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Sample records for motsu suiso kyuzo

  1. Development of hydriding alloys with multi-functionally-graded properties and their applications to energy conversion devices; Keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

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    Suda, S; Kadoma, H; Nagamoto, H; Okura, T [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the formation of fluoride layer on the surface of hydriding alloys. The fluoride formation reaction consists of a reduction removal process of surface oxide and a fluorination process. Specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by the hydrogenation reaction in the surface layer accompanied with the removal of surface oxide, which results in easier permeation of molecular hydrogen into fluoride layer. During the fluorination process, a large amount of Ni in the alloy components is eluted, which results in the reduction of Ni distribution immediately under the fluoride layer in the alloy. Consequently, collector sites near the surface are reduced, and conductivity among alloy grains is degraded. To enhance the hydrogen collector sites, specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by controlling the pH value of fluorination treatment solution in a given range. Moreover, performance of fluoride layer can be advanced by electrochemically dispersing metal Ni in the fluoride layer using Ni complex ion mixed in the treatment solution. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Hydrogen storage alloy for a battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin

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    Saito, N.; Takahashi, M.; Sasai, T. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-18

    Cobalt contained in a hydrogen storage alloy has an effect to improve a cycle life, but it gives a problem of inferior discharge characteristics. Moreover, cobalt is a rather expensive constituent and therefore, it is desirable to suppress its use as far as possible. This invention aims to present a hydrogen storage alloy with a long service life and high discharge characteristics for a negative electrode of a hydrogen battery without containing a large amount of cobalt. The hydrogen storage alloy of this invention has a composition of a general formula: RNi(a)Co(b)Al(c)Mn(d)Fe(e), where R is a mixture of rare earth elements and La content in this alloy is 25 to 70wt%, 3.7{<=}a{<=}4.0, 0.1{<=}b{<=}0.4, 0.20{<=}c{<=}0.4, 0.30{<=}d{<=}0.45, 0.2{<=}e{<=}0.4, 0.5{<=}b+e{<=}0.7 and 5.0{<=}a+b+c+d+e{<=}5.1. 1 tab.

  3. FY 1995 development of fluorinated hydriding alloys with multi functional and functionally-graded surface and their application to energy conversion devices; 1995 nendo keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

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    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project is the extended researches of a fluorination technique invented by the project leader (Suda) for improving the surface properties and characteristics of conventional hydriding alloys from the following viewpoints; (1) To investigate the roles of fluorinated surface during hydrogen uptake both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions. (2) To elucidate the factors which increase the protective nature of the surface. (3) To develop a material design procedure for synthesizing thin layer of functionally graded surface which is composed of metallic Ni and the fluoride compound. (1) An advanced fluorination technique was developed to incorporate metallic Ni in the surface fluoride layer. (2) Metallic Ni was successfully distributed in a functionally graded manner in the Surface fluoride layer. (3) Through the technique developed, the following properties and characteristics were successfully donated in the fluorinated hydriding alloys such as AB{sub 5}, AB{sub 2}, and AB; (3-1)Surface oxides which act as the resistant layer to the hydrogen up take was completely eliminated to result in the enhancement of the initial activation characteristics. (3-2) Hydrogen selectivity and permeability was greatly improved. (3-3) Surface protective nature against the impurity gases and contaminants was significantly improved. (3-4) Initial activation characteristics both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions were distinguishably improved. (3-5) Fluorinated surface was found to function as the catalyst for a methanation reaction between the CO{sub 2} gas adsorbed over the fluorinated surface and the monatomic hydrogen absorbed in the metal lattice of the crystalline structure of the hydriding alloys. (4) A technique was developed for increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the specific surface diameter of the fluorinated hydriding alloy articles. (NEDO)

  4. Production method of hydrogen storage alloy electrode and hydrogen storage alloy for rechageable battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no seizo hoho

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    Mizutaki, F.; Ishimaru, M.

    1995-04-07

    This invention relates to the hydrogen storage alloy electrode in which the misch metal-nickel system hydrogen storage alloy is employed. The grain of the hydrogen storage alloy is controlled so as to reduce the dendrite cell size. Since the hydrogen storage alloy having such small dendrite cell size has no part where the metal structure is too brittle, the alloy has a sufficient mechanical strength. It can stand for the swell and shrink stress associated with the sorption and desorption of hydrogen. The disintegration, therefore, due to the cracking of the alloy is hardly to take place. In addition, the quenching of molten alloy at a cooling rate of 1000{degree}C/sec or faster suppresses the occurrence of segregation of any alloy element at the grain boundary, making it possible to produce the homogeneous and mechanically strong alloy. In other words, it can be achieved to produce a hydrogen storage alloy electrode having an excellent cycle property. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Metal hydride electrode and nickel hydrogen storage battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi nikkeru-suiso chikudenchi

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    Kobayashi, Y.; Tamagawa, H. [Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikawa, A.; Muranaka, R. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1996-04-16

    Water soluble polymers such as cellulose derivatives and polyvinylalcohol have been used conventionally as binders for metal hydride electrode used for nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. The shortcomings of those binders, however, are low flexibility, and poor binding property for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder and the conductive supporting substrate. This invention relates to the use of ethylene-vinyl copolymer with less than -10{degree}C Tg as the binder for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. It is desirable that the ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer is selected out of ethylene-vinyl acetate-acryl copolymer and ethylene-vinyl acetate-long chain vinyl ester copolymer, and that the addition is larger than 0.1wt% and less than 1wt% against the weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy in the electrode. The use of this binder results in strong binding of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder to the conductive supporting substrate, providing flexibility as well. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for nickel-hydrogen storage battery use; Nikkeru-suiso chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

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    Nagase, H.; Tadokoro, M.

    1995-06-16

    In the conventional hydrogen storage alloy electrode, water soluble polymer is employed as for the binder. Employing the water soluble polymer as for the binder may cause the film formation on the surface of the hydrogen storage alloy to hinder the hydrogen absorption at the alloy surface, resulting in the decrease in activity of electrode and in the discharge characteristic at a low temperature. This invention proposes the addition of Vinylon fiber in the binder of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode made by kneading the hydrogen storage alloy and the binder. The Vinylon fiber improves the strength of the electrode, as it forms a network in the electrode. Furthermore, the point contact between the alloy and the Vinylon fiber in the electrode prevents the film formation which hinders the oxygen absorption and chemical reaction on the surface of the alloy. As for the binder, carboxymethyl cellulose is used. The preferable size of Vinylon fiber is fiber diameter of 0.1 - 0.5 denier and fiber length of 0.5 - 5.0 mm. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Nickel-hydrogen battery and hydrogen storage alloy electrode; Nikkeru suiso denchi oyobi suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

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    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-03-22

    Hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery has such problem that the inner pressure of the battery elevates when it is overcharged since the oxygen gas evolves from the positive electrode. This invention relates to the hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery consisting of positive electrode composed mainly of nickel hydroxide and negative electrode composed mainly of hydrogen storage alloy. According to the invention, the negative electrode contains organic sulfur compound having carbon-sulfur bond. As a result, the elevation of battery inner pressure due to the hydrogen gas evolution, the decrease in discharge capacity due to the repetition of charge and discharge, and the lowering of voltage after charging can be suppressed. The adequate content of the organic sulfur compound is 0.05 - 1 part in weight to 100 part in weight of hydrogen storage alloy. As for the organic sulfur compound, n-butylthiol, ethylthioethane, phenyldithiobenzene, trimethylsulfonium bromide, thiobenzophenone, 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride, and ethylene sulphidic acid are employed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Treatment of hydrogen storage alloy for battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no shori hoho

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    Nagata, T.; Negi, N.; Kaminaka, Takeshita, Y.

    1997-03-28

    At present, Ni-Cd battery is mainly used for the power source of portable AV devices and back-up power source of computer memory. From an environmental point of view, however, Ni-hydrogen battery in which hydrogen storage alloy is used instead of Cd as for the negative electrode has been developed. The productivity of Ni-hydrogen battery is not so high because it takes a very long time to activate the battery after it is assembled. This invention solves the problem. According to the invention, the hydrogen storage alloy containing Ni is immersed in a non-oxidizing acid aqueous solution containing dissolved oxygen by 1 mg/L or less. If a large amount of dissolved oxygen is contained in the acid solution, metal appearing on the surface of alloy by the acid treatment is directly combined with the dissolved oxygen, resulting in the re-formation of metal oxide. So that the effect of oxide removal by the acid treatment is reduced. Using the treated hydrogen storage alloy in the Ni-hydrogen battery makes it possible to produce the battery which has a high initial activity and a good storage property with less self-discharge. 2 tabs.

  9. Treatment method of hydrogen storage alloy for battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no shori hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, Y.; Kaminaka, H.; Nagata, T.; Takeshita, Y.

    1997-04-04

    A nickel-hydrogen battery using a hydrogen storage alloy takes considerably long time for the initial activation treatment after the assembly of the battery. In this invention, a hydrogen storage alloy containing nickel is immersed in an aqueous acid solution or an aqueous alkaline solution and washed with a solution containing a complexing agent to form a nickel complex by a reaction with Ni(OH)2 in a concentration of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} followed by washing with water. By using this method, hydroxides, particularly, Ni(OH)2 deposited on the alloy surface on the treatment of the hydrogen storage alloy with aqueous acid or alkaline solution can be removed efficiently to afford the hydrogen storage alloy with a high initial activity. The hydrogen storage alloy which is the object of this treatment method is AB5 type and AB2 type alloy used for a nickel-hydrogen battery and an alloy composed of nickel is particularly preferable. The complexing agent is selected from ammonia, ethylenediamine and cyanides. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode and the nickel-hydrogen secondary battery using the electrode; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku to sorewo mochiita nikkeru/suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-02-14

    With respect to the conventional nickel-hydrogen secondary battery, pulverization of the hydrogen storage alloy due to repetition of charging-discharging cycles can be prevented by using a fluorocarbon resin as a binder in manufacture of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode; however, the inner pressure increase of the battery in case of overcharging can not be fully controlled. The invention relates to control of the inner pressure increase of the nickel-hydrogen secondary battery in case of overcharging. As to the hydrogen storage alloy electrode, the compound comprising the hydrogen storage alloy powder as a main ingredient is supported by a current collector; further, the compound particularly comprises a fluororubber as a binder. The nickel-hydrogen secondary battery equipped with the hydrogen storage alloy electrode can control the inner pressure increase of the battery in case of overcharging, and lessen decrease of the battery capacity due to repetition of charging-discharging cycles over long time. The effects are dependent on the use of the fluororubber as a binder which has good flexibility, and strong binding capacity as well as water repellency. 1 tab.

  11. Fabricating method of hydrogen absorbing alloy for alkali storage battery; Arukari chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no seizo hoho

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    Tadokoro, M.

    1996-03-08

    There are many grain boundaries in spherical hydrogen absorbing alloy particles prepared by rapid solidification methods such as centrifugal spraying method and gas atomizing method, and heterogeneous strains are produced at boundaries. When hydrogen absorbing alloy with large heterogeneous strain is used for preparing electrodes, many cracks are produced in hydrogen absorbing alloy to cause pulverization in the charge and discharge cycles. This invention relates to heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing alloys having spherical shape, cannon ball shape, and egg-like shape prepared by rapid solidification method in moving conditions. By this heat treatment, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy particles can be prevented. The methods for moving hydrogen absorbing alloy are vibration or rotation of the heat treatment container in which hydrogen absorbing alloy is held and agitation of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. Furthermore, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy is restricted to reduce homogeneous strain by heat treatment in the range from 700{degree}C to 1,100{degree}C. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Manufacturing method of hydrogen storage alloy powder for battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin funmatsu no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.

    1997-04-04

    To produce hydrogen storage alloy powder for battery, ingot of a hydrogen storage alloy is crushed to coarse grains of a suitable size with a crusher and then, finely pulverized to a certain particle size with a ball mill or some other tools. In this pulverization process, the surface of the pulverized alloy powder is oxidized and the surface activity is partially lost to cause a problem of a decrease of the characteristics of the produced hydrogen storage alloy electrode. In this invention, ingot of hydrogen storage alloy is crushed to coarse alloy grains in a non-oxidizing atmosphere followed by mechanical pulverization in a state contact with a solution of sulfites, hypophosphites, hydrogen phosphates or dihydrogen phosphates. This treatment method prevents surface oxidation of the alloy powder during the pulverization process. As a result, the initial activity of the battery is improved and an increase of the internal pressure of the battery on overcharge is suppressed. The use of an aqueous alkaline solution containing cobalt instead of the above-mentioned solution gives a similar effect. 2 tabs.

  13. Preservation of hydrogen absorbing alloy for alkaline storage battery; Arukari chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no hozon hoho

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    Mizutaki, F.

    1996-04-16

    A method of dipping preservation in organic solvent has been practiced conventionally for storing hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. This method is simple and useful in that alloy powder can be isolated simply from the outside environment. Organic solvent, however, generally involves danger of ignition and explosion and is liable to injure the health of workers, and has problems in the handling and workability. This invention relates to preserving hydrogen absorbing alloy by dipping in aqueous solution added with surfactant. The addition of surfactant to alloy preserving aqueous solution is desirable to be from 1 to 10{sup 4}ppm against the total weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy to be dipped. Any type of the anion system, cation system, non-ionic system, and amphoteric system can be used as the surfactant, but anion system surfactant is desirable because it has excellent surface active effect and can form favorable barriers. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hydrogen storage alloy and alkaline battery employing it; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku to sorewo mochiita arukari niji denchi

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    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-01-28

    The invented hydrogen storage alloy electrode is produced in the following way: The hydrogen storage alloy powder is mixed with conductive material and rubber-like elastomer. A certain amount of viscosity modifier aqueous solution such as aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose is added to the said mixture to prepare a mixed paste. The said paste is dried and rolled after being filled in the current collector to be held by the current collector. The rubber-like elastomer has a strong bonding force, though it is soft. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups are contained in its molecule. Example of such material is a partly fluorinated or chlorinated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. The addition of fluorine or chlorine atom is done to its double bond. The addition of the rubber-like elastomer is controlled to 0.05 - 10 wt% of hydrogen storage alloy powder to suppress the elevation of inner-battery pressure at the time of overcharge. 2 tabs.

  15. Survey research report by the hydrogen occluding alloy utilization development committee; Suiso kyuzo gokin riyo kaihatsu iinkai chosa kenkyu hokokusho

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    NONE

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 1984 survey research results, issued by the hydrogen occluding alloy utilization development committee. The basic property subcommittee is responsible for collecting published data related to the basic properties of metal halides as much as possible, and pigeonholing them to have the data which can contribute to development of the new alloys for basic researches and engineering applications of hydrogen occluding alloys. The subcommittee members have collected these data. The common theme subcommittee has planned to collect the P-C-T diagrams of the hydrogen occluding alloys and new alloys as much as possible, for the designs, development, production and system designs of the hydrogen occluding alloys. The P-C-T diagrams have been collected for a total of 340 types of alloys, which fall into the broad categories of Mg-based, TiFe-based, TiMn-based, other Ti-based, rare-earth-based, Zr-based, Ca-based and others. The analytical methods have been also investigated while collecting P-C-T diagrams. (NEDO)

  16. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for a metal-hydride alkaline battery; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

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    Matsuura, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Higashiyama, N.; Kimoto, M.; Nogami, M.; Nishio, K.; Saito, T.

    1996-07-16

    This invention aims to present a hydrogen storage alloy electrode which gives a metal-hydride alkaline battery with a high discharge characteristics at an initial stage of the charge and discharge cycle and excellent charge and discharge cycle characteristics. Thin belt-like misch metal(Mm)-nickel hydrogen storage alloy lumps with a CaCu5 type crystal structure and with dissolved boron or carbon as replaced atoms of nickel in a supersaturated state are obtained by quenching and solidification of molten Mm-Ni hydrogen storage alloy with addition of boron or carbon in 0.005 to 0.150 molar ratio to 1 mole of Mm by a single or dual role method, and annealed in an inert gas or in vacuum at a temperature of 620 to 1000{degree}C for a prescribed time to separate out a boron compound as a second phase, followed by pulverization to produce the alloy powder which is used as a hydrogen storage alloy material. The presence of the second phase promotes cracking of the alloy at an early stage of the charge and discharge cycle and suppresses generation of fine powder in the following charge and discharge cycles. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for metal-hydride alkaline storage battery its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu aruakri chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

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    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, it is proposed to employ the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means of rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. So that the utilization of the hydrogen storage alloy is limited. This invention solves the problem. The rare earth-nickel system hydrogen storage alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 20 micrometers on open surface side. The above said alloy is ground to average particle size of 25 - 70 micrometers to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Surface modification method of rare earth-nickel hydrogen storage alloy for a battery; Denchiyo kidorui-nikkeru kei suiso kyuzo gokin no hyomen kaishitsu shoriho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiyama, N.; Kimoto, M.; Matsuura, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Nogami, M.; Nishio, K.; Saito, T.

    1996-07-16

    The characteristics of an alkaline battery with hydrogen storage alloy depend significantly on the activity of the used rare earth-nickel hydrogen storage alloy and require an activation process in its manufacturing. However, the previous manufacturing method was found to have a defect that surface modification cannot be uniformly conducted due to a rapid increase of pH of the processing solution during the processing. This invention aims to present a surface modification method to enable to produce uniform surface of the alloy particles with a high activity. In this invention, the rare earth-nickel hydrogen storage alloy is immersed in a buffer solution of pH 1 to 3.6 for a fixed period followed by washing with water or an alkaline solution. The rapid change of pH can be avoided by the use of the buffer solution and the surface of the alloy particles is modified uniformly. The use of the obtained alloy suppresses the increase of the internal pressure in the battery during charging and affords an alkaline battery with a long cycle life and a high performance. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Hydrogen storage alloy for battery, manufacturing method and nickel-hydorogen secondary battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin, sono seizo hoho oyobi nikkerusuiso niji denchi

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    Inaba, T.; Sawa, T.; Inada, S.; Kawashima, F.; Sato, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Okamura, M.; Arai, T.; Hasimoto, K.

