experimental animals. In general, animals infected with these viruses recapitulate the histologic lesions seen in infected humans, but typically with less severe clinical and histopathological manifestations. This review describes the histopathologic changes associated with HAV and HEV infection in humans and experimental animals. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  6. Two Novel Motifs of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus NSs Protein Are Responsible for RNA Silencing Suppression and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Hao; Hsiao, Weng-Rong; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A J; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) is the RNA silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant. In this study, serial deletion and point-mutation mutagenesis of conserved regions (CR) of NSs protein were performed, and the silencing suppression function was analyzed through agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found two amino acid (aa) residues, H113 and Y398, are novel functional residues for RNA silencing suppression. Our further analyses demonstrated that H113 at the common epitope (CE) ((109)KFTMHNQ(117)), which is highly conserved in Asia type tospoviruses, and the benzene ring of Y398 at the C-terminal β-sheet motif ((397)IYFL(400)) affect NSs mRNA stability and protein stability, respectively, and are thus critical for NSs RNA silencing suppression. Additionally, protein expression of other six deleted (ΔCR1-ΔCR6) and five point-mutated (Y15A, Y27A, G180A, R181A and R212A) mutants were hampered and their silencing suppression ability was abolished. The accumulation of the mutant mRNAs and proteins, except Y398A, could be rescued or enhanced by co-infiltration with potyviral suppressor HC-Pro. When assayed with the attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash plants, the recombinants carrying individual seven point-mutated NSs proteins displayed symptoms much milder than the recombinant carrying the wild type NSs protein, suggesting that these aa residues also affect viral pathogenicity by suppressing the host silencing mechanism.

  7. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  8. Impact of Electrostatic Assist on Halftone Mottle in Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V. Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravure printing delivers intricate print quality and exhibit better feasibility for printing long run packaging jobs. PVC and PETG are widely used shrink films printed by gravure process. The variation in ink transfer from gravure cells on to the substrate results in print mottle. The variation is inevitable and requires close monitoring with tight control on process parameters to deliver good dot fidelity. The electrostatic assist in gravure improves the ink transfer efficiency but is greatly influenced by ESA parameters such as air gap (distance between charge bar and impression roller and voltage. Moreover, it is imperative to study the combined effect of ESA and gravure process parameters such as line screen, viscosity and speed for the minimization of half-tone mottle in shrink films. A general full factorial design was performed for the above mentioned parameters to evaluate half-tone mottle. The significant levels of both the main and interactions were studied by ANOVA approach. The statistical analysis revealed the significance of all the process parameters with viscosity, line screen and voltage being the major contributors in minimization of half-tone mottle. The optimized setting showed reduction in halftone mottle by 33% and 32% for PVC and PET-G respectively. The developed regression model was tested that showed more than 95% predictability. Furthermore, the uniformity of dot was measured by image to non-image area (ratio distribution. The result showed reduction in halftone mottle with uniform dot distribution.

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION

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    Ljiljana Kostadinović

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 sorts of viruses are capable of causing diseases of the respiratory ways. The virus infections have become the cost to be paid for urbanization and industrialization. The acute virus infections jeopardize mankind by their complications with numerous consequences. They open up the way to super infections, they provoke endogenous infections and lead to insufficiency of the vital organs. The viruses penetrate the organism mainly through the respiratory ways, digestive and urinary-sexual organs and skin. Some viruses immediately at the place of their entrance into the organism find receptive cells in which they can multiply (herpes virus and etc.. Some viruses must get through the blood, through the lymph or the nerve fibers to the target organs that they have affinity for.The changes that primarily occur in the mouth with manifest lymphadenopathy of the surrounding area emerge with respect to the type of the acute infection dis-ease.The human herpes viruses are responsible for a great number of diseases in people; that is why it can be said that the infections they induce are a very frequent cause of people's diseases in the world. Man is natural and the only host for the types I and II of the herpes simplex virus (HSV; that is why the infected person is regarded as the source of infection. The infection transmission can be by direct contact or over the contaminated secretions during the sexual intercourse. The age and the socioeconomic status (living conditions, level of medical culture, habits, etc. affect to agreat extent epidemiology of the HSV infection. The HSV distribution in the region of Niš in the five-year period (from 1987 to 1992 was the highest in the early and late summer (June and September.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-09-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

  11. The impact of hepatitis A virus infection on hepatitis C virus infection: a competitive exclusion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Chaib, Eleazar; Massad, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We address the observation that, in some cases, patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are cleared of HCV when super-infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). We hypothesise that this phenomenon can be explained by the competitive exclusion principle, including the action of the immune system, and show that the inclusion of the immune system explains both the elimination of one virus and the co-existence of both infections for a certain range of parameters. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our findings.

  12. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  13. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARMOVIRUS ON CARNATION (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniawati Diningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carnation has a highly economic demand of cut flower in Indonesia. Field observations in West Java Indonesia was conducted in order to find the typical mottle symptoms that was a suspect caused by a virus disease. Identification of the virus was respectively conducted by performing ELISA test with four anti sera and characterizations held by bioassay, observing of virion particles, detecting of nucleic acid by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Total of 403 samples were collected from plants with or no virus-like symptoms. Among those all tested, 83% were found to be infected by Carnation mottle virus (CarMV, but negatively against Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV, Carnation laten virus (CLV, and Carnation vein mottle virus (CVMV antisera. By mechanical inoculation, the virus was able to infect systemically Cenopodium quinoa and locally infect on others. However on Phalaenopsis sp and Gomprena globosa, there was symptompless found. The isometric CarMV particles size was approximately 30 nm. RT-PCR using specific primers of CP gene of CarMV successfully amplified a DNA sized 1000 bp. CarMV West Java Indonesian (Idn-WJ isolates possessed the highest nucleotide and amino acid homology with CarMV from Spain and was in the same cluster with CarMV from China, Taiwan and Israel.

  15. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  16. Photodynamic treatment of Herpes simplex virus infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Hester, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of photodynamic action on in vitro herpes simplex virus infections of CV-1 monkey kidney fibroblasts or human skin fibroblasts were determined using proflavine sulfate and white fluorescent lamps. Photodynamic treatment of confluent cell monolayers prior to virus infection inactivated cell capacity, i.e. the capacity of the treated cells to support subsequent virus growth as measured by plaque formation. The capacity of human cells was more sensitive to inactivation than the capacity of monkey cells when 6 μM proflavine was used. Treated cell monolayers recovered the capacity to support virus plaque formation when virus infection was delayed four days after the treatment. Experiments in which the photodynamically treated monolayers were infected with UV-irradiated virus demonstrated that this treatment induced Weigle reactivation in both types of cells. This reactivation occurred for virus infection just after treatment or 4 days later. A Luria-Latarjet-type experiment was also performed in which cultures infected with unirradiated virus were photodynamically treated at different times after the start of infection. The results showed that for the first several hours of the virus infection the infected cultures were more sensitive to inactivation by photodynamic treatment than cell capacity. By the end of the eclipse period the infected cultures were less sensitive to inactivation than cell capacity. Results from extracellular inactivation of virus growth in monkey cells at 6 μM proflavine indicated that at physiological pH the virus has a sensitivity to photodynamic inactivation similar to that for inactivation of cell capacity. The combined data indicated that photodynamic treatment of the cell before or after virus infection could prevent virus growth. Thus, photodynamic inactivation of infected and uninfected cells may be as important as inactivation of virus particles when considering possible mechanisms in clinical photodynamic therapy for herpes

  17. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  19. [Epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Minta, D; Sounko, A; Dembele, M; Toure, C S; Kalle, A; Traore, H H; Maiga, M Y

    2006-01-01

    In order to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients infected by the HIV, We realized a transverse survey case--control in hepato-gastro-enterological ward and serology unity of National Institute of Research in Public health (INRSP). Our sample was constituted with 100 patients HIV positive compared to 100 controls HIV negative. The viral markers research has been made by methods immuno-enzymatiqueses of ELISA 3rd generation. Tests permitted to get the following results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) was positive among 21% with patients HIV positive versus 23% among control (p = 0,732); Antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV ab) was present among 23% with patients HIV positive versus 0% among control (p <0,05). Female was predominant among co-infections patient, but without statistic link (p = 0,9 and p = 0,45); The co-infection HBV- HCV was significatively linked to age beyond 40 years (p = 0,0005). Co-infections with HIV infection and hepatitis virus are not rare and deserve to be investigated.

  20. Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Melinda S; Domier, Leslie L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2012-01-15

    Viruses represent a continual threat to humans through a number of mechanisms, which include disease, bioterrorism, and destruction of both plant and animal food resources. Many contemporary techniques used for the detection of viruses and viral infections suffer from limitations such as the need for extensive sample preparation or the lengthy window between infection and measurable immune response, for serological methods. In order to develop a method that is fast, cost-effective, and features reduced sample preparation compared to many other virus detection methods, we report the application of silicon photonic microring resonators for the direct, label-free detection of intact viruses in both purified samples as well as in a complex, real-world analytical matrix. As a model system, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bean pod mottle virus, a pathogen of great agricultural importance, with a limit of detection of 10 ng/mL. By simply grinding a small amount of leaf sample in buffer with a mortar and pestle, infected leaves can be identified over a healthy control with a total analysis time of less than 45 min. Given the inherent scalability and multiplexing capability of the semiconductor-based technology, we feel that silicon photonic microring resonators are well-positioned as a promising analytical tool for a number of viral detection applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Infection of endothelial cells by common human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Common human viruses were evaluated for their ability to replicate in the endothelial cells of human umbilical vein and bovine thoracic aorta in vitro. Infection occurred with most viruses. The susceptibilities of endothelial cells derived from bovine aorta, pulmonary artery, and vena cava were compared. Among the viruses studied, no differences were noted in the ability to grow in endothelial cells from these three large vessels. One virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, was evaluated for its ability to produce persistent infection of endothelial cells. Infection developed and persisted for up to 3 months. After the first week, productive infection was found in less than 1% of cells. Nevertheless, the infection markedly affected the growth and morphology of the endothelial monolayer. Infection with any of several different viruses was noted to alter endothelial cell functions, including adherence of granulocytes, production of colony-stimulating factor, and synthesis of matrix protein. In addition, herpes simplex virus type 1 induced receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and for complement component C3b. These findings indicate that common human viruses can profoundly affect the biology of the endothelium.

  2. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  3. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  4. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  5. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  6. Epidemiological studies on viral infections and co-infections : Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview

  7. Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Otsuki, Y; Takebe, I

    1981-07-01

    The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3' terminus, and hence within the coat protein cistron. Although CGMMV-W was until now believed to be a single-component TMV, the location of the initiation site indicated the presence of short rods containing coat protein messenger RNA in CGMMV-W-infected tissue, as in the case for the cowpea strain. We found such short rods in CGMMV-W-infected tissue. The results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the site of the initiation region for reconstitution determines the rod multiplicity of TMV. The finding of the second two-component TMV, CGMMV, indicates that the cowpea strain of TMV is not unique in being a two-component virus and that the location of the assembly initiation site on the genome RNA can be a criterion for grouping of viruses.

  8. Virus surveys of Capsicum spp. in the Republic of Benin reveal the prevalence of pepper vein yellows virus and the identification of a previously uncharacterised polerovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouda, Leonard; Kone, Daouda; Zinsou, Valerien; Dossou, Laurence; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Knierim, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin. A further, divergent polerovirus isolate was detected from a single pepper sample originating from southern Benin. Screening of samples collected from solanaceous plants during virus surveys in Mali (conducted in 2009) also detected this divergent polerovirus isolate in two samples from African eggplants. The complete genome sequence was obtained from the Mali isolate using transcriptome sequencing and by conventional Sanger sequencing of overlapping RT-PCR products. Based on the sequence characteristics of this isolate we propose a new polerovirus species, African eggplant yellowing virus (AeYV).

  9. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Bayoudh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fig mosaic disease (FMD is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L. orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29 and 80.0% (12/15 of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more. Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV (20.7%, Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV (17.25%, Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV (3.45%, and Fig cryptic virus (FCV (55.17%. A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI, Soltani (SNI, Bither Abiadh (BA, and Assafri (ASF via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  10. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

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    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  11. Roles for Endothelial Cells in Dengue Virus Infection

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    Nadine A. Dalrymple

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses cause two severe diseases that alter vascular fluid barrier functions, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The endothelium is the primary fluid barrier of the vasculature and ultimately the effects of dengue virus infection that cause capillary leakage impact endothelial cell (EC barrier functions. The ability of dengue virus to infect the endothelium provides a direct means for dengue to alter capillary permeability, permit virus replication, and induce responses that recruit immune cells to the endothelium. Recent studies focused on dengue virus infection of primary ECs have demonstrated that ECs are efficiently infected, rapidly produce viral progeny, and elicit immune enhancing cytokine responses that may contribute to pathogenesis. Furthermore, infected ECs have also been implicated in enhancing viremia and immunopathogenesis within murine dengue disease models. Thus dengue-infected ECs have the potential to directly contribute to immune enhancement, capillary permeability, viremia, and immune targeting of the endothelium. These effects implicate responses of the infected endothelium in dengue pathogenesis and rationalize therapeutic targeting of the endothelium and EC responses as a means of reducing the severity of dengue virus disease.

  12. SEED AND POLLEN TTRANSMISSION OF A NEW UNIDENTIFIED MOTTLE DISORDER OF MAIZE IN INDONESIA

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    W. Wakman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new unidentified mottle disorder of maize Indonesia was found at the Research Institute for Maize and Other Cereals (RIMOC, Maros, South Sulawesi in 1995. Attempts to identify the disorder were made by mechanical inoculation, insect vector (Rhopalosiphum maidis and Peregrinus maidis transmission, seed and pollen transmission, electron microscopy, and serological test. Fifty seeds from each of 22 ears of Arjuna maize plants showing the disorder were planted and symptoms on the seedlings were recorder at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 40 to 100. Pollen of affected Arjuna was then used to pollinate four sweet corn female flowers. Hybrid seeds (50 per ear of the crosses were planted and symptoms were recorded at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The results showed that percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 22 to 84. Electron microscopy and ELISA tests on 15 viruses and one phytospiroplasma antiserum however, gave negative results. Therefore, maize disorder at Maros was not identical to any known viral disease of maize. It could be a genetical disorder and has been given the name maize mottle.

  13. Zika virus infections in pregnancy: epidemics and case management

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    Fatih sahiner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, and is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Only a small number of cases had been described until 2007 when the first major Zika virus outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia. Approximately 80% of people infected with Zika virus do not exhibit any symptoms. Symptomatic infections are generally moderate and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis. The virus has recently attracted a broad interest due to the emerging cases of microcephaly that are possibly associated with mothers infected by the Zika virus during pregnancy, and the regional increases in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome during the epidemic periods. Although the relationship between Zika virus infection and these abnormalities is not obviously understood yet, Zika virus testing is recommended for infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications whose mothers were potentially infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy. Every day, new reports are being published about the outbreaks associated with this virus; nevertheless, no new cases of this virus have been reported in Turkey. Despite this, we cannot currently exclude the possibility of the encounter with the virus because of the presence of Aedes mosquitoes, which are responsible for the spread of the virus, are prevalent in Turkey, and an increasing number of travel-related cases are being reported from different countries. In the light of the current knowledge on this virus, this review aims to discuss the course of Zika virus infections in detail, especially congenital infection, and presenting current information about the case management and preventive measures. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 143-151

  14. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J

    2008-01-07

    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  15. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians | Ejiofor | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus is a chronic life long infection in the majority of patients who are infected with the virus. Not much is known and written/published about this virus in Nigeria. Objective: To asses the status of hepatitis C virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and method: Sources of information were mainly from ...

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti in response to mono-infections and co-infections of dengue virus-2 and chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Srivastava, Pratibha; Sunil, Sujatha

    2017-10-28

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) spread via the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Both these viruses exist as co-infections in the host as well as the vector and are known to exploit their cellular machinery for their replication. While there are studies reporting the changes in Aedes transcriptome when infected with DENV and CHIKV individually, the effect both these viruses have on the mosquitoes when present as co-infections is not clearly understood. In the present study, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with DENV and CHIKV individually and as co-infection through nanoinjections. We performed high throughput RNA sequencing of the infected Aedes aegypti to understand the changes in the Aedes transcriptome during the early stages of infection, i.e., 24 h post infection and compared the transcriptome profiles during DENV and CHIKV mono-infections with that of co-infections. We identified 190 significantly regulated genes identified in CHIKV infected library, 37 genes from DENV library and 100 genes from co-infected library and they were classified into different pathways. Our study reveal that distinct pathways and transcripts are being regulated during the three types of infection states in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Virus specific antigens in mammalian cells infected with herpes simplex virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. H.; Shedden, W. I. H.; Elliot, A.; Tetsuka, T.; Wildy, P.; Bourgaux-Ramoisy, D.; Gold, E.

    1966-01-01

    Antisera to specific proteins in herpes simplex infected cells were produced by immunization of rabbits with infected rabbit kidney cells. These antisera were highly virus specific and produced up to twelve lines in immunodiffusion tests against infected cell extracts. Acrylamide electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis revealed up to ten virus specific proteins of varying size. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4288648

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Mark S

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  20. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector.

  1. Infection of potato mesophyll protoplasts with five plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, H; Harrison, B D

    1982-12-01

    Methods are described for preparing potato mesophyll protoplasts that are suitable for infection with inocula of virus nucleoprotein or RNA. The protoplasts could be infected with four sap-transmissible viruses (tobacco mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot and tomato black ring viruses) and with potato leafroll virus, which is not saptransmissible. No differences were observed in ability to infect protoplasts with potato leafroll virus strains differing either in virulence in intact plants or in aphid transmissibility.

  2. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

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    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  3. Autophagic flux without a block differentiates varicella-zoster virus infection from herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Erin M; Carpenter, John E; Jackson, Wallen; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M; Grose, Charles

    2015-01-06

    Autophagy is a process by which misfolded and damaged proteins are sequestered into autophagosomes, before degradation in and recycling from lysosomes. We have extensively studied the role of autophagy in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and have observed that vesicular cells are filled with >100 autophagosomes that are easily detectable after immunolabeling for the LC3 protein. To confirm our hypothesis that increased autophagosome formation was not secondary to a block, we examined all conditions of VZV infection as well as carrying out two assessments of autophagic flux. We first investigated autophagy in human skin xenografts in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of VZV pathogenesis, and observed that autophagosomes were abundant in infected human skin tissues. We next investigated autophagy following infection with sonically prepared cell-free virus in cultured cells. Under these conditions, autophagy was detected in a majority of infected cells, but was much less than that seen after an infected-cell inoculum. In other words, inoculation with lower-titered cell-free virus did not reflect the level of stress to the VZV-infected cell that was seen after inoculation of human skin in the SCID mouse model or monolayers with higher-titered infected cells. Finally, we investigated VZV-induced autophagic flux by two different methods (radiolabeling proteins and a dual-colored LC3 plasmid); both showed no evidence of a block in autophagy. Overall, therefore, autophagy within a VZV-infected cell was remarkably different from autophagy within an HSV-infected cell, whose genome contains two modifiers of autophagy, ICP34.5 and US11, not present in VZV.

  4. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  5. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  6. Ebola Virus Infection Modelling and Identifiability Problems

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    Van-Kinh eNguyen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV infections have underlined the impact of the virus as a major threat for human health. Due to the high biosafety classification of EBOV (level 4, basic research is very limited. Therefore, the development of new avenues of thinking to advance quantitative comprehension of the virus and its interaction with the host cells is urgently neededto tackle this lethal disease. Mathematical modelling of the EBOV dynamics can be instrumental to interpret Ebola infection kinetics on quantitative grounds. To the best of our knowledge, a mathematical modelling approach to unravel the interaction between EBOV and the host cells isstill missing. In this paper, a mathematical model based on differential equations is used to represent the basic interactions between EBOV and wild-type Vero cells in vitro. Parameter sets that represent infectivity of pathogens are estimated for EBOV infection and compared with influenza virus infection kinetics. The average infecting time of wild-type Vero cells in EBOV is slower than in influenza infection. Simulation results suggest that the slow infecting time of EBOV could be compensated by its efficient replication. This study reveals several identifiability problems and what kind of experiments are necessary to advance the quantification of EBOV infection. A first mathematical approach of EBOV dynamics and the estimation of standard parametersin viral infections kinetics is the key contribution of this work, paving the way for future modelling work on EBOV infection.

  7. Mitigating Prenatal Zika Virus Infection in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Parpia, Alyssa S; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-10-18

    Because of the risk for Zika virus infection in the Americas and the links between infection and microcephaly, other serious neurologic conditions, and fetal death, health ministries across the region have advised women to delay pregnancy. However, the effectiveness of this policy in reducing prenatal Zika virus infection has yet to be quantified. To evaluate the effectiveness of pregnancy-delay policies on the incidence and prevalence of prenatal Zika virus infection. Vector-borne Zika virus transmission model fitted to epidemiologic data from 2015 to 2016 on Zika virus infection in Colombia. Colombia, August 2015 to July 2017. Population of Colombia, stratified by sex, age, and pregnancy status. Recommendations to delay pregnancy by 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 months, at different levels of adherence. Weekly and cumulative incidence of prenatal infections and microcephaly cases. With 50% adherence to recommendations to delay pregnancy by 9 to 24 months, the cumulative incidence of prenatal Zika virus infections is likely to decrease by 17% to 44%, whereas recommendations to delay pregnancy by 6 or fewer months are likely to increase prenatal infections by 2% to 7%. This paradoxical exacerbation of prenatal Zika virus exposure is due to an elevated risk for pregnancies to shift toward the peak of the outbreak. Sexual transmission was not explicitly accounted for in the model because of limited data but was implicitly subsumed within the overall transmission rate, which was calibrated to observed incidence. Pregnancy delays can have a substantial effect on reducing cases of microcephaly but risks exacerbating the Zika virus outbreak if the duration is not sufficient. Duration of the delay, population adherence, and the timing of initiation of the intervention must be carefully considered. National Institutes of Health.

  8. Heterologous RNA-silencing suppressors from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses support plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Calvo, María; Carbonell, Alberto; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    HCPro, the RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) of viruses belonging to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae, is a multifunctional protein presumably involved in all essential steps of the viral infection cycle. Recent studies have shown that plum pox potyvirus (PPV) HCPro can be replaced successfully by cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus P1b, a sequence-unrelated RSS from a virus of the same family. In order to gain insight into the requirement of a particular RSS to establish a successful potyviral infection, we tested the ability of different heterologous RSSs from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses to substitute for HCPro. Making use of engineered PPV chimeras, we show that PPV HCPro can be replaced functionally by some, but not all, unrelated RSSs, including the NS1 protein of the mammal-infecting influenza A virus. Interestingly, the capacity of a particular RSS to replace HCPro does not correlate strictly with its RNA silencing-suppression strength. Altogether, our results suggest that not all suppression strategies are equally suitable for efficient escape of PPV from the RNA-silencing machinery. The approach followed here, based on using PPV chimeras in which an under-consideration RSS substitutes for HCPro, could further help to study the function of diverse RSSs in a 'highly sensitive' RNA-silencing context, such as that taking place in plant cells during the process of a viral infection.

  9. The CD8 T Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan E; Varga, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection. However, the mucosal antibody response to many respiratory viruses is not long-lasting and declines with age. CD8 T cells are critical for mediating clearance following many acute viral infections in the lung. In addition, memory CD8 T cells are capable of providing protection against secondary infections. Therefore, the combined induction of virus-specific CD8 T cells and antibodies may provide optimal protective immunity. Herein, we review the current literature on CD8 T cell responses induced by respiratory virus infections. Additionally, we explore how this knowledge could be utilized in the development of future vaccines against respiratory viruses, with a special emphasis on RSV vaccination.

  10. Tetraspanin Assemblies in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Florin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins (Tspans are a family of four-span transmembrane proteins, known as plasma membrane “master organizers.” They form Tspan-enriched microdomains (TEMs or TERMs through lateral association with one another and other membrane proteins. If multiple microdomains associate with each other, larger platforms can form. For infection, viruses interact with multiple cell surface components, including receptors, activating proteases, and signaling molecules. It appears that Tspans, such as CD151, CD82, CD81, CD63, CD9, Tspan9, and Tspan7, coordinate these associations by concentrating the interacting partners into Tspan platforms. In addition to mediating viral attachment and entry, these platforms may also be involved in intracellular trafficking of internalized viruses and assist in defining virus assembly and exit sites. In conclusion, Tspans play a role in viral infection at different stages of the virus replication cycle. The present review highlights recently published data on this topic, with a focus on events at the plasma membrane. In light of these findings, we propose a model for how Tspan interactions may organize cofactors for viral infection into distinct molecular platforms.

  11. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  12. MAIT cells are activated in acute Dengue virus infection and after in vitro Zika virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Paquin-Proulx

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome. The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial activity. MAIT cells have also been postulated to play a role in the immune response to viral infections. In this study, we evaluated MAIT cell frequency, phenotype, and function in samples from subjects with acute and convalescent DENV infection. We found that in acute DENV infection, MAIT cells had elevated co-expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR and had a poor IFNγ response following bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we found that MAIT cells can produce IFNγ in response to in vitro infection with ZIKV. This MAIT cell response was independent of MR1, but dependent on IL-12 and IL-18. Our results suggest that MAIT cells may play an important role in the immune response to Flavivirus infections.