    1997-04-08

    The invention relates to a hydrogen storage alloy for a battery which has a high electrode capacity, and particularly can realize a long battery life. The hydrogen storage alloy of the LaNi5 type with the general formula: ABx is used in the invention. Here, A comprises La, Ce, Pr and Nd, and La and Nd in A account for 70 to 90 wt % and less than 5 wt %, respectively; B is at least one of the elements selected from Ni, Co, Fe, Cr, Mn, Cu, Al, Ga, Si, Ge, Bi, Sn, In, P, V, Nb, Ta, Mo and W; x shows the atomic ratio in the range, 4.5{<=}x{<=}5.6. Since rare earth elements constituting the alloy, and types and compositions of the elements substituting Ni are properly determined, the hydrogen storage alloy for a battery with excellent hydrogen storage characteristics and corrosion resistance is obtained. When the alloy is used as an anode material, the battery capacity is expanded, the alloy pulverization and deterioration are prevented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode of metal hydride alkaline storage battery and its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

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    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, a proposal was made of employing the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means f rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. This invention solves the problem. The Mm{center_dot}Ni{center_dot}Co{center_dot}Al{center_dot}Mn alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 18 micrometers on open surface side. The alloy is ground to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. The general formula of this alloy is MmR(x) (Mm = mischmetal, R = Ni, Co, Al, Mn). In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Report on investigations and studies on development of materials for hydrogen absorbing alloys; Suiso kyuzo gokin no zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokokusho

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    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes investigations and studies on hydrogen absorbing alloy materials and the technologies to utilize them. In the investigations and studies, literatures were collected and put into order, questionnaire surveys were performed and analyzed, lecture meetings and panel discussions were held, and the discussion results were summarized. In the present status of developing hydrogen absorbing alloys, the current status of and problems in developing such hydrogen absorbing alloys as Ti-based, Mg-based, and rare earth-based alloys were put into order. Discussions were given on prospects of possibilities of developing new alloys, making them amorphous, and putting them into mass production. In the current status of developing the utilizing technologies, such technologies as hydrogen storage systems and heat pumps were put into order and discussed. With regard to problems in hydrogen absorbing alloys, discussions were given on alloy weight, pulverization, activation, heat conductivity, and alloy costs. In discussing the safety, discussions were given on the safety and compliance with related laws and regulations relative to hydrogen transportation using a great amount of hydrogen absorbing alloys, their storage, and heat storage systems. In addition, questionnaire surveys were carried out with an objective to identify the status of developing hydrogen absorbing alloys and needs from the industries. (NEDO)

  2. Survey report on energy transportation systems which use hydrogen-occluding alloys; Suiso kyuzo gokin wo riyoshita energy yuso system chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-18

    Surveyed are systems which use hydrogen-occluding alloys for, e.g., storing and transporting hydrogen. This project is aimed at development of, and extraction of technical problems involved in, the concept of hydrogen energy transportation cycles for producing hydrogen in overseas countries by electrolysis using clean energy of hydraulic energy which are relatively cheap there; transporting hydrogen stored in a hydrogen-occluding alloy by sea to Japan; and converting it into electrical power to be delivered and used there. The surveyed items include current state of development/utilization of hydraulic power resources in overseas countries; pigeonholing the technical issues involved in the hydrogen transportation cycles, detailed studies thereon, and selection of the transportation cycles; current state of research, development and application of hydrogen-occluding alloys for various purposes; extraction of the elementary techniques for the techniques and systems for the hydrogen transportation systems which use hydrogen-occluding alloys; research themes of the future hydrogen-occluding alloys and the application techniques therefor, and research and development thereof; and legislative measures and safety. (NEDO)

  3. Fundamental study on hydrogen storage with hydrogen absorbing alloys. Operating characteristics of storage tank; Suiso kyuzo gokin wo mochiita suiso chozo ni kansuru kiso kenkyu. Chozo yoki no dosa tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, S.; Sekiguchi, N.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Hydrogen absorption by a hydrogen storage (MH storage) is investigated for static characteristics, with a constant current applied to the hydrogen generator, and dynamic characteristics, with a fluctuating current applied to the same simulating actual insolation. In the experiment, alloy temperature (MH temperature) in the storage and a current for the generator are preset, and then automatic measurement is allowed to proceed at 10-second intervals of the differential pressure, hydrogen temperature in the piping, absolute pressure, MH temperature, room temperature, and water tank temperature. It is found as the result of the experiment that absorption performance is improved when the MH storage is cooled; that the mean absorption rate which is 1 without cooling increases to 1.62 at 7degC; that the mean absorption rate changes in proportion to the applied current (introduced hydrogen flow rate); that the rate which is 1 at 32A decreases to 0.53 that at 16A; that the absorption rate is dependent more on the current applied to the storage than the temperature of the heat exchanging medium; and that, even in the presence of fluctuation halfway in the applied current, the total absorption will be equal to a case of constant current application if the total amount of applied current is equal. 2 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Hydrogen absorbing alloy electrode for metal-hydride alkali storage battery and hydrogen absorbing particles for metal-hydride alkali storage battery; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin ryushi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiyama, K.; Konno, Y.; Maeda, R.; Nogami, K.; Nishio, K.; Saito, T.

    1996-02-02

    For preventing degradation due to oxidation of hydrogen absorbing alloy to elongate the life of batteries, a proposal has been made to coat the surface of hydrogen absorbing alloy with electroless nickel plated film. When the surfaces of hydrogen absorbing alloy particles are coated with such electroless nickel plated films having low phosphoric acid content, however, absorption of the oxygen gas produced by overcharge delays to increase the pressure inside the battery because the plated film is unporous dense coat with high crystallinity. This invention relates to phosphoric acid containment in the ratios from 11 to 14wt% in the electroless nickel plated layer of the hydrogen absorbing alloy electrode for the metal-hydride alkali storage battery. Long time is required for the initial activation when the phosphoric acid content is less than 11wt% because the crystallinity of the plated film is too high and forms a dense unporous film. On the other hand, the plated film becomes brittle and tends to peel off from the hydrogen absorbing alloy if phosphoric acid content exceeds 14wt%. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Research and development in second term of hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET) in fiscal 1999. Task 2. Hydrogen absorbing alloys for discrete hydrogen transportation and storage; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 11. Suiso bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental researches have been performed on hydrogen absorbing alloys intended to be applied to stationary and moving objects. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. As a method for evaluating effective hydrogen absorption amount, proposals were made on definition and measuring method for effective hydrogen absorption amount assuming hydrogen absorption at 20 degrees C, and 10 and 30 atmospheric pressures, and hydrogen discharge at 100 degrees C and one atmospheric pressure. In the research of an Mg-Ni based alloy, the Mg based alloy having the Laves composition, treated by mechanical grinding was found to discharge hydrogen of 0.2 to 0.35% by mass at 423K. This discharge temperature is the lowest among the Mg based alloys having been developed to date. In the research of the V based hydrogen absorbing alloy, the V-Ti-Cr-Mn alloy was developed successfully that discharges hydrogen of 2.64% by mass when hydrogen absorbed at 273 K and 3.3 MPa is discharged at 373 K and 0.01 MPa. Furthermore, development has been made on the V-Ti-Cr-Mn-Ni alloy that shows high effective hydrogen absorption amount without being treated by heat. This alloy has as high effective hydrogen absorption amount as 2.47% by mass under the above described conditions. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 11. Distributed transportation of hydrogen/hydrogen absorbing alloy for hydrogen storage; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 11. Suiso bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were conducted to find out hydrogen absorbing alloys with an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 3 mass % or more, hydrogen discharge temperature of 100 degrees C or lower, hydrogen absorbing capacity after 5,000 cycles not less than 90% of the initial capacity, applicable to stationary and mobile systems. The V-based alloy that achieved an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 2.6 mass % in the preceding fiscal year was subjected to studies relating to safety and durability. Since V is costly, efforts were exerted to develop TiCrMo alloys to replace the V-based alloy. In the search for novel high-performance alloys, endeavors centered on novel ternary alloys, novel alloys based on Mg and Ti, and novel intermetallic compounds of the Mg-4 family. In the study of guidelines for developing next-generation high-performance alloys, methods for creating hydrides with an H/M (hydrogen/metal) ratio far higher than 2 were discussed. Mentioned as techniques to produce such hydrides were the utilization of the hole regulated lattice, novel alloys based on the ultrahigh pressure hydride phase, new substances making use of the cooperative phenomenon in the coexistent multiple-phase structure, and the like. (NEDO)

  7. Surface treatment method for hydrogen adsorbing alloy powder and alkali secondary battery fabricated by applying the method; Suiso kyuzo gokin funmatsu no hyomen shori hoho to sorewo tekiyoshite eraeta arukari niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sawa, H. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-03-07

    Corrosion of alloy proceeds in the conventional hydrogen absorbing alloy because the composing hydrogen absorbing alloy powder contacts with high concentration alkali electrolyte in the battery. Immersion into alkali aqueous solution and pulverization by metal fluoride compound of the electrode have been practiced to solve the problem, but internal resistance of the battery increases and the charge and discharge properties of the battery are deteriorated. This invention relates to a method in which hydrogen absorbing alloy electrode powder or the hydrogen alloy electrode whose main content is the said powder is contacted with alkali aqueous solution to increase the specific surface area of the hydrogen absorbing alloy powder, followed by its contact with pH3-6 acidic aqueous solution containing fluorine ions. As a result, corrosion resistance of the surface of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder after the treatment against high concentration alkali electrolyte is improved to elongate the cycle life. Salts of LiF, NaF, KF, RbF, and CsF or their hydrogen salts can be used as the supply source of fluorine ions. 3 tabs.

  8. FY1995 study of aid system for the elderly and the disabled using metal hydride alloy actuators; 1995 nendo suiso kyuzo gokingata actuator ni yoru kaijo shien system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Purpose of the project is to develop a transfer aid system for the elderly who need assistance in moving from a bed or a chair. It can make up insufficiency of assistant persons and can help to comfortably move the elderly. It has the highest demand in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. We have been designing an actuator using a metal hydride alloy for more than ten years and have confirmed that the actuator is very useful for developing the transfer. Furthermore, we have designed the transfer from a view point of human interfaces. This research was done under the above background. 1. We studied a comfortable posture for the elderly at an initial phase of standing to design the optimal knee pad using a life-size model of a transfer. Especially, we managed to lighten the burden imposed on the elderly by referring electromyographic signals at lower limbs and ground reaction forces. 2. Since the tactile sensation of the bottom of elderly person's foot gets dull, we designed a foot stage to prevent the elderly from the dull. 3. We determined the optimal mixture rate of a metal hydride alloy and developed an elastic bellows in order to design the actuator used for the transfer aid. 4. We determined the optimal compliance to prevent the elderly from a mechanical shock and designed a mechanism so that the transfer aid can work well. 5. Based on the above results, we developed the transfer aid using the metal hydride actuator. It was ascertained that it can lift a elderly person with 80kg weight by using only 40g alloy. Furthermore, it is proved that the transfer is not heavy (about 20g weight), small, silent, and moves smoothly by a battery on the market. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen (WE-NET) (Sub-task 5. Development of hydrogen transportation and storage technology) (Edition 5. Development of hydrogen absorbing alloys for discrete transportation and storage); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) . Sub tusk 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - Dai 5 hen. Bunsan yuso chozo you suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Surveys and researches have been performed with an objective to accumulate knowledge required for R and D of a hydrogen transportation and storage technology. With respect to the hydrogen absorbing alloys for hydrogen transportation and storage, surveys have been carried out on the rare earth-nickel based alloy, magnesium based alloy, titanium/zirconium based alloy, vanadium based alloy, and other alloys. Regarding the hydrogen transportation and storage technology using hydrogen absorbing alloys, surveys have been made on R and D cases for hydrogen transporting containers, stationary hydrogen storing equipment, and hydrogen fuel tank for mobile equipment such as automobiles. For the R and D situation in overseas countries, site surveys have been executed on research organizations in Germany and Switzerland, the leader nations in R and D of hydrogen absorbing alloys. As a result of the surveys, the hydrogen absorbing alloys were found to have such R and D assignments as increase of effective hydrogen absorbing quantity, compliance with operating conditions, life extension, development of alloys easy in initial activation and fast in hydrogen discharge speed, and cost reduction. Items of the transportation and storage equipment have such assignments as making them compact, acceleration of heat conduction in alloy filling layers, handling of volume variation and internal stress, and long-term durability. (NEDO)

  10. Report on the results of the FY 1998 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Survey on the R and D of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys (V. Development of the distributed transport/storage use hydrogen absorbing alloys); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (V. bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1998 results of the development of hydrogen distributed transport/storage use absorbing alloys in the WE-NET project. Study was made of improvement of hydrogen desorption characteristics by substituting Ca for part of Mg of Mg-Ni alloys and substituting Cr for part of Ni. It is necessary to shift the state of atomic bond by H atom and metal atom in alloys from the ionic bond to the metallic bond, and to change from the amorphous state to the BCC type crystal structure. It was found out that it was possible to do it by improving the composition and heat treatment. The addition of Cu to LaMg{sub 2} alloys shifts the bond with hydrogen to the bond with metal. Easy hydrogen desorption and large absorbing capacity can be expected. It was found out that LaMg{sub 2}Cu{sub 2} synthesized by the reaction sintering method has reversible hydrogen absorbing desorption characteristics. The absorbing amount is 2.4 wt%, the desorption amount 1.2 wt%, and the desorption temperature 190 degrees C. Those are still far from WE-NET targeted values, but a clue to the search was obtained. It was found out that by applying doping technology by Ti, etc. to NaAlH{sub 4}, characteristics can be expected of the desorption amount, 4.5 wt%, of the hydrogen desorption starting temperature from 100 degrees C to 200 degrees C. (NEDO)

  11. Autonomous navigation of the vehicle with vision system. Vision system wo motsu sharyo no jiritsu soko seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatabe, T.; Hirose, T.; Tsugawa, S. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-11-10

    As part of the automatic driving system researches, a pilot driverless automobile was built and discussed, which is equipped with obstacle detection and automatic navigating functions without depending on ground facilities including guiding cables. A small car was mounted with a vision system to recognize obstacles three-dimensionally by means of two TV cameras, and a dead reckoning system to calculate the car position and direction from speeds of the rear wheels on a real time basis. The control algorithm, which recognizes obstacles and road range on the vision and drives the car automatically, uses a table-look-up method that retrieves a table stored with the necessary driving amount based on data from the vision system. The steering uses the target point following method algorithm provided that the has a map. As a result of driving tests, useful knowledges were obtained that the system meets the basic functions, but needs a few improvements because of it being an open loop. 36 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Numerical analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor with winglets; Winglet wo motsu suiheijiku fusha no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Kikuyama, K.; Imamura, H. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-08-25

    The objective of present study is to show the aerodynamic effectivity of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor blades with winglets by means of numerical analysis. The winglet used in this study is considered to be an inclined extension of the blade. For the numerical analysis a vortex lattice method with a free wake model was used because the model can be fitted to an arbitrary blade shape and needs no empirical parameter about wake geometry. The calculations were made on the flow field in the rotor wake and the rotor performance, and the results were compared between the rotors with and without winglets. In order to examine the structural effects, the flap bending moment was also compared. The results shows that small installation angle of winglets is found to cause a larger increase in the power coefficient and a smaller increase in the flap bending moment than radially extended rotor blades. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen battery; Nikkeru/suiso batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwajima, S. [National Space Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In artificial satellites, electric power is supplied from batteries loaded on them, when sun light can not be rayed on the event of equinoxes. Thus, research and development was started as early as 1970s for light and long-life batteries. Nickel-hydrogen batteries have been used on practical satellites since middle of 1980s. Whereas the cathode reaction of this battery is the same as that of a conventional nickel-cadmium battery, the anode reaction is different in that it involves decomposition and formation of water, generating hydrogen and consuming it. Hydrogen is stored in a state of pressurized gas within the battery vessel. The shape of this vessel is of a bomb, whose size for the one with capacity of 35 Ah is 8cm in diameter and 18cm in length. On a satellite, this one is assembled into a set of 16 ones. National Space Development Agency of Japan has been conducting the evaluation test for nickel-hydrogen batteries in a long term range. It was made clear that the life-determinant factor is related to the inner electrode, not to the vessel. Performance data on long-term endurance of materials to be used have been accumulated also in the agency. 2 figs.

  14. Metal oxide/hydrogen battery; Kinzoku sankabutsu/suiso denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, M.; Niki, H. [Toshiba Research and Development Centre, Komukai, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    The metal oxide-hydrogen battery consisting mainly of hydrogen storage alloy has high energy density and high volume efficiency. However, it is disadvantageous that the self-discharge takes place since the discharge capacity is lowered due to the delivery of stored hydrogen from the hydrogen electrode. This invention relates to the metal oxide-hydrogen battery consisting of hydrogen storage alloy. Hydrogen storage alloy which is composed of LaNi5 system homogeneous solid solution having an equilibrium plateau pressure of less than 1 atm at 20{degree}C is used. As a result, the battery voltage change and the self-discharge can be reduced, and the cell performance can be improved. Examples of LaNi5 system hydrogen storage alloy are ANi(5-x)Mx (A = La, Mm, and Ca, M = Al, Mn, Si, Ge, Fe, B, Ga, Cu, In, and Co). LaNi(4.7)Al(0.3) and MmNi(4.2)Mn(0.8) are preferable. 3 figs.

  15. Development of new type of nonlinear optical materials with a function of ultrafast optical modulation; Chokosoku hikari reiki hencho kino wo motsu atarashii hisenkei kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, H. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Research Institute of Electronics

    1995-12-15

    Ultrafast modulation of second harmonies from a Langmuir-Blodgett film consisting of a ruthenium complex was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanism of the modulator of SHG intensity on laser irradiation was ascribed to the change of molecular hyperpolarizability of the ruthenium complex on going from the ground state to the excited state. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Visualization of flow patterns in shaking vessels with various geometry; Shushu no kika keijo wo motsu yodo kakuhan sonai no ryudo jotai no kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Y; Hiraoka, S; Tada, Y; Ue, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Koh, S [Toyo Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, Y [Keimyung University, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-10

    The flow patterns in shaking vessels with various geometries were visualized with a tracer method using aluminum powder. The spherical and conical vessels were effective for the shake mixing in the same manner as the cylindrical vessel, because these vessels have circular cross sections that develop the rotational flow. Neither a rectangular vessel nor a cylindrical vessel with baffles should be used for shake mixing, because rotational flows are not developed in these vessels. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Simulation model of a solar collector with a heat capacitance on TRNSYS; TRNSYS wo mochiita netsuyoryo wo motsu heibangata shunetsuki no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A flat plate type heat collector considering a heat capacitance was structured; assembled into a solar system simulation program, TRNSYS; correction was made on this model for permeation and absorption rates as a result of incident angles onto the heat collecting surface on which sunlight reaches directly; and effectiveness of the proposed model was verified from comparing the heat collection amount with that of conventional systems and measured values. The heat collection amount decreased when incident angles of insolation are taken into consideration, and the amount approached the measured value in the case of the system with a heat capacitance. Variation in temperature at the heat collector exit decreased when the heat capacitance was taken into account. With the case of having no heat capacitance, heat collecting amount greater than the actually collected amount was calculated for days with great insolation, and less amount was calculate for smaller insolation. However, the value as a whole has become close to the measured value, though slightly greater. A value still closer to the measurements was obtained when the incident angle is considered. As seen in a seven-day average, a model having no heat capacitance and not considering the incident angle had an error from the measured value of 38.6%, while a model having a heat capacitance and considering the incident angle had an error of 9.9%. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  18. 50-kg large-size cold crucible levitation melting apparatus; Teibu shuto kino wo motsu 50kg kyu korudo kurushiburu fuyo yokai shochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tadano, E. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-06-25

    With an increase in the degree of industrial techniques and the development of high-technology products in recent years, it has been demanded that the quality of high-purity metal materials be improved. The levitation melting method is a new melting method in which a metal material is melted by induction heating while the material is levitated in a water-cooled copper crucible. This paper made clear the principle of the levitation melting method and describes some problems in the development of a 50 kg-class large-capacity levitation melting apparatus and solutions to the problems. The development of a 50 kg-class levitation melting apparatus having a bottom discharging function was carried out on the basis of the results of discussion of the above-mentioned problems, and the noncontact melting of 50 kg cast iron and the noncontact bottom discharging of molten iron succeeded. This enabled the noncontact process of from the melting of a high-purity metal material and a metal of a high melting point to the casting of the molten metal. Since a continuous casting apparatus is provided under the crucible, the casting of an ingot and a rod material becomes possible. When a metal material is levitation-melted in superhigh vacuum, production of a superhigh-purity metal and a new metal material can be attained since the material is not contaminated by the atmosphere. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Radiation heat transfer of arbitrary axisymmetric bodies with specular and diffuse surfaces; Kyomen ranhanshamen wo motsu nin`i keijo jikutaishobuttai no hosha dennetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, S.; Aihara, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Fluid Sceince

    1993-10-25

    A radiation light tracking method was used to derive shape factors of arbitrary axisymmetric bodies consisted of specular and diffuse surfaces or an annular face element as a composite surface of the former surfaces. This paper illustrates the summary of an analytical method to calculate radiation heat transfer amount of these bodies using the shape factors, and describes the following matters: The difference between the shape factor obtained by applying this method to the inner face of a cylindrical body and conventional analytical solution can be reduced by increasing the number of splits in outgoing light. The numerical solution from this method on radiation heat transfer amount in the particular body agrees well with the conventional analytical solution. Radiation heat transfer amount when the specular reflectivity was increased either increases or decreases depending on the face shape, not necessarily changing monotonously. The paper further describes briefly a composite heat transfer analysis applied to a silicon crystal growing equipment using the Czochralski method, the analysis combining a radiation heat transfer analysis that splits the equipment interior into 88 annular elements with a general purpose heat transfer analysis. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Learning model of eye movement system based on anatomical structure; Kaibogakuteki kozo ni motozuita gakushu kino wo motsu gankyu undo system to sono tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Wakamatsu, H. [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    A learning system is proposed to explain the adaptive function of an eye movement consisting of compensatory and optokinetic reflex, and pursuit movements based on the brain anatomy and physiology. Thereby, the learning system is synthesized as an artificial neural network based on the structure and function of the biological neural network of flocculus. The role of neural paths into flocculus from stretch receptors of ocular muscles are discussed in detail from the viewpoint of system control engineering. The mathematical learning process is also shown taking into account the adaptive mechanism and the anatomical structure of vestibular nuclei. The experimental results through simulation confirm the validity of the hypothesis and the appropriateness of the inference process in connection with the proposed mathematical model. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Construction of cable-stayed prestressed concrete bridge, having Japan`s first independent single slanted tower; Nippon hatsu no keisha shuto wo motsu PC shachokyo no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y.; Naito, H. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, H.; Mikami, T.

    1994-08-01

    In the Hachinoe Harbor, Aomori prefecture, a man-made island (Hachinoe Port Island) is being constructed by reclamation. When proceeding this undertaking plan, a construction of the Hachinoe Harbor Port Island connection bridge, which connects the man-made island with the existing harbor district, was made an urgent necessity. This connecting bridge is a bridge with a total length of 256.56m, and is constituted of two span continuous PC slanted bridge and three span continuous PC box girder bridge. This slanted bridge has become an asymmetrical structure due to several conditions coming from a plan, and moreover it has the first structural shape as a road bridge in Japan, of which main tower is 15{degree} slanted independent single tower type, there are more problems for the work execution compared with other normal slanted bridges. In addition, because it is situated in an extremely cruel environment like in the cold region and in the marine environment, a sufficient consideration is required for its design and work execution in order to insure a durability. In this report, an outline of work execution content about PC slanted bridge part currently under a construction zealously aiming at a completion in the end of the fiscal year 1994 is introduced. 2 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. WE-NET. Substask 4. Development of hydrogen production technologies; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Under the hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy system technology project WE-NET (World Energy NET Work), researches were conducted aiming at the establishment of a hydrogen production technology through electrolysis of polymer electrolyte solution. In fiscal 1998, element technologies were developed for the development of high-efficiency/large-capacity water electrolyzing plants using electrodeless deposition and hot pressing, research and investigation of optimum operating conditions were conducted, and a service plant conceptual design and a polymer electrolytic membrane were developed. In addition, literature was searched for the current state of ion exchange membranes and water electrolysis, both indispensable for the hydrogen production technology discussed in this paper. In the field of lamination of large cells (electrode surface:2500cm{sup 2}), an excellent energy efficiency level exceeding 90% set as the target for a large laminated cell performance test was achieved - 92.6% by electrodeless deposition and 94.4% by hot pressing. As for polymer membranes capable of resisting high temperatures, a membrane with an ionic conductivity of 0.066S/cm at 200 degrees C was newly developed. (NEDO)

  3. Fundamental combustion characteristics of lean hydrogen mixtures; Suiso kihaku kongoki no kisoteki nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, D; Kido, H; Nakahara, M; Hashimoto, J [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    One of the excellent combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixture is that its emission is free of CO2, but the problem of NOx remains, mainly caused by the high combustion temperature. Using leaner mixture and carrying out EGR are supposed to be effective methods to reduce NOx. In this study, to examine the effectiveness of the two methods, fundamental combustion characteristics of nitrogen added lean hydrogen mixtures were investigated by chemical equilibrium calculations and measurements of turbulent combustion characteristics. It is suggested that nitrogen added mixtures can achieve lower NOx combustion than lean mixtures, taking the combustion efficiency into consideration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Metal oxide/hydrogen secondary battery; Kinzoku sankabutsu/suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosobuchi, H.; Ema, M.

    1995-12-12

    Since the shape of powder produced by crushing the hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element varies widely, the density of the negative electrode made by packing the alloy powder is low. As a result, the secondary battery employing this negative electrode has a small discharge capacity. This invention solves the problem. Employing the hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element composed of particle shape of aspect ratio, A, of over 1.0 and below 3.0 gives rise to the negative electrode with high packing density, improving the discharge capacity of the metal oxide - hydrogen secondary battery. The more the shape of powder of hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element is near to sphere, the higher the packing density of negative electrode made of the hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element becomes. The preferable aspect ratio, A, of the powder is 1.0 {le} A {le} 2.0. Such alloy powder can be produced by mechanically grinding the rare-earth-element-containing hydrogen alloy ingot, or grinding by hydration, or grinding by atomizing followed by sieving. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Metal oxide-hydrogen secondary battery; Kinzoku sankabutsu-suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosobuchi, H.; Edoi, M.; Katsumata, T.

    1995-06-06

    Recently, the metal oxide - hydrogen secondary battery characterized by employing the hydrogen storage alloy as the hydrogen negative electrode draws attention. However, the secondary batteries equipped with the negative electrode composed of hydrogen storage alloy powder have such shortcoming that the charge-discharge cycle life is rather short and it changes widely from battery to battery, as the hydrogen storage alloy is disintegrated. This invention solves the problem. Employing the alloy having a composition expressed as LmNi(w)Co(X)Mn(y)Al(z) (Lm = rare earth elements including La) can suppress the disintegration of hydrogen storage alloy powder during the charge-discharge cycle. In addition, controlling the oxygen content in the hydrogen storage alloy powder to 500 - 1500ppm can reduce the oxidation corrosion of the hydrogen storage alloy, resulting in suppression of its deterioration. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Both hydrogen and electricity chargeable battery; Suiso to denki de juden kanona denchi kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Kuriyama group of the Osaka Industrial Research Institute developed a new air-metallic hydride battery that is chargeable by both electricity and hydrogen gas. The battery uses a hydrogen storage alloy as the negative pole and uses active carbon coated with platinum as the positive pole. Potassium hydroxide aqueous solution is used as the electrolyte, and a space is arranged in the negative pole for contacting and absorbing the hydrogen with a good efficiency. The key point is the development of the hydride for energy storage that can well absorbs the hydrogen gas even it is dampened by the electrolyte. And the pole is prepared by pulverized the particles of rare earth hydrogen storage alloy having the particle size smaller than 150 micron meter, forming a Ni layer for a catalyst to absorb hydrogen, adding fluorinated resin dispersant for the sake of repellency and forming a sheet. In a test running, a half of hydrogen storage capacity is realized by charging for 30 minutes. And, 0.6 V electricity of 10 mA per unit pole area of 1cm{sup 2} is continuously obtained for 17 hours during discharging. While a third electrode is formed by nickel hydroxide, the battery is chargeable and dischargeable as the same as nickel hydrogen battery. Low cost and small size can be expected by a combination of respectively prepared fuel battery with nickel hydrogen battery. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Hydrogen battery car developed in Matsuda; Matsuda suiso nenryo denchisha wo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Matsuda announced that the hydrogen battery car 'Demio FCEV' was developed by the company. This new type car not only does not need an air humidifying machine, but also supplies the necessary electricity with an ultra capacitor of a large scale condenser. Its maximum output is 40 kw, the highest speed is 90 km per hour, and the accelerating time from the stop state to 40 m is about 5 seconds, the same level as a gasoline car. One time of hydrogen charging serves for 170 km running. As a hydrogen battery car, it is the third one in the world, following the DAIMURA in Germany and TOYOTA. (translated by NEDO)

  8. WE-NET Hydrogen Energy Symposium proceedings; WE-NET suiso energy symposium koen yokoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-24

    The research and development of WE-NET (World Energy Network) was started in 1993 as a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) project in the New Sunshine Program of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and aims to contribute to the improvement of global environment and to ease the difficult energy supply/demand situation. The ultimate goal of WE-NET is the construction of a global-scale clean energy network in which hydrogen will be produced from renewable energies such as water and sunshine for distribution to energy consuming locations. Experts are invited to the Symposium from the United States, Germany, and Canada. Information is collected from the participants on hydrogen energy technology development in the three countries, the result of the Phase I program of WE-NET is presented to hydrogen energy scientists in Japan, and views and opinions on the project are collected from them. Accommodated in the above-named publication are 30 essays and three special lectures delivered at the Symposium. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project research report. Interim report (hydrogen energy); 1976 nendo chukan hokokushoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-11-01

    This report summarizes the Sunshine Project research interim reports on hydrogen energy of every organizations. The report includes research items, laboratories, institutes and enterprises concerned, research targets, research plans, and progress conditions. The research items are as follows. (1) Hydrogen production technology (electrolysis, high- temperature high-pressure water electrolysis, 4 kinds of thermochemical techniques, direct thermolysis). (2) Hydrogen transport and storage technology (2 kinds of solidification techniques). (3) Hydrogen use technology (combustion technology, fuel cell, solid electrolyte fuel cell, fuel cell power system, hydrogen fuel engine). (4) Hydrogen safety measures technology (disaster preventive technology for gaseous and liquid hydrogen, preventing materials from embrittlement due to hydrogen, hydrogen refining, transport and storage systems, their safety technology). (5) Hydrogen energy system (hydrogen energy system, hydrogen use subsystems, peripheral technologies). (NEDO)

  10. Development of superhigh-strength mortars with compressive strength of 3000kgf/cm sup 2 or higher. 3000kgf/cm sup 2 ijo no asshuku kyodo wo motsu mortar no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohama, Y; Izumura, K [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Collete of Engineering; Hayashi, S [Onoda Cement Co. Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1991-08-01

    This paper discusses the preparation factors and curing conditions of superhigh-strength mortar, and explains a method of manufacturing superhigh-strength mortar having still higher strength and its superhigh strength generating mechanism. A recommended cement material for the superhigh-strength mortar is a Portland cement mixed with a high-purity silica at 20% and silica fume at 20%. This was made to a water-cement material ratio of 15% and fine aggregate cement material ratio of 1.06, cured in an autoclave, and further heat-cured at 200{degree}C for one day to obtain a superhigh-strength mortar. The compression and bending strengths reach 2,200 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 180 kgf/cm{sup 2} respectively when used with silica sand, and 3000 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 220 kgf/cm{sup 2} or more when used with stainless steel grits. The heat curing at 200{degree}C for a day increases remarkably the compression strength of the superhigh-strength mortar regardless of the curing conditions before the heat curing. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Local approach to brittle fracture under residual stress field. Assessment of pre-loading effect; Local approach no tekiyo ni yoru zanryu oryoku wo motsu buzai no zeisei hakai kyodo hyoka. Yokaju no eikyo no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Sakano, K.; Onozuka, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Minami, F. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on brittle fracture was investigated on the basis of the Local Approach. Compressive residual stress was introduced by pre-loading and the subsequent fracture test conducted with a 780 MPa class steel. Preloading apparently increased the critical load and critical CTOD at the onset of brittle fracture initiation. The Weibull stress criterion was used to evaluate the brittle fracture resistance of the pre-loaded specimen. The critical Weibull stress is a material property independent of test conditions with and without pre-loading. Using the Weibull stress criterion, the critical CTOD of the pre-loaded specimen can be predicted from test results of the specimen without pre-loading. (author)

  12. Funding Ammunition Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    a pure version of either approach, but MOTSU has a greater relative emphasis on working capital funding than MOTCO does. Figure 1.1 depicts how...midnight on September 30, the government’s coach turns into a pumpkin . That is the moment—at the end of the fiscal year—at which every agency, with a few

  13. Hydrogen energy technology development conference. From production of hydrogen to application of utilization technologies and metal hydrides, and examples; Suiso energy gijutsu kaihatsu kaigi. Suiso no seizo kara riyo gijutsu kinzoku suisokabutsu no oyo to jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-14

    The hydrogen energy technology development conference was held on February 14 to 17, 1984 in Tokyo. For hydrogen energy systems and production of hydrogen from water, 6 papers were presented for, e.g., the future of hydrogen energy, current state and future of hydrogen production processes, and current state of thermochemical hydrogen technology development. For hydrogen production, 6 papers were presented for, e.g., production of hydrogen from steel mill gas, coal and methanol. For metal hydrides and their applications, 6 papers were presented for, e.g., current state of development of hydrogen-occluding alloy materials, analysis of heat transfer in metal hydride layers modified with an organic compound and its simulation, and development of a large-size hydrogen storage system for industrial purposes. For hydrogen utilization technologies, 8 papers were presented for, e.g., combustion technologies, engines incorporating metal hydrides, safety of metal hydrides, hydrogen embrittlement of system materials, development trends of phosphate type fuel cells, and alkali and other low-temperature type fuel cells. (NEDO)

  14. NEDO Forum 2001. Session on hydrogen/PEFC (Toward realization of hydrogen/fuel cell society); NEDO Forum 2001. Suiso PEFC session (suiso nenryo denchi shakai no jitsugen ni mukete)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-20

    The presentations made at the above-named session of the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) forum held in Tokyo on September 20, 2001, are collected in this report. Introduced in a lecture entitled 'March toward hydrogen/fuel cell society' were NEDO's PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell) related project of its hydrogen energy technology development office and the WE-NET (World Energy Network) hydrogen program. Reported in a lecture entitled 'Toward the practical application of PEFC' were Yamanashi University Clean Energy Center's achievements in the study of polymer electrolyte film, electrodes and separators for PEFC, removal of carbon monoxide by selective oxidation, and so forth. Discussed in a lecture entitled 'Development of high efficiency energy system technologies for transportation and residential/commercial sectors' were the development of a hydrogen-fueled 1kW stack and the result of efforts to develop element technologies for power generation systems fueled by natural gas, methanol, etc. Explained also were the outline and the progress of the project in relation with the fuel cell popularization infrastructure construction project and the fiscal 2001 research and development and the future outlook in relation with the 2nd-phase technology development for WE-NET. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research on hydrogen production technology (Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical method); 1976 nendo suiso no seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report covers part of the efforts to develop new hydrogen production technologies. Out of many processes involving Cu-halogen and alkali carbonate-iodine systems proposed as novel thermochemical processes, after they are compared with each other, a process of a sodium carbonate-iodine system with nickel in between is chosen. The chosen process is deemed to be the most excellent among the processes disclosed up to fiscal 1975. A feasibility study is conducted for the chosen process from the viewpoint of reaction rate, separation of reactive substances from each other, method for reaction manipulation, materials for device constitution, and thermal efficiency. As for the measurement of reaction rate for each unit reaction, basic reaction data are determined centering about the nickel iodide decomposition reaction and the sodium iodide carbonation reaction, and then reaction conditions which are roughly satisfying are obtained. A larger reaction unit is built in which the amounts of substances that come into reaction are approximately 10 times larger than those in the ones used in basic experiments. The progress of reactions is observed in the reaction unit, with the size enlarged in preparation for future construction of still larger reaction units. Methods for selectively isolating hydrogen out of gases ensuing from the decomposition are evaluated from the viewpoint of energy efficiency. In the selection of a reaction manipulation method, a single unit reaction process is advocated, and its thermal efficiency is estimated. (NEDO)

  16. Report on achievements in research and development in Sunshine Project - Hydrogen energy. Studies on prevention of hydrogen explosion disasters (Fiscal 1974 through fiscal 1983); 1974 - 1983 nendo suiso no bakuhatsu saigai boshi no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    Experimental studies have been performed on prevention of hydrogen explosion disasters in attempting practical use of hydrogen energy. Regarding the prevention of disasters caused by high-pressure hydrogen, elucidation was made on causes of the fire, and estimation expression was introduced on size of fire caused by ignition. Measurements were also made on explosion limit and explosion pressure of low-temperature hydrogen gas. Furthermore, a flame arrester for hydrogen was developed. In studies on prevention of explosion of liquefied hydrogen, investigations were given on physical and chemical natures of a system mixed with air and oxygen, and on explosion causing sensitivity against impact to have elucidate danger of impurities in liquefied hydrogen. An experiment verified the effectiveness of carbon dioxide or powder extinguishing agent in the case of liquefied hydrogen fire. With regard to metal hydrides, elucidation was given on their ignitability in atmosphere and danger of dust explosion. In addition, it was made clear that containers may break down due to rise in internal pressure as a result of temperature rise, whereas safety valves were discussed, and models were decided. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen-fueled engine; 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Suiso nenryo gendoki no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The research aims to acquire data necessary for designing an engine, which is fueled by hydrogen stored in metal hydrides, for an automobile power plant. It covers the characteristics of hydrogen and their theoretical examination, basic studies on the turbulent mixing and combustion of hydrogen, research using a single-cylinder engine, changes brought into engine performance upon addition of hydrogen, etc. When hydrogen is burned in a spark ignition engine, flashback to the induction system is prone to occur. But this is prevented by directly injecting nothing but hydrogen into the cylinder. In the case of hydrogen fuel, there is the problem of thermal NO generation. Since a hydrogen/air flame is higher in temperature than flames in the case of other fuels, it generates more NO. As techniques for lowering the flame temperature, there are lean fuel combustion, water vapor injection, delayed ignition timing, etc. For the improvement of power and performance, increasing the engine revolution and pressurizing the inlet air are the methods, but both have their own shortcomings. An engine equipped with a third valve is experimentally constructed in this research, which is theoretically free of flashback, suppresses a reduction in the inlet air volume, and necessitates no high-pressure injection system. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Research on hydrogen energy subsystems (research on hydrogen fueled automobile systems); 1978 nendo suiso energy subsystem no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso jidosha system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes the result of discussions on hydrogen fueled automobiles in fiscal 1978. Hydrogen fueled automobiles have a difficulty in developing methods for transporting hydrogen, whereas the liquefied hydrogen method and the metal hydride method are being studied in parallel at the present. It is also necessary to solve such basic problems as the method for supplying hydrogen to engines, the injection method, and countermeasures for abnormal combustion. Safety assurance is also important. Very little information is available presently on methods for storing hydrogen inside a car and supplying thereof, which are required for evaluating utilization of liquefied hydrogen to automobiles. Demonstrative surveys and researches are required to acquire basic materials for hydrogen feeding methods in broader meaning including storage and control. Therefore, fiscal 1977 has begun trial fabrication of experimental liquefied hydrogen tanks, and preliminary and experimental researches on types and materials for feed pumps. Fiscal 1978 has moved forward improvements in prototype tank performance (heat insulation method to reduce evaporation loss), trial fabrication of liquid level meters, trial fabrication of feed pumps (especially selection of materials for the sliding parts), and researches on flow rate control methods. Drawings for modification and experiment of the liquefied hydrogen tanks were prepared, and the promising candidates were selected for material combination in pump sliding parts. Durability tests are continuing thereon. Flow rate control was also discussed. (NEDO)

  19. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D; Yamagami, Y; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research hydrogen energy subsystems (Research on hydrogen fueled automobiles); 1979 nendo suiso energy subsystem no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso jidosha system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes research achievements in fiscal 1979 in research on hydrogen fueled automobiles as a research on hydrogen energy subsystems. The previous fiscal year has researched heat insulation methods to reduce evaporation loss from a hydrogen tank, prototype liquid level meters, prototype feed pumps (especially material selection for sliding parts) and a flow rate control method. Fiscal 1979 performed measurements of temperatures in different parts in the tank to elucidate how the heat makes invasion. Measurements were performed for the pump on suction valve behavior, internal pump compression force, liner temperatures, and leakage amount. The status of operation was identified and a high performance pump for use in very low temperatures was developed successfully. The pump has high delivery pressure, good durability, and capability of fine adjustment in the delivery quantity. This made the direct injection system for hydrogen fuel possible. Injection of hydrogen into an engine was possible by vaporizing liquefied hydrogen and supplying it as a low temperature gas used at 0 to -40 degrees C. The system has high efficiency. Fuel feed control was possible at the same level as in the existing automobiles. The prototype direct injection system can handle stably the load in actual cars. Material for the fuel tank is an important problem in terms of weight, whose solution is urged. (NEDO)

  1. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  2. FY 1974 report. Study on hydrogen combustion technology; 1974 nendo suiso nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    In the use of hydrogen as fuel, there is the problem on NOx emission. The amount of NOx emission is not as much as in the use of coal or oil, but is more than in the use of natural gas or town gas. However, it can be said that hydrogen is an ideal fuel if considered that it does not emit other air pollutants such as CO, HC and soot/dust which are usually associated with hydrocarbon base gas fuels, and also that hydrogen forms a circulation system which is ecologically sound. The flame of hydrogen is non-luminous, but the flame temperature is high. The formation of NOx depends strongly upon the flame temperature, and therefore, in the design of hydrogen burner, it is necessary to well mix it with air and to avoid the production of the local high temperature region. Further, when using hydrogen to large boiler, the combustion technology to control NOx reduction is needed. About the hydrogen flame, the matter to be noticed is an experimental result that NOx reduction was observed by adding trace ammonia to hydrogen gas. If this method can be successful, NOx can be reduced with no increase in fuel consumption. It leads to hydrogen's reaching a position of clean energy. (NEDO)

  3. Summary of achievement reports on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978 (Hydrogen energy); 1978 nendo seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-01

    This paper summarizes achievement reports on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978 (hydrogen energy). In hydrogen manufacturing methods, studies are described on materials of membranes and electrodes used in high temperature and pressure electrolysis. In thermo-chemical method, studies are continuing on cycles of the iron system, iodine system, and mixed system (composed by thermal, photo and electro-chemistries). For the iodine system, summary design was performed on an experimental device. For the mixed system, trial fabrication and experiments were carried out on a beam radiation type electrolytic tank that electrolyses quickly HI and Fe{sup 3+} produced in the photo-chemical reaction, and separates the products. Discussions were also given on HI decomposition (hydrogen acquisition) by means of heat diffusion. With respect to storage and transportation, development is being made on optimal metal hydrides. In combustion technologies, discussions are given on combustors and catalysts to break through the dilemma of high NOx emission and frequent occurrence of reverse ignition. For fuel cells, the paper describes developments of the materials thereof, high-temperature solid electrolyte type fuel cells and alkaline aqueous solution electrolyte type fuel cells. Regarding the non-steady hydrogen engines, the paper describes fundamental studies on non-steady jet flow behavior using shock tubes, and single cylinder engine tests. It also describes hydrogen safety assuring measures, and studies on energy systems. (NEDO)