  13. Nora virus persistent infections are not affected by the RNAi machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habayeb, Mazen S; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Hultmark, Dan

    2009-05-29

    Drosophila melanogaster is widely used to decipher the innate immune system in response to various pathogens. The innate immune response towards persistent virus infections is among the least studied in this model system. We recently discovered a picorna-like virus, the Nora virus which gives rise to persistent and essentially symptom-free infections in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we have used this virus to study the interaction with its host and with some of the known Drosophila antiviral immune pathways. First, we find a striking variability in the course of the infection, even between flies of the same inbred stock. Some flies are able to clear the Nora virus but not others. This phenomenon seems to be threshold-dependent; flies with a high-titer infection establish stable persistent infections, whereas flies with a lower level of infection are able to clear the virus. Surprisingly, we find that both the clearance of low-level Nora virus infections and the stability of persistent infections are unaffected by mutations in the RNAi pathways. Nora virus infections are also unaffected by mutations in the Toll and Jak-Stat pathways. In these respects, the Nora virus differs from other studied Drosophila RNA viruses.

  14. Comparison of association of diabetes mellitus in hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis B virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Bukhari, M.H.; Khokhar, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While patients with liver disease are known to have a higher prevalence of glucose intolerance, preliminary studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: The presented study was aimed to study and determine a relationship between the relative proportions of Diabetes Mellitus in patients suffering from HCV infection. Study Design: This cross sectional study. Study Settings: Patients were registered from outdoor as well as indoor departments of different teaching hospitals (Services hospital Lahore and medical departments in Jinnah hospital, Mayo hospital, Sir Ganga Ram hospital) in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was comprised of age and sex matched 258 patients of viral hepatitis B infection and viral hepatitis C infection, conducted at Hepatitis Clinic Services Hospital, affiliated with Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore. Diagnosis of HBV was made with evidence of hepatitis B surface antigen, HCV infection was diagnosed if patient was sero positive for anti HCV (ELISA methods) and HCV - RNA (By PCR). Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed after fulfilling the American Diabetic Association Criteria, from November, 2000 to September, 2002. Results: A total of 318 patients were registered, out of which 258 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 164 hepatitis C infected and 94 hepatitis B infected cases, 16.46% hepatitis C infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics while 4.25% hepatitis B infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is high Association and relationship of Diabetes Mellitus with Hepatitis C virus infection as compared with Hepatitis B virus infection. (author)

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  16. Autophagy in Negative-Strand RNA Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a homoeostatic process by which cytoplasmic material is targeted for degradation by the cell. Viruses have learned to manipulate the autophagic pathway to ensure their own replication and survival. Although much progress has been achieved in dissecting the interplay between viruses and cellular autophagic machinery, it is not well understood how the cellular autophagic pathway is utilized by viruses and manipulated to their own advantage. In this review, we briefly introduce autophagy, viral xenophagy and the interaction among autophagy, virus and immune response, then focus on the interplay between NS-RNA viruses and autophagy during virus infection. We have selected some exemplary NS-RNA viruses and will describe how these NS-RNA viruses regulate autophagy and the role of autophagy in NS-RNA viral replication and in immune responses to virus infection. We also review recent advances in understanding how NS-RNA viral proteins perturb autophagy and how autophagy-related proteins contribute to NS-RNA virus replication, pathogenesis and antiviral immunity.

  17. Zika virus infection – a new epidemic threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Pomorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus, like dengue and yellow fever viruses, is an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, similarly as in the case of Ebola virus in 2014 and bird flu virus in 2009. Although the Zika virus commonly causes a mild flu-like illness, it can cause congenital infections in the foetus. Based on the recommendations of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee, the World Health Organization confirmed the possible relationship between the increase in the incidence of Zika virus infections and an increased number of infants with microcephaly. The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 10–20 times higher than in previous years. A total of 691 cases of travel-related Zika infections have been reported in the United States of America, including 206 pregnant women – with 11 cases of sexually transmitted infection; Guillain–Barré syndrome complication was identified in 2 cases. There is an emphasis on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminate mosquito breeding sites in the countries affected by the epidemic. Due to both, Zika virus isolation from sperm and the growing number of sexually transmitted infections, measures to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus have also been taken. There is an ongoing research to develop vaccine against the Zika virus, however, the estimated time of vaccine development is several years.

  18. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  19. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid ...

  20. Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Michael K; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Abrahams, Vikki M; Fikrig, Erol; Guller, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have linked antenatal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) with major adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, including microcephaly. There is a growing consensus for the existence of a congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Previous studies have indicated that non-placental macrophages play a key role in the replication of dengue virus (DENV), a closely related flavivirus. As the placenta provides the conduit for vertical transmission of certain viruses, and placental Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal-placental macrophages located adjacent to fetal capillaries, it is not surprising that several recent studies have examined infection of HBCs by ZIKV. In this review, we describe congenital abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection, the role of HBCs in the placental response to infection, and evidence for the susceptibility of HBCs to ZIKV infection. We conclude that HBCs may contribute to the spread of ZIKV in placenta and promote vertical transmission of ZIKV, ultimately compromising fetal and neonatal development and function. Current evidence strongly suggests that further studies are warranted to dissect the specific molecular mechanism through which ZIKV infects HBCs and its potential impact on the development of CZS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  2. Human papilloma virus infection and psoriasis: Did human papilloma virus infection trigger psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia P; Gulhane, Sachin; Pandey, Neha; Bisne, Esha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease known to be triggered by streptococcal and HIV infections. However, human papilloma virus infection (HPV) as a triggering factor for the development of psoriasis has not been reported yet. We, hereby report a case of plaque type with inverse psoriasis which probably could have been triggered by genital warts (HPV infection) and discuss the possible pathomechanisms for their coexistence and its management.

  3. Characterization of active-site residues of the NIa protease from tobacco vein mottling virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D C; Kim, D H; Lee, J S; Kang, B H; Han, J; Kim, W; Song, B D; Choi, K Y

    2000-10-31

    Nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of tobacco vein mottling virus is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. In order to identify the active-site residues of the TVMV NIa protease, the putative active-site residues, His-46, Asp-81 and Cys-151, were mutated individually to generate H46R, H46A, D81E, D81N, C151S, and C151A, and their mutational effects on the proteolytic activities were examined. Proteolytic activity was completely abolished by the mutations of H46R, H46A, D81N, and C151A, suggesting that the three residues are crucial for catalysis. The mutation of D81E decreased kcat marginally by about 4.7-fold and increased Km by about 8-fold, suggesting that the aspartic acid at position 81 is important for substrate binding but can be substituted by glutamate without any significant decrease in catalysis. The replacement of Cys-151 by Ser to mimic the catalytic triad of chymotrypsin-like serine protease resulted in the drastic decrease in kcat by about 1,260-fold. This result might be due to the difference of the active-site geometry between the NIa protease and chymotrypsin. The protease exhibited a bell-shaped pH-dependent profile with a maximum activity approximately at pH 8.3 and with the abrupt changes at the respective pKa values of approximately 6.6 and 9.2, implying the involvement of a histidine residue in catalysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the three residues, His-46, Asp-81, and Cys-151, play a crucial role in catalysis of the TVMV NIa protease.

  4. Inhibition of Neurogenesis by Zika virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahim; Siddiqui, Amna; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sohrab, Sayed S

    2018-02-01

    The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States. Additionally, the virus can also be transmitted from males to females by sexual contact. The epidemiological investigations during the current outbreak found a causal link between infection in pregnant women and development of microcephaly in their unborn babies. This finding is a cause for grave concern since microcephaly is a serious neural developmental disorder that can lead to significant post-natal developmental abnormalities and disabilities. Recently, published data indicate that Zika virus infection affects the growth of fetal neural progenitor cells and cerebral neurons that results in malformation of cerebral cortex leading to microcephaly. Recently, it has been reported that Zika virus infection deregulates the signaling pathway of neuronal cell and inhibit the neurogenesis resulting into dementia. In this review we have discussed about the information about cellular and molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration of human neuronal cells and inhibit the neurogenesis. Additionally, this information will be very helpful further not only in neuro-scientific research but also designing and development of management strategies for microcephaly and other mosquito borne disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  6. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  7. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  10. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... isolated from different anatomical compartments, including the myocardium, but, until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate the accompanying histopathological signs of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine if saffold virus is capable of causing invasive infection in the human...... myocardium. STUDY DESIGN: Using real-time PCR, we retrospectively examined formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cardiac tissue specimens from 150 deceased individuals diagnosed with myocarditis at autopsy. The results were compared with histological findings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Saffold virus was detected...

  11. Stability of RNA silencing-based traits after virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bodil; Albrechtsen, Merete

    2007-01-01

    with constructs based on virus coat protein (CP) genes or other viral genes has been successfully used to engineer PTGS-mediated virus resistance into a large number of crop plants and some transgenic lines have been commercially exploited. However the discovery that plant viruses encode suppressors of gene...... silencing has raised concerns that virus infection of crop plants might reverse the new silencing-based traits. Most studies of virus suppression of silencing have used model systems based on silencing of reporter genes. A few studies have analysed the effects of virus infections on plants with genetically...... engineered virus resistance based on either a simple sense or an inverted repeat construct. We decided to use genetically engineered virus resistance in potato as a model system for further studies of the effect of virus infection on genetically engineered traits. We present for the first time a comparison...

  12. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-11-01

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Radiologie, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Besnard, Marianne [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Reanimation Neo-natale, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service d' Obstetrique, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Jouannic, Jean-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Medecine Foetale, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2016-06-15

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  14. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  15. Infection of mice with a human influenza A/H3N2 virus induces protective immunity against lethal infection with influenza A/H5N1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Bodewes, R; van den Brand, J M A; de Mutsert, G; Baas, C; van Amerongen, G; Fouchier, R A M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2009-08-06

    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses of the H5N1 subtype from poultry to man and the high case fatality rate fuels the fear for a pandemic outbreak caused by these viruses. However, prior infections with seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses induce heterosubtypic immunity that could afford a certain degree of protection against infection with the HPAI A/H5N1 viruses, which are distantly related to the human influenza A viruses. To assess the protective efficacy of such heterosubtypic immunity mice were infected with human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 (H3N2) 4 weeks prior to a lethal infection with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05 (H5N1). Prior infection with influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 reduced clinical signs, body weight loss, mortality and virus replication in the lungs as compared to naive mice infected with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05. Priming by infection with respiratory syncytial virus, a non-related virus did not have a beneficial effect on the outcome of A/H5N1 infections, indicating that adaptive immune responses were responsible for the protective effect. In mice primed by infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for NP(366-374) epitope ASNENMDAM and PA(224-232) SCLENFRAYV were observed. A small proportion of these CTL was cross-reactive with the peptide variant derived from the influenza A/H5N1 virus (ASNENMEVM and SSLENFRAYV respectively) and upon challenge infection with the influenza A/H5N1 virus cross-reactive CTL were selectively expanded. These CTL, in addition to those directed to conserved epitopes, shared by the influenza A/H3N2 and A/H5N1 viruses, most likely contributed to accelerated clearance of the influenza A/H5N1 virus infection. Although also other arms of the adaptive immune response may contribute to heterosubtypic immunity, the induction of virus-specific CTL may be an attractive target for development of broad protective vaccines. Furthermore the

  16. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max, respec...

  17. Infection and Proliferation of Giant Viruses in Amoeba Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first discovered giant virus with genome size and particle size much larger than previously discovered viruses, possesses several genes for translation and CRISPER Cas system-like defense mechanism against virophages, which co-infect amoeba cells with the giant virus and which inhibit giant virus proliferation. Mimiviruses infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis and release their DNA into amoeba cytoplasm through their stargate structure. After infection, giant virion factories (VFs) form in amoeba cytoplasm, followed by DNA replication and particle formation at peripheral regions of VF. Marseilleviruses, the smallest giant viruses, infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis or endocytosis, form larger VF than Mimivirus's VF in amoeba cytoplasm, and replicate their particles. Pandoraviruses found in 2013 have the largest genome size and particle size among all viruses ever found. Pandoraviruses infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis and release their DNA into amoeba cytoplasm through their mouth-like apical pores. The proliferation of Pandoraviruses occurs along with nucleus disruption. New virions form at the periphery of the region formerly occupied by the amoeba cell nucleus.

  18. First Imported Case of Zika Virus Infection into Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee-Chang; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Uh Jin; Chun, June Young; Choi, Su-Jin; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Jung, Sook-In; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Nam-Joong; Choi, Eun Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don

    2016-07-01

    Since Zika virus has been spreading rapidly in the Americas from 2015, the outbreak of Zika virus infection becomes a global health emergency because it can cause neurological complications and adverse fetal outcome including microcephaly. Here, we report clinical manifestations and virus isolation findings from a case of Zika virus infection imported from Brazil. The patient, 43-year-old Korean man, developed fever, myalgia, eyeball pain, and maculopapular rash, but not neurological manifestations. Zika virus was isolated from his semen, and reverse-transcriptase PCR was positive for the virus in the blood, urine, and saliva on the 7th day of the illness but was negative on the 21st day. He recovered spontaneously without any neurological complications. He is the first case of Zika virus infection in Korea imported from Brazil.

  19. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  20. Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the occurrence of print mottle in prints. In printing process three main components are involved: printing press, substrate and toner. They can be considered as separate components, but in most cases their interaction influences the quality of the print. The goal of this work was to examine the influence of surface roughness of different types of paper (coated and uncoated on print mottle of electrophotographic digital prints. We set up a hypothesis that print mottle will be more apparent on rougher surfaces. In the experimental part we printed four different substrates with different surface properties on electrophotographic printing press. Morphology of the papers surface was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM from which surface properties were calculated. For print mottle characterization Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM method was used. Based on the measurements and results we can conclude, contrary to the initial hypothesis, that uncoated papers with rougher surfaces produce smaller print mottle values.

  1. Acute Hepatitis E Virus infection with coincident reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus infection in an immunosuppressed patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Detlev; Mani, Bernhard; Dollenmaier, Günter; Sahli, Roland; Zbinden, Andrea; Krayenbühl, Pierre Alexandre

    2015-10-29

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most recently discovered of the hepatotropic viruses, and is considered an emerging pathogen in developed countries with the possibility of fulminant hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. Especially in the latter elevated transaminases should be taken as a clue to consider HEV infection, as it can be treated by discontinuation of immunosuppression and/or ribavirin therapy. To our best knowledge, this is a unique case of autochthonous HEV infection with coincident reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in an immunosuppressed patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 68-year-old Swiss woman with RA developed hepatitis initially diagnosed as methotrexate-induced liver injury, but later diagnosed as autochthonous HEV infection accompanied by reactivation of her latent EBV infection. She showed confounding serological results pointing to three hepatotropic viruses (HEV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and EBV) that could be resolved by detection of HEV and EBV viraemia. The patient recovered by temporary discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy. In immunosuppressed patients with RA and signs of liver injury, HEV infection should be considered, as infection can be treated by discontinuation of immunosuppression. Although anti-HEV-IgM antibody assays can be used as first line virological tools, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for detection of HEV RNA are recommended--as in our case--if confounding serological results from other hepatotropic viruses are obtained. After discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy, our patient recovered from both HEV infection and reactivation of latent EBV infection without sequelae.

  2. Airborne Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus during Processing of Infected Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Balzli, Charles; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Tumpey, Terrence M; Clark, Andrew; Swayne, David E

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals. We did not detect consistent infections in ducks and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected ducks were processed. Our results support the hypothesis that airborne transmission of HPAI viruses can occur among poultry and from poultry to humans during home or live-poultry market slaughter of infected poultry.

  3. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection

  4. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  5. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Femke A. E.; Prins, Maria; Thomas, Xiomara; Molenkamp, Richard; Kwa, David; Brinkman, Kees; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Schinkel, Janke; Countinho, R.; Reesink, H.; van Baarle, D.; Smit, C.; Gras, L.; van der Veldt, W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate that seroprevalence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among MSM is stabilizing in Amsterdam. However, little is known about the incidence of HCV re-infection in MSM who have cleared their HCV infection. We, therefore, studied the incidence of re-infection

  7. Infection of neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus is modulated by the virus titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Natalia Langenfeld; Dos Ramos Silva, Sandriana; Fernandes, Elaine Raniero; Luiz, Fernanda Guedes; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Katz, Iana Suly Santos

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I). In addition, group I strains showed higher viral growth and enhanced internalization efficiency in neuroblastoma cells than group II strains. However, we observed that the dominant virus subpopulation in group II promoted efficient viral infection in the central nervous system in the new host, providing a selective advantage to the virus. Our data indicate that rabies infection in animal models depends on not only the virus strain but also the amount of virus. This study may serve as a basis for understanding the biologic proprieties of Rabies lyssavirus strains with respect to the effects on viral replication and the impact on pathogenesis, improving virus yields for use in vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Sarman

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors. RESULTS: The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001). Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients, the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus co-infections in these patients at the earliest. PMID:17106941

  9. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections.

  10. Arachis hypogaea L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    Low yields are mainly due to numerous diseases caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria and ... Peanut clump virus (PCV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Tobacco ... Seed borne infection of the virus has been detected with incidences ... The experimental field has been used for the cultivation of maize.

  11. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  12. Mechanisms of immune evasion in Epstein-Barr virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram., A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a large DNA virus that infects over 90% of the adult world population. EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and EBV infection is associated with various malignancies. EBV establishes lifelong infections in immunocompetent hosts. To

  13. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Y. Adam; Johnson, John E.; Wong, Sek-Man

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Authentic virus harvested from infected host kenaf leaves was purified and virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions. One of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV

  14. Molecular characterization of viruses associated with gastrointestinal infection in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel C Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the frequency of viral gastrointestinal infections among Brazilian HIV-infected patients with diarrhea. METHODS: A collection of 90 fecal specimens from HIV-infected individuals with diarrhea, previously tested for the presence of bacteria and parasite was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis for the presence of enteric viruses such as astrovirus, norovirus, rotavirus groups A, B and C, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human bocavirus. RESULTS: Twenty patients (22.2%; n = 90 were infected with parasites (11 single infections and nine coinfected with virus. Enteropathogenic bacteria were not found. Virus infections were detected in 28.9% (26/90 of the specimens. Cytomegalovirus was the most common virus detected (24.4%; 22/90. Coinfections with viruses and/or parasite were observed in 10 (11.1% samples. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal virus infections were more frequent than parasitic or bacterial infections in this patient population.

  15. Identification of Cleavage Sites Recognized by the 3C-Like Cysteine Protease within the Two Polyproteins of Strawberry Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sanfaçon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV, family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales is one of several viruses found in association with strawberry decline disease in Eastern Canada. The SMoV genome consists of two positive-sense single-stranded RNAs, each encoding one large polyprotein. The RNA1 polyprotein (P1 includes the domains for a putative helicase, a VPg, a 3C-like cysteine protease and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at its C-terminus, and one or two protein domains at its N-terminus. The RNA2 polyprotein (P2 is predicted to contain the domains for a movement protein (MP and one or several coat proteins at its N-terminus, and one or more additional domains for proteins of unknown function at its C-terminus. The RNA1-encoded 3C-like protease is presumed to cleave the two polyproteins in cis (P1 and in trans (P2. Using in vitro processing assays, we systematically scanned the two polyproteins for cleavage sites recognized by this protease. We identified five cis-cleavage sites in P1, with cleavage between the putative helicase and VPg domains being the most efficient. The presence of six protein domains in the SMoV P1, including two upstream of the putative helicase domain, is a feature shared with nepoviruses but not with comoviruses. Results from trans-cleavage assays indicate that the RNA1-encoded 3C-like protease recognized a single cleavage site, which was between the predicted MP and coat protein domains in the P2 polyprotein. The cleavage site consensus sequence for the SMoV 3C-like protease is AxE (E or Q/(G or S.

  16. Doubled dosage of sofosbuviris expected for inhibiting Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2017-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is a new antiviral drug that has been recommended for management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) for a few years. New researches support that sofosbuvir might be useful for the management of Zika virus infection. Based on the pharmacological activity, inhibiting the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or NS5 protein), sofosbuvir is proposed for its effectiveness against Zika virus infection. Here, the authors used a mathematical modelling theoretical approach to predict the expected dosage of sofosbuvir for inhibiting Zika virus infection. Based on the modeling study, if sofosbuvir is assigned for management of Zika virus infection, doubled dosage of the present dosage for hepatitis C management is recommended.

  17. Negative-strand RNA viruses: The plant-infecting counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Goodin, M.; Sasaya, T.; Haenni, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome

  18. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qiao, Luhua; Hou, Zhouhua; Luo, Guangxiang

    2017-01-15

    Human TIM and TAM family proteins were recently found to serve as phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus. In the present study, we provide substantial evidence demonstrating that TIM-1 is important for efficient infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The knockdown of TIM-1 expression significantly reduced HCV infection but not HCV RNA replication. Likewise, TIM-1 knockout in Huh-7.5 cells remarkably lowered HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. More significantly, the impairment of HCV infection in the TIM-1 knockout cells could be restored completely by ectopic expression of TIM-1 but not TIM-3 or TIM-4. Additionally, HCV infection and cell attachment were inhibited by PS but not by phosphatidylcholine (PC), demonstrating that TIM-1-mediated enhancement of HCV infection is PS dependent. The exposure of PS on the HCV envelope was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of HCV particles with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TIM-1 promotes HCV infection by serving as an attachment receptor for binding to PS exposed on the HCV envelope. TIM family proteins were recently found to enhance infections by many different viruses, including several members of the Flaviviridae family. However, their importance in HCV infection has not previously been examined experimentally. The TIM family proteins include three members in humans: TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4. The findings derived from our studies demonstrate that TIM-1, but not TIM-3 or TIM-4, promotes HCV infection by functioning as an HCV attachment factor. Knockout of the TIM-1 gene resulted in a remarkable reduction of HCV cell attachment and infection. PS-containing liposomes blocked HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. HCV particles could also be precipitated with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. These findings suggest that TIM-1

  19. Zika virus infection confers protection against West Nile virus challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida

    2017-09-20

    Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America). No infected animals showed any sign of disease or died after infection. However, specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in all infected mice. Considering the rapid expansion of ZIKV throughout the American continent and its co-circulation with other medically relevant flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), the induction of protective immunity between ZIKV and WNV was analyzed. Remarkably, protection after challenge with WNV was observed in mice previously infected with ZIKV, as survival rates were significantly higher than in control mice. Moreover, previous ZIKV infection enhanced the humoral immune response against WNV. These findings may be relevant in geographical areas where both ZIKV and WNV co-circulate, as well as for the future development of broad-spectrum flavivirus vaccines.

  20. DAMPs and influenza virus infection in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Lim, Lina H K

    2015-11-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a serious global health problem worldwide due to frequent and severe outbreaks. IAV causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population, due to the ineffectiveness of the vaccine and the alteration of T cell immunity with ageing. The cellular and molecular link between ageing and virus infection is unclear and it is possible that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) may play a role in the raised severity and susceptibility of virus infections in the elderly. DAMPs which are released from damaged cells following activation, injury or cell death can activate the immune response through the stimulation of the inflammasome through several types of receptors found on the plasma membrane, inside endosomes after endocytosis as well as in the cytosol. In this review, the detriment in the immune system during ageing and the links between influenza virus infection and ageing will be discussed. In addition, the role of DAMPs such as HMGB1 and S100/Annexin in ageing, and the enhanced morbidity and mortality to severe influenza infection in ageing will be highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  2. Functional RNA during Zika virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göertz, Giel P.; Abbo, Sandra R.; Fros, Jelke J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including

  3. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  4. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  5. Within-host spatiotemporal dynamics of plant virus infection at the cellular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tromas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A multicellular organism is not a monolayer of cells in a flask; it is a complex, spatially structured environment, offering both challenges and opportunities for viruses to thrive. Whereas virus infection dynamics at the host and within-cell levels have been documented, the intermediate between-cell level remains poorly understood. Here, we used flow cytometry to measure the infection status of thousands of individual cells in virus-infected plants. This approach allowed us to determine accurately the number of cells infected by two virus variants in the same host, over space and time as the virus colonizes the host. We found a low overall frequency of cellular infection (<0.3, and few cells were coinfected by both virus variants (<0.1. We then estimated the cellular contagion rate (R, the number of secondary infections per infected cell per day. R ranged from 2.43 to values not significantly different from zero, and generally decreased over time. Estimates of the cellular multiplicity of infection (MOI, the number of virions infecting a cell, were low (<1.5. Variance of virus-genotype frequencies increased strongly from leaf to cell levels, in agreement with a low MOI. Finally, there were leaf-dependent differences in the ease with which a leaf could be colonized, and the number of virions effectively colonizing a leaf. The modeling of infection patterns suggests that the aggregation of virus-infected cells plays a key role in limiting spread; matching the observation that cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses can result in patches of infection. Our results show that virus expansion at the between-cell level is restricted, probably due to the host environment and virus infection itself.

  6. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  7. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists.......Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists....

  8. Reduced incorporation of the influenza B virus BM2 protein in virus particles decreases infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, David; Zuercher, Thomas; Barclay, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    BM2 is the fourth integral membrane protein encoded by the influenza B virus genome. It is synthesized late in infection and transported to the plasma membrane from where it is subsequently incorporated into progeny virus particles. It has recently been reported that BM2 has ion channel activity and may be the functional homologue of the influenza A virus M2 protein acting as an ion channel involved in viral entry. Using a reverse genetic approach it was not possible to recover virus which lacked BM2. A recombinant influenza B virus was generated in which the BM2 AUG initiation codon was mutated to GUG. This decreased the efficiency of translation of BM2 protein such that progeny virions contained only 1/8 the amount of BM2 seen in wild-type virus. The reduction in BM2 incorporation resulted in a reduction in infectivity although there was no concomitant decrease in the numbers of virions released from the infected cells. These data imply that the incorporation of sufficient BM2 protein into influenza B virions is required for infectivity of the virus particles

  9. Virus incidence in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted over the course of three years (2014-2016) for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-MAV and BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV), and Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. There was an ...