  4. Technology assessment on a hydrogen fueled aircraft system; 1980 nendo suiso nenryo kokuki system ni kansuru technology assissment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes technology assessment on a hydrogen fueled aircraft system. Indispensable as technological assignments are structuring different safety systems including prevention of leakage and ignition, not to speak of developing an airframe structure that considers cryogenic and brittle nature of liquefied hydrogen. Operation related industries would be subjected to increased burdens, such as purchase and servicing of new implements and materials, but the liquefied hydrogen industry will have a chance of growing largely with wide repercussions. In the environmental aspect, the aircraft will have less CO and SOx emission in exhaust gas and lower noise than the conventional jet aircraft. Technological problems to be solved in the development include the safety of fuel tanks, safety assurance measures, and liquefied hydrogen of the required amount to be supplied easily and at low cost. To meet these requirements, noticeable progress is demanded in hydrogen manufacturing technologies. What is also required is explosion-proof safety that does not have to require crews to take special considerations in take-off and landing, not to speak of during flight. This also applies to fuel feeding and servicing on the ground. Considerations must be given that rise in operation cost should not be excessive. (NEDO)

  5. Development of nickel-hydrogen battery for electric vehicle; Denki jidoshayo nickel-suiso denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research and development of battery, a main part of electric vehicle, have been promoted. Various batteries, such as lead battery, nickel-cadmium battery, nickel-hydrogen battery, lithium ion battery and so on, have been investigated for electric vehicles. Among these, nickel-hydrogen battery is superior to the others from the points of energy density, lifetime, low-temperature properties, and safety. It is one of the most prospective batteries for electric vehicle. Research and development of the nickel-hydrogen battery with higher energy density and longer lifetime have been promoted for the practical application by Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. This article shows main performance of the developed nickel-hydrogen battery for electric vehicle. The nominal voltage is 12 V, the rated capacity is 125 Ah, the outside dimension is L302{times}W170{times}H245 mm, the weight is 25.5 kg, the energy density is 60 Wh/kg, the output density is 180 W/kg, and the available environment temperature is between -20 and 60 {degree}C. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. High place working vehicles for nickel hydrogen battery powered distribution construction; Nikkeru suiso denchi kudoshiki haiden kojiyo kosho sagyosha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., in combination with the Aichi Corporation, developed a low noise and no-exhaust gas high place working vehicle that uses NiH battery as a power for lifting or falling a bucket and cutting off electric wires. It is the first in the world that the large scaled NiH battery is used in the application field other than used as a running power of an electric automobile. The main characters of the battery may be pointed out as follows. (1) It has the energy density as 2 times as a lead battery, so 2 times of working time may be obtained by the same weight battery. (2) It is maintenance-free (a periodic maintenance is necessary for a lead battery). (3) Reduction of charging efficiency caused by the heat generated during the charging can be prevented by development of a battery cooling system. (4) As the battery is low noise and no exhaust gas, it does not trouble inhabitant anytime. The new type battery has been used in the Mizusawa business office and tested there by the end of 1998. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1974 research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems; 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem sogoteki kento hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    Based on the contract research 'General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies' with Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, each of 7 organizations including Denki Kagaku Kyokai (Electrochemical Association) promoted the research on hydrogen energy subsystem, combustion, fuel cell, car engine, aircraft engine, gas turbine and chemical energy, respectively. This report summarizes the research result on the former of 2 committees on hydrogen energy and peripheral technologies promoted by Denki Kagaku Kyokai. The first part describes the merit, demerit, domestic and overseas R and D states, technical problems, and future research issue for every use form of hydrogen. This part also outlines the short-, medium- and long-term prospects for use of hydrogen and oxygen energy, and describes the whole future research issue. The second part summarizes the content of each committee report. Although on details the original reports of each committee should be lead, this report is useful for obtaining the outline of utilization of hydrogen energy. (NEDO)

  8. Surveys and researches on trends of technologies related to hydrogen; Suiso ni kansuru gijutsu doko chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This report covers surveys of the latest technological trends in relation to the production, storage, and transportation of hydrogen as energy. Also included in the report are surveys of hydrogen, fuel cells, and wind energy centering about Europe. At the 4th World Hydrogen Energy Conference (Pasadena, U.S., June 1982), a number of essays were presented concerning the utilization of hydrogen, production of hydrogen, thermochemical processes, hybrid processes, photochemical processes, photo/thermochemical processes, other processes, fuel cells, metallic hydrides, etc. This report particularly describes in detail the trends of technologies involving the production of hydrogen by the electrolysis of water and by thermochemical processes. As for the recent trend of the metallic hydride technology, reports are made on the International Symposium on the Properties and Applications of Metal Hydrides (Toba, Japan, June 1982) and on Japan's research on the application of metallic hydrides. Concerning the trends in Europe of technologies relative to hydrogen, fuel cells, and wind energy, the results of the research group's on-site investigations are reported. (NEDO)

  9. Summarized achievement report on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980 (Hydrogen energy); 1980 nendo seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-04-01

    This paper summarizes the achievement report on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980 for hydrogen energy research. In hydrogen manufacturing using the electrolytic process, improvements were made on membranes and electrodes. Solid electrolyte electrolysis is also under research. Researches are continued on reaction, separating operation, and device materials for the iodine system cycle in the thermo-chemical method. In the iron system cycle, a reaction experimenting equipment was fabricated on the trial basis, and tests and evaluation were performed on the material and heat balances. In the mixed system cycle, researches on the light irradiation electrolytic process were continued, whereas the light collecting rate was raised by using a lens to increase light intensity, having enhanced successfully the reaction rate to 60 to 80%. A heat diffusion column for HI decomposition and separation (hydrogen acquisition) was discussed in terms of chemical engineering. Development works are continued on metal hydrides for hydrogen transportation, and durability tests are also being performed. Same applies to hydrogen storage. A model burner was fabricated on the trial basis, and catalytic combustion was studied as development of a combustion technology that matches the requirements for safe hydrogen combustion and suppression of NOx emission. Searches were continued on catalysts and solid electrolyte materials for fuel cells. Thin film sold electrolyte fuel cells constructed by using the evaporation process are also being studied. The paper also describes measures for hydrogen safety assurance and researches on energy systems. (NEDO)

  10. Summary of the FY 1988 Sunshine Project results. Hydrogen energy; 1988 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Outlined herein are the results of researches on hydrogen energy as part of the FY 1988 Sunshine Project results. Researches on the techniques for producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water using a polymer electrolyte include development of power-supplying materials for electrolysis at high current density, and basic studies on the electrolysis using an OH ion conducting type polymer electrolyte. Researches on the techniques for producing hydrogen by electrolysis with hot steam include development of the materials, techniques for processing these materials, and electrolysis performance tests. Researches on the techniques for transporting hydrogen by metal hydrides include development of hydrogen-occluding alloys of high bulk density, and techniques for evaluating characteristics of metal hydrides. Researches on the techniques for storing hydrogen include those on alloy molding/processing techniques, hydrogen-storing metallic materials, and new hydrogen-storing materials. Researches on the techniques for utilizing hydrogen include those on energy conversion techniques using hydrogen-occluding alloys, and hydrogen-fueled motors. Researches on the techniques for safety-related measures include those on prevention of embrittlement of the system materials by hydrogen. (NEDO)

  11. Summary of the FY 1989 Sunshine Project results. Hydrogen energy; 1989 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    Outlined herein are the results of researches on hydrogen energy as part of the FY 1989 Sunshine Project results. Researches on the techniques for producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water using a polymer electrolyte include those on the SPE electrolysis at high temperature and current density, and basic studies on the electrolysis using an OH ion conducting type polymer electrolyte. Researches on the techniques for producing hydrogen by electrolysis with hot steam include development of the materials, techniques for processing these materials, and electrolysis performance tests. Researches on the techniques for transporting hydrogen by metal hydrides include development of hydrogen-occluding alloys of high bulk density, and techniques for evaluating characteristics of metal hydrides. Researches on the techniques for storing hydrogen include those on hydrogen-storing metallic materials, alloy molding/processing techniques, and new hydrogen-storing materials. Researches on the techniques for utilizing hydrogen include those on energy conversion techniques using hydrogen-occluding alloys, and hydrogen-fueled motors. Researches on the techniques for safety-related measures include those on prevention of embrittlement of the system materials by hydrogen. (NEDO)

  12. Surveys and researches on trends of technologies related to hydrogen; Suiso ni kansuru gijutsu doko chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This report covers surveys of the latest technological trends in relation to the production, storage, and transportation of hydrogen as energy. Also included in the report are surveys of hydrogen, fuel cells, and wind energy centering about Europe. At the 4th World Hydrogen Energy Conference (Pasadena, U.S., June 1982), a number of essays were presented concerning the utilization of hydrogen, production of hydrogen, thermochemical processes, hybrid processes, photochemical processes, photo/thermochemical processes, other processes, fuel cells, metallic hydrides, etc. This report particularly describes in detail the trends of technologies involving the production of hydrogen by the electrolysis of water and by thermochemical processes. As for the recent trend of the metallic hydride technology, reports are made on the International Symposium on the Properties and Applications of Metal Hydrides (Toba, Japan, June 1982) and on Japan's research on the application of metallic hydrides. Concerning the trends in Europe of technologies relative to hydrogen, fuel cells, and wind energy, the results of the research group's on-site investigations are reported. (NEDO)

  13. Study of hydrogen engine for a hybrid electric vehicle. 1; Hybrid denki jidoshayo suiso engine ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T.; Numata, T. Hiruma, M.; Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Furuhama, S. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    Study was made on application of a hydrogen engine to series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). Power of 20kW (for steady driving of a vehicle of 1t in total weight on flat road surface at 100km/h), and NOx emission concentration equivalent to that of EZEV (equivalent zero emission vehicle) were used as target performance. One of the merits of using a hydrogen engine for HEV is that conventional high-reliability gasoline engines can be used as hydrogen engines only by a bit of modification. A modified conventional 4-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine was used for this study. Hydrogen gas was continuously supplied through an intake manifold for premixed combustion by spark ignition. Brake thermal efficiency was improved from 30.5% to 35.5% by use of a high compression ratio and reduction of friction loss. NOx emission concentration could be controlled within 10ppm by ultra-lean combustion even at excess air ratios over 2.5. Both high efficiency and low emission were achieved at the same time around 3000rpm in engine revolution. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 3. development of liquid hydrogen storage equipment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 3 hen ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the WE-NET development of large capacity liquid hydrogen storage technology, a study has been continued with a target of 50000 m{sup 3} storage development. As to the result of conceptual design and various types of the thermal insulating structure, to confirm the performance, studies were made on the thermal insulating performance test and the strength test on thermal insulating materials to be started in fiscal 1998. The large-capacity common testing equipment for thermal insulation performance to be used in and after fiscal 1998 was fabricated, and the basic performance of the equipment was confirmed by the preliminary cooling test. Further, the test pieces simulated of various thermal insulating structures were designed to study the thermal insulation performance, reformation during the test, strength, etc. It is required to solve problems such as weight reduction of test pieces, prevention of reformation, retention of vacuum, etc. In the test on strength of thermal insulating materials, a test is conducted to confirm strength of thermal insulating materials at temperatures of hydrogen by the extremely low temperature strength test equipment. The studies on test pieces to be used were summed up including the items to be paid attention to during the test because the test situation is different from that in testing metal materials. Since hydrogen is a very flammable gas, much attention should be paid to safety during the test. 13 refs., 63 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 2. development of the liquid hydrogen transportation tanker); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 2 hen ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technology development is being conducted for construction of the long distance transportation tanker of large quantity liquid hydrogen. In fiscal 1997, test pieces of thermal insulating materials to be planned for fiscal 1998 were designed and studied. The purpose of the test is to confirm thermal insulating performance and behaviors of each material under the temperature of liquid hydrogen. The inside of the outer tank of the experimental equipment was held at vacuum of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr to exclude thermal convection effects and evaluate only heat coming from heater through the test piece. The heat from the heater at the lower part of the test piece is through the test piece and makes the liquid hydrogen of the upper tank evaporate. Thermal conductivity of the test piece is calculated from the evaporation quantity. As to PUF (polyurethane foam) panels, studied were reformation preventive measures, influential evaluation of the side transfer heat quantity, and the time required for vacuuming. In the vacuum panel, study subjects were extracted on the selection of core materials, reformation preventive measures, deterioration with age, the practical manufacturing method of experimental panels, etc. As to the super insulation, subjects were studied on the performance measuring method/accuracy, measures against heat transfer from the inside of the experimental equipment, control of the vacuum degree, etc. 10 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transport/storage technology (development of tanker for liquid hydrogen); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the tanker for liquid hydrogen transport was studied. In fiscal 1996, some experiments and numerical analyses were proposed which are necessary to solve technological issues extracted in fiscal 1995 for heat insulation structure. The issue was roughly classified into vacuum and non-vacuum insulation, and their basic functions and required performance were arranged. Boil-off rate of 0.2-0.4%/d was targeted. The insulation system which applies polyurethane form (PUF) to tank surfaces and injects atmospheric N2 gas into the surrounding hold space, could achieve the targeted insulation performance by PUF of 1m in thickness. The system of vacuum panel insulation and atmospheric N2 gas injection into a hold space required the panel of 500mm in thickness because of the large effect of metallic outer panel material. The system of vacuum hold and PUF panels was faced with the essential issue for realizing and maintaining vacuum hold. The super insulation system featured by layered insulation materials and vacuum layer spaces was also strongly affected by degree of vacuum. 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transport/storage technology (development of storage facility for liquid hydrogen); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the storage facility for a large amount of liquid hydrogen (LH) was studied. Gasification loss caused by heat input of LH delivery pumps was studied for liquefaction and power generation bases assuming an pump efficiency of 70%, and the total heat and mass balance such as interface conditions for calculating the amount of boil-off gas was reviewed. The target storage capacity of 50,000m{sup 3} was reasonable, however, the performance of loading arms should be examined. The capacity around 5,000m{sup 3} of coastal localized bases was reasonable for control delivery loss caused by coastal tanker or LH container system to 2.6%. The capacity of 500m{sup 3} was suitable for inland bases, resulting in the loss of 1.2%. The concept design of the storage tank of 50,000m{sup 3} extracted confirmation of low-temperature characteristics of adiabatic materials and structures, and development of leakage inspection technology and vacuum holding technology as issues. The concept design of the underground storage tank showed that the material specifications for LNG ones are applicable to it by using proper adiabatic structures. 4 refs., 72 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on World Energy Network (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transportation and storage technologies (development of liquid hydrogen storage facilities); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaiahtsu (ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An insulation structure suitable for large tanks was tested for insulation capability and strength at the liquid hydrogen temperature for the development of liquid hydrogen storage facilities. For the insulation test, a specimen was built of a porous solid material, and the specimen was given an additional duty of serving a test of a high temperature plate that was to impose loads on the specimen. The test conditions were not met, however, with too much variation in presence in temperature distribution. For the structural material compressive strength test, a method was worked out involving a hard urethane foam material specimen in liquid hydrogen, and was implemented. It was found that the specimen fracture that occurred was in the form of the collapse of the loaded surface. Tests were conducted at three temperatures, which were the normal temperature, the liquid nitrogen temperature, and the liquid hydrogen temperature, and compressive strength was determined for each of the three cases. No great difference in strength resulted from the difference between the two low temperatures. As for compressive strength at low temperatures, it was found that the strength was approximately two times greater than at the normal temperature. The above findings indicate that hard polyurethane foam is on the safe side when it is designed for the normal temperature. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on development and application of membranes with pores of micron to nano-meter sizes; 1998 nendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Makuro kara mikuro (nano mezo dai) size wo motsu, menburenmaku no kaihatsu narabi ni oyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researches on preparation of membranes of various materials have been promoted by not systematic technique but separate techniques according to needs of concerned fields. To establish the efficient technique for membranes with pores of required uniform size according to needs of various industries, survey and study were made on process optimization and low-cost production method. Porous membrane is the leading candidate for new separation systems as separation medium in chemical industry, hot gas filtration for energy production and environmental purification engineering. The electrode, separator and gas storage medium of fuel cell vehicles and next-generation batteries require effective porous materials. The workshop on engineering porous materials held in May 1993 confirmed the time of following materials: High-efficiency gas separation membrane, chemical catalytic membrane, fuel cell electrode and absorbent for environmental purification. Development of inorganic membranes more excellent in high-temperature stability, strength, catalytic activity and corrosion resistance than previous polymer membranes is important. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 9. Development of liquid hydrogen transport and storage technology Part 3 (Concept design of hydrogen liquefaction facility); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 9. Ekika suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu 3 (suiso ekika setsubi no gainen sekkei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on the aerodynamic design and seal design necessary for development of advanced hydrogen compressors for large-scale hydrogen liquefiers in the WE-NET plan. In the study on aerodynamic performance of impellers, 3-D viscous flow analysis of 2 types of new impeller forms (20 and 15 degrees) was carried out based on the study result on backward angle. The 2-D viscous flow analysis result on diffuser suitable for hydrogen compressors showed that improvement of the performance of a NACA65 type profile diffuser is possible. The study result on scale effect by using Casy's evaluation formula showed the efficiency difference of nearly 2.6% between impeller diameters of 1000mm and 300mm at 0.08 in exit width ratio. Study was made on hydrogen gas leak for spiral groove sealing selected as hydrogen gas sealing. The study on small capacity hydrogen liquefiers was conducted on the same process cycle as the 11t/d liquefier which has been commercially available. (NEDO)

  1. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of technology of hydrogen transportation/storage (3rd edition, development of liquid hydrogen storage equipment, report on results of Air Liquide); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (daisanpen ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu Air Liquide sha seika hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the fiscal 1995 study, items were searched which are keys to the design of a liquid hydrogen tanker of a capacity of 200,000m{sup 3}. Among those, the basic concepts were summarized which are necessary for the design of a liquid hydrogen tanker in terms of safety, and the extraporation of the existing low temperature technology into the large liquid hydrogen tank was studied. When adopting safety conditions of IGC Code applied to LNG to the liquid hydrogen tanker, it is necessary to limit the discharge amount of hydrogen to 3 kg/s. When considering safety at fire, for keeping safety of the same level as that of the LNG tanker, it is not appropriate to adopt the conventional vacuum insulation liquid hydrogen tank. In the fiscal 1995 study, 7 kinds of concept of the insulation structure were assumed, and it was concluded that BOR of 0.04-0.23/d was obtained. Also in fiscal 1996, the large liquid hydrogen tank was studied. For insulation of the large liquid hydrogen tank, the structure is most promising where AEROSIL bag or homogeneous AEROSIL is substituted for a forming heat insulating material of 4 design, but further study is needed for selection of the optimum heat insulating structure. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen - WE-NET (Sub-task 5. Development of hydrogen transportation and storage technology - Edition 3. Development of liquid hydrogen storage facility); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Sub tusk 5: Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - Dai 3 hen. Ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    With an intention to establish a technology required to build a hydrogen storage tank with a storage capacity of 50,000 m{sup 3} as the target shown in the basic plan for WE-NET, the current fiscal year has performed the technical literature surveys to identify the existing technologies. In the survey on the similar large storage system, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) was taken up, and the survey on the LNG bases in Japan was carried out. With regard to the existing liquefied hydrogen storage system, surveys were performed on the test site for developing the liquefied hydrogen/liquefied oxygen engines, the rocket launch sites, and liquefied hydrogen manufacturing plant. In relation with peripheral technologies for the underground storage tank being an excellent anti-seismic form, the LNG underground storage facilities were surveyed. Regarding the rock mass storage tank, surveys were carried out on the LPG rock mass storage having been used practically, and the LNG rock mass storage that is in the demonstration phase. In the research on storage facilities, surveys were executed on the forms and heat insulation structures of the similar large low-temperature storage tanks, the use record of the existing liquefied hydrogen storage tanks, heat insulating materials, and heat insulating structures. (NEDO)