  10. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  11. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  12. Infection and Replication of Influenza Virus at the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Hannah M; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Belser, Jessica A

    2018-04-01

    Although influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity. All viruses tested were able to replicate in primary human corneal epithelial cell monolayers subjected to aerosol inoculation. The temperature at which cells were cultured postinoculation minimally affected infectivity. Replication efficiency, in contrast, was reduced at 33°C relative to that at 37°C, and this effect was slightly greater for the conjunctivitis isolates than for the respiratory ones. With the exception of a seasonal H3N2 virus, the subset of viruses studied in multilayer corneal tissue constructs also replicated productively after either aerosol or liquid inoculation. Human tears significantly inhibited the hemagglutination of both ocular and nonocular isolates, but the effect on viral infectivity was more variable, with tears reducing the infectivity of nonocular isolates more than ocular isolates. These data suggest that most influenza viruses may be capable of establishing infection if they reach the surface of ocular cells but that this is more likely for ocular-tropic viruses, as they are better able to maintain their infectivity during passage through the tear film. IMPORTANCE The potential spread of zoonotic influenza viruses to humans represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, despite the importance of cellular and tissue tropism to pathogenesis, determinants of influenza virus tropism have yet to be fully

  13. A study of back-trap mottle in coated papers using electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, T.; Whalen-Shaw, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper methodology is been developed for analyzing both the surface and cross-sectional distributions for coating components using electron probe microanalysis and image analysis technology. Actual light and dark areas of print mottle are physically separated and analyzed to provide an unequivocal relationship between the distribution of coating components and the physical structure of the coating in areas of print mottle. Areas of low ink density were found to have higher surface latex concentration, greater mean coating thickness, and greater mean rawstock roughness. Furthermore, the difference in surface concentration of CaCO 3 within areas of, low and high ink density was established as a new and additional probable cause of back-trap mottle

  14. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (Pducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (Pducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  16. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  17. Negative-strand RNA viruses: the plant-infecting counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormelink, Richard; Garcia, Maria Laura; Goodin, Michael; Sasaya, Takahide; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2011-12-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome organization, while others have just recently been/or are still classified in floating genera. In most cases, at least two striking differences can still be discerned between the animal/human-infecting viruses and their plant-infecting counterparts which for the latter relate to their adaptation to plants as hosts. The first one is the capacity to modify plasmodesmata to facilitate systemic spread of infectious viral entities throughout the plant host. The second one is the capacity to counteract RNA interference (RNAi, also referred to as RNA silencing), the innate antiviral defence system of plants and insects. In this review an overview will be presented on the negative-strand RNA plant viruses classified within the families Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Ophioviridae and floating genera Tenuivirus and Varicosavirus. Genetic differences with the animal-infecting counterparts and their evolutionary descendants will be described in light of the above processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  19. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  20. Clonorchis sinensis infection and co-infection with the hepatitis B virus are important factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunliang; Jiang, Zhihua; Yang, Yichao; Zheng, Peiqiu; Wei, Haiyan; Lin, Yuan; Lv, Guoli; Yang, Qingli

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the contributions of Clonorchis sinensis and hepatitis B virus to the development of cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), C. sinensis and hepatitis B virus infections in 20 clinical liver cancer cases from a C. sinensis- and hepatitis B virus-epidemic region were detected. Eight cases of ICC, 11 cases of HCC and one mixed ICC and HCC case were verified by CT, pathological section and (or) observations during surgery. The C. sinensis infection was detected by stool microscopy and ELISA, and the worms and eggs found during surgery and in pathological sections also allowed for diagnoses. Hepatitis B virus infections were detected by ELISA. In the 20 cases, 18 patients were diagnosed with C. sinensis infections. Eight of the 20 patients were infected with the hepatitis B virus, and seven were co-infected with C. sinensis. In the eight ICC patients, seven were diagnosed with C. sinensis infection, and two had mixed infections with the hepatitis B virus. In the 11 HCC patients, 10 were diagnosed with C. sinensis, four had mixed infections with the hepatitis B virus, and only one HCC patient presented a single infection by the hepatitis B virus. These clinical observations revealed that C. sinensis infection and C. sinensis co-infection with the hepatitis B virus are important factors in ICC and HCC.

  1. Influence of microscopic mottle on the definition of small image details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selin, K; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    By a special technique of enlarging films a microscopic mottle caused by quantum fluctuations was demonstrated. It was found to affect depiction of small details in such a way as to suggest that it would be of importance for determining resolution capacity, especially in high-speed radiography. Thus, the modulation transfer function appears not to be the only factor determining radiographic resolution. The resolution of high-speed screens may be improved if the film speed is reduced, which leads to a diminished microscopic mottle.

  2. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  3. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  4. Vaccination against porcine parvovirus protects against disease, but does not prevent infection and virus shedding after challenge infection with a heterologous virus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, A; Manteufel, J; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2009-10-01

    The demonstration of field isolates of porcine parvovirus (PPV) that differ genetically and antigenically from vaccine strains of PPV raises the question of whether the broadly used inactivated vaccines can still protect sows against the novel viruses. Ten specific-pathogen-free primiparous sows were assigned to three groups and were vaccinated with one of two vaccines based on the old vaccine strains, or served as non-vaccinated controls. After insemination, all sows were challenged with the prototype genotype 2 virus, PPV-27a, on gestation day 41; fetuses were delivered on gestation day 90 and examined for virus infection. The fetuses of the vaccinated sows were protected against disease, but both the vaccinated and the non-vaccinated sows showed a marked increase in antibody titres after challenge infection, indicating replication of the challenge virus. All sows (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) shed the challenge virus for at least 10 days after infection, with no difference in the pattern or duration of virus shedding.

  5. Deep Sequencing Data and Infectivity Assays Indicate that Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Virus is the Etiological Agent of the “Hard Fruit Syndrome” of Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takoua Zaagueri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, a polyphagous mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae, has been recently linked to the onset of the “hard fruit syndrome” of watermelon, first described in Tunisia, that makes fruits unmarketable due to the presence of white hard portions in the flesh, chlorotic mottling on the rind, and an unpleasant taste. To investigate the etiological agent of this disease, total RNA extracted from symptomatic watermelon fruits was subjected to small RNA sequencing through next generation sequencing (NGS techniques. Data obtained showed the presence of CpCDV and two other viral species. However, following validation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, CpCDV was the only viral species consistently detected in all samples. Watermelon seedlings were then challenged by an agroinfectious CpCDV clone; several plants proved to be CpCDV-infected, and were able to produce fruits. CpCDV infected and replicated in watermelon fruits and leaves, leading to abnormality in fruits and in seed production, similar to those described in field. These results indicate that CpCDV is the etiological agent of the “hard fruit syndrome” of watermelon.

  6. Advances in Animal Models of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection seriously affects human health. Stable and reliable animal models of HBV infection bear significance in studying pathogenesis of this health condition and development of intervention measures. HBV exhibits high specificity for hosts, and chimpanzee is long used as sole animal model of HBV infection. However, use of chimpanzees is strictly constrained because of ethical reasons. Many methods were used to establish small-animal models of HBV infection. Tupaia is the only nonprimate animal that can be infected by HBV. Use of HBV-related duck hepatitis virus and marmot hepatitis virus infection model contributed to evaluation of mechanism of HBV replication and HBV treatment methods. In recent years, development of human–mouse chimeric model provided possibility of using common experimental animals to carry out HBV research. These models feature their own advantages and disadvantages and can be complementary in some ways. This study provides an overview of current and commonly used animal models of HBV infection.

  7. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  8. New research on the origin of mottled clay in Quaternary basins in the coastal area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Gao, Quanzhou; Chen, Guoneng

    2018-06-01

    Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) mottled clay occurs widely in Late Quaternary basins in south China coastal areas. Current research attributes its origin to exposure weathering of Late Pleistocene marine/fluvial deposits during the LGM. However, field data suggest that this is not the case as there is no gradual transition in lithology, grain size, structure and material composition among these layers. Instead, the mottled clay possesses sedimentary characteristics of exotic dust. In this study, three typical drill cores in the Pearl River Delta were studied using grain size analysis, diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and geochemical analysis to ascertain the clay's sedimentary characteristics and origin. Grain size distribution patterns and parameters of the mottled clay were similar to those of a typical loess, indicating aeolian origin. In DRS curves, the peak height of hematite > goethite, indicating that the mottled clay had not experienced strong hydration and constitutes a continental product. This conforms to a typical loess but differs from the underlying marine/fluvial deposits. The chemical composition of the mottled clay was homogeneous in the vertical and planar directions. Upper continental crust (UCC) normalized curves of major and trace elements of the mottled clay were close to the average UCC and were consistent with typical aeolian deposits. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and relationship with the underlying layer suggest that the mottled clay was a loess-like deposit during the LGM and its mottled structure originated from strong modification of oxidation during the postglacial period after homogeneous dust had accumulated.

  9. Interferon production and immune response induction in pathogenic rabies virus-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovistz, R; Leal, E C; De Souza Matos, D C [Departamento de Immunologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Caixa Postal 926, 21045 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsiang, H [Service Rage, Istitut Pasteur, Paris (France)

    1994-08-01

    Pathogenic parental rabies virus strain CVS (challenge virus standard) and its apathogenic variant RV194-2 were shown to differ in their ability to induce interferon (IFN) and immune response of the host. After intracerebral inoculation. IFN and antibody production was higher in the RV194-2 virus-infected mice than in the CVS infection. The enhancement of 2-5A synthetase activity, an IFN-mediated enzyme marker, showed biochemical evidence that IFN is active in both apathogenic and pathogenic infections. On the other hand, spontaneous proliferation in vitro of thymocytes and splenocytes from CVS virus-infected mice was strongly inhibited in contrast to the RV194-2 infection. In the CVS infection, the thymocyte proliferation However, in the RV194-2 infection, the thymocyte proliferation was higher than of the splenocytes. These results suggest a better performance of T-cell response to the RV194-2 infection. This fact can be critical for an enhancement of antibody production in the apathogenic infection and subsequent virus clearance from the brain of RV194-2 virus-infected mice. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 32 refs.

  10. Exploiting Fluorescent Polymers To Probe the Self-Assembly of Virus-like Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caden-Nava, Ruben D.; Hu, Yufang; Garmann, Rees F.

    2011-01-01

    , for example, poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), forming virus-like particles (VLPs). We have demonstrated recently that the VLPs formed from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid protein increase in size (from T = 2 to T = 3 structures) upon increase in PSS molecular weight (from 400 kDa to 3.4MDa...

  11. Clinical studies on hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. This thesis describes clinical aspects of hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection. Part I focuses on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This part describes immune responses of patients with acute HBV-infection,

  12. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    1985-01-01

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection

  13. Identification and characterization of a virus-specific continuous B-cell epitope on the PrM/M protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus: potential application in the detection of antibodies to distinguish Japanese Encephalitis Virus infection from West Nile Virus and Dengue Virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Rong-Hong; Chen, Na-Sha; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Ge, Jin-Ying; Wang, Xi-Jun; Qiao, Zu-Jian; Chen, Wei-Ye; Wen, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Wen-Xin; Hu, Sen; Bu, Zhi-Gao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Differential diagnose of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection from other flavivirus especially West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DV) infection was greatly hindered for the serological cross-reactive. Virus specific epitopes could benefit for developing JEV specific antibodies detection methods. To identify the JEV specific epitopes, we fully mapped and characterized the continuous B-cell epitope of the PrM/M protein of JEV. Results To map the epitopes on the P...

  14. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-09-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

  16. Human leukocyte antigen-e alleles are associated with hepatitis c virus, torque teno virus, and toxoplasma co-infections but are not associated with hepatitis b virus, hepatitis d virus, and GB virus c co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiono Agung Prasetyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis D virus (HDV, torque teno virus (TTV, GB virus C (GBV-C, and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in Indonesian Javanese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. Settings and Design: A total of 320 anti-HIV-positive blood samples were analyzed for HBV, HCV, HDV, TTV, GBV-C, and T. gondii infection status and its association with HLA-E allelic variants. Materials and Methods: Nucleic acid was extracted from plasma samples and used for the molecular detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA, HDV RNA, TTV DNA, and GBV-C RNA, whereas hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii were detected through serological testing. The blood samples were genotyped for HLA-E loci using a sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Either the Chi-square or Fisher′s exact test was performed to analyze the frequency of HLA-E alleles and blood-borne pathogen infections in the population. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to measure the association between the antibodies found and the participants′ possible risk behaviors. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations. Results: HLA-EFNx010101/0101 was associated with HCV/TTV co-infection (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.156-10.734; P = 0.027 and IgM/IgG anti-Toxo positivity (aOR: 27.0; 95% CI: 3.626-200.472; P = 0.001. HLA-EFNx010103/0103 was associated with TTV co-infection (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.509-4.796; P = 0.001. Conclusions: HLA-E alleles in Indonesian Javanese HIV patients were found to be associated

  17. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  18. Zika virus infection: The resurgence of a neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kambale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Zika virus" (ZIKV is an enveloped, icosahedral virus and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 11 kb in length. Genetic studies have revealed three ZIKV lineages: East African, West African, and Asian. Serologic studies and virus isolations have demonstrated that the virus has a wide geographic distribution, spanning East and West Africa, the Americas, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. ZIKV can cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis. During pregnancy ZIKV infection can lead to miscarriages and microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, macular neuroretinal atrophy, and loss of foveal reflex in the fetus. A clinically suspected case of infection with dengue negative result should be further tested for Flavivirus, including Zika. Immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used to detect specific IgM or IgG antibodies against ZIKV. In cases of positive ZIKV infection, symptomatic treatment should be given after excluding other condition such as dengue, malaria, and bacterial infections.

  19. Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Munster, Vincent J; Marzi, Andrea; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton O; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Martellaro, Cynthia; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi N; Best, Sonja M; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Giuliani, Ruggero; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Massaquoi, Moses; Feldmann, Heinz; de Wit, Emmie

    2016-10-15

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA. Clinical outcome in laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus-infected patients was analyzed as a function of age, sex, Ebola viremia, and Plasmodium species parasitemia. The case fatality rate of 1182 patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus infections was 52%. The probability of surviving decreased with increasing age and decreased with increasing Ebola viral load. Ebola virus-infected patients were 20% more likely to survive when Plasmodium species parasitemia was detected, even after controlling for Ebola viral load and age; those with the highest levels of parasitemia had a survival rate of 83%. This effect was independent of treatment with antimalarials, as this was provided to all patients. Moreover, treatment with antimalarials did not affect survival in the Ebola virus mouse model. Plasmodium species parasitemia is associated with an increase in the probability of surviving Ebola virus infection. More research is needed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon and translate it into treatment options for Ebola virus infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. In vitro infection of salmonid epidermal tissues by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of two rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), to infect fish skin was investigated by in vitro infection of excised tissues. Virus replication was determined by plaque assay of homogenized tissue extracts, and the virus antigen was detected by immunohistology of tissue sections. Gill, fin, and ventral abdominal skin tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that had been infected in vitro with a virulent strain of IHNV (193–110) produced substantial increases in virus titer within 24 h. Titers continued to increase up until day 3 of incubation; by this time, virus had increased 1,000-fold or more. This increase in IHNV titer occurred in epidermal tissues of fingerlings and of older fish. In another experiment, IHNV replicated in excised rainbow trout tissues whether the fish had been subject to prior infection with a virulent strain of IHNV (Western Regional Aquaculture Consortium isolate) or whether the fish had been infected previously with an attenuated strain of the virus (Nan Scott Lake, with 100 passes in culture). A virulent strain of VHSV (23/75) replicated effectively in excised gill tissues and epidermal tissues of rainbow trout and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha; however, the avirulent North American strain of VHSV (Makah) replicated poorly or not at all.

  1. Effect of low-pathogenicity influenza virus H3N8 infection on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, Laszlo; Egyed, Laszlo; Palfi, Vilmos; Beres, Andrea; Pitlik, Ervin; Somogyi, Maria; Szathmary, Susan; Denes, Bela

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma infection is still very common in chicken and turkey flocks. Several low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are circulating in wild birds that can be easily transmitted to poultry flocks. However, the effect of LPAI on mycoplasma infection is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infection of LPAI virus H3N8 (A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07) in chickens challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with M. gallisepticum. Later one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group were aerosol challenged with the LPAI H3N8 virus. The birds were observed for clinical signs for 8 days, then euthanized, and examined for the presence of M. gallisepticum in the trachea, lung, air sac, liver, spleen, kidney and heart, and for developing anti-mycoplasma and anti-viral antibodies. The LPAI H3N8 virus did not cause any clinical signs but M. gallisepticum infection caused clinical signs, reduction of body weight gain and colonization of the inner organs. These parameters were more severe in the birds co-infected with M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus than in the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. In addition, in the birds infected with both M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus, the anti-mycoplasma antibody response was reduced significantly when compared with the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. Co-infection with LPAI H3N8 virus thus enhanced pathogenesis of M. gallisepticum infection significantly.

  2. Aedes aegypti uses RNA interference in defense against Sindbis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corey L; Keene, Kimberly M; Brackney, Douglas E; Olson, Ken E; Blair, Carol D; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Foy, Brian D

    2008-03-17

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important anti-viral defense mechanism. The Aedes aegypti genome encodes RNAi component orthologs, however, most populations of this mosquito are readily infected by, and subsequently transmit flaviviruses and alphaviruses. The goal of this study was to use Ae. aegypti as a model system to determine how the mosquito's anti-viral RNAi pathway interacts with recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus). SINV (TR339-eGFP) (+) strand RNA, infectious virus titers and infection rates transiently increased in mosquitoes following dsRNA injection to cognate Ago2, Dcr2, or TSN mRNAs. Detection of SINV RNA-derived small RNAs at 2 and 7 days post-infection in non-silenced mosquitoes provided important confirmation of RNAi pathway activity. Two different recombinant SINV viruses (MRE16-eGFP and TR339-eGFP) with significant differences in infection kinetics were used to delineate vector/virus interactions in the midgut. We show virus-dependent effects on RNAi component transcript and protein levels during infection. Monitoring midgut Ago2, Dcr2, and TSN transcript levels during infection revealed that only TSN transcripts were significantly increased in midguts over blood-fed controls. Ago2 protein levels were depleted immediately following a non-infectious bloodmeal and varied during SINV infection in a virus-dependent manner. We show that silencing RNAi components in Ae. aegypti results in transient increases in SINV replication. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti RNAi is active during SINV infection as indicated by production of virus-specific siRNAs. Lastly, the RNAi response varies in a virus-dependent manner. These data define important features of RNAi anti-viral defense in Ae. aegypti.

  3. Immunological tolerance to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in neonatally infected virus carrier mice: evidence supporting a clonal inactivation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihak, J.; Lehmann-Grube, F.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are described aimed at analysing the mechanism responsible for the absence of cell-mediated immunity against LCM virus-infected cells in neonatally established LCM virus carrier mice. Virus-specific cell-mediated immunity was assessed by 51 Cr release and target cell reduction assays. Attempts to demonstrate cells in spleens of CBA/J carrier mice able to suppress in syngeneic recipients the induction or the effector phase of the cytotoxic T-cell response against LCM virus-infected cells were unsuccessful. Also, no factors were detected in CBA/J and C57BL/6J carrier mice, either spleen cell-associated or free in the circulation, which would block the activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes against LCM virus-infected syngeneic target cells. The results indicate that inability of LCM virus carrier mice to act immunologically against virus-infected target cells is due to deletion or irreversible inactivation of T lymphocytes carrying receptors for virally altered cell membrane antigens. (author)

  4. Transfusion associated hepatitis B virus infection among sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Transfusion of blood products is a recognised way of transmitting infections particularly viruses. The extent to which blood transfusion contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in transfused patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) has been found to be 20% in Lagos, Nigeria. Mamman in Zaria however ...

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis patients in Addis ... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was collected ... of co-infection appeared to have increased compared to previous studies, 6.6%, ...

  6. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  7. Increased concordance of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in identical twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Skytthe, Axel

    2008-01-01

    (concordance rate: 0.66 vs 0.53), which suggests genetic influences on disease severity. Genetic factors accounted for 16%, family environment for 73%, and nonshared environment for 11% of the individual susceptibility to develop severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The severity...... of respiratory syncytial virus infection is determined partly by genetic factors. This result should stimulate the search for genetic markers of disease severity.......OBJECTIVE: We estimated differences in the severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection attributable to genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: Record linkage data on hospitalizations attributable to respiratory syncytial virus infection were gathered on all twins (12,346 pairs) born...

  8. The onset of virus shedding and clinical signs in chickens infected with high-pathogenicity and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickler, Anna R; Trampel, Darrell W; Roth, James A

    2008-12-01

    Some avian influenza viruses may be transmissible to mammals by ingestion. Cats and dogs have been infected by H5N1 avian influenza viruses when they ate raw poultry, and two human H5N1 infections were linked to the ingestion of uncooked duck blood. The possibility of zoonotic influenza from exposure to raw poultry products raises concerns about flocks with unrecognized infections. The present review examines the onset of virus shedding and the development of clinical signs for a variety of avian influenza viruses in chickens. In experimentally infected birds, some high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) and low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can occur in faeces and respiratory secretions as early as 1 to 2 days after inoculation. Some HPAI viruses have also been found in meat 1 day after inoculation and in eggs after 3 days. There is no evidence that LPAI viruses can be found in meat, and the risk of their occurrence in eggs is poorly understood. Studies in experimentally infected birds suggest that clinical signs usually develop within a few days of virus shedding; however, some models and outbreak descriptions suggest that clinical signs may not become evident for a week or more in some H5 or H7 HPAI-infected flocks. During this time, avian influenza viruses might be found in poultry products. LPAI viruses can be shed in asymptomatically infected or minimally affected flocks, but these viruses are unlikely to cause significant human disease.

  9. Two White Spot Syndrome Virus MicroRNAs Target the Dorsal Gene To Promote Virus Infection in Marsupenaeus japonicus Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Huang, Xin; Cui, Yalei; Sun, Jiejie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-04-15

    In eukaryotes, microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as regulators of many biological processes, including virus infection. An miRNA can generally target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs has not yet been extensively explored during virus infection. This study found that the Spaztle (Spz)-Toll-Dorsal-antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) signaling pathway plays a very important role in antiviral immunity against invasion of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ). Dorsal , the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs (WSSV-miR-N13 and WSSV-miR-N23) during WSSV infection. The regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study contributes novel insights into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway during the virus-host interaction. IMPORTANCE An miRNA can target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs during virus infection has not yet been extensively explored. The results of this study indicated that the shrimp Dorsal gene, the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs during infection with white spot syndrome virus. Regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study provides new insight into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway in virus-host interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Youl Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, a nationwide survey was carried out to investigate about occurrence pattern of virus infecting foxtail millet. A total 100 foxtail millet leaf samples showing virus-like and abnormal symptoms were collected in the seven main cultivated regions of Korea. Four viruses were identified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Of the collected 100 foxtail millet samples, 10 were Barley virus G (BVG, 4 were Rice stripe virus (RSV, 1 was Northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV, and 1 was Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV infection. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of BVG and NCMV infecting foxtail millet in Korea and ScYLV is expected as new Polerovirus species. This research will be useful in breeding for improved disease-resistant foxtail millet cultivars.

  11. Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jason C; Druce, Julian D; Leder, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

  12. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  13. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    During 2015-2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  14. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-01-01

    During 2015?2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  15. Role of natural killer cells in innate protection against lethal ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Perkins, Jeremy G; Swenson, Dana L; Deal, Emily M; Bosio, Catharine M; Aman, M Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Young, Howard A; Bavari, Sina

    2004-07-19

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1-3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injection enhanced the numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in lymphoid tissues. In contrast to live Ebola virus, VLP treatment of NK cells enhanced cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive targets. Unlike wild-type mice, treatment of NK-deficient or -depleted mice with VLPs had no protective effect against Ebola virus infection and NK cells treated with VLPs protected against Ebola virus infection when adoptively transferred to naive mice. The mechanism of NK cell-mediated protection clearly depended on perforin, but not interferon-gamma secretion. Particles containing only VP40 were sufficient to induce NK cell responses and provide protection from infection in the absence of the viral GP. These findings revealed a decisive role for NK cells during lethal Ebola virus infection. This work should open new doors for better understanding of Ebola virus pathogenesis and direct the development of immunotherapeutics, which target the innate immune system, for treatment of Ebola virus infection.