  3. Survey and research on patent and information. Survey of standard terms (Hydrogen energy); Kijun yogo chosa tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu. Suiso energy (kento shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Collected in this glossary are terms for use in the development of hydrogen energy technologies. This glossary has been compiled, in view of the current situation where terms are used without standardization or distinction in various recent reports and publications relating to the development of hydrogen energy technologies, to prevent confusion and to help enhance research and development under the Sunshine Program. This is a 3-year endeavor that was started in 1979, undertaken by a committee consisting mainly of men of learning and experience representing organizations associated with the Sunshine Program. The terms are collected from research achievement reports and other materials covering the period of fiscal 1974-1979 relating to hydrogen energy projects under the Sunshine Program. Approximately 200 terms were picked up in the first fiscal year, and 85 in the second fiscal year. Attached to each of the Japanese terms are the pronunciation, a corresponding English term, and a brief explanation in the Japanese language. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2000 collection of manuscripts for technology development committee on hydrogen energy and the like; 2000 nendo suiso energy nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu iinkai yokoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-07

    The subjects listed in the collection are (1) the research and development of international clean energy system technology utilizing hydrogen (WE-NET - World Energy Network), including the outline of the project as a whole; research on system evaluation; research and development of safety measures; development of technologies for liquid hydrogen transportation and storage; research on low-temperature materials; development of hydrogen supply station and hydrogen-driven automobile system; development of supply station for hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water; development of hydrogen fuel system; development of hydrogen production technology; development of hydrogen absorbing alloys for dispersed hydrogen transportation and storage; development of polymer electrolyte fuel cell fed with pure hydrogen; and the development of power generation technology, (2) the development of closed type high-efficiency turbine technology capable of carbon dioxide recovery, and (3) the development of frontier technology of carburation using sensible heat in coke oven gas. (NEDO)

  5. Estimation of hydrogen bondings in coal utilizing FTir and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); FTir to DSC wo mochiita sekitannai suiso ketsugo no teiryoteki hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mae, K.; Miura, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to know coal condensation structure which has influence on coal conversion reaction, an attempt was made on quantitative evaluation of hydrogen bonding in coal. Using as test samples the VDC made from Taiheiyo coal swollen by tetralin and vacuum-dried, and its pyrolyzed char, DSC measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT) were performed. An FT spectrum comparison revealed that the VDC swollen at 220{degree}C has the hydrogen bonding relaxed partly from the original coal. However, since the change is in a huge coal molecular structure restraining space, it has stopped at relaxation of the bonding energy without causing separation as far as free radicals. On the other hand, the DSC curve shows that the VDC has slower endothermic velocity than the original coal. In other words, the difference in heat absorption amounts in both materials is equivalent to the difference of enthalpy ({Delta} H) of both materials, which corresponds to the relaxation of the hydrogen bonding. Therefore, the {Delta} H was related to wavenumber shift of the FT spectra (which corresponds to change in the hydrogen bonding condition). By using this relationship, a method for evaluating hydrogen bonding distribution was proposed from an O-H contracting vibration change that can be measured by using the FT spectra and a thermal change that can be measured by using the DSC. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Bond cleavage reactions of the bridge structure in coal in the presence of hydrogen donating compounds; Suiso kyoyosei kagobutsu sonzaika deno sekitanchu no kakyo kozo no kairetsu hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bando, N.; Kidena, K.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In this paper, bond cleavage reactions are discussed in relation to the softening and solubilization of coal. Were used 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (DHP) as models of hydrogen donating compounds in coal, and bibenzyl, 1,2-diethane, benzylphenylether, and 1,5-dibenzylnaphthalene were used as models of bridge structure compounds. They were compared mutually, as to reactivity of coal against DHA and DHP. For the homolytic cleavage of bridges, DHA with excellent radical supplement performance provided excellent hydrogen donating performance. While, for the ipso-position cleavage of bridges, it was found that DHP can act as an effective hydrogen donor. For the reaction between coal and hydrogenated aromatic compounds, cleavage of relatively weak bonds, such as ether linkage and dimethylene linkage, occurred at about 380{degree}C, and hydrogen from DHA or DHP was consumed. On the other hand, the results suggested that the cleavage reaction at ipso-position affected by hydrogen donating solvent is also important at temperature range around 420{degree}C. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. NEDO hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A report is delivered by Morio Murase, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, in which the general situation of hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology development is explained. Concerning the research and development of international clean energy system of hydrogen, the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project is described, in which a total system concept design and cryogenic structural materials that are the fruits of the 1st phase are mentioned. Concerning the 2nd phase, research and development to be conducted are discussed, and reports are delivered thereon. Reported concerning the development of high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation technology are a demonstration test using a pilot plant and a superheater demonstration test. Concerning the research and development for the advanced clear energy vehicle project, a development program is reported for an energy-efficient, low-pollution vehicle which is a combination of a hybrid mechanism and clean energy. Reported also is the research and development of supercritical fluid utilization, in which the reaction of supercritical water upon addition of solvent, its oxidation and hydrogenation, and so forth, are explained. (NEDO)

  9. Study on hydrogen storage alloy for NiMH EV battery; EV yo NiMH denchi no suiso kyuzogokin ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, M.; Tanaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Watada, M.; Oshitani, M. [Yuasa Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    We have developed a high performance hydrogen storage alloy (MH alloy) suited to NiMH batteries for EV use. During the course of the development, the effects of alloy composition and structure (B/A ratio in AB{sub 5}) on cycle life and high-rate discharge of MH electrodes were investigated using mainly SEM, XRD, TEM analysis. It was found that Co content and B/A ratio (5.1/5) of MH alloy have significant effects on corrosion resistance and high-rate discharge at low temperature. Further, the surface treatments of MH alloy with weak acids and hydrophobic agents were effective for improving the initial activation and for depressing the cell internal pressure build-up. (author)

  10. Design of hydroprocessing catalyst for the production of ultra clean fuels. Super clean nenryo wo mezashita jushitsu tanka suiso seisei shokubai no kokinoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hiromichi (National Chemical Lab. for Industry,Tsukuba, (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    In order to develop high function catalyst for the ultra clean fuel refining and other purposes, the catalyst was studied in correlation between the function and structure. Hydrogenation power of aromatic ring and hydrogenolysis power of carbon-carbon bonding, which are principal functions of catalyst in the hydrogenation refining, were evaluated with model material. 30 kinds of catalyst were figure shown in classification result of evaluation. As for the mutual operation of molybdenum and carrier, it is necessary for molybdenum sulfide to be highly dispersed on carrier in order to heighten the hydrogenation activity. While the hydrogenolysis activity, as necessitating electrically negative molybdenum type to be formed on carrier, is manifested by the formation of Bronsted acidity point with hydrogen sulfide, adhering thereto. As for the molybdenum sulfide catalyst, mainly hydrogenation activity point, in case that structure, similar to molybdenum disulfide, is dispersed as a single layer on carrier, and hydrogenolysis activity point, in case that it forms a multi-layer structure thereon, are formed in edge part of respective crystal. The lowering in activity under a long time sevre condition, which mainly are carbonic material deposition, matallic adhesion, etc., is also influenced by the structural change in catalyst. 10 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  11. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Hydrogen energy; 1977 nendo seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-04-01

    This paper summarizes achievements in the Sunshine Project related to hydrogen energy in fiscal 1977. In the electrolytic process in hydrogen manufacturing technologies, new composite materials are developed in relation with membranes and electrodes as the high temperature and pressure water decomposition method. A bench-scale water decomposition tank using organic polymer ion exchange membranes is fabricated on a trial basis and tested for studying solid electrolyte decomposition method. In hydrogen manufacturing technologies using thermo-chemical process, discussions are being given on cycles of iron systems, iodine systems and hybrid systems (mixture of thermo and photo chemistry and electrochemistry). For hydrogen transporting and storing technologies, metal hydrides most suitable for hydrogen storage are developed, and storage systems are studied. In hydrogen combustion, elucidation is made on fundamental conditions for mixed and single combustion technologies suitable for prevention of reverse ignition and suppression of NOx generation. Studies are also being made on fuel cells using aqueous solution and solid electrolytes. Studies on hydrogen fueled engines are also described. In hydrogen safety assuring technologies, discussions are being given on prevention of explosion disasters, prevention of embrittlement of materials due to hydrogen and criteria for safety assuring technologies. Descriptions are given also on studies on total hydrogen energy systems and hydrogen fueled automobiles. (NEDO)

  12. Summarized achievement report on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Hydrogen energy; 1979 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-01

    This paper summarizes the achievement report on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979 for hydrogen energy research. In hydrogen manufacturing technologies, the paper describes improvement in membrane performance and discussions on electrode materials in high temperature and pressure electrolysis. In the thermo-chemical method, hydrolysis of iron bromide (II) in the iron system cycle was compared to three kinds of reaction patterns corresponding to phase change, and evaluation was given as the hydrogen generating reaction. In the iodine system the first stage oxidation and reduction reaction of MgO-I{sub 2} was subjected to a continued experiment by using a batch autoclave. Discussions were continued on device materials for the iodine cycle. In the light irradiation electrolytic method for the mixed cycle, the light intensity was experimented at a force 12 times greater than that of the solar beam, and a reaction rate of 80% was achieved. Raising the temperature causes the reaction rate to decline, but it can be supplemented by raising the light intensity. A heat diffusion column was found effective in HI decomposition (hydrogen acquisition). For hydrogen transportation and storage, researches are continued on metal hydrides. In hydrogen utilization technologies, combustion, fuel cells (using high temperature solid and alkaline aqueous solution electrolytes), and hydrogen engines are studied. This paper also describes studies on hydrogen safety assuring measures and energy systems. (NEDO)

  13. Survey on the possibility of international cooperation on production technology of biohydrogen; Bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    R and D on the production technology of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the effective projects for worldwide energy supply technology and global environment protection technology in the 21st century. The research trend of various institutions promoting R and D on production technology of biohydrogen in the U.S.A. and other countries was surveyed together with the possibility of international cooperation. The production technology of biohydrogen is being watched over the world. Various researches are in promotion corresponding to environmental conditions as follows: search of not only photosynthetic bacteria but also such bacteria with hydrogen productivity as algae and anaerobic bacteria, and the gene engineering study for improving the hydrogen productivity of target microorganisms. All the institutions visited for this survey have great expectations in wide cooperative study in the future. On the possibility of international cooperation on the production technology of biohydrogen, the further precise survey should be promoted for developing more effective technologies based on the previous survey results. 156 refs., 10 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1974-1975 Sunshine Project research report. Hydrogen energy research results (National laboratories and institutes); 1974, 1975 nendo suiso energy kenkyu seika hokokushu. Kokuritsu shiken kenkyusho kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-10-01

    This report summarizes the 21 research results on hydrogen energy promoted by 3 national laboratories and 2 national institutes. (1) Tokyo National Industrial Research Institute (TNIRI): Ca-I system, Mn system, S system and hybrid cycles, and water decomposition reaction by CO as thermochemical hydrogen production technique. (2) Osaka National Industrial Research Institute (ONIRI): Fe system, Cu system and ammonia system cycles, and high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis. (3) Electrotechnical Laboratory: high- temperature direct thermolysis hydrogen production technique. (4) TNIRI: Mg-base and transition metal-base hydrogen solidification technique. (5) ONIRI: Ti-base and rare metal- base hydrogen solidification technique. (6) Mechanical Engineering Laboratory: hydrogen-fuel engines. (7) Electrotechnical Laboratory and ONIRI: fuel cell. (8) TNIRI: disaster preventive technology for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. (9) Chugoku National Industrial Research Institute: preventing materials from embrittlement due to hydrogen. (10) Electrotechnical Laboratory: hydrogen energy system. (NEDO)

  15. Collection of outlines of achievement reports for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Hydrogen energy; 1976 nendo sunshine keikakaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-04-01

    Twenty studies are outlined, which are: Hydrogen production technology using electrolysis (Osaka National Research Institute); Hydrogen production technology using high-temperature/high-pressure electrolysis (Showa Denko K.K., and 1 other); Hydrogen production technologies using thermochemical method (4 articles - Osaka National Research Institute; Tokyo National Research Institute; Hitachi, Ltd.; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.); Water decomposition by thermochemical and photochemical hybrid cycle (Yokohama National University); Hydrogen production technology using direct thermolysis (Electrotechnical Laboratory); Hydrogen solidification technology (2 articles - Osaka National Research Institute; Tokyo National Research Institute); Combustion technology (Osaka National Research Institute); Materials for fuel cells (Osaka National Research Institute); Manufacture of fuel cells (Electrotechnical Laboratory); Systematization of fuel cells (Electrotechnical Laboratory); Hydrogen-fueled engine (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory); Disaster prevention technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen, etc. (Tokyo National Research Institute); Prevention of embrittlement of materials used with hydrogen (Chugoku National Research Institute); Refining, transportation, and storage systems, and safety techniques for hydrogen (Industrial Research Institute); Hydrogen energy total system (Electrotechnical Laboratory); Comprehensive examination of hydrogen-using subsystems and peripheral technologies (Electrochemical Society of Japan, and 6 others). (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Technology assessment on hydrogen energy technology. Part 2; 1975 nendo suiso energy gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokuksho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research assesses the impact of development of practical hydrogen energy technology on the economy, society and environment in Japan, and proposes some effective countermeasures, the required technical development target and a promising promotion system. The example of technology assessment assuming practical technology several tens years after is hardly found. Hydrogen energy technology is in the first stage among (1) initial planning stage, (2) technical research and development stage, (3) practical technology stage and (4) service operation stage. In the first fiscal year, as the first stage of determination of the communication route between society and technology, study was made on the concrete system image of practical technology. In this fiscal year, study was made entirely on preparation of the scenario for imaging the future economy and society concretely, modifying the planning of the hydrogen energy system. Through comparison of the scenario and system, the meaning and problem of the hydrogen energy technology were clarified. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Technology assessment of hydrogen energy technologies III; 1976 nendo suiso energy gijutsu no technology assessment. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-31

    This report contains the ultimate results of the 3-year research endeavor on 'Technology assessment of hydrogen energy technologies.' The scientists engaged in the project express their impressions at the conclusion of the research, stating: 'In the development of hydrogen energy technologies, what is the most important at the present stage is to define the formation of the energy more clearly - in what shape or at what place - so that various activities in this connection will be organized.' They say also: 'Although the type of research effort of looking into technological possibilities is quite important naturally, yet such should been carried out with a sense of purpose which is definite and concrete.' Before what are stated above may be complied with, of course, systems for development have to be arranged allowing the scientists to act in the above-suggested way. This report consists of a general discussion part and an itemized discussion part. The former summarizes the intention, aim, premise, contents, findings, opinions, etc., concerning the research work; and the latter carries a gist of the 'Hydrogen energy system concept (draft)' which constitutes the foundation on which the above-mentioned details are discussed in the former. (NEDO)

  18. System approach on solar hydrogen generation and the gas utilization; Taiyo energy ni yoru suiso no seisei oyobi sono riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Hirooka, N; Deguchi, Y; Narita, D [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    An apparatus is developed to establish a system which allows utilization of hydrogen safely and easily, and its applicability to a hydrogen system for domestic purposes is tested. The system converts solar energy by the photovoltaic cell unit into power, which is used to generate hydrogen by electrolysis of water at the hydrogen generator, stores hydrogen in a metal hydride , and sends stored hydrogen to the burner and fuel cell units. It is found that a hydrogen occluding alloy of LaNi4.8Al0.2 stores hydrogen to approximately 80% when cooled to 20 to 25degC, and releases it to 10% when heated to 40degC. The fuel cell uses a solid polymer as the electrolyte. The hydrogen gas burner is a catalytic combustion burner with a Pt catalyst carried by expanded Ni-Al alloy. The optimum distance between the burner and object to be heated is 22mm. High safety and fabrication simplicity are confirmed for use for domestic purposes. The system characteristics will be further investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Flow field calculation around the measuring part of a circulated flow tank for measurement; Keisokuyo kairyu suiso sokuteibu no ryujo keisan ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, H; Ogura, R; Yamazaki, R [West Japan Fluid Engineering Co. Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    In order to increase a fluid dynamic understanding of the flow field around the measuring part as for the leveling of free surface of the circulated flow tank for measurement, the velocity and free surface profile at the measuring part have been calculated by applying the numerical fluid dynamics. The results were compared with actual phenomena. For the average velocity at the measuring part, inclining angle of surpressing plate, and quantity of water in the tank, the flow field simulation by the numerical fluid dynamics has provided a qualitative agreement with actual phenomena. Especially, it was clarified from the viewpoint of numerical fluid dynamics that the fine adjustment of the inclining angle of surpressing plate and quantity of water in the tank greatly affect the creation of horizontal free surface at the measuring part. Furthermore, effects of the length of measuring part and the ceiling tilt angle of pipe conduit in the downstream of measuring part, which were hard to be analyzed experimentally from the viewpoint of facility and cost, were investigated. Consequently, it was clarified that there are critical length of the measuring part and optimum ceiling tilt angle in the leveling of horizontal free surface. Thus, an instruction for designing was obtained. The present flow field simulation was useful for the fluid dynamic understanding of the flow field at the measuring part, as for the leveling of horizontal free surface. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  20. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  1. Collection of summaries of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1982. Hydrogen energy; 1982 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-01

    The collection includes achievements of research relating to hydrogen energy. In the research on hydrogen production by electrolysis, electrolysis of water using an acid-type solid polymer electrolyte and electrolysis of water using an alkali-type solid polymer electrolyte are taken up. In the research on hydrogen production by thermochemical methods, studies are conducted on the iodine-based cycle, the bromine-based cycle, materials for devices for the iodine-based cycle, and the mixed cycle. Hydrogen production using high-temperature direct thermolysis and solar radiation is also studied. In the research on hydrogen transportation and storage, use of metallic hydrides in these processes are taken up. In the research on the application of hydrogen, techniques of hydrogen combustion and hydrogen-fueled engines are discussed. In the research on hydrogen safety measures, technologies for the prevention of hydrogen explosions and of hydrogen embrittlement of materials in use with hydrogen are studied. In addition, a study is conducted of a hydrogen energy total system, and research and development is carried out for a plant that produces hydrogen by high-temperature high-pressure electrolysis of water. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 R and D report on environment-friendly hydrogen production technology; Kankyo chowagata suiso seizo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient oil-free environment-friendly production of hydrogen necessary for oil refining process and effective use of CO{sub 2}, this project develops the efficient hydrogen production techniques by using a capacity of microorganisms. On the R and D on improvement of screening and breeding for photosynthetic microorganisms, introduction of different hydrogenases, acquisition of hydrogen uptake negative strains, control of photosynthetic pigment expression, breeding of PHB synthesis negative strains were carried out continuously, and some problems were arranged confirming the contribution to increasing a hydrogen production capacity. On the R and D on large-scale cultivation techniques, engineering data were collected by using a module continuously. Based on the engineering data collected by the module test, the feasibility study was made on a possibility as industrial technology from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental harmony. Screening of bacterial strains suitable for 4 kinds of wastewater and capable of producing hydrogen under extreme conditions, and basic studies on photoreactor and cultivation technique were conducted by outside research organizations. (NEDO)

  3. Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration exponent on undrained shear behaviour of bentonites; Bentonaito no hihaisui sendan kyodo ni oyobosu suiso ion nodo shisu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, T [Kiso Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tokida, M [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    1994-12-21

    Because there is a report example that the yield stress of a landslide clay increases along with a decrease of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent, it is thought that a shear strength of the landslide clay depends on the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent. Furthermore, when the soil stabilization method by lime is applied to the soft ground and high organic earth, it is pointed out that the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent will become one of the harmful factors. Accordingly, it is understood that revealing an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affects on the characteristics of an earth is one of the important factors, to evaluate a strength, deformation and so forth of the viscous ground. In this study, in order to examine an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affecting on an undrained shear behavior of the bentonites, for the artificially adjusted bentonite specimens with 5 kinds of different pH, the isotropic consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests were performed, and consequently an influence of pH affecting on the engineering characteristics of the bentonites was made clear quantitatively. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Dynamics of hydrogen induced blistering of a low carbon steel sheet by lamb waves analysis; Ramuha no teiryo kaiseki ni yoru hakubanteitansoko no suiso hare no dainamikkusu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Teruyoshi.; Takemoto, Mikio. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1999-06-15

    With the aim of studying the fracture dynamics of environmentally assisted fractures in thin plates, we developed a new source simulation method of the zeroth-order symmetric (or S{sub 0}-) Lamb wave using the experimental overall-transfer function of the system. The transfer function was determined by the time-domain deconvolution of detected S{sub 0}-Lamb component by the artificial fracture source of a compression -type PZT element whose vibration kinetics was estimated by the iteration so that the S{sub o}-waveform detected. Hydrogen induced blistering was found to be caused by the succession of fast Mode-I fracture with source rise times from 0.6 to 1.0{mu}s. The crack volume estimated by the source simulation corresponded to that of fine blistering with an opening displacement of 5{mu}m. As the estimated fracture kinetics of hydrogen blistering coincide with those of delayed fracture of high tension low alloy steel under tensile loading, the kinetics of first and micro-fractures and blistering induced by hydrogen gas precipitation appears to be independent on the hydrogen solubility and strength of steels, the applied stresses and the orientation of cracks. (author)

  5. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1998 annual summary of hydrogen energy R and D; New sunshine keikaku 1998 nendo seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Summarized herein are the reports on R and D efforts on hydrogen energy, as part of the FY 1998 New Sunshine Project. For production of hydrogen, characteristics related to transport number were investigated for steam electrolysis at high temperature, in which a sintered ceramic powder was used as the electrolyte and the cell was equipped with platinum electrodes. For utilization of hydrogen, energy conversion techniques were investigated using hydrogen occluding alloys for testing methods for alloy microstructures and hydrogenation characteristics, and preparation of and performance testing methods for the cathodes charged with the aid of hydrogen gas. For analysis/assessment for development of hydrogen-related techniques, the investigated items included water electrolysis with solid polymer electrolytes, hydrogen transport techniques using metal hydrides, hydrogen storing techniques using metal hydrides, hydrogen engines, and techniques for preventing hydrogen embrittlement. Analysis/assessment for development of hydrogen turbines was also investigated as one of the 12 R and D themes reported herein. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Technology assessment of hydrogen energy technology; 1974 nendo suiso energy gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-04-30

    This is aimed at studying the relation between the technology development of hydrogen energy and the society. In Chapter 1, a meaning of technology assessment was examined. When applying it to the hydrogen energy technology, the paper presented what content it has. In Chapter 2, the needs for hydrogen energy in society were made clear in comparison with the energy supply/demand structure in Japan and characteristics of hydrogen energy. In Chapter 3, the paper showed what kinds of technology are being developed to meet the needs in this society and arranged viewpoints for evaluating the effectiveness of the technology. In Chapter 4, the paper studied the positioning of hydrogen energy technology in the future society, and presented as examples more than one hydrogen energy/system plans which become the base to describe the impact of the technology on the society. If taking technology assessment as a part of the communication activities between the technology development and the society as did in this study, these system plans are something like the ring for people in each field to talk with. In Chapter 5, the study made from each aspect was arranged. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. Removal technology of H{sub 2}S; 1980 nendo ryuka suiso jokyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1980 research result on removal process and equipment of H{sub 2}S from condensate and waste gas of turbine inlet steam and turbine outlet condensers of geothermal power plants. In the research on continuous measurement method of H{sub 2}S in geothermal steam, the continuous measurement equipment was completed by improving the heat conduction type steam qualitative dilution equipment developed in last year. The test result of this equipment in Onikobe geothermal power plant gave interesting data showing cyclic fluctuation of H{sub 2}S concentration. In the research on treatment of turbine inlet steam, both physical and chemical treatments were unpractical because of their very expensive costs. In the research on treatment of turbine outlet fluid by selecting RET method for waste gas and diffusion method for condensate, the field test result by using real fluid in geothermal power plants made it possible to select the optimum process according to conditions of turbine outlet fluid, and to estimate removal costs of H{sub 2}S precisely. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study of the hydrogen production technology (Study of the hydrogen production technology by thermochemical method); 1974 nendo suiso no seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    For the purpose of developing a new hydrogen production technology, a feasibility study was made of the copper-halogen system and alkali carbonate-iodine system processes presented as a new thermochemical process from viewpoints of the progress of reaction, side reaction, reaction yield, thermal efficiency, etc. The study went forward smoothly, has achieved the target in the early stage, and has been finished. In the study of optimal conditions of the process, the progress of each unit reaction was experimentally confirmed. By measuring the reaction yield, optimal reaction conditions for expediting the reaction were found out. As a result, it was found that the proposed processes proposed both advance rather easily, and was thought that those are worthy of making further engineering study. In the study of improvement and optimization of the process, since some altered processes are considered for the processes presented, an investigational study was made on a method to calculate thermal efficiency which is one of the standards for the process evaluation, and thermal efficiencies in various processes were trially calculated, based on the calculating method. As a result, it was thought that this process is equal to other processes. (NEDO)

  9. Report on the results of the FY 1998 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 7. Survey/study on hydrogen utilization technology; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). 7. Suiso riyo gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper described the results of survey/study of the FY 1998 WE-NET project. In Subtask 7, survey/study have been made on the main hydrogen utilization technologies except the hydrogen combustion gas turbine since FY 1993. Based on the survey results having been obtained, study was made on conditions for introducing promising technology, future prospects, etc. in FY 1998. As to the power generation, the basic combustion test and test on hydrogen injection equipment as element test, and test on ignition equipment were carried out using rapid compression/expansion equipment. A scenario for introducing hydrogen vehicle was made, and at the same time environmental LCA was conducted by which environmental influences can be assessed. The survey of the market of pure hydrogen polymer electrolyte fuel cells were made in terms of the electric utility use, industrial use, residential/commercial use, and movement/vehicle use. Study was conducted on the combined process of oxygen production equipment and He Brayton cycle in the subzero fractionation/low-temperature VSA method. Various methods including performance, price, etc. were surveyed/studied, making it a precondition that hydrogen supply stations are installed in stand-alone distribution near places of consumption. (NEDO)

  10. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of ultra-high temperature materials); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development of ultra-high temperature materials for parts of hydrogen combustion turbines, as part of the hydrogen utilization technology, which have excellent environmental protectivity and remarkably high efficiency. By the optimized solution heat treatment of monocrystal alloy developed in the previous fiscal year, obtained was strength property the same as the existing super alloys. As to FRC, pore size and strength property of SiC organic hybrid were made clear. ODS alloy cooling blades and heat insulation coating were studied, and YSZ was found to be most excellent as coating material. Concerning intermetallic compounds, the applicability to ultra-high temperatures up to 1700degC was not obtained. For improvement of heat resistance and environment resistance, adopted were highly compacting SiC matrix and BN coatings. Al2O3 was excellent in long-time stability. In the 1600degC steam corrosion test on multiplex structural materials with Al2O3 as surface material, chemical stability was confirmed. Three-dimensional woven fiber reinforced composite materials of C/C{center_dot}CMC were trially produced by changing the fiber orientation, and improvement in ultra-high temperature thermal shock resistance was confirmed. A study was made of spot observation of the specimen surface by laser microscope, and development was conducted of a temperature measuring method with no influence of radiant heat. 44 refs., 250 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (General research on hydrogen energy subsystems); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This report is composed of the part 1 'General research on hydrogen energy subsystems' and the part 2 'Outline of researches on every use pattern of hydrogen'. The part 1 outlines the fiscal 1975 activity and result, the latest research situation, the latest domestic and overseas R and D situations, some extracted problems, and the future research issues. The part 2 summarizes the research results of every committee with the following themes: (1) Hydrogen combustion technology (combustion characteristics and technology of hydrogen-methane mixture, home and industrial combustors, study on hydrogen energy system), (2) Fuel cell, (3) Automobile engine (merits and demerits of automobile hydrogen engine, problems and their possible solutions on hydrogen engine, urgent research issues), (4) Aircraft engine (prospect for hydrogen use in air transport in Japan, study on various systems around airports in hydrogen use, technical study on aircraft using hydrogen fuel), (5) Gas turbine, and (6) Chemical use of hydrogen. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on hydrogen gas turbine); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso gas turbine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research aims at establishment of the meaning of using hydrogen as gas turbine fuel in the hydrogen energy system and various conditions for hydrogen gas turbines, and approaches to the feasibility study and R and D of hydrogen gas turbines in the future. In fiscal 1975, researches were made on (1) feasibility study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, (2) establishment of various conditions for technical, social and economic realization of hydrogen gas turbines in the total energy system, and (3) study on technical troubles to be solved for realization of hydrogen gas turbines. For the above researches, study was made on hydrogen combustion based on the hydrogen combustion test result of gas mixture including hydrogen, and on the feasibility of aphodid cycle. In addition, study on the applicability of hydrogen-oxygen gas turbines, comparative study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, MHD power generation and fuel cell, and the future prospect of hydrogen gas turbines for ships were made to place this hydrogen gas turbine. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research related to hydrogen gas turbines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu. Suiso gas turbine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen gas turbines from among the comprehensive discussions on hydrogen utilizing subsystems. Hydrogen and oxygen gas turbine cycle has varying optimal conditions of plant efficiency depending on fuel patterns. The regenerative cycle may have the turbine inlet temperature at about 1,000 degrees C. The inlet pressure would be ten and odds atmospheric pressure. It is better to keep the inlet temperature higher in order to obtain high specific power. Reduction of power generation cost in using this plant requires that construction cost be decreased, and the specific power be increased if the plant efficiency (in other words, running cost) is assumed constant. Further development is required on technologies to use higher temperatures and pressures. For that purpose, discussions should be given on material development, structural design, and inspection. Hydrogen gas turbines, which present low pollution depending on combustion methods, have great significance for such social problem as environmental contamination. In terms of economy, since hydrogen gas turbines depend on efficiency and fuel unit cost, the evaluation thereon may vary depending on how well the regenerative gas turbines have been established, in addition to future change in hydrogen price and the technologies to use higher temperatures and pressures. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on the hydrogen engine for airplane use); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kokukiyo suiso engine ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    This study is aimed at using hydrogen as fuel for airplane engine in the study on the use of hydrogen energy to be made as one of the new energy developments. In the investigational study plan, technical/economical possibilities of the airplane engine using hydrogen as fuel and the airplane carrying the engine are grasped to make the details of the R and D clear by the end of FY 1976. By the end of FY 1974, the actual state in the world of the airplane engine using hydrogen as fuel and the airplane carrying the engine was grasped to make the problems clear. The detailed R and D are as follows. (1) Survey of the actual state of and the problems of the hydrogen engine in Japan and abroad (to be conducted in FY 1974). (2) Consideration of the conceptual design of the potential hydrogen engine, and possibility of the commercialization and prediction of the time of the commercialization (to be conducted in FY 1975). (3) Survey of type, performance, etc. of the airplane carrying hydrogen engine, and the actual economical value and demand (to be conducted in FY 1976). This paper described the results of the survey on hydrogen general and hydrogen use airplane. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 2000. Phase II research and development task-5 for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET) (Development of hydrogen fueled automobile system); 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 5. Suiso jidosha system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-5, the development of a hydrogen fueled automobile system. For a fast filling method using a hydrogen absorbing alloy as the fuel tank, a rare earth system, the Laves system, and a body-centered cubic system were selected to discuss filling time when the plate-fin system tank and the divided system tank are used. Either system was found capable of filling 80% of the effective hydrogen absorbing amount within 10 minutes, having achieved the target. Guidelines were obtained for the design aiding method by using the cooling water flow rates, temperatures, and simulations. In the safety assessment, even the spontaneously combusting alloy of Category 1 in the Fire Fighting Law did not cause ignition even if the tank was damaged and the alloy was discharged in the dropping/falling weight tests. It was inferred that the ignition temperature is not reached because of the self-cooling made when hydrogen is discharged from the alloy. In the fire resistance test, the tank temperature was found not to rise as long as hydrogen is discharged from the alloy. Since the temperature rise and damage could occur if the discharge has been finished completely, discussions are required on materials and the soluble plug. Deformation may occur in the initial stage of the hydrogen absorbing and discharging cycles, but it would not occur after 5,000 cycles. (NEDO)

  16. Elucidation of hydrogen mobility in tetralin under coal liquefaction conditions using a tritium tracer method. Effects of the addition of H2S and H2O; Tritium tracer ho wo mochiita sekitan ekika hanno jokenka deno tetralin no suiso idosei hyoka. Ryuka suiso oyobi mizu no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, M.; Saito, M.; Ishihara, A.; Kabe, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously reported that the tritium tracer method is useful for the quantitative consideration of hydrogen behavior in coal during coal liquefaction reaction. Tetralin is excellent hydrogen donating solvent, and is considered as one of the model compounds of coal. In this study, effects of H2S and H2O on the hydrogen exchange reaction between tetralin and gaseous hydrogen labeled by tritium were investigated. It was suggested that the conversion of tetralin and the hydrogen exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and tetralin proceed through the radical reaction mechanism with a tetralyl radical as an intermediate product. When H2S existed in this reaction, the hydrogen exchange yield increased drastically without changing the conversion yield. This suggested that the hydrogen exchange reaction proceeds even in the reaction where radical does not give any effect. In the case of H2O addition, the conversion yield and hydrogen exchange rate decreased into a half or one-third. It was suggested that H2O inhibited the formation process of tetralyl radical. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (R and D of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of ultra-high temperature materials); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the application to hydrogen combustion turbines, the R and D were continued of heat resistant alloys, ceramic composite materials, and carbonaceous composite materials. In the development of highly efficient super alloy single crystal materials, as to the single crystal alloy (Ni-5.3Al-0.5Ti-6.0Mo-4.8W-6.0Re) and an alloy made by adding 0.15%Si to the above alloy and an alloy made by adding 2.0%Hf to the above alloy, data on high temperature tensile property and creep rupture property were obtained, and it was confirmed that Hf added alloys were excellent in strength. Relating to the development of fiber reinforced ceramics, materials for trial fabrication were fabricated by the CVI method using SiC fiber, and the evaluation test was conducted to obtain the basic data. Besides, the following were carried out: study of coating for heat resistant alloy cooled blades, development of ceramic composite materials, development of ceramic multi-structure materials and analysis of fracture behaviors under the ultra-high composite environment, development of 3D fiber reinforced composite materials, development of technology to evaluate basic properties of ultra-high temperature materials, etc. 46 refs., 217 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on safety technology for hydrogen (Research on safety technology for hydrogen in distribution and consumption processes); 1975 nendo suiso no hoan gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no ryutsu, shohi process ni okeru hoan gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-25

    The experiment result on discharge and diffusion of hydrogen gas from underground buried conduits and compressed hydrogen gas vessels, and the hydrodynamic study result on gas discharge are as follows. The discharge experiment from underground buried conduits showed that the amount of gas leakage increased with a discharge duration linearly, and increased with a pinhole diameter at a rate more than a cross section ratio. Its underground diffusivity is large, and hydrogen gas advances as spherical wave uniformly within a certain discharge velocity. Gas leakage on the ground surface is affected by not buoyancy but wind (air flow) strongly. The discharge experiment from compressed hydrogen gas vessels showed that the diffusion concentration profile of discharged gas can be explained by conventional diffusion equation. Variation in gas pressure in vessels due to gas discharge, and durations until the end of discharge agree with hydrodynamic data on the whole. Thrust and change in gas temperature due to gas discharge can be estimated theoretically by the same manner. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Comprehensive examination of hydrogen-utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Survey and research on hydrogen production by quinon method); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sototeki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kinonho ni yoru suiso seizoho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    The quantum yield and conversion efficiency are measured during photosensitized water decomposition at an n-type TiO{sub 2} semiconductor electrode built from a rutile type single crystal, and the role of the TiO{sub 2} electrode is clearly defined. A method is tested of acquiring a photoactive TiO{sub 2} semiconductor as an oxide coating and an oxide coating electrode is fabricated, and its characteristics are determined and then compared with the above-said measurements. A WO{sub 3} semiconductor is manufactured, and its characteristics are compared with the above-said measurements. The mechanism of photosensitized decomposition at a semiconductor electrode is examined, and guidelines are established to follow for improvement on efficiency in semiconductor electrode-aided hydrogen production. Dark and light reactions are caused to occur by adding methyl viologen, potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium ferricyanide, and the photochemical reaction characteristics are clearly defined. Oxygen is generated by use of chloroplast. Use of an acrylamide membrane and an osmotic membrane enables a continuous 48-hour test. A solar beam is concentrated on a TiO{sub 2} electrode for a reaction of Q+H{sub 2}O{yields}QH{sub 2}+1/2O{sub 2}{up_arrow} to occur. A reaction of QH{sub 2}{yields}Q+H{sub 2}{up_arrow} is caused to occur as an electrode reaction. A current of 3.7mA and a voltage of 2.4mV are recorded on a fine day at the beginning of October, and 0.4mA and 0.2mV on a cloudy day. (NEDO)

  20. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (evaluation of the optimum system); Suiso riyo kokusai energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu (saiteki system no hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Based on the proposed cycle of each contractor, conceptual design of 500 MW class hydrogen combustion turbine power generation plant has been completed through its economic examination. The optimum system has been evaluated on the basis of the conceptual design. For the conceptual design of power generation plant, the gross power generation efficiencies based on HHV of topping regenerating cycle and new Rankine cycle proved to be 61.8% and 61.7%, respectively, which exceed the target efficiency 60%. Economic consideration proved that the construction cost of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. The development problem, development step and development cost have become clear. Examination on the reliability proved that the operation reliability of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. Examination on the plant layout proved that the conservation of space for each system will be smaller than that of current combined cycle power generation plant. Environmental examination confirmed that each system is very clean power generation system. For the evaluation proposed by each company, the total points of each system became in the order, topping regeneration cycle, new Rankine cycle, and Rankine cycle with reheat and recuperation. 112 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 8. Development of hydrogen production technology; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 8. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was carried out to establish a hydrogen production technology in the electrolysis of water using the solid macromolecular electrolyte method expected to be more efficient and less costly than the conventional hydrogen production methods. In the development of large area electrolysis cell lamination, a lamination comprising ten 2,500cm{sup 2} cells was fabricated, and a value exceeding the target energy efficiency of 90% was achieved. In the fabrication of stacks for hydrogen service stations, a lamination of ten cell stacks of 1,000cm{sup 2} was built, which achieved energy efficiency of not less than 90% at the an electrolysis temperature of 100 degrees C. A hydrogen production plant conceptual design was prepared under the conditions of hydrogen generation amount: 10,000Nm{sup 3}/h, electrode area: 10,000cm{sup 2}/cell, current density: 2.5A/cm{sup 2}, operating temperature: 120 degrees C, cell voltage: 1.705V, total number of cells: 976, stack constitution: 122/stack, and the number of stacks: 8. The result of studies placed the plant construction cost at 2.18-billion yen including building and civil engineering costs, and the hydrogen production unit cost at 28.4 yen/Nm{sup 3}. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using electrolysis; 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Denki bunkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The electrolysis of water is a hydrogen production technology known since early days. But the efficiency of a commercial electrolytic bath is found at 60-70%, which is too low to prepare for future energy systems. A high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis process is being studied for improving on the efficiency. For the realization of energy efficiency of 90% or higher, the conventional operating conditions of 90 degrees C or lower, 20A/dm{sup 2}, and 1.8-2.0V bath operating voltage will be improved to be higher than 120 degrees C, 20kg/cm{sup 2}, and 40A/dm{sup 2}, and the electrodes will be modified to work down at 1.65V. The tasks to discharge involve the materials (of diaphragms etc.) for constituting electrolytic baths, electrode catalysts, and electrode shapes. Tests are under way using a test plant capable of producing hydrogen at a rate of 4m{sup 3}/hr. In the analysis of water in a solid polymeric electrolyte, a combination of a cation exchange membrane and a catalytic electrode directly junctioned to the membrane operates as a unit cell. Development is under way with a view to realizing a bath operating voltage of 1.65V or lower at 100A/dm{sup 2}. Since this process still wants much basic research and the materials for bath construction for the process are expensive, further development endeavors will have to be exerted. (NEDO)