  16. Effects of interferon on cultured cells persistently infected with viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M

    1986-01-01

    The role of interferon (IFN) in viral persistence at the cellular level was investigated. Two types of persistent infections were chosen. The first type was cell lines which contained hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells) uninfected control hepatoma cells, (Mahlavu, HA22T and Hep G2 cells) or simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA (C2, C6, C11 cells) and control uninfected (CV-1 cells). In the second type of infection Vero cells persistently infected with SSPE or Sendai virus were used. The aim of this work was to determine what effect IFN had in these infections in terms of its antiviral and antiproliferative effects; which of the two major IFN-induced pathways, E enzyme or protein kinase were induced; whether there were any differences in sensitivity to IFN between the DNA and RNA virus persistent infections. The anti-viral effect of IFN was examined by its ability to inhibit Sindbis virus replication using a radioimmunoassay system. The antiproliferative effect of IFN was determined by cell counting and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. The activation of the ribonuclease F, determined by the inhibition of /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation after introduction of 2-5 actin into the cells, was variable, being activated in all cell lines with the exception of the PLC/PRF/5, Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells. Major differences between the two DNA persistent infections and the two RNA persistent infections were found. No correlation was found between the presence of HBV or SV40 persistent infections and the sensitivity of the cell lines to IFN. Both the SSPE and Sendai virus persistent infections were resistant to the antiviral and antiproliferative effect of IFN.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Mulberry Vein Banding Associated Virus, a New Tospovirus Infecting Mulberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaorong Meng

    Full Text Available Mulberry vein banding associated virus (MVBaV that infects mulberry plants with typical vein banding symptoms had been identified as a tentative species of the genus Tospovirus based on the homology of N gene sequence to those of tospoviruses. In this study, the complete sequence of the tripartite RNA genome of MVBaV was determined and analyzed. The L RNA has 8905 nucleotides (nt and encodes the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp of 2877 aa amino acids (aa in the viral complementary (vc strand. The RdRp of MVBaV shares the highest aa sequence identity (85.9% with that of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, and contains conserved motifs shared with those of the species of the genus Tospovirus. The M RNA contains 4731 nt and codes in ambisense arrangement for the NSm protein of 309 aa in the sense strand and the Gn/Gc glycoprotein precursor (GP of 1,124 aa in the vc strand. The NSm and GP of MVBaV share the highest aa sequence identities with those of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV (83.2% and 84.3%, respectively. The S RNA is 3294 nt in length and contains two open reading frames (ORFs in an ambisense coding strategy, encoding a 439-aa non-structural protein (NSs and the 277-aa nucleocapsid protein (N, respectively. The NSs and N also share the highest aa sequence identity (71.1% and 74.4%, respectively with those of CaCV. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, NSm, GP, NSs, and N proteins showed that MVBaV is most closely related to CaCV and GBNV and that these proteins cluster with those of the WSMoV serogroup, and that MVBaV seems to be a species bridging the two subgroups within the WSMoV serogroup of tospoviruses in evolutionary aspect, suggesting that MVBaV represents a distinct tospovirus. Analysis of S RNA sequence uncovered the highly conserved 5'-/3'-ends and the coding regions, and the variable region of IGR with divergent patterns among MVBaV isolates.

  18. Towards antiviral therapies for treating dengue virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Suzanne Jf; Neyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus is an emerging human pathogen that poses a huge public health burden by infecting annually about 390 million individuals of which a quarter report with clinical manifestations. Although progress has been made in understanding dengue pathogenesis, a licensed vaccine or antiviral therapy against this virus is still lacking. Treatment of patients is confined to symptomatic alleviation and supportive care. The development of dengue therapeutics thus remains of utmost importance. This review focuses on the few molecules that were evaluated in dengue virus-infected patients: balapiravir, chloroquine, lovastatin, prednisolone and celgosivir. The lessons learned from these clinical trials can be very helpful for the design of future trials for the next generation of dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  20. Chikungunya VIrUS infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...

  1. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  2. Pneumothorax in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibes Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax occurs more frequently in people with Human immunodeficiency virus infection in comparison with the general population. In most cases it is secondary the underlying pulmonary disorder, especially pulmonary infections. Though Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is most common pulmonary infection associated with pneumothorax, other infections, non-infective etiology and iatrogenic causes are also encountered. Pneumothorax in these patients are associated with persistent bronchopleural fistula, prolonged hospital stay, poor success with intercostal tube drain, frequent requirement of surgical intervention and increased mortality. Optimal therapeutic approach in these patients is still not well-defined.

  3. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  4. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Avesani, Linda; Spena, Angelo; Polverari, Annalisa

    2003-06-25

    Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana). Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197), a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330) was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80%) transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20%) contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23-25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation. Transitivity of siRNAs was observed in

  5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie Louise; St George, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited. Furthermore, Zika cross-reacts serologically with other flaviviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever. Current or past infection, or even vaccination with another flavivirus, will often cause false-positive or uninterpretable Zika serology results. Detection of viral RNA during acute infection using nucleic acid amplification tests provides more specific results, and a number of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests have received emergency use authorization. In addition to serum, testing of whole blood and urine is recommended because of the higher vial loads and longer duration of shedding. However, nucleic acid amplification testing has limited utility because many patients are asymptomatic or present for testing after the brief period of Zika shedding has passed. Thus, the greatest need and most difficult challenge is development of accurate antibody tests for the diagnosis of recent Zika infection. Research is urgently needed to identify Zika virus epitopes that do not cross-react with other flavivirus antigens. New information is emerging at a rapid pace and, with ongoing public-private and international collaborations and government support, it is hoped that rapid progress will be made in developing robust and widely applicable diagnostic tools.

  6. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  7. Modeling Virus Coinfection to Inform Management of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Frank M; Allen, Linda J S; Bokil, Vrushali A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Feng, Zhilan; Garrett, Karen A; Gross, Louis J; Hamelin, Frédéric M; Jeger, Michael J; Manore, Carrie A; Power, Alison G; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Rúa, Megan A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-10-01

    Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus and a potyvirus, often Sugarcane mosaic virus. To better understand the dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we modeled the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil, and seed, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterization, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons. Resource-rich farmers with large holdings can achieve good control by combining clean seed and insect control. However, crop rotation is often required to effect full control. Resource-poor farmers with smaller holdings must rely on rotation and roguing, and achieve more limited control. For both types of farmer, unless management is synchronized over large areas, exogenous sources of infection can thwart control. As well as providing practical guidance, our modeling framework is potentially informative for other cropping systems in which coinfection has devastating effects. Our work also emphasizes how mathematical modeling can inform management of an emerging disease even when epidemiological information remains scanty. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .

  8. A novel Cre recombinase imaging system for tracking lymphotropic virus infection in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M Dutia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection, isolation, and identification of individual virus infected cells during long term infection are critical to advance our understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis for latent/persistent viruses. However, current approaches to study these viruses in vivo have been hampered by low sensitivity and effects of cell-type on expression of viral encoded reporter genes. We have designed a novel Cre recombinase (Cre-based murine system to overcome these problems, and thereby enable tracking and isolation of individual in vivo infected cells.Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 was used as a prototypic persistent model virus. A Cre expressing recombinant virus was constructed and characterised. The virus is attenuated both in lytic virus replication, producing ten-fold lower lung virus titres than wild type virus, and in the establishment of latency. However, despite this limitation, when the sEGFP7 mouse line containing a Cre-activated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP was infected with the Cre expressing virus, sites of latent and persistent virus infection could be identified within B cells and macrophages of the lymphoid system on the basis of EGFP expression. Importantly, the use of the sEGFP7 mouse line which expresses high levels of EGFP allowed individual virus positive cells to be purified by FACSorting. Virus gene expression could be detected in these cells. Low numbers of EGFP positive cells could also be detected in the bone marrow.The use of this novel Cre-based virus/mouse system allowed identification of individual latently infected cells in vivo and may be useful for the study and long-term monitoring of other latent/persistent virus infections.

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HepatitisC virus is a chronic life-long infection in themajority of patientswho are infected with the virus.Without accurate diagnosis and follow up, these children cannot be offered optimal care, and are at risk of presenting in adult life with significant liver pathology and long-term sequelae. Objective: To explore ...

  10. Tacaribe virus but not junin virus infection induces cytokine release from primary human monocytes and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV, in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation.

  11. Menkes' disease in Mottled mice and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Prins, H.W.; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemically the defect of the Brindled allelic mutant of the Mottled mouse and of Menkes' disease in man are very similar if not identical. A modification of a normal Cu-binding protein or an unrestrained synthesis of a Cu-binding protein that normally is present only in small amounts is proposed as the basis of this disease

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus: The Path from Latent to Productive Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Bill

    2016-09-29

    The intrinsic properties of different viruses have driven their study. For example, the capacity for efficient productive infection of cultured cells by herpes simplex virus 1 has made it a paradigm for this mode of infection for herpesviruses in general. Epstein-Barr virus, another herpesvirus, has two properties that have driven its study: It causes human cancers, and it exhibits a tractable transition from its latent to its productive cycle in cell culture. Here, we review our understanding of the path Epstein-Barr virus follows to move from a latent infection to and through its productive cycle. We use information from human infections to provide a framework for describing studies in cell culture and, where possible, the molecular resolutions from these studies. We also pose questions whose answers we think are pivotal to understanding this path, and we provide answers where we can.

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  14. Molecular determinants of dengue virus 2 envelope protein important for virus entry in FcγRIIA-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotiwan, Nunya; Roehrig, John T.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection may cause severe illness in patients suffering a secondary infection by a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype. During ADE of infection, cross-reactive non- or poorly-neutralizing antibodies form infectious virus-Ab complexes with the newly infecting serotype and enhance virus infection by binding to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on FcγR-bearing cells. In this study, we determined that molecular determinants of DENV2 envelope protein critical for virus entry during non-ADE infection are also required for ADE infection mediated by FcγRIIA, and binding of virus-Ab complexes with FcγRIIA alone is not sufficient for ADE of infection. The FcγRIIA mainly plays an auxiliary role in concentrating the virus–Ab complex to the cell surface, and other primary cellular receptors are required for virus entry. Understanding the viral entry pathway in ADE of DENV infection will greatly facilitate rational designs of anti-viral therapeutics against severe dengue disease associated with ADE. - Highlights: • KKK305/307/310 in DENV2 E-DIII is critical for virus attachment in ADE and non-ADE infection. • Binding of DENV2–Ab complex with FcγRII alone is not sufficient for virus entry in ADE infection. • Other primary receptors were required for DENV2 internalization during FcγRII–mediated ADE. • G104 and L135 of DENV2 E are critical for virus-mediated membrane fusion. • DENV2 virus-mediated membrane fusion is required for both ADE and non-ADE infection

  15. Molecular determinants of dengue virus 2 envelope protein important for virus entry in FcγRIIA-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotiwan, Nunya; Roehrig, John T. [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Schlesinger, Jacob J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Blair, Carol D. [Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Huang, Claire Y.-H., E-mail: yxh0@cdc.gov [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection may cause severe illness in patients suffering a secondary infection by a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype. During ADE of infection, cross-reactive non- or poorly-neutralizing antibodies form infectious virus-Ab complexes with the newly infecting serotype and enhance virus infection by binding to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on FcγR-bearing cells. In this study, we determined that molecular determinants of DENV2 envelope protein critical for virus entry during non-ADE infection are also required for ADE infection mediated by FcγRIIA, and binding of virus-Ab complexes with FcγRIIA alone is not sufficient for ADE of infection. The FcγRIIA mainly plays an auxiliary role in concentrating the virus–Ab complex to the cell surface, and other primary cellular receptors are required for virus entry. Understanding the viral entry pathway in ADE of DENV infection will greatly facilitate rational designs of anti-viral therapeutics against severe dengue disease associated with ADE. - Highlights: • KKK305/307/310 in DENV2 E-DIII is critical for virus attachment in ADE and non-ADE infection. • Binding of DENV2–Ab complex with FcγRII alone is not sufficient for virus entry in ADE infection. • Other primary receptors were required for DENV2 internalization during FcγRII–mediated ADE. • G104 and L135 of DENV2 E are critical for virus-mediated membrane fusion. • DENV2 virus-mediated membrane fusion is required for both ADE and non-ADE infection.

  16. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Petitdemange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy.We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients.We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV.Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

  17. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, V; Mahe, E; Houhou, N; Abramowitz, L; Rozenberg, F; Ranger-Rogez, S; Crickx, B

    2003-05-01

    Association of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with viral infection is debated. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation has been the most frequently reported infection associated with this syndrome. However, a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was recently described associated with anticonvulsant-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. We report a case of severe allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with pancreatitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Active EBV infection was demonstrated in two consecutive serum samples by the presence of anti-EBV early antigen (EA) IgM antibodies and an increase in anti-EBV EA IgG antibodies, whereas no anti-EBV nuclear antigen IgG antibodies were detected. EBV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reactivation of HHV-6 was suggested only by the presence of anti-HHV-6 IgM antibodies, but HHV-6 DNA was not detected by PCR in the serum. Other viral investigations showed previous infection (CMV, rubella, measles, parvovirus B19), immunization after vaccination (hepatitis B virus), or absence of previous infection (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). We suggest that EBV infection may participate in some cases, as do the other herpesviruses HHV-6 or CMV, in the development of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

  18. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, Ronald F; Sobel, Jack D; Carrington, D

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Lamont R, Sobel J, Carrington D, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic J, Vaisbuch E, Romero R. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02983.x. Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella-zoster virus pneumonia and ...

  19. Mechanisms of immunity in post-exposure vaccination against Ebola virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Bradfute

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever that is characterized by rapid viral replication, coagulopathy, inflammation, and high lethality rates. Although there is no clinically proven vaccine or treatment for Ebola virus infection, a virus-like particle (VLP vaccine is effective in mice, guinea pigs, and non-human primates when given pre-infection. In this work, we report that VLPs protect Ebola virus-infected mice when given 24 hours post-infection. Analysis of cytokine expression in serum revealed a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in mice given VLPs post-exposure compared to infected, untreated mice. Using knockout mice, we show that VLP-mediated post-exposure protection requires perforin, B cells, macrophages, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, and either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Protection was Ebola virus-specific, as marburgvirus VLPs did not protect Ebola virus-infected mice. Increased antibody production in VLP-treated mice correlated with protection, and macrophages were required for this increased production. However, NK cells, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha were not required for post-exposure-mediated protection. These data suggest that a non-replicating Ebola virus vaccine can provide post-exposure protection and that the mechanisms of immune protection in this setting require both increased antibody production and generation of cytotoxic T cells.

  20. Mechanisms of immunity in post-exposure vaccination against Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfute, Steven B; Anthony, Scott M; Stuthman, Kelly S; Ayithan, Natarajan; Tailor, Prafullakumar; Shaia, Carl I; Bray, Mike; Ozato, Keiko; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever that is characterized by rapid viral replication, coagulopathy, inflammation, and high lethality rates. Although there is no clinically proven vaccine or treatment for Ebola virus infection, a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine is effective in mice, guinea pigs, and non-human primates when given pre-infection. In this work, we report that VLPs protect Ebola virus-infected mice when given 24 hours post-infection. Analysis of cytokine expression in serum revealed a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in mice given VLPs post-exposure compared to infected, untreated mice. Using knockout mice, we show that VLP-mediated post-exposure protection requires perforin, B cells, macrophages, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), and either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Protection was Ebola virus-specific, as marburgvirus VLPs did not protect Ebola virus-infected mice. Increased antibody production in VLP-treated mice correlated with protection, and macrophages were required for this increased production. However, NK cells, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha were not required for post-exposure-mediated protection. These data suggest that a non-replicating Ebola virus vaccine can provide post-exposure protection and that the mechanisms of immune protection in this setting require both increased antibody production and generation of cytotoxic T cells.

  1. MicroRNA and the innate immune response toinfluenza A virus infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Louise

    response to influenza A virus infection requires the joint expression profiling of protein-coding gene and microRNA expression. Paper 1 is a review which emphasizes the importance of the pig in the study of influenza Avirus infections. Pigs are themselves natural hosts for influenza A virus, and our close......Influenza A virus infections are a major public health concern. Many million cases of diseaseassociated with influenza A virus occur every year during seasonal epidemics, and especially vulnerable populations such as the elderly, pregnant women, young children, and individual swith underlying...... conditions such as diabetes and patients of autoimmune diseases are at higher risk of severe complications from influenza A virus infection. However, in otherwise healthy individuals, influenza A virus infection is relatively short-lived, commonly being cleared within one to two weeks. Influenza A virus...

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in Ghana: time for action is now

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a blood borne infection just like hepatitis B virus (HBV) and. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with a signifi- cant global health impact. Since the discovery of the. HCV, several developments including a better under- standing of the clinical epidemiology, ...

  3. Cells in Dengue Virus Infection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansanee Noisakran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been recognized as one of the most important vector-borne emerging infectious diseases globally. Though dengue normally causes a self-limiting infection, some patients may develop a life-threatening illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The reason why DHF/DSS occurs in certain individuals is unclear. Studies in the endemic regions suggest that the preexisting antibodies are a risk factor for DHF/DSS. Viremia and thrombocytopenia are the key clinical features of dengue virus infection in patients. The amounts of virus circulating in patients are highly correlated with severe dengue disease, DHF/DSS. Also, the disturbance, mainly a transient depression, of hematological cells is a critical clinical finding in acute dengue patients. However, the cells responsible for the dengue viremia are unresolved in spite of the intensive efforts been made. Dengue virus appears to replicate and proliferate in many adapted cell lines, but these in vitro properties are extremely difficult to be reproduced in primary cells or in vivo. This paper summarizes reports on the permissive cells in vitro and in vivo and suggests a hematological cell lineage for dengue virus infection in vivo, with the hope that a new focus will shed light on further understanding of the complexities of dengue disease.

  4. Bacteria Facilitate Enteric Virus Co-infection of Mammalian Cells and Promote Genetic Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrea K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Mayer, Melinda J; Narbad, Arjan; Winter, Sebastian E; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2018-01-10

    RNA viruses exist in genetically diverse populations due to high levels of mutations, many of which reduce viral fitness. Interestingly, intestinal bacteria can promote infection of several mammalian enteric RNA viruses, but the mechanisms and consequences are unclear. We screened a panel of 41 bacterial strains as a platform to determine how different bacteria impact infection of poliovirus, a model enteric virus. Most bacterial strains, including those extracted from cecal contents of mice, bound poliovirus, with each bacterium binding multiple virions. Certain bacterial strains increased viral co-infection of mammalian cells even at a low virus-to-host cell ratio. Bacteria-mediated viral co-infection correlated with bacterial adherence to cells. Importantly, bacterial strains that induced viral co-infection facilitated genetic recombination between two different viruses, thereby removing deleterious mutations and restoring viral fitness. Thus, bacteria-virus interactions may increase viral fitness through viral recombination at initial sites of infection, potentially limiting abortive infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. First case of imported Zika virus infection in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  7. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  8. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Feitosa, Ian M L; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Pessoa, André; Doriqui, Maria Juliana R; Neri, Joao Ivanildo; Neto, Joao Monteiro de Pina; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Cernach, Mirlene; El-Husny, Antonette S; Pone, Marcos V S; Serao, Cassio L C; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V

    2016-01-29

    In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear

  9. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

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    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  10. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was cleared...... and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral replication......Human respiratory syncytial virus is an important cause of severe respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and in immunocompromised adults. Similarly, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is causing severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in calves. Both viruses are pneumovirus...

  11. Neutralizing Antibodies and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

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    Françoise Stoll-Keller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host innate and adaptive immune responses determines the outcome of infection. There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. The understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately contribute to the development of novel antiviral preventive strategies for liver graft infection and an urgently needed vaccine. This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  12. Serious invasive Saffold virus infections in children, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Böttiger, Blenda; Banner, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    The first human virus in the genus Cardiovirus was described in 2007 and named Saffold virus (SAFV). Cardioviruses can cause severe infections of the myocardium and central nervous system in animals, but SAFV has not yet been convincingly associated with disease in humans. To study a possible ass...... association between SAFV and infections in the human central nervous system, we designed a real-time PCR for SAFV and tested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children...

  13. A Novel Type of Polyhedral Viruses Infecting Hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2017-07-01

    Encapsidation of genetic material into polyhedral particles is one of the most common structural solutions employed by viruses infecting hosts in all three domains of life. Here, we describe a new virus of hyperthermophilic archaea, Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which condenses its circular double-stranded DNA genome in a manner not previously observed for other known viruses. The genome complexed with virion proteins is wound up sinusoidally into a spherical coil which is surrounded by an envelope and further encased by an outer polyhedral capsid apparently composed of the 20-kDa virion protein. Lipids selectively acquired from the pool of host lipids are integral constituents of the virion. None of the major virion proteins of SPV1 show similarity to structural proteins of known viruses. However, minor structural proteins, which are predicted to mediate host recognition, are shared with other hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses infecting members of the order Sulfolobales The SPV1 genome consists of 20,222 bp and contains 45 open reading frames, only one-fifth of which could be functionally annotated. IMPORTANCE Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea display a remarkable morphological diversity, often presenting architectural solutions not employed by known viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. Here we present the isolation and characterization of Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1, which condenses its genome into a unique spherical coil. Due to the original genomic and architectural features of SPV1, the virus should be considered a representative of a new viral family, "Portogloboviridae." Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Attenuation of virus production at high multiplicities of infection in Aureococcus anophagefferens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher M.; Bidle, Kay D., E-mail: bidle@marine.rutgers.edu

    2014-10-15

    Infection dynamics (saturation kinetics, infection efficiency, adsorption and burst size) for the Aureococcus anophagefferens-Brown Tide virus (AaV) system were investigated using susceptible and resistant strains. Adsorption assays revealed that virus affinity to the cell surface is a key determinant of infectivity. Saturation of infection occurred at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 8 viruses per host and resulted in ∼90–95% of infected cells, with burst sizes ranging from 164 to 191. Insight from the AaV genome implicates recycling of host nucleotides rather than de novo synthesis as a constraint on viral replication. Viral yields and mean burst sizes were significantly diminished with increasing MOI. This phenomenon, which was reminiscent of phage-induced ‘lysis from without’, appeared to be caused by viral contact and was unrelated to bacteria, signaling/toxic compounds, or defective interfering viruses. We posit that high-MOI effects attenuate viral proliferation in natural systems providing a negative feedback on virus-induced bloom collapse.

  15. Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas J C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  17. [Clinical analysis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C G; Xu, Y; Jiang, H Q; Yin, Y X; Zhang, J H; Zhu, W J; Liang, X J; Chen, M X; Ye, J W; Tan, L M; Luo, D; Gong, S T

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics, outcome and diagnosis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of two cases of imported children with Zika virus infection in February 2016 in Enping People's Hospital of Guangdong. Two cases of children with imported Zika virus infection resided in an affected area of Venezuela, 8-year-old girl and her 6 year-old brother. The main findings on physical examination included the following manifestations: fever, rash, and conjunctivitis. The rash was first limited to the abdomen, but extended to the torso, neck and face, and faded after 3-4 d. The total number of white blood cells was not high and liver function was normal. The diagnosis of two cases of Zika virus infection was confirmed by the expert group of Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, according to the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and Zika virus nucleic acid detection results.Treatment of Zika virus infection involves supportive care. Two Zika virus infection children had a relatively benign outcome. At present, Zika virus infection in children is an imported disease in China. No specific therapy is available for this disease. Information on long-term outcomes among infants and children with Zika virus disease is limited, routine pediatric care is advised for these infants and children.

  18. Aedes aegypti Molecular Responses to Zika Virus: Modulation of Infection by the Toll and Jak/Stat Immune Pathways and Virus Host Factors

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    Yesseinia I. Angleró-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika (ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV are transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. However, the molecular interactions between the vector and ZIKV remain largely unexplored. In this work, we further investigated the tropism of ZIKV in two different Aedes aegypti strains and show that the virus infection kinetics, tissue migration, and susceptibility to infection differ between mosquito strains. We also compare the vector transcriptome changes upon ZIKV or DENV infection demonstrating that 40% of the mosquito’s midgut infection-responsive transcriptome is virus-specific at 7 days after virus ingestion. Regulated genes included key factors of the mosquito’s anti-viral immunity. Comparison of the ZIKV and DENV infection-responsive transcriptome data to those available for yellow fever virus and West Nile virus identified 26 genes likely to play key roles in virus infection of Aedes mosquitoes. Through reverse genetic analyses, we show that the Toll and the Jak/Stat innate immune pathways mediate increased resistance to ZIKV infection, and the conserved DENV host factors vATPase and inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase are also utilized for ZIKV infection.

  19. Early events associated with infection of Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B-cells.

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    Sabyasachi Halder

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV is closely associated with the development of a vast number of human cancers. To develop a system for monitoring early cellular and viral events associated with EBV infection a self-recombining BAC containing 172-kb of the Epstein Barr virus genome BAC-EBV designated as MD1 BAC (Chen et al., 2005, J.Virology was used to introduce an expression cassette of green fluorescent protein (GFP by homologous recombination, and the resultant BAC clone, BAC-GFP-EBV was transfected into the HEK 293T epithelial cell line. The resulting recombinant GFP EBV was induced to produce progeny virus by chemical inducer from the stable HEK 293T BAC GFP EBV cell line and the virus was used to immortalize human primary B-cell as monitored by green fluorescence and outgrowth of the primary B cells. The infection, B-cell activation and cell proliferation due to GFP EBV was monitored by the expression of the B-cell surface antigens CD5, CD10, CD19, CD23, CD39, CD40 , CD44 and the intercellular proliferation marker Ki-67 using Flow cytometry. The results show a dramatic increase in Ki-67 which continues to increase by 6-7 days post-infection. Likewise, CD40 signals showed a gradual increase, whereas CD23 signals were increased by 6-12 hours, maximally by 3 days and then decreased. Monitoring the viral gene expression pattern showed an early burst of lytic gene expression. This up-regulation of lytic gene expression prior to latent genes during early infection strongly suggests that EBV infects primary B-cell with an initial burst of lytic gene expression and the resulting progeny virus is competent for infecting new primary B-cells. This process may be critical for establishment of latency prior to cellular transformation. The newly infected primary B-cells can be further analyzed for investigating B cell activation due to EBV infection.

  20. Screening Criteria for Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Andrea A; Tsui, Irena; Rossetto, Julia; Vasconcelos, Zilton; Adachi, Kristina; Valderramos, Stephanie; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Pone, Marcos Vinicius da Silva; Pone, Sheila Moura; Silveira Filho, Joel Carlos Barros; Aibe, Mitsue S; da Costa, Ana Carolina C; Zin, Olivia A; Belfort, Rubens; Brasil, Patricia; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mother-infant pairs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with suspected Zika virus infection during pregnancy were referred to our institution and had serum, urine, amniotic fluid, or placenta samples tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus. Description of eye findings, presence of microcephaly or other central nervous system abnormalities, and timing of infection in infants with confirmed Zika virus during pregnancy. Eye abnormalities were correlated with central nervous system findings, microcephaly, and the timing of maternal infection. Of the 112 with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection in maternal specimens, 24 infants (21.4%) examined had eye abnormalities (median age at first eye examination, 31 days; range, 0-305 days). Ten infants (41.7%) with eye abnormalities did not have microcephaly, and 8 (33.3%) did not have any central nervous system findings. Fourteen infants with eye abnormalities (58.3%) were born to women infected in the first trimester, 8 (33.3%) in the second trimester, and 2 (8.3%) in the third trimester. Optic nerve and retinal abnormalities were the most frequent findings. Eye abnormalities were statistically associated with microcephaly (odds ratio [OR], 19.1; 95% CI, 6.0-61.0), other central

  1. Statins Suppress Ebola Virus Infectivity by Interfering with Glycoprotein Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Flint, Mike; Bergeron, Éric; McElroy, Anita K; Chatterjee, Payel; Albariño, César G; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2018-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatments. Statins, widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs, have pleiotropic mechanisms of action and were suggested as potential adjunct therapy for Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of statin (lovastatin) on EBOV infection in vitro Statin treatment decreased infectious EBOV production in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and in the hepatic cell line Huh7. Statin treatment did not interfere with viral entry, but the viral particles released from treated cells showed reduced infectivity due to inhibition of viral glycoprotein processing, as evidenced by decreased ratios of the mature glycoprotein form to precursor form. Statin-induced inhibition of infectious virus production and glycoprotein processing was reversed by exogenous mevalonate, the rate-limiting product of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, but not by low-density lipoprotein. Finally, statin-treated cells produced EBOV particles devoid of the surface glycoproteins required for virus infectivity. Our findings demonstrate that statin treatment inhibits EBOV infection and suggest that the efficacy of statin treatment should be evaluated in appropriate animal models of EVD. IMPORTANCE Treatments targeting Ebola virus disease (EVD) are experimental, expensive, and scarce. Statins are inexpensive generic drugs that have been used for many years for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have a favorable safety profile. Here, we show the antiviral effects of statins on infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) production. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which statin regulates EBOV particle infectivity by preventing glycoprotein processing and incorporation into virus particles. Additionally, statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Since inflammation and dysregulation of the immune

  2. Post-infection immunodeficiency virus control by neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unlike most acute viral infections controlled with the appearance of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs, primary HIV infections are not met with such potent and early antibody responses. This brings into question if or how the presence of potent antibodies can contribute to primary HIV control, but protective efficacies of antiviral antibodies in primary HIV infections have remained elusive; and, it has been speculated that even NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication once infection is established. Here, in an attempt to answer this question, we examined the effect of passive NAb immunization post-infection on primary viral replication in a macaque AIDS model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The inoculums for passive immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239-specific neutralizing activity were prepared by purifying polyclonal immunoglobulin G from pooled plasma of six SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques with NAb induction in the chronic phase. Passive immunization of rhesus macaques with the NAbs at day 7 after SIVmac239 challenge resulted in significant reduction of set-point plasma viral loads and preservation of central memory CD4 T lymphocyte counts, despite the limited detection period of the administered NAb responses. Peripheral lymph node dendritic cell (DC-associated viral RNA loads showed a remarkable peak with the NAb administration, and DCs stimulated in vitro with NAb-preincubated SIV activated virus-specific CD4 T lymphocytes in an Fc-dependent manner, implying antibody-mediated virion uptake by DCs and enhanced T cell priming. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present evidence indicating that potent antibody induction post-infection can result in primary immunodeficiency virus control and suggest direct and indirect contribution of its absence to initial control failure in HIV infections. Although difficulty in achieving requisite neutralizing titers for

  3. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Persistent infection with ebola virus under conditions of partial immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manisha; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Greer, Patricia; Towner, Jonathan S; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R; Ahmed, Rafi; Rollin, Pierre E

    2004-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans is associated with high mortality; however, some infected hosts clear the virus and recover. The mechanisms by which this occurs and the correlates of protective immunity are not well defined. Using a mouse model, we determined the role of the immune system in clearance of and protection against Ebola virus. All CD8 T-cell-deficient mice succumbed to subcutaneous infection and had high viral antigen titers in tissues, whereas mice deficient in B cells or CD4 T cells cleared infection and survived, suggesting that CD8 T cells, independent of CD4 T cells and antibodies, are critical to protection against subcutaneous Ebola virus infection. B-cell-deficient mice that survived the primary subcutaneous infection (vaccinated mice) transiently depleted or not depleted of CD4 T cells also survived lethal intraperitoneal rechallenge for >/==" BORDER="0">25 days. However, all vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice depleted of CD8 T cells had high viral antigen titers in tissues following intraperitoneal rechallenge and died within 6 days, suggesting that memory CD8 T cells by themselves can protect mice from early death. Surprisingly, vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice, after initially clearing the infection, were found to have viral antigens in tissues later (day 120 to 150 post-intraperitoneal infection). Furthermore, following intraperitoneal rechallenge, vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice that were transiently depleted of CD4 T cells had high levels of viral antigen in tissues earlier (days 50 to 70) than vaccinated undepleted mice. This demonstrates that under certain immunodeficiency conditions, Ebola virus can persist and that loss of primed CD4 T cells accelerates the course of persistent infections. These data show that CD8 T cells play an important role in protection against acute disease, while both CD4 T cells and antibodies are required for long-term protection, and they provide evidence of persistent infection by Ebola virus suggesting

  5. Incidence of respiratory viruses in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A neonatal murine model for evaluation of enterovirus E HY12 virus infection and pathogenicity.

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    Xiaochun Gai

    Full Text Available HY12 viruses are enteroviruses recently isolated from cattle characterized by severe respiratory and digestive disease with high morbidity and mortality in China. While the viruses exhibit unique biological and molecular characters distinct from known enterovirus E, the pathogenicity and viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown.Neonatal mice of Balb/C, ICR, and Kunming strain are infected with HY12 to determine the susceptible mouse strain. The minimal infection dose, the virus infection routes, the pathogenicity and tissue tropism for HY12 were determined by infecting susceptible mice with HY12 viruses, and confirmed by different approaches including virus isolation and recovery, virus detection, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry.A murine model for HY12 infection was successfully established and employed to investigate the pathogenicity of HY12 viruses. ICR mouse strain is the most susceptible strain for HY12 infection with a minimal infective dose as 2×106TCID50/mouse. HY12 viruses have the capability of infecting ICR suckling mice via all infection routes including intranasal administration, oral administration, intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, and intramuscular injection, which are confirmed by the isolation and recovery of viruses from HY12-infected mice; detection of viruses by RT-PCR; observations of pathological lesions and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestine, lung, liver, and brain; uncovering of HY12 virus antigens in majority of tissues, especially in intestine, lung, and infected brain of mice by immunohistochemistry assay.A neonatal murine model for HY12 infection is successfully established for determining the susceptible mouse strain, the minimal infective dose, the infection route, the viral pathogenicity and the tropism of HY12, thus providing an invaluable model system for elucidating the pathogenesis of HY12 viruses and the elicited immunity.

  7. Chinese sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a common honey bee virus that infects both the European honey bee (A. mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and nat...

  8. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  9. Advances in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Guofang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are transmitted through the same pathways. Therefore, the incidence of HBV in the HIV-infected population is higher than that in the healthy population, and is more obvious in China given the high HBV prevalence in the country. HIV and HBV co-infection can accelerate the disease process of HBV. Moreover, the incidence of cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is higher in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV than in patients infected HBV alone. When treating patients co-infected with HIV and HBV for HBV infection alone, care should be taken to avoid the induction of HIV resistance. HBV should be considered during drug selection for anti-retroviral treatment. Furthermore, the effective HBV treatment should be retained if anti-retroviral drugs require changing.

  10. LABORATORY CULTURE METHODS FOR THE MOTTLED SCULPIN (COTTUS BAIRDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish from the family Cottidae (Sculpin Family) are being researched to determine their sensitivity to various metals in freshwater systems. The ability to culture them in the lab would facilitate species sensitivity comparisons. We collected adult mottled sculpins (C. bairdi) f...

  11. UV radiation and mouse models of herpes simplex virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norval, Mary; El-Ghorr, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Orolabial human infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are very common; following the primary epidermal infection, the virus is retained in a latent form in the trigeminal ganglia from where it can reactivate and cause a recrudescent lesion. Recrudescences are triggered by various stimuli including exposure to sunlight. In this review three categories of mouse models are used to examine the effects of UV irradiation on HSV infections: these are UV exposure prior to primary infection, UV exposure as a triggering event for recrudescence and UV exposure prior to challenge with virus is mice already immunized to HSV. In each of these models immunosuppression occurs, which is manifest, in some instances, in increased morbidity or an increased rate of recrudescence. Where known, the immunological mechanisms involved in the models are summarized and their relevance to human infections considered. (Author)

  12. Protective role of host aquaporin 6 against Hazara virus, a model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Andrea; Mirazimi, Ali; Holm, Angelika; Loitto, Vesa M; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Vikström, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes infectious disease with severe hemorrhagic manifestations in vascular system in humans. The proper function of the cells in the vascular system is critically regulated by aquaporins (AQP), water channels that facilitate fluxes of water and small solutes across membranes. With Hazara virus as a model for CCHFV, we investigated the effects of viruses on AQP6 and the impact of AQP6 on virus infectivity in host cells, using transiently expressed GFP-AQP6 cells, immunofluorescent assay for virus detection, epifluorescent imaging of living cells and confocal microscopy. In GFP-AQP6 expressing cells, Hazara virus reduced both the cellular and perinuclear AQP6 distribution and changed the cell area. Infection of human cell with CCHFV strain IbAR 10200 downregulated AQP6 expression at mRNA level. Interestingly, the overexpression of AQP6 in host cells decreased the infectivity of Hazara virus, speaking for a protective role of AQP6. We suggest the possibility for AQP6 being a novel player in the virus-host interactions, which may lead to less severe outcomes of an infection. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Zika virus infection in Vietnam: current epidemic, strain origin, spreading risk, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dinh-Toi; Ngoc, Vo Truong Nhu; Tao, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus infection and its associated microcephaly have being receiving global concern. This infection has spread widely since the first outbreak was recorded in Africa in 1952. Now, it has been reported in over 70 countries on five continents including Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Vietnam is one of the most recent countries which had cases of Zika virus infection at the end of 2016. This country has also reported the first case of a microcephaly-born baby which was probably linked to Zika virus infection. However, information on the Zika virus epidemic in Vietnam is still limited. This brief report intends to update the current Zika virus epidemic, and to discuss challenges and perspectives in controlling this infection in Vietnam.

  14. Detection and transmission of Carrot torrado virus, a novel putative member of the Torradovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozado-Aguirre, Zuriñe; Adams, Ian; Collins, Larissa; Fox, Adrian; Dickinson, Matthew; Boonham, Neil

    2016-09-01

    A new Torradovirus tentatively named Carrot torrado virus (CaTV) was an incidental finding following a next generation sequencing study investigating internal vascular necrosis in carrot. The closest related viruses are Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus (LNLCV) found in the Netherlands in 2011 and Motherwort yellow mottle virus (MYMoV) found in Korea in 2014. Primers for reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and RT-qPCR were designed with the aim of testing for the presence of virus in plant samples collected from the field. Both methods successfully amplified the target from infected samples but not from healthy control samples. The specificity of the CaTV assay was also checked against other known carrot viruses and no cross-reaction was seen. A comparative study between methods showed RT-qPCR was the most reliable method, giving positive results in samples where RT-PCR fails. Evaluation of the Ct values following RT-qPCR and a direct comparison demonstrated this was due to improved sensitivity. The previous published Torradovirus genus specific RT-PCR primers were tested and shown to detect CaTV. Also, virus transmission experiments carried out suggest that unlike other species of the same genus, Carrot torrado virus could be aphid-transmitted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.

  16. Immune Activation in the Pathogenesis of Dengue Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. van de Weg (Cornelia A.M.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dengue virus (DENV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus and belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes-mosquito and circulates in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The incidence of dengue has risen

  17. Immune Evasion Strategies during Chronic Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Prieto, Ana Maria; Dorner, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are a major global healthcare problem with more than 240 million and 70 million infected, respectively. Both viruses persist within the liver and result in progressive liver disease, resulting in liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Strikingly, this pathogenesis is largely driven by immune responses, unable to clear an established infection, rather than by the viral pathogens themselves. Even though disease progression is very similar in both infections, HBV and HCV have evolved distinct mechanisms, by which they ensure persistence within the host. Whereas HCV utilizes a cloak-and-dagger approach, disguising itself as a lipid-like particle and immediately crippling essential pattern-recognition pathways, HBV has long been considered a “stealth” virus, due to the complete absence of innate immune responses during infection. Recent developments and access to improved model systems, however, revealed that even though it is among the smallest human-tropic viruses, HBV may, in addition to evading host responses, employ subtle immune evasion mechanisms directed at ensuring viral persistence in the absence of host responses. In this review, we compare the different strategies of both viruses to ensure viral persistence by actively interfering with viral recognition and innate immune responses. PMID:28862649

  18. Special Issue: Viruses Infecting Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gregory Chinchar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses infecting and affecting humans are the focus of considerable research effort, viruses that target other animal species, including cold-blooded vertebrates, are receiving increased attention. In part this reflects the interests of comparative virologists, but increasingly it is based on the impact that many viruses have on ecologically and commercially important animals. Frogs and other amphibians are sentinels of environmental health and their disappearance following viral or fungal (chytrid infection is a cause for alarm. Likewise, because aquaculture and mariculture are providing an increasingly large percentage of the “seafood” consumed by humans, viral agents that adversely impact the harvest of cultured fish and amphibians are of equal concern. [...

  19. Hepatitis B Virus infection in Nigeria – a review | Emechebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... virus in the general population also play role in Nigeria. Conclusion: Reduction in the of hepatitis B virus infection could be achieved by public enlightenment campaign, mass immunization of the children and adults at risk while antiviral drugs and immunostimulatory therapy should be provided for those already infected.

  20. Validation of reference genes for quantifying changes in gene expression in virus-infected tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eseul; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

    2017-10-01

    To facilitate quantification of gene expression changes in virus-infected tobacco plants, eight housekeeping genes were evaluated for their stability of expression during infection by one of three systemically-infecting viruses (cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus X, potato virus Y) or a hypersensitive-response-inducing virus (tobacco mosaic virus; TMV) limited to the inoculated leaf. Five reference-gene validation programs were used to establish the order of the most stable genes for the systemically-infecting viruses as ribosomal protein L25 > β-Tubulin > Actin, and the least stable genes Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) genes were EF1α > Cysteine protease > Actin, and the least stable genes were GAPDH genes, three defense responsive genes were examined to compare their relative changes in gene expression caused by each virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical signs, diagnosis, and case reports of Vaccinia virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carla Medeiros Silva

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus is responsible for a zoonosis that usually affects cattle and human beings in Brazil. The initial clinical signs of the infection are focal red skin areas, fever, and general symptoms similar to those of a cold. Then, pustules and ulcerated lesions surrounded by edema and erythema follow, as well as local lymphadenopathy that can last for weeks. Cure and healing of the lesions occur over several weeks, leaving a typical scar in the skin of people and animals affected. The infection definitive diagnosis is made through morphological characterization of the virus by use of electron microscopy, followed by PCR for specific viral genes. Since 1963, circulating orthopoxviruses in infectious outbreaks in several regions of Brazil have been reported. Later, the etiological agent of those infections was characterized as samples of Vaccinia virus. In addition, the widespread use of those viruses in research laboratories and mass vaccination of militaries have contributed to increase the cases of those infections worldwide. Thus, several epidemiological and clinical studies are required, as well as studies of viral immunology, public health, and economic impact, because little is known about those Vaccinia virus outbreaks in Brazil.

  2. Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-23

    Although phylogenetically unrelated, human hepatitis viruses share an exclusive or near exclusive tropism for replication in differentiated hepatocytes. This narrow tissue tropism may contribute to the restriction of the host ranges of these viruses to relatively few host species, mostly nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primate models thus figure prominently in our current understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses, including the enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), and have also played major roles in vaccine development. This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to our current understanding of the biology of these viruses. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila V. Ventura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: In 2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December 2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0% referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia, of which six (85.7% were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy in fifteen eyes (75.0%, and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio in nine eyes (45.0%. Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

  4. Survey of Viruses Affecting Legume Crops in the Amhara and Oromia Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bekele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were undertaken to identify the viral diseases affecting lentil, faba bean, chickpea, pea, fenugreek and grass pea in two regions of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in the regions of Amhara (Gonder and Gojam administrative zones and Oromia (Bale administrative zone during the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growing seasons, respectively. The survey covered 138 randomly selected fields (48 faba bean, 10 pea, 38 grass pea, 34 chickpea, 8 lentil in the Amhara region, and 51 legume fields (29 faba bean, 12 pea, 3 lentil, 5 fenugreek, 2 chickpea in the Oromia region. Virus disease incidence was determined by laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly-collected samples from each field against the antisera of 12 legume viruses. Of the 189 fields surveyed, 121 and 7 had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and more than 6%, respectively, based on visual inspection in the field; later laboratory testing showed that the number of fields in these two categories was in fact 99 and 56, respectively. Serological tests indicated that the most important viruses in the Amhara region were Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV and the luteoviruses [e.g. Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV, Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV]. By contrast, only FBNYV and the luteoviruses were detected in the Oromia region. Other viruses, such as Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, were rarely detected in the Amhara region. This is the first report in Ethiopia of natural infection of faba bean, pea and fenugreek with SbDV, of fenugreek with BWYV, and of grass pea with BYMV, PSbMV and BWYV, and it is also the first recorded instance of BBMV infecting legume crops in Ethiopia.

  5. Low Temperature Storage of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus-Infected Rice Plants Cannot Sustain Virus Transmission by the Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Han, Yongqiang; Lei, Wenbin; Hou, Maolin

    2016-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel virus transmitted by white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Hováth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Due to low virus transmission efficiency by the planthopper, researchers are frequently confronted with shortage of viruliferous vectors or infected rice plants, especially in winter and the following spring. To find new ways to maintain virus-infected materials, viral rice plants were stored at -80°C for 45 or 140 d and evaluated as virus sources in virus transmission by the vector. SRBSDV virions were not degraded during storage at -80°C as indicated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription real-time PCR detection. The planthopper nymphs fed on the infected thawed plants for 48 h survived at about 40% and showed positive detection of SRBSDV, but they lost the virus after feeding for another 20 d (the circulative transmission period) on noninfected plants. Transmission electron microscope images indicated broken capsid of virions in infected thawed leaves in contrast to integrity capsid of virions in infected fresh leaves. These results show that low temperature storage of SRBSDV-infected rice plants cannot sustain virus transmission by white-backed planthopper. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-09-18

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  8. Radiologic findings of childhood lower respiratory tract infection by influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Taek; Park, Choong Ki; Shin, Hee Jung; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Hahm, Chang Kok; Hern, Ahn You [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    After the RS (respiratory syncytial) virus, the influenza virus is the most common cause of childhood lower respiratory tract infection. We assessed the radiologic findings of childhood lower respiratory tract infection by the influenza virus. A total of 105 pediatric patients (76 males and 29 females; mean age, 2.4 years) with symptoms of respiratory tract infection were examined between March 1997 and April 2000. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained and influenza virus infection was confirmed by direct or indirect immunofluorescent assays. Peribronchial infiltration, hyperinflation, atelectasis, pulmonary consolidation, and hilar lymphadenopathy were evaluated retrospectively at simple chest radiography. Bilateral perihiler peribronchial infiltration was noted in 78.1% of patients (n=82), hyperinflation in 63.8% (n=67), atelectasis in 3.8% (n=4, segmental 50%, lobar 50%), and pulmonary consolidation in 16.2% [n=17; segmental 70.6% (n=12), lobar 29.4% (n=5)]. Hilar lymphadenopathy was noted in one patient in whom there was no pleural effusion, and subglottic airway narrowing in 12 of 14 in whom the croup symptom complex was present. The major radiologic findings of influenza virus infection were bilateral perihilar peribronchial infiltration and hyperinflation. In some patients, upper respiratory tract infection was combined with subgolttic airway narrowing. Atelectasis or pleural effusion was rare.

  9. Effect of acute Zika virus infection on sperm and virus clearance in body fluids: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joguet, Guillaume; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Matusali, Giulia; Hamdi, Safouane; Walschaerts, Marie; Pavili, Lynda; Guyomard, Stefanie; Prisant, Nadia; Lamarre, Pierre; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Pasquier, Christophe; Bujan, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Evidence of human sexual transmission during Zika virus emergence is a matter of concern, particularly in procreation, but to date, kinetics of seminal shedding and the effects of infection on human reproductive function have not been described. To investigate the effects of Zika virus infection on semen and clearance of Zika virus from semen and body fluids, we aimed to study a cohort of Zika virus-infected men. This prospective observational study recruited men presenting with acute Zika virus infection at Pointe-à-Pitre University Hospital in Guadeloupe, French Caribbean, where a Zika virus outbreak occurred between April and November, 2016. Blood, urine, and semen were collected at days 7, 11, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 after symptom onset, and semen characteristics, such as total sperm count, sperm motility, vitality, and morphology, and reproductive hormone concentrations, such as testosterone, inhibin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinising hormone, were assessed. At days 7, 11, and 20, semen was processed to isolate motile spermatozoa. Zika virus RNA was detected by RT-PCR using whole blood, serum, urine, seminal plasma, semen cells, and motile spermatozoa fractions. Zika virus was isolated from different sperm fractions on Vero E6 cultures. 15 male volunteers (mean age 35 years [SD 5; range 25-44) with acute Zika virus infection and positive Zika virus RNA detection in blood or urine were enrolled. Total sperm count was decreased from median 119 × 10 6 spermatozoa (IQR 22-234) at day 7 to 45·2 × 10 6 (16·5-89·6) at day 30 and 70 × 10 6 (28·5-81·4) at day 60, respectively, after Zika virus infection. Inhibin values increased from 93·5 pg/mL (IQR 55-162) at day 7 to 150 pg/mL (78-209) at day 120 when total sperm count recovered. In motile spermatozoa obtained after density gradient separation, Zika virus RNA was found in three of 14 patients at day 7, four of 15 at day 11, and four of 15 at day 20, and replication-competent virus was

  10. EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTIONS – AVIDITY TEST FOR IgG ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Strašek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. We wish to introduce specific IgG avidity test as a supplementary assay in serological screening for Epstein-Barr virus infection if the status of patient cannot be resolved from a single serum sample with routine testing.Methods. Avidity of IgG antibodies was determined in sera of 57 patients with different stage of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Enzyme-immuno assay was used with a short incubation of 6-molar urea included in the procedure. Urea should remove low avidity antibodies. Avidity was expressed as the avidity index. Avidity testing with commercial kit was done as well.Results. Low avidity index was found for IgG antibodies of acute phase sera and high for those of past infection, recent infection and reactivation of endogenic virus.Conclusions. Avidity test for IgG antibodies might be supplementary assay to prove acute infection but also to resolve some other clinical states related to Epstein-Barr virus.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Zika Virus Infection and Prolonged Viremia in Whole-Blood Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.

  13. An autochthonous sexually transmitted Zika virus infection in Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Percivalle, Elena; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Premoli, Marta; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Girello, Alessia; Dalla Gasperina, Daniela; Balsamo, Maria Luisa; Baldanti, Fausto; Rovida, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.

  14. TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jemielity

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4 specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS. TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Harun, Mohammad Syamsul Reza; Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV). There are no effective vaccines or treatment available, and the virus virulence determinants and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we describe the sequencing of RNA extracted from Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells infected with FIPV using the Illumina next-generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatics analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench is used to map both control and infected cells. Kal's Z test statistical analysis is used to analyze the differentially expressed genes from the infected CRFK cells. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis is used for further transcriptional profiling of selected genes in infected CRFK cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy and FIP-diagnosed cats.

  17. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Smith, Diane M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Spackman, Erica

    2012-06-01

    In order to develop better control measures against avian influenza, it is necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. In a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no or minimal infection occurred in chicken and turkeys intranasally (IN) inoculated with the virus. However, we demonstrated that the virus can infect laying turkey hens by the intracloacal (IC) and intraoviduct (IO) routes, possibly explaining the drops in egg production observed in turkey breeder farms affected by the virus. Such novel routes of exposure have not been previously examined in chickens and could also explain outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) that cause a decrease in egg production in chicken layers and breeders. In the present study, 46-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chicken layers were infected by the IN, IC, or IO routes with one of two LPAI viruses: a poultry origin virus, A/chicken/CA/1255/02 (H6N2), and a live bird market isolate, A/chicken/NJ/12220/97 (H9N2). Only hens IN inoculated with the H6N2 virus presented mild clinical signs consisting of depression and anorexia. However, a decrease in number of eggs laid was observed in all virus-inoculated groups when compared to control hens. Evidence of infection was found in all chickens inoculated with the H6N2 virus by any of the three routes and the virus transmitted to contact hens. On the other hand, only one or two hens from each of the groups inoculated with the H9N2 virus shed detectable levels of virus, or seroconverted and did not transmit the virus to contacts, regardless of the route of inoculation. In conclusion, LPAI viruses can also infect chickens through other routes besides the IN route, which is considered the natural route of exposure. However, as seen with the H9N2 virus, the infectivity of the virus did not increase when given by these alternate routes.