  3. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of the main component devices such as turbine blades and rotors); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development relating to hydrogen combustion turbines, as one of the hydrogen utilization technologies, which have excellent environmentality and are expected of remarkably high efficiency. In the film cooling system of first-stage moving/stationary blades, the smaller the pitch of film pore is, the higher the mean cooling efficiency becomes, indicating 0.7 at maximum. As compared with the conventional shower head type, the metal temperature can be reduced 30-40degC. In the recovery type inner (convection) cooling system, by reducing the blade number, the consumption amount of coolant can be reduced 6% in stationary blade and 13% in moving blade, as compared with the result of the preceding year. In the element test of the hybrid cooling system, film cooling efficiency was actually measured by the porous module test equipment, and the result well agreed with the calculation result. In the water cooling system, studied were water (stationary blade) and vapor (moving blade) of the closed cooling structure for realization of a cycle efficiency of 60%. In rotor/disk cooling, analyses were made of seal characteristic grasp tests and characteristics of the rotor. The effect of deflection in the mainstream was small. Besides, proper value of the seal overlapping amount could be obtained. 6 refs., 368 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process (Research on cycles of Fe systems etc.); 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Netsu kagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu (tetsukei cycle nado no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Collected in this report are the results of efforts of the Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka, in the 7-year period that began in fiscal 1974. The Institute, after looking for basic reactions in thermochemical cycles which are promising, has come to propose a new cycle in which iron and bromine are the reactants. In the research, the Fe-Br reaction is divided into a hydrogen generating loop and an oxygen generating loop, both to be developed into devices. Problems in developing them into a cycle are isolated, and solved. In the hydrogen generating loop, the use of a molten salt is contrived for the prevention of reduction in the reactivity of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to be generated, and now it is expected that the problem will be solved. No problem is detected in the oxygen generating loop. The process is now accepted as a superb one. As for the materials for the Fe-Br-based cycle apparatus, important tasks have to be undertaken since existing materials cannot be used as is. Besides, thermal efficiency etc. are estimated for a new As-Br-based hybrid cycle and the Fe-Br-based cycle. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Investigational study on the hydrogen production method by the quinone method); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kinonho ni yoru suiso seizoho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    This is aimed at making an investigational study on the hydrogen production from water by means of quinone compounds. The paper studied a preparation method in case of using n-TiO2 photosemiconductor and p-GaAs and Gap photosemiconductor to photoelectrode as catalysts of this reaction. The reaction from p-benzoquinone to p-hydroquinone by reaction with H2O were studied in terms of photochemical reaction, and light reaction/dark reaction of photosemiconductor electrode. As a result, it was found out that this reaction easily advances by the photochemical reaction by solar light, and also that it advances by the counter electrode Pt electrode reaction in the water electrolysis of n-TiO2 photosemiconductor electrode. The H2 production reaction from p-hydrogquinone was studied in terms of the photochemical reaction, photosemiconductor electrode reaction, and effects of the catalysis of electron transport of metal salts, methylviologen, etc. As a result, in the n-TiO2 photosemiconductor electrode reaction, H2 formation was not as great as it can be confirmed. However, it was found that p-hydroquinone can produce H2 under the existence of methylviologen or Fe salts. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on peripheral technologies around hydrogen); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1975 research result on peripheral and seed technologies for hydrogen energy systems. Chapter 1 'Evaluation method for thermochemical techniques' reports critical study on qualitative evaluation method, estimation method for thermal efficiencies, and trial cost calculation example. Chapter 2 'Current state and problems of water electrolysis and hybrid technique composed of electrolysis and thermochemical technique' reports general survey on current water electrolysis and new technologies under development to clarify possible electrolytic voltage drop, from the practical viewpoint. Chapter 3 'Use of a high- temperature gas cooling reactor for hydrogen production' reports survey on the current and future reactors, and characteristics of such nuclear reactors, from the viewpoint that study on thermochemical technique is dependent on use of a high-temperature gas cooling reactor. Chapter 4 'Hydrogen transport and storage technology using organic compounds including oxygen' reports that acetone-isopropanol system is better for hydrogen storage. Chapter 5 'Water electrolysis using photo-semiconducting electrode' reports the additional survey. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on the periphery technology of hydrogen); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    This is aimed at making an investigational study on the periphery technology and sprouting technology of the hydrogen energy system. In Volume 1, 'Technology of hydrogen production,' as to the hydrogen production, the paper summed up the expected technical subjects on the electrolysis method and thermochemical method. The paper further included the survey of the direct pyrolysis method and the hydrogen production method using solar energy. Concerning the latter, in Volume 2, the light electrode reaction was theoretically developed, and samples of various hybrid methods were concretely studied. In relation to subjects on hydrogen and materials, in Volume 3, the results were described of the investigation into the hydrogen behavior in metal which is the most basic field of the subjects. About the storage method which is important as periphery technology, the study was made of the methods which can be expected but liquefied hydrogen and metal hydride which are now under research and development. In the last volume, as a part of the work to review the hydrogen energy system from a wider viewpoint, the basic study was additionally made in comparison with the system using coal. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 8) - development of hydrogen production technology; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 8. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    R and D was conducted with the view of establishing hydrogen production technology based on the solid high polymer electrolyte water electrolysis method, which presumably offers higher efficiency and lower cost than conventional methods. This year, as well as implementing development of large-scale cell lamination (electrode area 2,500 cm{sup 2}, 10 cells) by using two hydrogen production methods (electroless plating method and hot press method), work was started for developing cells (electrode area 1,000 cm{sup 2}) for hydrogen stations. In the research on longterm durability improvement, with a 50 cm{sup 2} membrane electrolyte or cell, the evaluation test results were obtained of stable electrolytic performance showing more than 93% energy efficiency after 400 hour operation, under the conditions with electrolysis pressure 0.4MPa and electrolysis temperature 120 degree C. In a test of 1,000 cm{sup 2} prototype cell for hydrogen stations, the evaluation result was obtained for energy efficiency of 92% under the conditions with electrolysis pressure 0.5MPa and electrolysis temperature 120 degree C; thus, this year's target efficiency of over 90% was achieved. Further, enhancement of the quality was contrived for example by improving the electroless plating method and remodeling a roll press machine. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper describes comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems. Hydrogen combustion is characterized by how low the ignition energy is, and how fast the flame propagates. In addition, flame stability is high also in diffusion combustion. However, the diffusion combustion produces a great amount of NOx, the amount varying depending on the degree of air pre-mixture. Since it causes reverse ignition very easily in the pre-mixture degree corresponding to low NOx zone, development of a burner with drastically new mechanism is demanded. In hydrogen fuel cells, the ratio of hydrogen fuel cost accounting for in the power generation cost is very high. As an automobile fuel, very much leaner combustion is possible than in conventional internal combustion engines, and ignition energy is small. However, such abnormal combustion as reverse ignition and early ignition may occur, and their prevention is an important assignment. Issues in aircraft engines are verification of safety, and cost of liquefied hydrogen. Steam turbines have reached their limit already, but gas turbines are expected of exciting efficiency improvement. This paper describes prospects on chemical utilization of hydrogen in the existing fields and new fields. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program research and development. Research on safety technology for hydrogen (Research on safety technology applicable to distribution and consumption processes of hydrogen); 1976 nendo suiso no hoan gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no ryutsu process ni okeru hoan gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-31

    Evaporation/diffusion tests are conducted in which 10 liters of liquid hydrogen is discharged instantaneously from a certain altitude toward the middle of spill surfaces. Four types of spill surfaces are used, which are soil, concrete, crushed stone, and water. Tests of continuous discharge of 50 liters of liquid hydrogen and of ignition/combustion are also carried out. The evaporation/diffusion phenomenon of liquid hydrogen is found to be greatly varied dependent on the spill surface type. The rising speed of the visible vapor mass is fairly great, and is approximately 1m/sec or more on any of the spill surfaces. Vapor diffusion is the fastest on the crushed stone spill surface where lateral expansion is the least, which is excellent from the viewpoint of safety. It is found that the rise of the vapor mass formed just after liquid hydrogen discharge is attributable to its own buoyancy. The flame of burning hydrogen is colorless and transparent, barely visible just like shimmering heat haze. When sodium bicarbonate power is lightly scattered all over the flame, it becomes obviously visible because of its turning orange due to the color flame reaction of sodium. Documentary records are also investigated. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of ultrahigh-temperature materials); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Cho koon zairyo no kaihatsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Current technologies are surveyed and tasks to discharge are extracted relating to heat resistant alloys, intermetallic compounds, ceramic based composite materials, and carbon based composite materials, which are expected to be used for hydrogen combustion turbines. Concerning oxide dispersion strengthened alloys for cooled vanes, tasks to discharge are extracted, which relate to the designing, development, and selection of vane materials, bonding layer materials, and coating materials, and to thermal barrier coating techniques and machining techniques. Concerning porous fiber reinforced ceramic materials for ceramic shells, tasks involve the elucidation of corrosion behavior and manufacturing techniques. MoSi{sub 2}, which is a promising high-melting intermetallic compound, also presents some tasks to discharge for an increase in its high strength and high ductility in an ultrahigh-temperature steam/reducing atmosphere, and for improvement in manufacturing techniques. For the carbon/carbon composite material which is the sole material usable in the ultrahigh-temperature domain of 2,000 degrees C, an analysis and evaluation method taking its anisotropy into consideration needs to be developed, and an oxidation resistant coating has to be also developed. In addition to the designing and development of these materials, development is necessary of materials testing and evaluating techniques. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on a hydrogen utilizing subsystem and research on peripheral technologies (Research on peripheral technologies for hydrogen); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper describes research on peripheral technologies for hydrogen. For the cost of manufacturing hydrogen from different primary energies, coal gasification could be the lowest at the present time. In the nuclear power field, the thermo-chemical method and the water electrolysing method may be assumed, but they depend greatly on future technological development. Particularly the water electrolysing method is dependent on electric power cost. In the hybrid method, hydrogen is obtained from electrolysing reaction with water of sulfur dioxide derived by paralyzing sulfuric acid (oxygen is also generated). The method requires two forms of energies, heat and electric power, whereas combination with a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is being discussed as a heat source. This method may not be said greatly more advantageous than the direct water electrolysis, but may have future possibility. Hydrogen manufacturing utilizing living organisms is an interesting matter in terms of science and engineering, with a large number of research achievements beginning to appear. Expectation is drawn on the mechanism based on co-work of photosynthesis and a hydrogen generation system, alga and bacterium strain search, separation, cultivation, and applied research and development. Research is also under way to obtain hydrogen by converting photo-energy by using an electrochemical photo-cell utilizing semiconductor electrode to electrolyse water (color sensitizing) (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 4. Development of various kinds of common equipment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 4 hen kakushu kyotsu kikirui no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the WE-NET development of a large-capacity liquid hydrogen pump, a magnetic bearing was studied. The test piece is a 1/3 scale model of the actual equipment, in which two radial bearings and one thrust were combined, and the impeller and turbine blade were distributed in both ends. Ti was used to the rotor and turbine, permalloy to the electromagnet, and aluminum to the case. The flotation control is made by 5-axial control, and each control coefficient was so selected that rigid body primary and secondary modes can enter into the safe domain in control. Further, as the position sensor used for control, the one used to the liquid hydrogen turbo pump of the rocket engine was made opposite and was used with the temperature characteristic compensated. The test was conducted under the extremely low temperature environment of liquid nitrogen/hydrogen temperature. It was confirmed that the sensor and electromagnet work favorably. The rotation experiment was carried out under the extremely low temperature environment and enabled the rotation up to approximately 19000 rpm. The dangerous speed of the axial rigid body is in around 6000 to 10000 rpm, and it was possible to pass this. Further improvement will be made by the tuning of control. 70 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 9. Development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies - 1; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 9. Ekitai suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies. Discussions were given on the following three types of specimens as the heat insulation performance test structures: the vacuum panel type (polyurethane foam coated with SUS sheet, while the inside is kept in the vacuum state); the solid vacuum type (combination of polyurethane foam with vacuum heat insulation); and the powder under normal pressure type (a structure in which the ambient of powder pearlite heat insulating material becomes the atmospheric pressure, whereas a SUS case is set up to separate vacuum layer of the test apparatus from atmosphere layer of the specimen, with the SUS case filled with pearlite). Adding the two types of specimens used in the previous fiscal year, five test specimens in total were discussed on the result of the performance tests to advance the database management. As a low temperature strength test for the insulating materials, the compression test was performed on a microsphere being a kind of solid vacuum (normal pressure) heat insulating materials at room temperature, the liquid nitrogen temperature and in liquid hydrogen atmosphere. The compression strength under liquid hydrogen is 1,044 MPa, which is two times greater than the normal temperature strength of 496 MPa, representing the compression strength rising in proportion with temperature drop. Problems were extracted in developing a small capacity liquid hydrogen transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  16. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of combustion control technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1996 developmental results of hydrogen burning turbine combustion technology in the hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET) project. A test was conducted on an annular type combustor where oxygen is mixed with steam (inert gas) at burner and fired with hydrogen. Appropriate flame shape and cooling/dilution vapor distribution were attempted, and various data on combustion were measured for improvement. Mixture and flame holding were improved by developing a can type combustor (1) where oxygen is diluted with steam after firing oxygen and hydrogen around burner and by strengthening circulation in the combustor. Improvement such as appropriate steam distribution, etc. is needed. A can type combustor (2) was tested in which the premixed oxygen and hydrogen is supplied from scoop and fired with hydrogen. By supplying part of oxygen from the primary scoop, the residual hydrogen and oxygen concentration around the stoichiometric ratio can be reduced. Concentration of the residual oxygen can be measured by the absorption light method, but it is difficult to adopt the non-contact measuring method to hydrogen. An outlook for the gas temperature measuring method was obtained. 12 refs., 121 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study of the hydrogen safety technology (Study of the hydrogen safety technology in the distribution/consumption process); 1974 nendo suiso no hoan gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no ryutsu shohi process ni okeru hoan gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-25

    To put it forcibly, the gas leakage problem should be solved to prevent disaster accidents caused by high pressure gas. From this point of view, the R and D of the safety technology were conducted for the process of hydrogen distribution/consumption. The literature collected was studied, and the present situation was again recognized of the hydrogen gas industrial circle in Japan. At the same time, hydrogen physical properties and the peculiar dangers derived therefrom were comprehensively arranged. Examples of accidents tell realistically how dangerous hydrogen is, and give suggestions for treating hydrogen safely. We can see a lot of examples of how to treat liquid hydrogen in the U.S. It seems that there are no effective methods to detect the leakage of hydrogen, and methods to meet each case are required. To sum up, the research results show how much safety of the distribution/consumption process is secured under the present safety technology and legal regulation. At the same time, those also indicate how much the safety can be enhanced technically in the future. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on hydrogen engine for aircraft); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kokukiyo suiso engine ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-01

    This report summarizes the research results on (1) the prospect of an aviation system based on hydrogen energy, (2) the total system of aircraft based on hydrogen energy, and (3) the performance, structure and specifications of airplanes and engines using synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. In (1), study was made on air transport energy, and prediction was made on the demand of liquid hydrogen assuming conversion of petroleum fuel into hydrogen fuel in the future. In (2), the supply system of liquid hydrogen is essential in conversion of current aircraft fuel into liquid hydrogen. Such supply system over the world is also necessary in conversion into liquid hydrogen for both domestic and international airlines. In (3), in order to discuss the feasibility of liquid hydrogen fuel aircraft, the merit of such aircraft as compared with current aircraft using JP fuel, and whether designing a new airframe or modifying existing airframes, study was made conceptually on the size and capacity of airframe by statistical treatment and analysis of previous conceptual designs. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 4 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen production technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 4 suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a WE-NET subtask, a study has been conducted of the solid polyelectrolyte water electrolysis method by which higher efficiency and lower cost hydrogen production is expected than in the conventional hydrogen production method. Production methods of electrode, electrolyte, etc. were studied. In the electroless plating method, the manufacturing process of membrane-electrode assemblies was realized in a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} by the porous-surfaced method by studying manufacturing conditions for slurry membrane/membrane assembly/electroless plating processes. In the hot-press method, the refining degree and dispersibility of iridium dioxide powder were studied to improve characteristics of anode catalyst. A method was developed to form polyelectrolyte coatings homogeneously on the surface of electrode layer catalytic powder, and a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} was realized. Beside the performance test using large single cells, FS was conducted to discuss optimum operating conditions and optimum structures of plants. Both methods indicated the performance exceeding the energy conversion efficiency of 90%, a WE-NET target, at current density of 1A/cm{sup 2} and electrolysis temperature of 80degC. A key was found to a bench-scale development (electrode area of 2500 cm{sup 2}, about 5 layers) to be planned in fiscal 1998. 136 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1998. Hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (development of major components such as turbine blades and rotors); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to establish the fundamental technologies required to develop a pilot plant, by investigating development of such major component devices as turbine blades and rotors in a hydrogen combustion turbine. In the turbine moving and stator blade cooling technology, it is intended to achieve the power plant efficiency of 60% (based on HHV) as established in the interim evaluation performed in fiscal 1996. Therefore, the necessary element tests, detailed blade design, and partial fabrication were moved forward on the three kinds of the selected blade cooling systems as the cooling systems that can deal with the steam temperature condition as high as 1,700 degrees C. Fiscal 1998 will execute the design and fabrication of test blades and testing devices for blade cooling evaluation tests to be performed at Tashiro Township in Akita Prefecture. At the same time, evaluation and selection will be made on the three kinds of the cooling blades. In the rotor cooling technology, for the purpose of analyzing the rolling-in phenomenon of steam in the main turbine flow, a method will be developed to analyze rotor disk cavity temperatures based on CFD, the basic sealing conditions based thereon will be discussed, and generalization will be made on the rotor cooling technology. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 5. Development of hydrogen vehicle system; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 5. Suiso jidosha system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on the safety of hydrogen absorbing alloy tanks for hydrogen vehicle systems and the measuring method of a fuel consumption rate of hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles. In the impact rupture test of (mini-scale) hydrogen absorbing alloy tanks, the impact 3-point bending test result by drop weight showed no ignition caused by impact and friction energy acting on hydrogen released by rupture of tanks, and the necessity for taking spontaneous ignition of alloys due to fuel leakage into account. The experiment result on deformation and rupture of alloy tanks caused by expansion and contraction of crystal lattices due to hydrogen absorption and desorption showed relatively large deformation due to grain fining only within earlier 10 cycles, and no cracks nor other defects even after 1000 cycles. In the measurement of a fuel consumption rate of hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles, the study result on flow rate measurement method, full tank method, electric current method, hydrogen balance method and oxygen balance method showed that the electric current method is most simple, accurate and practical. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    A numerical model was prepared to express fields and size of hydrogen energy introduction in Japan's energy systems in the future. Dividing Japan into 13 weather sections, one to two energy bases (import and secondary production bases in coastal areas) were assumed on each section. Secondary energies produced in these energy bases are transported to intermediate bases, from which the energies are distributed into cities and consumed. For the purpose of simplification, final consumption departments are hypothesized to exist in these intermediate bases. Parameters that characterize the flows on networks in the processes of supply, distribution, production, storage, transportation and utilization are divided largely into energy efficiency and cost of the processes. The amount of energy demand in each final consumption department was defined as an amount to maximize the expected effects as a result of having satisfied the demand. The result of trial calculations revealed that, as long as the hydrogen to be introduced is limited to hydrogen produced via electrolysis using thermally generated power, the hydrogen introduction into the future energy systems is difficult in terms of economic performance. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on World Energy Network (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (Development of main accessories); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) seika hokokusho. 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (shuyo hokirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report covers the effort to develop hydrogen-fueled turbines under the international clean energy project. In the development of technologies for the use of liquid hydrogen cold heat, studies are conducted about the emergency stop of an air separating device for a 1,000MW power plant and about a backup system, various details and specifications are defined, and a tentative design is prepared for the whole system. Studies are made about economic efficiency, which lands on a oxygen production cost of 10.92 yen/Nm{sup 3}. In the development of high-temperature heat exchangers, the results are evaluated of the competition which has been under way since 1997 between two entrusted corporations over the topping regeneration cycle technology. In this fiscal year, the evaluation is accomplished by the main accessories development subcommittee, and the Toshiba Corporation wins first place, and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., second place. It is found, however, that the conceptual designs are both feasible from the technological point of view. In addition, tasks to study for the next project are put together. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 7. Development of hydrogen refueling station; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 7. Suiso kyokyu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of hydrogen refueling stand-alone stations for hydrogen fueled automobiles in the WE-NET. Supply capacity of practical size of 1/10, 30 Nm{sup 3} was selected as the object. For the natural gas reformed type hydrogen generator, discussions were given on design and manufacture of a reforming unit and a PSA device. The PCT diagram method was discussed to estimate the capacity of a hydrogen absorbing alloy type storing facility. Interface between fuel cell driven automobiles and the station was adjusted. For the solid polymer electrolyte water decomposition type, safety measures were discussed with a high-pressure filling system kept in mind. Detailed design was made on a water decomposing hydrogen generator. Fabrication was completed on the hydrogen absorbing alloy type storing facility, and verifications were given on the storage amount, hydrogen absorbing speed, and discharge capability. In the high-pressure refueling system, temperature rise was simulated at a pressure of 35 MPa. Refueling for ten minutes raised the gas temperature by 75 degrees C, and the container surface by 65 degrees C. Local temperature rise was forecasted in the actual work, which is a future discussion assignment. An outline method was discussed for the verification test. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of combustion control technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the development of hydrogen combustion turbines, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. As a hydrogen/oxygen combustor, the annular combustor was studied. Based on the results obtained by the last fiscal year, a combustor for the evaluation test was designed/fabricated. Oxygen is mixed with vapor at the portion of the burner, rotated/jetted (flame held by the circulation flow generated) and made to burn with hydrogen (porous injection). The smooth ignition and equilibrium wall temperature distribution were made possible. Concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were both less than 1%. Further, can type combustor I is a type in which hydrogen and oxygen are burned near the burner and then are diluted by vapor. Improved of the burner structure and diluted vapor hole, it was tested. In can type combustor II, a mixture of oxygen and vapor is supplied and burned with hydrogen. The appropriate supply of oxygen was 20% distribution to the primary scoop and 80% to secondary. In both combustors, smooth ignition was possible, and concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were controlled at minimum (approximately 1%). The evaluation method for the optimum hydrogen/oxygen combustor was studied. 142 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 7. Development of hydrogen supply station; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 7. Suiso kyokyu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on element technologies and system technology for hydrogen supply stations. In 1999, study was made on the total system of hydrogen supply stations, and basic specifications and total designs were studied for such main component systems of hydrogen supply stations as hydrogen production equipment with a reformer of natural gas, polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer hydrogen supply system, hydrogen absorbing alloy tank, and hydrogen dispenser unit. From the study result on the optimum operation condition of the hydrogen production equipment, a S/C (ratio of steam/mol of material carbon) of 2.5, reforming temperature of 700 degrees C, recycling gas ratio of 0.21, and air-fuel ratio of 1.3-2.0 were obtained. In the study on optimum hydrogen absorbing alloy, LaNi{sub 5} alloy system with Mn as additive were selected. For the polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer hydrogen supply station, the basic specification of a total system, and the remote control system of the station were studied and established. R and D themes in the future were also presented. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on the periphery technology of hydrogen); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    This is aimed at making an investigational study on the periphery technology and sprouting technology of the hydrogen energy system. In Volume 1, 'Technology of hydrogen production,' as to the hydrogen production, the paper summed up the expected technical subjects on the electrolysis method and thermochemical method. The paper further included the survey of the direct pyrolysis method and the hydrogen production method using solar energy. Concerning the latter, in Volume 2, the light electrode reaction was theoretically developed, and samples of various hybrid methods were concretely studied. In relation to subjects on hydrogen and materials, in Volume 3, the results were described of the investigation into the hydrogen behavior in metal which is the most basic field of the subjects. About the storage method which is important as periphery technology, the study was made of the methods which can be expected but liquefied hydrogen and metal hydride which are now under research and development. In the last volume, as a part of the work to review the hydrogen energy system from a wider viewpoint, the basic study was additionally made in comparison with the system using coal. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) - survey/study concerning international cooperation (Survey/study concerning standardization of hydrogen energy technology); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the aim of R and D of hydrogen energy technologies and the promotion of their practical use and proliferation, conducted were research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies and research/study on draft international standards proposed by ISO/TC197. In the research on the standardization, legislation, rules and guidelines for Japan were compiled based on reference to the materials in the 'sourcebook for hydrogen applications' which was prepared in the U.S./Canada. The Japanese laws and regulations applicable to hydrogen are the high pressure gas safety law, fire service law, industrial safety and health law, building standard law, law on prevention of disasters in petroleum industrial complexes and other petroleum facilities, road vehicles act, road traffic law, harbor regulation law, etc., with related legislation compiled under headings classified as pressure containers, gas facilities, consumption, transportation, explosion proofing of electrical equipment, list of laws, and related documents. In reference to ISO/TC197, the 8th plenary meeting and WGs were held during April 6-8, 1999, in the U.S., where the progress status report, study contents, future schedule for newly proposed items, etc., of each WG were reviewed and discussed. (NEDO)

  9. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation (standardization of hydrogen energy technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the basic study on standardization of hydrogen energy technology, and the research study on ISO/TC197 in fiscal 1996. As a part of the WE-NET project, the subtask 2 aims at preparation of standards necessary for practical use and promotion. Developmental states in every field of hydrogen energy technologies, current states of domestic/overseas related standards and laws, and needs and issues of standardization were surveyed. In particular, the needs and issues were clarified in relation to existing standards and laws from the viewpoint of specific hydrogen property. ISO/TC197 was established in 1989 for standardization of the systems and equipment for production, storage, transport, measurement and utilization of hydrogen energy. Four working groups are in action for the supply system and tank of liquid hydrogen fuel for automobiles, the container and ship for complex transport of liquid hydrogen, the specifications of hydrogen products for energy, and the hydrogen supply facility for airports. The draft international standards were proposed to the international conference in 1996. 16 refs., 21 figs., 41 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) - survey/study concerning international cooperation (Survey/study concerning standardization of hydrogen energy technology); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the aim of R and D of hydrogen energy technologies and the promotion of their practical use and proliferation, conducted were research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies and research/study on draft international standards proposed by ISO/TC197. In the research on the standardization, legislation, rules and guidelines for Japan were compiled based on reference to the materials in the 'sourcebook for hydrogen applications' which was prepared in the U.S./Canada. The Japanese laws and regulations applicable to hydrogen are the high pressure gas safety law, fire service law, industrial safety and health law, building standard law, law on prevention of disasters in petroleum industrial complexes and other petroleum facilities, road vehicles act, road traffic law, harbor regulation law, etc., with related legislation compiled under headings classified as pressure containers, gas facilities, consumption, transportation, explosion proofing of electrical equipment, list of laws, and related documents. In reference to ISO/TC197, the 8th plenary meeting and WGs were held during April 6-8, 1999, in the U.S., where the progress status report, study contents, future schedule for newly proposed items, etc., of each WG were reviewed and discussed. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of main accessories); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Shuyo hokirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    In the first fiscal year 1993 of the project, surveys were conducted about current technologies relative to cold energy-utilizing oxygen production equipment and high-temperature heat exchangers for the development of main accessories for a hydrogen combustion turbine plant. Kobe Steel, Ltd., conducted surveys about very low temperature heat exchangers and cold energy utilization technology used in facilities for gasifying liquid hydrogen or liquefied gas. Daido Hoxan, Inc., in its research on the possibility of air separator performance enhancement through liquid hydrogen cold energy application, studied reduction in power unit requirement, stable power supply responding to changes in load, safety measures, and so forth. Toshiba Corporation conducted surveys and studies about heat conduction improvement techniques and about the type, structure, and materials for heat exchangers for the embodiment of a high-temperature heat exchanger excellent in performance and high in structural soundness. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., aiming to establish basic technologies for heat exchangers, studied efficiency enhancement with low pressure loss, improved hygroscopic moisture removing function, and new materials utilization for achieving high-temperature capability. (NEDO)

  12. Summarized achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research on hydrogen energy total systems; 1979 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes discussions on future possibility of introducing hydrogen, by adding the latest data acquired in fiscal 1979 into a hydrogen energy total system calculation model. The critical cost of hydrogen is higher always than other secondary energies up to about 2030. Since it is a presupposition that hydrogen manufacturing is technologically feasible only by using the electrolytic manufacturing process, the hydrogen cost changes with the critical cost of electric power. Thereafter, if a hydrogen manufacturing process of mixed type utilizing heat from a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) is introduced, the cost will be reduced. However, introduction of HTGR is governed by the nuclear power plan such as HTGR technology development, rather than simply by the economic performance. Value factors showing qualitative advantage of hydrogen have been assigned to different demand sectors, whereas acceptable economic performance may emerge from this effect from about 2010 in sectors having large value factors (such as 2.8 in aircraft fuels). Hydrogen contribution would be about 2.1% in 2020 and 5.5% in 2030 of the whole energy demand. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on hydrogen purification storage transport systems, and their safety technologies; 1975 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-31

    In fiscal 1975, research was made on (1) some problems and their solutions for practical hydrogen purification storage transport (HPST) systems, and (2) analysis and optimization of HPST systems. The material-energy flow diagram and rough hydrogen system relevance tree were prepared, and the position of HPST system in hydrogen systems was considered together with use of liquid hydrogen. In (1), the current technologies and problems were arranged for every component of purification system, storage system, transport and distribution system, and metal hydride. Study was also made on some problems and solutions for their R and D. In (2), study was made on the basic model of HPST, and the compatibility with a total energy system. Overseas and Industrial Research Institute (IRI)'s trial calculation results were arranged for HPST cost data as input data for trial calculation of optimization. As for a safety and reliability, study was made on the target, system and main R and D fields for the safety management of HPST system, referring to the concept of safety managements in nuclear power generation and LNG system. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1981 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this research, studies are conducted relative to the time point, form, and magnitude of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's total energy system. The research aims to construct a hydrogen energy total system consisting of hydrogen energy subsystems to be available in the future and to clearly define the stage at which transfer to the target system will be carried out. In the research for fiscal 1981, studies continue about the feasibility of hydrogen as automobile and aviation fuels and as a material for use in chemical engineering, about conversion into each other of hydrogen and various synthetic fuels and electric power with which hydrogen will have to compete in the domain into which it will be supplied, and about technologies of their utilization for comparison between such energies in the search for their interchangeability. Surveys are conducted on technical data about local energies. The Yakushima island is chosen, for instance, and a conceptual hydrogen energy base is constructed there and the cost for the construction is estimated. At the last part, the feasibility of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's energy system in the future is discussed for assessment. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Research and development of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method; 1978 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-31

    This paper describes a summary design of an iodine cycle experimenting equipment as one of the achievements in fiscal 1978 on research of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method. The object of the equipment is a reaction to derive Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgI{sub 2} from MgO being the first reaction of the cycle, and iodine. The by-product (Q-phase) is produced according to composition of the aqueous reaction solution. The occurring reaction and composition of the produced materials vary depending on which contact system the reactor type uses, countercurrent flow or concurrent flow. Discussions were given on both types. Hydrogen generation rate of 1 Nm{sup 3}/hr was assumed as the equipment size to derive material balance and heat balance. Furthermore, types considered applicable were selected from different types of the solid-liquid reaction equipment, and summary design and calculation were performed. Process simulation provided a prospect of achieving thermal efficiency that can compete with the electrolytic process. As a study on materials for a magnesium iodate pyrolytic equipment as the second reaction, corrosion tests were carried out in a gas mixture composed of iodine, oxygen and steam. Using 26 kinds of metallic materials as the objects, the tests were executed at 100 and 300 degrees C for 100 hours. Long-term durability tests were also performed on materials judged to have good corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. R and D of the hydrogen production technology by the thermochemical method; 1974 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    In relation to the R and D of the hydrogen production technology by the thermochemical method, the paper summed up the results of the research conducted in FY 1974. The items for study are as follows. (1) Basic model making for process simulator. (2) Type of facility on the assumption of pilot plant size, and rough selection of equipment structural materials. (3) Extraction of engineering study subjects and working-out of study plans. In (1), the basic model of simulator was established, case studies of various Fe-Cl cycles were made, and a calculation method for the balance of the whole process was established. In (2), it was concluded that in the normal pressure reaction experiment, the oxygen emits extremely little in amount in Mark 9 No. 2 reaction, and therefore, it is very doubtful whether the closed cycle will be completed using this reaction. It was also found out that No. 3 reaction is low in reaction completion degree and it is the problem in point of thermal economy. Accordingly, possibilities of reaction were reviewed, and 6 cycles were found as Fe-Cl cycle. For these reaction cycles, a process flow sheet was made. Comparative studies among processes were conducted, and the cycle structural elementary reaction in Fe-Cl process was specified. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Research related to hydrogen combustion technologies; 1976 nendo suiso nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Regarding the Sunshine Project, this paper describes characteristics and technologies of hydrogen combustion, problems in developing combustion devices and conceptual design thereof, catalytic combustion, hydrogen energy systems, and economic evaluation on hydrogen fuel as a heating energy. Hydrogen combustion could emit small amount of NOx if it is sufficiently pre-mixed with air, but at the same time could cause reverse ignition very easily making its practical use difficult. Abolishing the air pre-mixture would cause no fear of reverse ignition, but generate much more NOx than from hydrocarbon fuels. Even if attempting to apply conventional methods such as two-stage combustion, partial stack gas recirculation, water addition, and lean burn systems, many of them cannot be applied as they are, requiring research and development efforts. Discussions on hydrogen energy as a system included those on thermo-chemical hydrogen manufacturing using heat from high temperature gas reactors (using water as the raw material), and electrolytic hydrogen gas manufacturing utilizing surplus electric power from high speed breeder reactors. Whether these methods could be used in markets economically will depend on manufacturing efficiency and cost of hydrogen gas. As the economic evaluation on hydrogen as fuel, discussions and considerations were given on introduction priority in the industrial heating furnace field. (NEDO)

  18. Long-term storage and long-distance transportation of hydrogen by use of catalyst-addisted decalin dehydrogenation/naphthalene hydrogenation pair; Dekarin dassuiso/nafutarensuisoka shokubai hannotai wo mochiiru suiso no chokikan chozo/chokyori yuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Sakaguchi, M.; Saito, Y. [Scince Univ.of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    To enable taking in and out hydrogen with little energy consumption, it is sufficient if decalin is dehydrogenated to naphthalene under moderate heating condition. It is found that carbon supporting metal catalyst in liquid film state shows extremely high dehydrogeno-aromatization activity of decalin. The result of comparison with liquid hydrogen or metal hydride as media for hydrogen storage and transportation media is reported. The platinum-tungsten composite metal catalyst is prepared from an aqueous solution of K2PtC16 and Li2WO4 in the ratio of 1 to 1 so as to achieve 5wt-metal% carbon supporting. When hydrogen and naphthalene are discharged from the liquid phase reaction medium to the vapor phase and solid phase, respectively, under boiling and refluxing conditions, hydrogen is produced steadily by heating at 200 to 210degC. If economical efficiency is ignored, development of an inter-season energy storage system is desired to be developed which can be used in the season between summertime when sufficient hydrogen is obtained by photovoltaic power generation and electrolysis of water and wintertime when heat source is obtained by catalytic combustion of hydrogen. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on international research cooperation project. Research on technologies to decompose heavy hydrocarbon resources; 2000 nendo jushitsu tanka suiso shigen no bunkai gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on structuring a hydrocracking process for vacuum distillation residue of Marlim crude oil produced in Brazil (Marlim-VR) being one of the heavy hydrocarbon resources. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In discussing the hydrocracking conditions, discussions were given on the effects of different iron-based catalysts, reaction pressures, reaction temperatures, effects of solvent addition, and the catalyst made of natural limonite produced in Brazil. As a result, the bottom yield was reduced successfully to 5.5% VR, and conversely oil yield was enhanced up to 84.8% VR by using the limonite produced in Brazil as a catalyst, and by performing bottom recycles under the conditions of 450 degrees C and 10 MPa. In discussing the up-grading of hydrocracking produced oil, a result of 99% by weight or higher was obtained in both of denitration and desulfurization rates. In the fuel evaluation test, a product exceeding 45 being the JIS standard for light oil was derived, which was found a clean product having lower sulfur concentration than the existing heavy oil. (NEDO)

  20. Bioremediation of recalcitrant chemical pollutant-contaminated soil. Applying edible mushroom cultivation waste to bioremediation; Kinoko kinsho ni yoru nanbunkaisei busshitsu osendo no bioremidiation. Kinoko kinsho no rigunin bunkai koso kassei to takan hokozoku tanka suiso no bunkaino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Oide, E.; Oshima, Y.; Tsuji, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    Bioremediation is a viable and cost effective method for soil contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants. White-rot fungi, with emitted extracellular free radicals, are known to be able to decompose lignin, which is usually nonbiodegradable by most bacteria. The decomposition mechanism has been shown to be attributed, at least in part, to lignolytic peroxidases. We examined a method that utilizes edible mushroom cultivation waste as the microbial source, and found that these waste materials have high lignolytic peroxidase activity and degradated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sands. (author)

  1. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on hydrogen production technology mainly by photo- semiconductor; 1975 nendo hikari handotai wo shutai to suru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-28

    In fiscal 1975, to study the possibility of photochemical decomposition as new hydrogen production technique based on the research result in the preceding fiscal year, study was made on some materials useful as electrode for photocells among various semiconducting materials with large solar photo-electromotive force. Study was made on the kind and combination of electrode materials, and electrolyte composition for photocells through measurement of photocell characteristics by various combinations of semiconductor electrodes. As for the impact of light sources, study was made on the photosensitization phenomenon by xenon light, solar light and xenon lights with various spectral profiles through specific filters, and the relation between a light intensity and hydrogen efficiency. As useful semiconductor photocell electrode systems, combinations of n-type GaP or n- type GaAs and p-type GaP or p-type GaAs were most efficient. As preventive technique of semiconductor electrodes from dissolution, coating technique of various materials showed insufficient results. (NEDO)

  2. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). Interim report of the research and development in Phase 1; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu chukan seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Large scale and effective utilization of renewable energy including hydroelectric power, photovoltaic power, and wind power which are abundant on the earth can contribute to the solution of global environmental issues as well as the release of energy demand and supply. Hydrogen can be produced from the renewable energy, and is converted, transferred and stored if necessary. Such hydrogen can be used in various fields for power generation, fuel for transport, and city gas. In order to establish the technology by which worldwide energy network can be introduced for wide range of fields, conceptual design of a total system has been conducted, and elemental core technologies have been developed. Conceptual design of a practical scale system (total system) including a wide range from production of hydrogen to its utilization has been conducted, and its constitution has been illustrated. In addition, the energy balance and cost of hydrogen have been calculated and analyzed as a trial. Hydrogen production technology, transport and storage technology, and hydrogen utilization technology are introduced as individual elemental technologies. Research results of innovative and leading technologies obtained in FY 1996 are reviewed. 80 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on hydrogen production technology by high-temperature high- pressure water electrolysis; 1975 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-29

    This report details the research result in fiscal 1975. Part 1 'Outlines' includes the research target, the summary of fiscal 1974 research results, the summary of fiscal 1975 research results, and responsible researchers. Part 2 'Details of the research' includes the fiscal 1975 research results. Chapter 1 reports 'Study on constant-load high- temperature high-pressure (multi-electrode type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 2 reports 'Study on Teflon system diaphragm for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis tanks' promoted by Yuasa Battery Co. through Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 3 reports 'Study on variable-load high- temperature high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 4 reports 'The first detailed design of the electrolysis tank for a small test plant' promoted by Hitachi Zosen Corp. through Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 5 reports 'Research on the applicability of water electrolysis systems to various fields' promoted by Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. through Showa Denko K.K. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1974 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature and high-pressure water electrolysis; 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    The goals at present are to clarify conditions for the realization of the water electrolysis process relative to various primary energy sources and to experimentally construct a small practical electrobath to operate at high temperature and high pressure for the attainment of high economic efficiency. Efforts in this fiscal year are mentioned below. Surveys and studies are conducted about hydrogen production by water electrolysis and about achievements in the past and problems at present concerning hydrogen production by water electrolysis in Japan and overseas. The expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources is also studied and evaluated. For a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis bath conceptual design (small test plant, bathing temperature 120 degrees C, pressure 20atm, hydrogen production rate 2Nm{sup 3}/h), studies are conducted about a constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath and a variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath. Surveys and studies are also conducted about the expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources, and the role is evaluated. (NEDO)

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research on safety technology in hydrogen energy system; 1976 nendo suiso energy system ni okeru hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Material is collected relative to the safety of hydrogen inside Japan and outside and, on the basis of the collected data, generalization is made of a draft of general standards for the safety of hydrogen and a draft of technological standards for the safety of gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrogen. In the draft of general standards for the safety of hydrogen, the physical properties of hydrogen and basic matters about the handling of hydrogen are put together, and the possible ignition sources are classified and measures against ignition are shown, and general matters about fire prevention and fighting are explained. Hydrogen attack and embrittlement are taken into consideration, and the caution to exercise when selecting, treating, and processing materials for use with hydrogen is described. Attention is paid to the handling of hydrogen, referring to the dangers of aerohypoxia, frostbite and cold death, and burns. Furthermore, a proposition is newly suggested this fiscal year, which emphasizes the need of disaster preventing facilities such as explosion-proofed electrical equipment and explosion-proofed wiring and explains where to install them and how to maintain them. Also taken up in the research are the need of measures, such as the delivery of safety education and training to workers, to cope with dangers peculiar to hydrogen, and the methods of implementing such programs. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Investigational research on safety technology in the hydrogen energy system; 1974 nendo