  19. Epidemiology of Feline Foamy Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Domestic and Feral Cats: a Seroepidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, I. G.; Löchelt, M.; Flower, R. L. P.

    1999-01-01

    Although foamy viruses (Spumaviruses) have repeatedly been isolated from both healthy and diseased cats, cattle, and primates, the primary mode of transmission of those common viruses remains undefined. A database of the feline foamy virus (FeFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody status, age, and sex of 389 domestic cats presented to veterinarians was assembled. A similar database for 66 feral (wild) cats was also assembled. That FeFV antibody status reflects infection was validated by PCR. Both FeFV and FIV infection rates were found to gradually increase with age, and over 70% of cats older than 9 years were seropositive for FeFV. In domestic cats, the prevalence of FeFV infection was similar in both sexes. In feral cats, FeFV infection was more prevalent in female cats than in male cats. Although both FeFV and FIV have been reported to be transmitted by biting, the patterns of infection observed are more consistent with an interpretation that transmission of these two retroviruses is not the same. The prevalence of FIV infection is highest in nondesexed male cats, the animals most likely to display aggressive behavior. The gradual increase in the proportion of FeFV-infected animals is consistent with transmission of foamy viruses by intimate social contact between animals and less commonly by aggressive behavior. PMID:10449463

  20. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  1. THE CHANGING CLINICAL PERFORMANCE OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN THE YEAR 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegeng Soegijanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue (DEN virus, the most important arthropod-borne human pathogen, represents a serious public health threat. DEN virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of the domestic mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and circulates in nature as four distinct serological types DEN-1 to 4. The aim of Study: To identify Dengue Virus Serotype I which showed mild clinical performance in five years before and afterward showed severe clinical performance. Material and Method: Prospective and analytic observational study had been done in Dr. Soetomo Hospital and the ethical clearance was conduct on January 01, 2009. The population of this research is all cases of dengue virus infection. Diagnosis were done based on WHO 1997. All of these cases were examined for IgM & IgG anti Dengue Virus and then were followed by PCR examination to identify Dengue Virus serotype. Result and Discussion: DEN 2 was predominant virus serotype with produced a spectrum clinical illness from asymptomatic, mild illness to classic dengue fever (DF to the most severe form of illness (DHF. But DEN 1 usually showed mild illness. Helen at al (2009–2010 epidemiologic study of Dengue Virus Infection in Health Centre Surabaya and Mother and Child Health Soerya Sidoarjo found many cases of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever were caused by DEN 1 Genotype IV. Amor (2009 study in Dr. Soetomo Hospital found DEN 1 showed severe clinical performance of primary Dengue Virus Infection as Dengue Shock Syndrome two cases and one unusual case. Conclusion: The epidemiologic study of Dengue Virus Infection in Surabaya and Sidoarjo; in the year 2009 found changing predominant Dengue Virus Serotype from Dengue Virus II to Dengue Virus 1 Genotype IV which showed a severe clinical performance coincident with primary infection.

  2. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  3. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Mimicking Bullous Disease in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L.Y. Lecluse

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficient patients are at risk of developing extended or atypical herpes simplex virus infections, which can be easily misdiagnosed. We present the case of a 79-year-old, treatment-induced (oral corticosteroid, immunocompromised female with an extensive atypical herpes simplex virus infection. This patient presented with multiple erosions and vesicles on the trunk with a subacute onset. The clinical differential diagnosis was herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, pemphigus vulgaris or bullous pemphigoid. Due to the atypical clinical presentation and negative Tzanck test, suspicion of viral infection was low. High-dose steroid treatment was initiated. Subsequent histopathology, however, showed a herpes simplex virus infection. After discontinuing steroid treatment and initiating antiviral treatment, the patient recovered within a week. Emphasis must be placed on the importance of clinical awareness of extended and clinically atypical herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. A negative Tzanck test does not rule out the possibility of a herpes infection.

  5. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Localization of influenza virus proteins to nuclear dot 10 structures in influenza virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Suzuki, Chie; Awashima, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yasuhiro; Yewdell, Jonathan; Kuroda, Kazumichi

    2003-01-01

    We studied influenza virus M1 protein by generating HeLa and MDCK cell lines that express M1 genetically fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-M1 was incorporated into virions produced by influenza virus infected MDCK cells expressing the fusion protein indicating that the fusion protein is at least partially functional. Following infection of either HeLa or MDCK cells with influenza A virus (but not influenza B virus), GFP-M1 redistributes from its cytosolic/nuclear location and accumulates in nuclear dots. Immunofluorescence revealed that the nuclear dots represent nuclear dot 10 (ND10) structures. The colocalization of authentic M1, as well as NS1 and NS2 protein, with ND10 was confirmed by immunofluorescence following in situ isolation of ND10. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated involvement of influenza virus with ND10, a structure involved in cellular responses to immune cytokines as well as the replication of a rapidly increasing list of viruses

  7. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Zika Virus Infection in Mice Causes Panuveitis with Shedding of Virus in Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina. This phenotype was independent of the entry receptors Axl or Mertk, given that Axl−/−, Mertk−/−, and Axl−/−Mertk−/− double knockout mice sustained levels of infection similar to those of control animals. We also detected abundant viral RNA in tears, suggesting that virus might be secreted from lacrimal glands or shed from the cornea. This model provides a foundation for studying ZIKV-induced ocular disease, defining mechanisms of viral persistence, and developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections of the eye.

  9. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  10. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in Ghana: time for action is now | Tachi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a blood borne infection just like hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with a significant global health impact. Since the discovery of the HCV, several developments including a better understanding of the clinical epidemiology, availability of diagnostics ...

  12. Virus and Infections 2010 - BIT's first world congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkavenko, Olga

    2010-10-01

    The World Congress of Virus and Infections, held in Busan, South Korea, included topics reviewing the field of zoonoses. This conference report highlights selected presentations on surveillance, epidemiology and measures for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases. Topics discussed include human factors influencing zoonoses, the molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, the emerging Nipah virus, and the re-emergence of cowpox virus.

  13. Outbreak of hepatitis C virus infection associated with narcotics diversion by an hepatitis C virus-infected surgical technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy E; Schaefer, Melissa K; Patel, Priti R; Drobeniuc, Jan; Xia, Guoliang; Lin, Yulin; Khudyakov, Yury; Vonderwahl, Candace W; Miller, Lisa; Thompson, Nicola D

    2015-01-01

    Drug diversion by health care personnel poses a risk for serious patient harm. Public health identified 2 patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who shared a common link with a hospital. Further investigation implicated a drug-diverting, HCV-infected surgical technician who was subsequently employed at an ambulatory surgical center. Patients at the 2 facilities were offered testing for HCV infection if they were potentially exposed. Serum from the surgical technician and patients testing positive for HCV but without evidence of infection before their surgical procedure was further tested to determine HCV genotype and quasi-species sequences. Parenteral medication handling practices at the 2 facilities were evaluated. The 2 facilities notified 5970 patients of their possible exposure to HCV, 88% of whom were tested and had results reported to the state public health departments. Eighteen patients had HCV highly related to the surgical technician's virus. The surgical technician gained unauthorized access to fentanyl owing to limitations in procedures for securing controlled substances. Public health surveillance identified an outbreak of HCV infection due to an infected health care provider engaged in diversion of injectable narcotics. The investigation highlights the value of public health surveillance in identifying HCV outbreaks and uncovering a method of drug diversion and its impacts on patients. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring survivability and infectivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv in the infected on-farm earthen manure storages (EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Min Tun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradicating this virus. To further understand the survivability and infectivity of PEDv in the infected manure, we performed longitudinal monitoring in two open earthen manure storages (EMSs; previously referred to as lagoon from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to nine months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMSs, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMSs, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMSs. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMSs.

  15. Infection and transmission of Rift Valley fever viruses lacking the NSs and/or NSm genes in mosquitoes: potential role for NSm in mosquito infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Crabtree

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne human and animal pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of acute and febrile illness throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Reverse genetics technology has been used to develop deletion mutants of the virus that lack the NSs and/or NSm virulence genes and have been shown to be stable, immunogenic and protective against Rift Valley fever virus infection in animals. We assessed the potential for these deletion mutant viruses to infect and be transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are the principal vectors for maintenance of the virus in nature and emergence of virus initiating disease outbreaks, and by Culex mosquitoes which are important amplification vectors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were fed bloodmeals containing the deletion mutant viruses. Two weeks post-exposure mosquitoes were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. In Ae. aegypti, infection and transmission rates of the NSs deletion virus were similar to wild type virus while dissemination rates were significantly reduced. Infection and dissemination rates for the NSm deletion virus were lower compared to wild type. Virus lacking both NSs and NSm failed to infect Ae. aegypti. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, infection rates for viruses lacking NSm or both NSs and NSm were lower than for wild type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In both species, deletion of NSm or both NSs and NSm reduced the infection and transmission potential of the virus. Deletion of both NSs and NSm resulted in the highest level of attenuation of virus replication. Deletion of NSm alone was sufficient to nearly abolish infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, indicating an important role for this protein. The double deleted viruses represent an ideal vaccine profile in terms of environmental containment due to lack of ability to efficiently infect and be transmitted by mosquitoes.

  16. Infection and transmission of Rift Valley fever viruses lacking the NSs and/or NSm genes in mosquitoes: potential role for NSm in mosquito infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Mary B; Kent Crockett, Rebekah J; Bird, Brian H; Nichol, Stuart T; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Miller, Barry R

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne human and animal pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of acute and febrile illness throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Reverse genetics technology has been used to develop deletion mutants of the virus that lack the NSs and/or NSm virulence genes and have been shown to be stable, immunogenic and protective against Rift Valley fever virus infection in animals. We assessed the potential for these deletion mutant viruses to infect and be transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are the principal vectors for maintenance of the virus in nature and emergence of virus initiating disease outbreaks, and by Culex mosquitoes which are important amplification vectors. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were fed bloodmeals containing the deletion mutant viruses. Two weeks post-exposure mosquitoes were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. In Ae. aegypti, infection and transmission rates of the NSs deletion virus were similar to wild type virus while dissemination rates were significantly reduced. Infection and dissemination rates for the NSm deletion virus were lower compared to wild type. Virus lacking both NSs and NSm failed to infect Ae. aegypti. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, infection rates for viruses lacking NSm or both NSs and NSm were lower than for wild type virus. In both species, deletion of NSm or both NSs and NSm reduced the infection and transmission potential of the virus. Deletion of both NSs and NSm resulted in the highest level of attenuation of virus replication. Deletion of NSm alone was sufficient to nearly abolish infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, indicating an important role for this protein. The double deleted viruses represent an ideal vaccine profile in terms of environmental containment due to lack of ability to efficiently infect and be transmitted by mosquitoes.

  17. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The study described here concerns the proteins, synthesized as a result of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) multiplication in tobacco protoplasts and in cowpea protoplasts. The identification of proteins involved in the TMV infection, for instance in the virus RNA replication, helps to elucidate

  18. Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1 Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Aravantinou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2 similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.

  19. Flow cytometric monitoring of influenza A virus infection in MDCK cells during vaccine production

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    Reichl Udo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell culture-based influenza vaccine production the monitoring of virus titres and cell physiology during infection is of great importance for process characterisation and optimisation. While conventional virus quantification methods give only virus titres in the culture broth, data obtained by fluorescence labelling of intracellular virus proteins provide additional information on infection dynamics. Flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to investigate the influences of cultivation conditions and process variations on virus replication and virus yields. Results In this study, fluorescein-labelled monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus matrix protein 1 and nucleoprotein were used for monitoring the infection status of adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells from bioreactor samples. Monoclonal antibody binding was shown for influenza A virus strains of different subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N8 and host specificity (human, equine, swine. At high multiplicity of infection in a bioreactor, the onset of viral protein accumulation in adherent cells on microcarriers was detected at about 2 to 4 h post infection by flow cytometry. In contrast, a significant increase in titre by hemagglutination assay was detected at the earliest 4 to 6 h post infection. Conclusion It is shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive and robust method for the monitoring of viral infection in fixed cells from bioreactor samples. Therefore, it is a valuable addition to other detection methods of influenza virus infection such as immunotitration and RNA hybridisation. Thousands of individual cells are measured per sample. Thus, the presented method is believed to be quite independent of the concentration of infected cells (multiplicity of infection and total cell concentration in bioreactors. This allows to perform detailed studies on factors relevant for optimization of virus yields in cell cultures. The method could also be used for process

  20. Postmortem Findings for 7 Neonates with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anastácio Q; Cavalcante, Diane I M; Franco, Luciano M; Araújo, Fernanda M C; Sousa, Emília T; Valença-Junior, José Telmo; Rolim, Dionne B; Melo, Maria E L; Sindeaux, Pedro D T; Araújo, Marialva T F; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Pompeu, Margarida M L

    2017-07-01

    Postmortem examination of 7 neonates with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil revealed microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, dystrophic calcifications, and severe cortical neuronal depletion in all and arthrogryposis in 6. Other findings were leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal inflammation and pulmonary hypoplasia and lymphocytic infiltration in liver and lungs. Findings confirmed virus neurotropism and multiple organ infection.

  1. Zika virus infection and its emerging trends in Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin; Haszianaliza Haslan; Norshalizah Mamikutty; Nurul Hannim Zaidun; Mohamad Fairuz Azmi; Mohamad Mu'izuddin Senin; Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad; Zar Chi Thent

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported in Singapore and other Southeast Asia countries. A combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak although it is highly likely that the changes in the climate and high frequency of travelling contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus mainly to the tropical climate countries such as the Southeast Asia. The Zika virus is known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya and transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. However, neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a serious concern. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for Zika virus infection. Therefore, international public health response is primarily focused on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women, and on providing up-to-date recommendations to reduce the risk of non-vector transmission of Zika virus.

  2. Progress and Problems in Understanding and Managing Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumade, Oludare A.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus that infects a large fraction of the human population. Primary infection is often asymptomatic but results in lifelong infection, which is kept in check by the host immune system. In some cases, primary infection can result in infectious mononucleosis. Furthermore, when host-virus balance is not achieved, the virus can drive potentially lethal lymphoproliferation and lymphomagenesis. In this review, we describe the biology of EBV and the host immune response. We review the diagnosis of EBV infection and discuss the characteristics and pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis. These topics are approached in the context of developing therapeutic and preventative strategies. PMID:21233512

  3. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D.; Miller, Lynn J.; Wiley, Michael R.; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C.; Norris, Sarah L.; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Kimmel, Adrienne E.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Valdez, Stephanie M.; Sprague, Thomas R.; Principe, Lucia M.; Bellanca, Stephanie A.; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H.; Pratt, William D.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M. Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present. PMID:28548637

  4. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Andrew D; Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D; Miller, Lynn J; Wiley, Michael R; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C; Norris, Sarah L; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Kimmel, Adrienne E; Bloomfield, Holly A; Valdez, Stephanie M; Sprague, Thomas R; Principe, Lucia M; Bellanca, Stephanie A; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H; Pratt, William D; Palacios, Gustavo F; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-08-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.

  5. [Contemporary threat of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Swine-origine H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) caused a great mobilization of health medical service over the world. Now it is well known that a vaccine against novel virus is expected as a key point in that battle. In the situation when recommended treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is not sufficient to control influenza A/H1N1 viral infection the quick and precisely diagnostic procedures should be applied to save and protect our patients.

  6. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-08-01

    To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs.

  7. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  8. effects of serial planting of seed yam tubers on virus incidence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    FCT) were used in the study. Harvested seed yams were tested for Yam mosaic virus (YMV), Yam mild mottle .... free yam leaves were used for the negative control, while extracts from ..... Development of farmer based seed systems for healthy ...

  9. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Ghazi A. Jamjoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. Methods Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939 and 37% (68/184 in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1% reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others

  10. Baicalin is an inhibitor of subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Kong, Zheng-Ru; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Zong-Yi; Gu, Cheng-Xi; Shao, Hong-Xia; Qin, Ai-Jian

    2018-03-15

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Baicalin, one of the flavonoids present in S.baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have antiviral activities. To investigate whether baicalin has antiviral effects on the infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, the cells were treated with baicalin at different time points. We found that baicalin could inhibit viral mRNA, protein levels and overall virus infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner using a variety of assays. Baicalin specifically targeted virus internalization and reduced the infectivity of ALV-J particles, but had no effect on the levels of major ALV-J receptor and virus binding to DF-1 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalin might have potential to be developed as a novel antiviral agent for ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  12. Selective receptor expression restricts Nipah virus infection of endothelial cells

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    Diederich Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes severe diseases in animals and humans. Endothelial cell (EC infection is an established hallmark of NiV infection in vivo. Despite systemic virus spread via the vascular system, EC in brain and lung are preferentially infected whereas EC in other organs are less affected. As in vivo, we found differences in the infection of EC in cell culture. Only brain-derived primary or immortalized EC were found to be permissive to NiV infection. Using a replication-independent fusion assay, we could show that the lack of infection in non-brain EC was due to a lack of receptor expression. The NiV entry receptors ephrinB2 (EB2 or ephrinB3 were only expressed in brain endothelia. The finding that EB2 expression in previously non-permissive aortic EC rendered the cells permissive to infection then demonstrated that EB2 is not only necessary but also sufficient to allow the establishment of a productive NiV infection. This strongly suggests that limitations in receptor expression restrict virus entry in certain EC subsets in vivo, and are thus responsible for the differences in EC tropism observed in human and animal NiV infections.

  13. Expression Dynamics of Innate Immunity in Influenza Virus-Infected Swine

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    Massimo Amadori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current circulating swine influenza virus (IV subtypes in Europe (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are associated with clinical outbreaks of disease. However, we showed that pigs could be susceptible to other IV strains that are able to cross the species barrier. In this work, we extended our investigations into whether different IV strains able to cross the species barrier might give rise to different innate immune responses that could be associated with pathological lesions. For this purpose, we used the same samples collected in a previous study of ours, in which healthy pigs had been infected with a H3N2 Swine IV and four different H3N8 IV strains circulating in different animal species. Pigs had been clinically inspected and four subjects/group were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 21 days post infection. In the present study, all groups but mock exhibited antibody responses to IV nucleoprotein protein. Pulmonary lesions and high-titered viral replication were observed in pigs infected with the swine-adapted virus. Interestingly, pigs infected with avian and seal H3N8 strains also showed moderate lesions and viral replication, whereas equine and canine IVs did not cause overt pathological signs, and replication was barely detectable. Swine IV infection induced interferon (IFN-alpha and interleukin-6 responses in bronchoalveolar fluids (BALF at day 3 post infection, as opposed to the other non-swine-adapted virus strains. However, IFN-alpha responses to the swine-adapted virus were not associated with an increase of the local, constitutive expression of IFN-alpha genes. Remarkably, the Equine strain gave rise to a Serum Amyloid A response in BALF despite little if any replication. Each virus strain could be associated with expression of cytokine genes and/or proteins after infection. These responses were observed well beyond the period of virus replication, suggesting a prolonged homeostatic imbalance of the innate immune system.

  14. Lethal influenza virus infection in macaques is associated with early dysregulation of inflammatory related genes.

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    Cristian Cillóniz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous toll on human life during the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic is a constant reminder of the potential lethality of influenza viruses. With the declaration by the World Health Organization of a new H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, and with continued human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, a better understanding of the host response to highly pathogenic influenza viruses is essential. To this end, we compared pathology and global gene expression profiles in bronchial tissue from macaques infected with either the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/04. Severe pathology was observed in respiratory tissues from 1918 virus-infected animals as early as 12 hours after infection, and pathology steadily increased at later time points. Although tissues from animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04 also showed clear signs of pathology early on, less pathology was observed at later time points, and there was evidence of tissue repair. Global transcriptional profiles revealed that specific groups of genes associated with inflammation and cell death were up-regulated in bronchial tissues from animals infected with the 1918 virus but down-regulated in animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04. Importantly, the 1918 virus up-regulated key components of the inflammasome, NLRP3 and IL-1beta, whereas these genes were down-regulated by A/Vietnam/1203/04 early after infection. TUNEL assays revealed that both viruses elicited an apoptotic response in lungs and bronchi, although the response occurred earlier during 1918 virus infection. Our findings suggest that the severity of disease in 1918 virus-infected macaques is a consequence of the early up-regulation of cell death and inflammatory related genes, in which additive or synergistic effects likely dictate the severity of tissue damage.

  15. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lan Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  16. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  17. [Zika virus infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjasi, Gabriella; Póka, Róbert

    2017-04-01

    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. Its primary vectors are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus. Before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. Since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in America, especially in Brazil. In August 2016 they reported cases from New York and Poland, too. Most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. The most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. Microcephalia's most serious consequence is mental retardation, which puts great burden on both the family and the society. The viral infection increases the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is an acute autoimmune disease which causes demyelination and, in the worst cases, it can also be fatal. Yet we do not possess adequate and specific vaccination nor antiviral therapy, although, since July 2016, the effectiveness of a DNA based vaccine is being tested on humans. More than half of the world's population lives in areas contaminated by infected mosquitoes so there is a great need for the development of an effective method against the vector mosquitoes. Sadly, even the vector control strategies aren't effective enough to push back the epidemic. Pregnant or fertile women must take the highest precautions against mosquito bites, especially if they travel to regions ravaged by the epidemic. The safest solution would be to postpone both the trip and the childbearing. In Europe, the vectors aren't spread enough to cause major threat, except maybe the warmer regions bordered by the Mediterranean Sea. However, it is possible that in the near future other viruses spread by Aedes mosquitoes could appear. Naturally, the travellers and immigrants, who came from endemic regions can also contribute to the spread of the epidemic. Thanks to the changes in global weather, there were reported findings of mosquitoes of the Aedes albopictus species in Hungary, which are slowly invading the continent, although

  18. Central Nervous System Effects of Intrauterine Zika Virus Infection: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bianca Guedes; Werner, Heron; Lopes, Flávia P P L; Hygino da Cruz, L Celso; Fazecas, Tatiana M; Daltro, Pedro A N; Nogueira, Renata A

    2017-10-01

    Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection. For improved assessment of the extent of the lesions, US should be complemented by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Postnatal computed tomography and MR imaging can also unveil additional findings of central nervous system involvement, such as microcephaly with malformation of cortical development, ventriculomegaly, and multifocal calcifications in the cortical-subcortical junction, along with associated cortical atrophy. The calcifications may be punctate, dystrophic, linear, or coarse and may follow a predominantly bandlike distribution. A small anterior fontanelle with prematurely closed sutures is also observed with Zika virus infection. In this review, the prenatal and postnatal neurologic imaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection are covered. Radiologists must be aware of this challenging entity and have knowledge of the various patterns that may be depicted with each imaging modality and the main differential diagnosis of the disease. As in other neurologic infections, serial imaging is able to help demonstrate the progression of the findings. © RSNA, 2017.

  19. HumanViCe: Host ceRNA network in virus infected cells in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman eGhosal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Host-virus interaction via host cellular components has been an important field of research in recent times. RNA interference mediated by short interfering RNAs and microRNAs (miRNA, is a widespread anti-viral defence strategy. Importantly, viruses also encode their own miRNAs. In recent times miRNAs were identified as key players in host-virus interaction. Furthermore, viruses were shown to exploit the host miRNA networks to suite their own need. The complex cross-talk between host and viral miRNAs and their cellular and viral targets forms the environment for viral pathogenesis. Apart from protein-coding mRNAs, non-coding RNAs may also be targeted by host or viral miRNAs in virus infected cells, and viruses can exploit the host miRNA mediated gene regulatory network via the competing endogenous RNA effect. A recent report showed that viral U-rich non-coding RNAs called HSUR, expressed in primate virus herpesvirus saimiri (HVS infected T cells, were able to bind to three host miRNAs, causing significant alteration in cellular level for one of the miRNAs. We have predicted protein coding and non protein-coding targets for viral and human miRNAs in virus infected cells. We identified viral miRNA targets within host non-coding RNA loci from AGO interacting regions in three different virus infected cells. Gene ontology (GO and pathway enrichment analysis of the genes comprising the ceRNA networks in the virus infected cells revealed enrichment of key cellular signalling pathways related to cell fate decisions and gene transcription, like Notch and Wnt signalling pathways, as well as pathways related to viral entry, replication and virulence. We identified a vast number of non-coding transcripts playing as potential ceRNAs to the immune response associated genes; e.g. APOBEC family genes, in some virus infected cells. All these information are compiled in HumanViCe, a comprehensive database that provides the potential ceRNA networks in virus

  20. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simian varicella virus (SVV, the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV. Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.

  1. Molecular Biology and Infection of Hepatitis E Virus

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    Yuchen Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a viral pathogen transmitted primarily via fecal-oral route. In humans, HEV mainly causes acute hepatitis and is responsible for large outbreaks of hepatitis across the world. The case fatality rate of HEV-induced hepatitis ranges from 0.5 to 3% in young adults and up to 30% in infected pregnant women. HEV strains infecting humans are classified into four genotypes. HEV strains from genotype 3 and 4 are zoonotic, whereas those from genotype 1 and 2 have no known animal reservoirs. Recently, notable progress has been accomplished for better understanding of HEV biology and infection, such as chronic HEV infection, in vitro cell culture system, quasi-enveloped HEV virions, functions of the HEV proteins, mechanism of HEV antagonizing host innate immunity, HEV pathogenesis and vaccine development. However, further investigation on the cross-species HEV infection, host tropism, vaccine efficacy and HEV-specific antiviral strategy is still needed. This review mainly focuses on molecular biology and infection of HEV and offers perspective new insight of this enigmatic virus.

  2. Viral infection, proliferation, and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells and absence of inflammation characterize the placental pathology of fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-06-01

    Attention is increasingly focused on the potential mechanism(s) for Zika virus infection to be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus. This communication addresses current evidence for the role of the placenta in vertical transmission of the Zika virus. Placentas from second and third trimester fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection were examined with routine staining to determine the spectrum of pathologic changes. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for macrophages and nuclear proliferation antigens was performed. Viral localization was identified using RNA hybridization. These observations were combined with the recent published results of placental pathology to increase the strength of the pathology data. Results were correlated with published data from experimental studies of Zika virus infection in placental cells and chorionic villous explants. Placentas from fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection are concordant in not having viral-induced placental inflammation. Special stains reveal proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of placental stromal macrophages, termed Hofbauer cells, in the chorionic villi of infected placentas. Zika virus infection is present in Hofbauer cells from second and third trimester placentas. Experimental studies and placentae from infected fetuses reveal that the spectrum of placental cell types infected with the Zika virus is broader during the first trimester than later in gestation. Inflammatory abnormalities of the placenta are not a component of vertical transmission of the Zika virus. The major placental response in second and third trimester transplacental Zika virus infection is proliferation and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells, which also demonstrate viral infection.

  3. THE POSSIBLE COLLISIONS IN VIRUS INFECTION IMMUNODIAGNOSTICS AND VACCINATION

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    E. P. Kharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies (Ab, especially natural, display multiple specificity not only due to intrinsic conformational dynamics. With computational analysis the distribution of identical and homologous peptides has been studied in surface proteins from RNA and DNA viruses of widely distributed infections. It was established that each virus protein shared the fragments homologous to other virus proteins that allowed to propose the existence of the peptide continuum of the protein relationship (PCPR. Possible manifestations of PCPR are multiple reactivity and autoreactivity in Ab and therefore it is not possible to consider the immune methods of virus identification as high reliable because of crossing interactions. The PCPR excludes the existence of 100% specificity in immune tests for virus identification. Immunodiagnostic collisions may occur either in identification of virus itself or identification of Ab to viruses. Also PCPR may be responsible for heterologous immunity and consequently the infection associated with severe pathology. The comparative analysis of peptide relationship of H1N1 influenza virus nucleoprotein and human proteins found out, beyond early described its common motif with human hypocretin receptor 2, peptides homologous to those in melanotonin and glutamate receptors and three ion channels. It allows to propose that the sleep disorder narcolepsy associated with Pandemrix vaccination (an adjuvanted, influenza pandemic vaccine and also with infection by influenza virus during the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza pandemic may be determined not only by Ab to the peptide motif common to influenza nucleoprotein and hypocretin receptor but also Ab to melanotonin and glutamate receptors and ion channels. Decreasing and even avoiding risks of complications from vaccination may be feasible by means of a computer analysis of vaccine proteins for the occurrence of epitopes homologous to the human protein those and particularly by an analysis of Ab profiles

  4. Efficacy of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Ebola Virus Postexposure Treatment in Rhesus Macaques Infected With Ebola Virus Makona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Hanley, Patrick W; Haddock, Elaine; Martellaro, Cynthia; Kobinger, Gary; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-10-15

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa increased the focus on vaccine development against this hemorrhagic fever-causing pathogen, and as a consequence human clinical trials for a few selected platforms were accelerated. One of these vaccines is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-EBOV, also known as rVSV-ZEBOV, a fast-acting vaccine against EBOV and so far the only vaccine with reported efficacy against EBOV infections in humans in phase III clinical trials. In this study, we analyzed the potential of VSV-EBOV for postexposure treatment of rhesus macaques infected with EBOV-Makona. We treated groups of animals with 1 dose of VSV-EBOV either in a single injection at 1 or 24 hours after EBOV exposure or with 2 injections, half the dose at each time point; 1 control group received the same dose of the VSV-based Marburg virus vaccine at both time points; another group remained untreated. Although all untreated animals succumbed to EBOV infection, 33%-67% of the animals in each treatment group survived the infection, including the group treated with the VSV-based Marburg virus vaccine. This result suggests that protection from postexposure vaccination may be antigen unspecific and due rather to an early activation of the innate immune system. In conclusion, VSV-EBOV remains a potent and fast-acting prophylactic vaccine but demonstrates only limited efficacy in postexposure treatment. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Fracture risk in hepatitis C virus infected persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection and fracture risk is not well characterized. We compared fracture risk between HCV-seropositive (HCV-exposed) patients and the general population and between patients with cleared and chronic HCV-infection. METHODS...

  6. Comparative Infection Progress Analysis of Lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus in Lettuce Crops by Developed Molecular Diagnosis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose A; Botella, Francisco; Maruhenda, Antonio; Sastre, Pedro; Sánchez-Pina, M Amelia; Pallas, Vicente

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots.

  7. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.

  8. Classification of cryo electron microscopy images, noisy tomographic images recorded with unknown projection directions, by simultaneously estimating reconstructions and application to an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Zheng, Yili; Yin, Zhye; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-08-01

    Cryo electron microscopy is frequently used on biological specimens that show a mixture of different types of object. Because the electron beam rapidly destroys the specimen, the beam current is minimized which leads to noisy images (SNR substantially less than 1) and only one projection image per object (with an unknown projection direction) is collected. For situations where the objects can reasonably be described as coming from a finite set of classes, an approach based on joint maximum likelihood estimation of the reconstruction of each class and then use of the reconstructions to label the class of each image is described and demonstrated on two challenging problems: an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22.

  9. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  11. Drug repurposing of minocycline against dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leela, Shilpa Lekshmi; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Sreekanth, Gopinathan Pillai; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai

    2016-09-09

    Dengue virus infection is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases. A complex interplay between host and viral factors contributes to the severity of infection. The antiviral effects of three antibiotics, lomefloxacin, netilmicin, and minocycline, were examined in this study, and minocycline was found to be a promising drug. This antiviral effect was confirmed in all four serotypes of the virus. The effects of minocycline at various stages of the viral life cycle, such as during viral RNA synthesis, intracellular envelope protein expression, and the production of infectious virions, were examined and found to be significantly reduced by minocycline treatment. Minocycline also modulated host factors, including the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). The transcription of antiviral genes, including 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 3 (OAS3), and interferon α (IFNA), was upregulated by minocycline treatment. Therefore, the antiviral activity of minocycline may have a potential clinical use against Dengue virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

  13. Nipah virus infection and glycoprotein targeting in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisner Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV causes fatal respiratory and brain infections in animals and humans. The major hallmark of the infection is a systemic endothelial infection, predominantly in the CNS. Infection of brain endothelial cells allows the virus to overcome the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and to subsequently infect the brain parenchyma. However, the mechanisms of NiV replication in endothelial cells are poorly elucidated. We have shown recently that the bipolar or basolateral expression of the NiV surface glycoproteins F and G in polarized epithelial cell layers is involved in lateral virus spread via cell-to-cell fusion and that correct sorting depends on tyrosine-dependent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of the glycoproteins. Since endothelial cells share many characteristics with epithelial cells in terms of polarization and protein sorting, we wanted to elucidate the role of the NiV glycoprotein targeting signals in endothelial cells. Results As observed in vivo, NiV infection of endothelial cells induced syncytia formation. The further finding that infection increased the transendothelial permeability supports the idea of spread of infection via cell-to-cell fusion and endothelial cell damage as a mechanism to overcome the BBB. We then revealed that both glycoproteins are expressed at lateral cell junctions (bipolar, not only in NiV-infected primary endothelial cells but also upon stable expression in immortalized endothelial cells. Interestingly, mutation of tyrosines 525 and 542/543 in the cytoplasmic tail of the F protein led to an apical redistribution of the protein in endothelial cells whereas tyrosine mutations in the G protein had no effect at all. This fully contrasts the previous results in epithelial cells where tyrosine 525 in the F, and tyrosines 28/29 in the G protein were required for correct targeting. Conclusion We conclude that the NiV glycoprotein distribution is responsible for

  14. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS, is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana. Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. Results In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197, a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330 was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80% transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20% contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23–25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation

  15. Zika virus infection spread through saliva – a truth or myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz SIQUEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

  16. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Chayote mosaic virus, a New Tymovirus Infecting Cucurbitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J J; Jiménez, I; Moreno, M; Hord, M; Rivera, C; Koenig, R; Rodríguez-Cerezo, E

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT Chayote mosaic virus (ChMV) is a putative tymovirus isolated from chayote crops in Costa Rica. ChMV was characterized at the host range, serological, and molecular levels. ChMV was transmitted mechanically and induced disease symptoms mainly in Cucurbitaceae hosts. Asymptomatic infections were detected in other host families. Serologically, ChMV is related to the Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and the Eggplant mosaic virus (EMV), both members of the genus Tymovirus infecting solanaceous hosts in the Caribbean Basin and South America. The sequence of the genomic RNA of ChMV was determined and its genetic organization was typical of tymoviruses. Comparisons with other tymoviral sequences showed that ChMV was a new member of the genus Tymovirus. The phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein gene were consistent with serological comparisons and positioned ChMV within a cluster of tymoviruses infecting mainly cucurbit or solanaceous hosts, including APLV and EMV. Phylogenetic analyses of the replicase protein gene confirmed the close relationship of ChMV and EMV. Our results suggest that ChMV is related to two tymoviruses (APLV and EMV) of proximal geographical provenance but with different natural host ranges. ChMV is the first cucurbit-infecting tymovirus to be fully characterized at the genomic level.

  18. Zika Virus Infection in Mice Causes Panuveitis with Shedding of Virus in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Sene, Abdoulaye; Richner, Justin M; Smith, Amber M; Santeford, Andrea; Ban, Norimitsu; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Manzella, Francesca; Rückert, Claudia; Govero, Jennifer; Noguchi, Kevin K; Ebel, Gregory D; Diamond, Michael S; Apte, Rajendra S

    2016-09-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina. This phenotype was independent of the entry receptors Axl or Mertk, given that Axl(-/-), Mertk(-/-), and Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double knockout mice sustained levels of infection similar to those of control animals. We also detected abundant viral RNA in tears, suggesting that virus might be secreted from lacrimal glands or shed from the cornea. This model provides a foundation for studying ZIKV-induced ocular disease, defining mechanisms of viral persistence, and developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections of the eye. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Virus load in chimpanzees infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: effect of pre-exposure vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Haaft, P.; Cornelissen, M.; Goudsmit, J.; Koornstra, W.; Dubbes, R.; Niphuis, H.; Peeters, M.; Thiriart, C.; Bruck, C.; Heeney, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Many reports indicate that a long-term asymptomatic state following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with a low amount of circulating virus. To evaluate the possible effect of stabilizing a low virus load by non-sterilizing pre-exposure vaccination, a quantitative

  20. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2018-01-01

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  1. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... original work is properly cited. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal ... of neurological symptoms by an infection (upper respiratory tract infection or diarrhea), in a smaller proportion of .... cerebrospinal fluid findings of albumino-cytology dissociation.[6]. However, albumino-cytology.

  3. Gammaherpesvirus-driven plasma cell differentiation regulates virus reactivation from latently infected B lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Liang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesviruses chronically infect their host and are tightly associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas, as well as several other types of cancer. Mechanisms involved in maintaining chronic gammaherpesvirus infections are poorly understood and, in particular, little is known about the mechanisms involved in controlling gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells in vivo. Recent evidence has linked plasma cell differentiation with reactivation of the human gammaherpesviruses EBV and KSHV through induction of the immediate-early viral transcriptional activators by the plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s. We now extend those findings to document a role for a gammaherpesvirus gene product in regulating plasma cell differentiation and thus virus reactivation. We have previously shown that the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 gene product M2 is dispensable for virus replication in permissive cells, but plays a critical role in virus reactivation from latently infected B cells. Here we show that in mice infected with wild type MHV68, virus infected plasma cells (ca. 8% of virus infected splenocytes at the peak of viral latency account for the majority of reactivation observed upon explant of splenocytes. In contrast, there is an absence of virus infected plasma cells at the peak of latency in mice infected with a M2 null MHV68. Furthermore, we show that the M2 protein can drive plasma cell differentiation in a B lymphoma cell line in the absence of any other MHV68 gene products. Thus, the role of M2 in MHV68 reactivation can be attributed to its ability to manipulate plasma cell differentiation, providing a novel viral strategy to regulate gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells. We postulate that M2 represents a new class of herpesvirus gene products (reactivation conditioners that do not directly participate in virus replication, but rather facilitate virus

  4. Gammaherpesvirus-driven plasma cell differentiation regulates virus reactivation from latently infected B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaozhen; Collins, Christopher M; Mendel, Justin B; Iwakoshi, Neal N; Speck, Samuel H

    2009-11-01

    Gammaherpesviruses chronically infect their host and are tightly associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas, as well as several other types of cancer. Mechanisms involved in maintaining chronic gammaherpesvirus infections are poorly understood and, in particular, little is known about the mechanisms involved in controlling gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells in vivo. Recent evidence has linked plasma cell differentiation with reactivation of the human gammaherpesviruses EBV and KSHV through induction of the immediate-early viral transcriptional activators by the plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s. We now extend those findings to document a role for a gammaherpesvirus gene product in regulating plasma cell differentiation and thus virus reactivation. We have previously shown that the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) gene product M2 is dispensable for virus replication in permissive cells, but plays a critical role in virus reactivation from latently infected B cells. Here we show that in mice infected with wild type MHV68, virus infected plasma cells (ca. 8% of virus infected splenocytes at the peak of viral latency) account for the majority of reactivation observed upon explant of splenocytes. In contrast, there is an absence of virus infected plasma cells at the peak of latency in mice infected with a M2 null MHV68. Furthermore, we show that the M2 protein can drive plasma cell differentiation in a B lymphoma cell line in the absence of any other MHV68 gene products. Thus, the role of M2 in MHV68 reactivation can be attributed to its ability to manipulate plasma cell differentiation, providing a novel viral strategy to regulate gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells. We postulate that M2 represents a new class of herpesvirus gene products (reactivation conditioners) that do not directly participate in virus replication, but rather facilitate virus reactivation by

  5. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Perkins, Jeremy G.; Swenson, Dana L.; Deal, Emily M.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Aman, M. Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Young, Howard A.; Bavari, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1–3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injectio...

  6. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Ryo; Mizumoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Yohei; Nah, Kyeongah

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital Abnormalities: Consequence of Maternal Zika Virus Infection: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fatima I; Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Khan, Fazlullah; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis, possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development. Google scholar was used as the major search engine for research and review articles, up to July, 2016. Search terms such as "ZIKV", "ZIKV infection", "ZIKV serotypes", "treatment of ZIKV infection", "co-infection with zika virus", "flavivirus", "microcephaly and zika", "birth defects and Zika", as well as "ZIKV vaccine" were used. ZIKV has been detected in several body fluids such as saliva, semen, blood, and amniotic fluid. This reveals the possibility of sexual and mother to child transmission. The ability of the virus to cross the placental barrier and the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been associated with birth defects such as microcephaly, ocular defects, and Guillian Barre syndrome (GBS). Preventive measures can reduce the spread and risk of the infection. Available treatments only target symptoms while vaccines are still under development. Birth defects are associated with ZIKV infection in pregnant women; hence the need for development of standard treatments, employment of strict preventive measures and development of effective vaccines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Human antibodies to the dengue virus E-dimer epitope have therapeutic activity against Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Estefania; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Cao, Bin; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Supasa, Piyada; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Esakky, Prabagaran; Drury, Andrea; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Moley, Kelle H; Mysorekar, Indira U; Screaton, Gavin R; Diamond, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has resulted in congenital abnormalities in fetuses and neonates. Although some cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV)-specific antibodies can enhance ZIKV infection in mice, those recognizing the DENV E-dimer epitope (EDE) can neutralize ZIKV infection in cell culture. We evaluated the therapeutic activity of human monoclonal antibodies to DENV EDE for their ability to control ZIKV infection in the brains, testes, placentas, and fetuses of mice. A single dose of the EDE1-B10 antibody given 3 d after ZIKV infection protected against lethality, reduced ZIKV levels in brains and testes, and preserved sperm counts. In pregnant mice, wild-type or engineered LALA variants of EDE1-B10, which cannot engage Fcg receptors, diminished ZIKV burden in maternal and fetal tissues, and protected against fetal demise. Because neutralizing antibodies to EDE have therapeutic potential against ZIKV, in addition to their established inhibitory effects against DENV, it may be possible to develop therapies that control disease caused by both viruses.

  9. Dendritic cells during Epstein Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMunz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV causes persistent infection in more than 90% of the human adult population and is associated with 2% of all tumors in humans. This -herpesvirus infects primarily human B and epithelial cells, but has been reported to be sensed by dendritic cells (DCs during primary infection. These activated DCs are thought to contribute to innate restriction of EBV infection and initiate EBV specific adaptive immune responses via cross-priming. The respective evidence and their potential importance for EBV specific vaccine development will be discussed in this review.

  10. Protection from lethal infection is determined by innate immune responses in a mouse model of Ebola virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Gupta, Manisha; Paragas, Jason; Bray, Mike; Ahmed, Rafi; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    A mouse-adapted strain of Ebola Zaire virus produces a fatal infection when BALB/cj mice are infected intraperitoneally (ip) but subcutaneous (sc) infection with the same virus fails to produce illness and confers long-term protection from lethal ip rechallenge. To identify immune correlates of protection in this model, we compared viral replication and cytokine/chemokine responses to Ebola virus in mice infected ip (10 PFU/mouse), or sc (100 PFU/mouse) and sc 'immune' mice rechallenged ip (10 6 PFU/mouse) at several time points postinfection (pi). Ebola viral antigens were detected in the serum, liver, spleen, and kidneys of ip-infected mice by day 2 pi, increasing up to day 6. Sc-infected mice and immune mice rechallenged ip had no detectable viral antigens until day 6 pi, when low levels of viral antigens were detected in the livers of sc-infected mice only. TNF-α and MCP-1 were detected earlier and at significantly higher levels in the serum and tissues of ip-infected mice than in sc-infected or immune mice challenged ip. In contrast, high levels of IFN-α and IFN-γ were found in tissues within 2 days after challenge in sc-infected and immune mice but not in ip-infected mice. Mice became resistant to ip challenge within 48 h of sc infection, coinciding with the rise in tissue IFN-α levels. In this model of Ebola virus infection, the nonlethal sc route of infection is associated with an attenuated inflammatory response and early production of antiviral cytokines, particularly IFN-α, as compared with lethal ip infection

  11. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  12. Humans and ferrets with prior H1N1 influenza virus infections do not exhibit evidence of original antigenic sin after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher D; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice; Boonnak, Kobporn; Treanor, John J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infection results in an antibody response against the original infecting virus and an impaired immune response against the newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and humans previously infected with H1N1 viruses with various antigenic distances from the 2009 pH1N1 virus, including viruses from 1935 through 1999. In ferrets, seasonal H1N1 priming did not diminish the antibody response to infection or vaccination with the 2009 pH1N1 virus, nor did it diminish the T-cell response, indicating the absence of OAS in seasonal H1N1 virus-primed ferrets. Analysis of paired samples of human serum taken before and after vaccination with a monovalent inactivated 2009 pH1N1 vaccine showed a significantly greater-fold rise in the titer of antibody against the 2009 pH1N1 virus than against H1N1 viruses that circulated during the childhood of each subject. Thus, prior experience with H1N1 viruses did not result in an impairment of the antibody response against the 2009 pH1N1 vaccine. Our data from ferrets and humans suggest that prior exposure to H1N1 viruses did not impair the immune response against the 2009 pH1N1 virus.

  13. Viral Infections in Pregnancy: A Focus on Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Nicole S

    2018-01-30

    During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier. Viral infections during pregnancy can also be spread through blood and vaginal secretions, and during the post-natal period, via breast milk. Thus, even in the absence of vertical transmission of viral infection to the fetus, maternal health can still be compromised and threaten the pregnancy. The most common viral DNA isolates found in gestation are adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus. However, with the recent pandemic of Ebola virus, and the first documented case of a neonate to survive due to experimental therapies in 2017, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the changing roles and impacts of viral infection during pregnancy needs to be better understood, while strategies to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes need to be identified. This review focuses on the adverse impacts of viral infection during gestation, with an emphasis on Ebola virus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Hepatitis A virus infection - shifting epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.Z.; Hussain, A.B.; Hussain, T.; Anwar, M.; Ghani, E.; Asad-Ullah

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the Study: To determine the age distribution in HAV infection and seasonal variations in the prevalence of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration: The study was carried out on the patients reporting at Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, for determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody, from July 2003 to June 2004. Patients and Methods: Altogether 626 patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus infection were referred to AFIP Rawalpindi for this test. Blood samples were collected and sera were separated and transferred to plastic aliquots that were stored at -20 deg. C in a retrievable fashion until utilized in testing. The testing for ant-HAY IgM was carried out with the help of a commercial Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using reagent kits of Dias Orin (Germany) for HAV IgM antibodies. Results: The HAV IgM positive rate was 40.57% (252/626). Those tested included the sporadic cases as well as the patients from outbreak in two schools of Nowshera cantonment. The age of patients testing positive for HAV IgM, ranged from 03 to 27 years. There was a statistically significant seasonal difference in rate of positivity in different months of the calendar year. An outbreak of HAV infection was seen in the children of two neighboring schools of a cantonment, in which 44 children in different classes developed clinical jaundice. Conclusion: HAV infection occurs in a significant proportion of young people with a clinical suspicion of HAV infection. There is a changing trend of developing hepatitis a in the age beyond 18 years and in outbreaks, which was not there in our patients previously due to universal immunity found against HAV by the age of 18. It was because of chances of consumption of polluted food. (author)

  15. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Agboghoroma et al. HIV Infection Diagnosed in Women in Labour. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2015; 19 (3):137. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among. Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with. Negative status ...

  16. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael

    2012-04-10

    Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  17. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  18. Wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified. Ae. fluviatilis is also naturally infected by the wFlu Wolbachia strain, which has been demonstrated to enhance infection with the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We performed experimental infections of Ae. fluviatilis with DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates from Brazil via injection or oral feeding to provide insight into its competence for the virus. We also examined the effect of the native Wolbachia infection on the virus using a mosquito line where the wFlu infection had been cleared by antibiotic treatment. Through RT-qPCR, we observed that Ae. fluviatilis could become infected with both viruses via either method of infection, although at a lower rate than Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. We then detected DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the saliva of injected mosquitoes, and observed that injection of DENV-3-infected saliva produced subsequent infections in naïve Ae. aegypti. However, across our data we observed no difference in prevalence of infection and viral load between Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no effect of wFlu on dengue virus. Our results highlight that Ae. fluviatilis could potentially serve as a dengue vector under the right circumstances, although further testing is required to determine if this occurs in the field.

  19. Autoimmune Neurological Conditions Associated With Zika Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Acosta-Ampudia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging flavivirus rapidly spreading throughout the tropical Americas. Aedes mosquitoes is the principal way of transmission of the virus to humans. ZIKV can be spread by transplacental, perinatal, and body fluids. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic and those with symptoms present minor illness after 3 to 12 days of incubation, characterized by a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, widespread pruritic maculopapular rash, arthralgia and myalgia. ZIKV has been linked to a number of central and peripheral nervous system injuries such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, transverse myelitis (TM, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications. Nevertheless, mechanisms of host-pathogen neuro-immune interactions remain incompletely elucidated. This review provides a critical discussion about the possible mechanisms underlying the development of autoimmune neurological conditions associated with Zika virus infection.

  20. A novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Kramski

    Full Text Available The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV and Monkeypox virus (MPXV cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer acceptable. The efficacy and safety of new vaccines and antiviral drugs for use in humans can only be demonstrated in animal models. The existing nonhuman primate models, using VARV and MPXV, need very high viral doses that have to be applied intravenously or intratracheally to induce a lethal infection in macaques. To overcome these drawbacks, the infectivity and pathogenicity of a particular CPXV was evaluated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus.A CPXV named calpox virus was isolated from a lethal orthopox virus (OPV outbreak in New World monkeys. We demonstrated that marmosets infected with calpox virus, not only via the intravenous but also the intranasal route, reproducibly develop symptoms resembling smallpox in humans. Infected animals died within 1-3 days after onset of symptoms, even when very low infectious viral doses of 5x10(2 pfu were applied intranasally. Infectious virus was demonstrated in blood, saliva and all organs analyzed.We present the first characterization of a new OPV infection model inducing a disease in common marmosets comparable to smallpox in humans. Intranasal virus inoculation mimicking the natural route of smallpox infection led to reproducible infection. In vivo titration resulted in an MID(50 (minimal monkey infectious dose 50% of 8.3x10(2 pfu of calpox virus which is approximately 10,000-fold lower than MPXV and VARV doses applied in the macaque models. Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis.

  1. Torque Teno Virus in HIV-infected transgender in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono; Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Fanani, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a circular single-stranded DNA virus that may co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially in the high-risk community e.g. the transgender performing high-riskbehavior. TTV shows an increased viremia in HIV patients and maybe influence the HIV clinical progression. Blood samples collected from transgender performing high-riskbehavior in Surakarta were tested by serological and molecular assays to detect the presence of HIV infection. The blood samples with HIV positive status were then tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presentation of TTV DNA. The amplified PCR products were molecularly cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. TTV DNA was detected in 40.0% HIV-positive samples. The molecular characterization revealed that the most prevalent was genogroup 3, followed by genogroup 2 and 1, respectively. TTV was detected in HIV-infected transgender performing high-riskbehavior in Surakarta with high infection rate.

  2. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  3. Antagonism of the Sodium-Potassium ATPase Impairs Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Ashbrook

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging alphavirus that has caused epidemics of fever, arthralgia, and rash worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease. We conducted a high-throughput, chemical compound screen that identified digoxin, a cardiac glycoside that blocks the sodium-potassium ATPase, as a potent inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Treatment of human cells with digoxin or a related cardiac glycoside, ouabain, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in infection by CHIKV. Inhibition by digoxin was cell type-specific, as digoxin treatment of either murine or mosquito cells did not diminish CHIKV infection. Digoxin displayed antiviral activity against other alphaviruses, including Ross River virus and Sindbis virus, as well as mammalian reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The digoxin-mediated block to CHIKV and reovirus infection occurred at one or more postentry steps, as digoxin inhibition was not bypassed by fusion of CHIKV at the plasma membrane or infection with cell surface-penetrating reovirus entry intermediates. Selection of digoxin-resistant CHIKV variants identified multiple mutations in the nonstructural proteins required for replication complex formation and synthesis of viral RNA. These data suggest a role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in promoting postentry steps of CHIKV replication and provide rationale for modulation of this pathway as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy.

  4. Hunting in the rainforest and mayaro virus infection: An emerging alphavirus in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Izurieta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Results: Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46% than among subjects born in other areas (2%. Conclusions: Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs.

  5. Hunting in the Rainforest and Mayaro Virus Infection: An emerging Alphavirus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46%) than among subjects born in other areas (2%). Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs.

  6. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among cats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2009-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known.

  7. Understanding Oxidative Stress in Aedes during Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Infections Using Integromics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Shrinet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Arboviral infection causes dysregulation of cascade of events involving numerous biomolecules affecting fitness of mosquito to combat virus. In response of the viral infection mosquito’s defense mechanism get initiated. Oxidative stress is among the first host responses triggered by the vector. Significant number of information is available showing changes in the transcripts and/or proteins upon Chikungunya virus and Dengue virus mono-infections and as co-infections. In the present study, we collected different -omics data available in the public database along with the data generated in our laboratory related to mono-infections or co-infections of these viruses. We analyzed the data and classified them into their respective pathways to study the role of oxidative stress in combating arboviral infection in Aedes mosquito. The analysis revealed that the oxidative stress related pathways functions in harmonized manner.

  8. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  9. Neutralizing antibody fails to impact the course of Ebola virus infection in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelien B Oswald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylaxis with high doses of neutralizing antibody typically offers protection against challenge with viruses producing acute infections. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, KZ52, to protect against Ebola virus in rhesus macaques. This antibody was previously shown to fully protect guinea pigs from infection. Four rhesus macaques were given 50 mg/kg of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody KZ52 intravenously 1 d before challenge with 1,000 plaque-forming units of Ebola virus, followed by a second dose of 50 mg/kg antibody 4 d after challenge. A control animal was exposed to virus in the absence of antibody treatment. Passive transfer of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody not only failed to protect macaques against challenge with Ebola virus but also had a minimal effect on the explosive viral replication following infection. We show that the inability of antibody to impact infection was not due to neutralization escape. It appears that Ebola virus has a mechanism of infection propagation in vivo in macaques that is uniquely insensitive even to high concentrations of neutralizing antibody.

  10. Annulate lamellae in phloem cells of virus-infected Sonchus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, M P; Hoefert, L L

    1977-07-01

    The occurrence of annulate lamellae (AL) in differentiating phloem of Sonchus oleraceus (Compositae) singly infected with sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV) and doubly infected with a combination of SYVV and beet yellow stunt virus is documented by electron microscopy. Cell types in which AL were found were immature sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. AL were found only in cells that also contained SYVV particles although a direct association between the virus and AL was not apparent. The substructure of the AL and the relationships between the AL and the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum are similar to those reported in other descriptions of this organelle in the literature. This report appears to be the first one concerning the association of AL with a plant virus disease.

  11. Curcumin inhibits Zika and chikungunya virus infection by inhibiting cell binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Bryan C; Cesaro, Teresa; Carrau, Lucia; Vallet, Thomas; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Several compounds extracted from spices and herbs exhibit antiviral effects in vitro, suggesting potential pharmacological uses. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been used as a food additive and herbal supplement due to its potential medicinal properties. Previously, curcumin exhibited antiviral properties against several viruses, including dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, among others. Here, we describe the antiviral effect of curcumin on Zika and chikungunya viruses, two mosquito-borne outbreak viruses. Both viruses responded to treatment of cells with up to 5 μM curumin without impacting cellular viability. We observed that direct treatment of virus with curcumin reduced infectivity of virus in a dose- and time-dependent manner for these enveloped viruses, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus. In contrast, we found no change in infectivity for Coxsackievirus B3, a non-enveloped virus. Derivatives of curcumin also exhibited antiviral activity against enveloped viruses. Further examination revealed that curcumin interfered with the binding of the enveloped viruses to cells in a dose-dependent manner, though the integrity of the viral RNA was maintained. Together, these results expand the family of viruses sensitive to curcumin and provide a mechanism of action for curcumin's effect on these enveloped viruses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Insights into Head-Tailed Viruses Infecting Extremely Halophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. Although approximately half of the isolated archaeal viruses belong to the latter group, no three-dimensional virion structures of these head-tailed viruses are available. Thus, rigorous comparisons with bacteriophages are not yet warranted. In the present study, we determined the genome sequences of two of such viruses of halophiles and solved their capsid structures by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. We show that these viruses are inactivated, yet remain intact, at low salinity and that their infectivity is regained when high salinity is restored. This enabled us to determine their three-dimensional capsid structures at low salinity to a ∼10-Å resolution. The genetic and structural data showed that both viruses belong to the same T-number class, but one of them has enlarged its capsid to accommodate a larger genome than typically associated with a T=7 capsid by inserting an additional protein into the capsid lattice. PMID:23283946

  13. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  14. Block effect on HCV infection by HMGB1 released from virus-infected cells: An insight from mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Wanbiao

    2018-06-01

    The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can have an active role in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) organization and the regulation of transcription. Based on the new findings from a recent experimental study, the blocking effect on HCV infection by HMGB1 released from virus-infected cells is investigated using a diffusive model for viral infection dynamics. In the model, the diffusion of the virus depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration of HMGB1. The basic reproduction number, threshold dynamics, stability properties of the steady states, travelling wave solutions, and spreading speed for the proposed model are studied. We show that the HMGB1-induced blocking of HCV infection slows the spread of virus compared with random diffusion only. Numerically, it is shown that a high concentration of HMGB1 can block the spread of virus and this confirms, not only qualitatively but also quantitatively, the experimental result.

  15. Serum High-Mobility-Group Box 1 as a Biomarker and a Therapeutic Target during Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge C G

    2018-03-13

    Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI. However, changes in systemic HMGB1 kinetics during the course of influenza virus infection in animal models and humans have yet to establish an association of HMGB1 release with influenza virus infection. To this end, we used the cotton rat model that is permissive to nonadapted strains of influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Serum HMGB1 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prior to infection until day 14 or 18 post-infection. Infection with either influenza A or B virus resulted in a robust increase in serum HMGB1 levels that decreased by days 14 to 18. Inoculation with the live attenuated vaccine FluMist resulted in HMGB1 levels that were significantly lower than those with infection with live influenza viruses. RSV and HRVs showed profiles of serum HMGB1 induction that were consistent with their replication and degree of lung pathology in cotton rats. We further showed that therapeutic treatment with Eritoran of cotton rats infected with influenza B virus significantly blunted serum HMGB1 levels and improved lung pathology, without inhibiting virus replication. These findings support the use of drugs that block HMGB1 to combat influenza virus-induced ALI. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus is a common infectious agent causing serious seasonal epidemics, and there is urgent need to develop an alternative treatment

  16. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection facilitates acute colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana

    2009-01-01

    virus infections in facilitating colonization and infection with P. aeruginosa. A study was undertaken to determine whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection could facilitate the initiation of an acute infection with P. aeruginosa in vivo. Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with P......Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory....... These results suggest that RSV can facilitate the initiation of acute P. aeruginosa infection without the RSV infection being clinically apparent. This could have implications for treatment strategies to prevent opportunistic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  18. Zika virus infection of cellular components of the blood-retinal barriers: implications for viral associated congenital ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Tracoyia; Alcendor, Donald J

    2017-03-03

    Ocular abnormalities present in microcephalic infants with presumed Zika virus (ZIKV) congenital disease includes focal pigment mottling of the retina, chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve abnormalities, and lens dislocation. Target cells in the ocular compartment for ZIKV infectivity are unknown. The cellular response of ocular cells to ZIKV infection has not been described. Mechanisms for viral dissemination in the ocular compartment of ZIKV-infected infants and adults have not been reported. Here, we identify target cells for ZIKV infectivity in both the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers (IBRB and OBRB), describe the cytokine expression profile in the IBRB after ZIKV exposure, and propose a mechanism for viral dissemination in the retina. We expose primary cellular components of the IBRB including human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, and Müller cells as well as retinal pigmented epithelial cells of the OBRB to the PRVABC56 strain of ZIKV. Viral infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and qRT-PCR). Angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays. We find by immunofluorescent staining using the Flavivirus 4G2 monoclonal antibody that retinal endothelial cells and pericytes of the IBRB and retinal pigmented epithelial cells of the OBRB are fully permissive for ZIKV infection but not Müller cells when compared to mock-infected controls. We confirmed ZIKV infectivity in retinal endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, and retinal pigmented epithelial cells by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR using ZIKV-specific oligonucleotide primers. Expression profiles by Luminex assays in retinal endothelial cells infected with ZIKV revealed a marginal increase in levels of beta-2 microglobulin (β2-m), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP

  19. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernaez, Bruno; Escribano, Jose M.; Alonso, Covadonga

    2006-01-01

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  20. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  1. Curcumin is a promising inhibitor of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-10-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.

  2. A Perfect Storm: Increased Colonization and Failure of Vaccination Leads to Severe Secondary Bacterial Infection in Influenza Virus-Infected Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Karlsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection. This result was unexpected, given that most influenza virus strains, especially seasonal human A and B viruses, are nonlethal in this model. Both viral and bacterial titers were increased in the upper respiratory tract and lungs of obese animals as early as days 1 and 2 post-bacterial infection, leading to a significant decrease in lung function. This increased bacterial load correlated with extensive cellular damage and upregulation of platelet-activating factor receptor, a host receptor central to pneumococcal invasion. Importantly, while vaccination of obese mice against either influenza virus or pneumococcus failed to confer protection, antibiotic treatment was able to resolve secondary bacterial infection-associated mortality. Overall, secondary bacterial pneumonia could be a widespread, unaddressed public health problem in an increasingly obese population.

  3. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  4. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  5. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  6. Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Pauszek, Steven J; Ahmed, Zaheer; Farooq, Umer; Naeem, Khalid; Shabman, Reed S; Stockwell, Timothy B; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. This study investigated the genetic dynamics of FMDV during persistent infections of naturally infected Asian buffalo. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) we obtained 21 near complete FMDV genome sequences from 12 sub-clinically infected buffalo over a period of one year. Four animals yielded only one virus isolate and one yielded two isolates of different serotype suggesting a serial infection. Seven persistently infected animals yielded more than one virus of the same serotype showing a long-term intra-host viral genetic divergence at the consensus level of less than 2.5%. Quasi-species analysis showed few nucleotide variants and non-synonymous substitutions of progeny virus despite intra-host persistence of up to 152 days. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype Asia-1 VP1 sequences clustered all viruses from persistent animals with Group VII viruses circulating in Pakistan in 2011, but distinct from those circulating on 2008-2009. Furthermore, signature amino acid (aa) substitutions were found in the antigenically relevant VP1 of persistent viruses compared with viruses from 2008-2009. Intra-host purifying selective pressure was observed, with few codons in structural proteins undergoing positive selection. However, FMD persistent viruses did not show a clear pattern of antigenic selection. Our findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV populations within naturally occurring subclinical and persistent infections that may have implications to vaccination strategies in the region.

  7. Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. This study investigated the genetic dynamics of FMDV during persistent infections of naturally infected Asian buffalo. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS we obtained 21 near complete FMDV genome sequences from 12 sub-clinically infected buffalo over a period of one year. Four animals yielded only one virus isolate and one yielded two isolates of different serotype suggesting a serial infection. Seven persistently infected animals yielded more than one virus of the same serotype showing a long-term intra-host viral genetic divergence at the consensus level of less than 2.5%. Quasi-species analysis showed few nucleotide variants and non-synonymous substitutions of progeny virus despite intra-host persistence of up to 152 days. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype Asia-1 VP1 sequences clustered all viruses from persistent animals with Group VII viruses circulating in Pakistan in 2011, but distinct from those circulating on 2008-2009. Furthermore, signature amino acid (aa substitutions were found in the antigenically relevant VP1 of persistent viruses compared with viruses from 2008-2009. Intra-host purifying selective pressure was observed, with few codons in structural proteins undergoing positive selection. However, FMD persistent viruses did not show a clear pattern of antigenic selection. Our findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV populations within naturally occurring subclinical and persistent infections that may have implications to vaccination strategies in the region.

  8. Zika virus infection dysregulates human neural stem cell growth and inhibits differentiation into neuroprogenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devhare, Pradip; Meyer, Keith; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2017-10-12

    The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs. Zika virus MR766 strain increased serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a known early cellular response proteins to DNA damage. On the other hand, PRVABC59 strain upregulated serine 15 phosphorylation of p53, p21 and PUMA expression. MR766-infected cells displayed poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage. Interestingly, infection of hNSCs by both strains of Zika virus for 24 h, followed by incubation in astrocyte differentiation medium, induced rounding and cell death. However, astrocytes generated from hNSCs by incubation in differentiation medium when infected with Zika virus displayed minimal cytopathic effect at an early time point. Infected hNSCs incubated in astrocyte differentiating medium displayed PARP cleavage within 24-36 h. Together, these results showed that two distinct strains of Zika virus potentiate hNSC growth inhibition by different mechanisms, but both viruses strongly induce death in early differentiating neuroprogenitor cells even at a very low multiplicity of infection. Our observations demonstrate further mechanistic insights for impaired neuronal homeostasis during active Zika virus infection.

  9. Zika virus infection dysregulates human neural stem cell growth and inhibits differentiation into neuroprogenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devhare, Pradip; Meyer, Keith; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs. Zika virus MR766 strain increased serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a known early cellular response proteins to DNA damage. On the other hand, PRVABC59 strain upregulated serine 15 phosphorylation of p53, p21 and PUMA expression. MR766-infected cells displayed poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage. Interestingly, infection of hNSCs by both strains of Zika virus for 24 h, followed by incubation in astrocyte differentiation medium, induced rounding and cell death. However, astrocytes generated from hNSCs by incubation in differentiation medium when infected with Zika virus displayed minimal cytopathic effect at an early time point. Infected hNSCs incubated in astrocyte differentiating medium displayed PARP cleavage within 24–36 h. Together, these results showed that two distinct strains of Zika virus potentiate hNSC growth inhibition by different mechanisms, but both viruses strongly induce death in early differentiating neuroprogenitor cells even at a very low multiplicity of infection. Our observations demonstrate further mechanistic insights for impaired neuronal homeostasis during active Zika virus infection. PMID:29022904

  10. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Response to Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etebari, Kayvan; Hegde, Shivanand; Saldaña, Miguel A; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Asgari, Sassan; Hughes, Grant L

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) of the Flaviviridae family is a recently emerged mosquito-borne virus that has been implicated in the surge of the number of microcephaly instances in South America. The recent rapid spread of the virus led to its declaration as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization. The virus is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti , which is also the vector of dengue virus; however, little is known about the interactions of the virus with the mosquito vector. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of whole A. aegypti mosquitoes in response to ZIKV infection at 2, 7, and 14 days postinfection using transcriptome sequencing. Results showed changes in the abundance of a large number of transcripts at each time point following infection, with 18 transcripts commonly changed among the three time points. Gene ontology analysis revealed that most of the altered genes are involved in metabolic processes, cellular processes, and proteolysis. In addition, 486 long intergenic noncoding RNAs that were altered upon ZIKV infection were identified. Further, we found changes of a number of potential mRNA target genes correlating with those of altered host microRNAs. The outcomes provide a basic understanding of A. aegypti responses to ZIKV and help to determine host factors involved in replication or mosquito host antiviral response against the virus. IMPORTANCE Vector-borne viruses pose great risks to human health. Zika virus has recently emerged as a global threat, rapidly expanding its distribution. Understanding the interactions of the virus with mosquito vectors at the molecular level is vital for devising new approaches in inhibiting virus transmission. In this study, we embarked on analyzing the transcriptional response of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to Zika virus infection. Results showed large changes in both coding and long noncoding RNAs. Analysis of these genes showed similarities with other flaviviruses, including

  11. Immune regulation in Chandipura virus infection: characterization of CD4+ T regulatory cells from infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahir Prajakta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Back ground Chandipura virus produces acute infection in mice. During infection drastic reduction of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19 + cell was noticed. Depletion of lymphocytes also noticed in spleen. The reduction may be due to the regulatory mechanism of immune system to prevent the bystander host tissue injury. There are several mechanisms like generation of regulatory cells, activation induced cell death (ACID etc were indicated to control the activation and maintain cellular homeostasis. Role of regulatory cells in homeostasis has been described in several viral diseases. This study was undertaken to characterize CD4+T regulatory cells from the infected mice. Method In this study we purified the CD4+ T cells from Chandipura virus infected susceptible Balb/c mice. CD4+ T regulatory cells were identified by expression of cell surface markers CD25, CD127 and CTLA-4 and intracellular markers Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-beta. Antigen specificity and ability to suppress the proliferation of other lymphocytes were studied in vitro by purified CD4+CD25+T regulatory cells from infected mice. The proliferation was calculated by proliferation module of Flow Jo software. Expression of death receptors on regulatory cells were studied by flowcytometer. Results The CD4+ T cells isolated from infected mice expressed characteristic markers of regulatory phenotype at all post infective hours tested. The CD4+ T regulatory cells were proliferated when stimulated with Chandipura virus antigen. The regulatory cells did not suppress the proliferation of splenocytes stimulated with anti CD3 antibody when co cultured with them. Interesting observation was, while purification of CD4+ T cells by negative selection, the population of cells negative for CD4 also co purified along with CD4+ T cell. Flow cytometry analysis and light microscopy revealed that CD4 negative cells were of different size and shape (atypical compared to the normal lymphocytes. Greater percentage of

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the host cell response to feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Reinhard; Klein, Dieter

    2014-03-19

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat and an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research. In contrast to HIV, only limited information is available on the transcriptional host cell response to FIV infections. This study aims to identify FIV-induced gene expression changes in feline T-cells during the early phase of the infection. Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 h after FIV infection. After removal of low-quality reads, the remaining sequencing data were mapped against the cat genome and the numbers of mapping reads were counted for each gene. Regulated genes were identified through the comparison of FIV and mock-infected data sets. After statistical analysis and the removal of genes with insufficient coverage, we detected a total of 69 significantly DEGs (44 up- and 25 down-regulated genes) upon FIV infection. The results obtained by RNA-seq were validated by reverse transcription qPCR analysis for 10 genes. Out of the most distinct DEGs identified in this study, several genes are already known to interact with HIV in humans, indicating comparable effects of both viruses on the host cell gene expression and furthermore, highlighting the importance of FIV as a model system for HIV. In addition, a set of new genes not previously linked to virus infections could be identified. The provided list of virus-induced genes may represent useful information for future studies focusing on the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions in FIV pathogenesis.

  13. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  14. Loss of Anti-Viral Immunity by Infection with a Virus Encoding a Cross-Reactive Pathogenic Epitope

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex T.; Cornberg, Markus; Gras, Stephanie; Guillonneau, Carole; Rossjohn, Jamie; Trees, Andrew; Emonet, Sebastien; de la Torre, Juan C.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Selin, Liisa K.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary The purpose of vaccination against viruses is to induce strong neutralizing antibody responses that inactivate viruses on contact and strong T cell responses that attack and kill virus-infected cells. Some viruses, however, like HIV and hepatitis C virus, are only weakly controlled by neutralizing antibody, so T cell immunity is very important for control of these infections. T cells recognize small virus-encoded peptides, called epitopes, presented on the surface of infected c...

  15. Zika Virus Infects, Activates, and Crosses Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, without Barrier Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Michelle P.; Meuren, Lana M.; Coelho, Sharton V. A.; Lucas, Carolina G. de Oliveira; Mustafá, Yasmin M.; Lemos Matassoli, Flavio; Silveira, Paola P.; Frost, Paula S.; Pezzuto, Paula; Ribeiro, Milene R.; Tanuri, Amilcar; Nogueira, Mauricio L.; Campanati, Loraine; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Paula Neto, Heitor A.; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M.; Figueiredo, Claudia P.; de Aguiar, Renato S.; de Arruda, Luciana B.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated to central nervous system (CNS) harm, and virus was detected in the brain and cerebrospinal fluids of microcephaly and meningoencephalitis cases. However, the mechanism by which the virus reaches the CNS is unclear. Here, we addressed the effects of ZIKV replication in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), as an in vitro model of blood brain barrier (BBB), and evaluated virus extravasation and BBB integrity in an in vivo mouse experimental model. HBMECs were productively infected by African and Brazilian ZIKV strains (ZIKVMR766 and ZIKVPE243), which induce increased production of type I and type III IFN, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Infection with ZIKVMR766 promoted earlier cellular death, in comparison to ZIKVPE243, but infection with either strain did not result in enhanced endothelial permeability. Despite the maintenance of endothelial integrity, infectious virus particles crossed the monolayer by endocytosis/exocytosis-dependent replication pathway or by transcytosis. Remarkably, both viruses' strains infected IFNAR deficient mice, with high viral load being detected in the brains, without BBB disruption, which was only detected at later time points after infection. These data suggest that ZIKV infects and activates endothelial cells, and might reach the CNS through basolateral release, transcytosis or transinfection processes. These findings further improve the current knowledge regarding ZIKV dissemination pathways. PMID:29312238

  16. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  17. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Yin

    Full Text Available Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1. We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  18. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  19. Severity of viral coinfection in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paulis, Milena; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; do Sacramento, Patrícia Rossi; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Marinheiro, Juliana Cristina; Hársi, Charlotte Marianna; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete

    2011-01-01

    To compare the severity of single respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections with that of coinfections. A historical cohort was studied, including hospitalized infants with acute RSV infection. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from all patients to detect eight respiratory viruses using molecular biology techniques. The following outcomes were analyzed: duration of hospitalization and of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission and need of mechanical ventilation. Results were adjusted for confounding factors (prematurity, age and breastfeeding). A hundred and seventy six infants with bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia were included in the study. Their median age was 4.5 months. A hundred and twenty one had single RSV infection and 55 had coinfections (24 RSV + adenovirus, 16 RSV + human metapneumovirus and 15 other less frequent viral associations). The four severity outcomes under study were similar in the group with single RSV infection and in the coinfection groups, independently of what virus was associated with RSV. Virus coinfections do not seem to affect the prognosis of hospitalized infants with acute RSV infection.

  20. Reduction of Influenza Virus Titer and Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Infant Mice Fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetsuji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in infant mice administered saline (control group) (102.48 ± 100.31...

  1. Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius with a vampire bat rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia

    2017-06-01

    Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zika Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon Responses during Infection of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Bowen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that is causally linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly, and is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs are an important cell type during infection by multiple mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. Despite this, the interplay between ZIKV and DCs remains poorly defined. Here, we found human DCs supported productive infection by a contemporary Puerto Rican isolate with considerable variability in viral replication, but not viral binding, between DCs from different donors. Historic isolates from Africa and Asia also infected DCs with distinct viral replication kinetics between strains. African lineage viruses displayed more rapid replication kinetics and infection magnitude as compared to Asian lineage viruses, and uniquely induced cell death. Infection of DCs with both contemporary and historic ZIKV isolates led to minimal up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, along with limited secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of type I interferon (IFN protein translation was observed during ZIKV infection, despite strong induction at the RNA transcript level and up-regulation of other host antiviral proteins. Treatment of human DCs with RIG-I agonist potently restricted ZIKV replication, while type I IFN had only modest effects. Mechanistically, we found all strains of ZIKV antagonized type I IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. Combined, our findings show that ZIKV subverts DC immunogenicity during infection, in part through evasion of type I IFN responses, but that the RLR signaling pathway is still capable of inducing an antiviral state, and therefore may serve as an antiviral therapeutic target.

  3. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

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    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  4. Preparation of herpes simplex virus-infected primary neurons for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Boadle, Ross; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides the resolution necessary to identify both viruses and subcellular components of cells infected with many types of viruses, including herpes simplex virus. Recognized as a powerful tool in both diagnostic and research-based virology laboratories, TEM has made possible the identification of new viruses and has contributed to the elucidation of virus life cycle and virus-host cell interaction. Whilst there are many sample preparation techniques for TEM, conventional processing using chemical fixation and resin embedding remains a useful technique, available in virtually all EM laboratories, for studying virus/cell ultrastructure. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of herpes simplex virus-infected primary neurons, grown on plastic cover slips, to allow sectioning of neurons and axons in their growth plane. This technique allows TEM examination of cell bodies, axons, growth cones, and varicosities, providing powerful insights into virus-cell interaction.

  5. Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, D T; Ogra, P L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. Adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. By using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lun...

  6. Antiviral immunity following smallpox virus infection: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Hanifin, Jon M; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W; Slifka, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods f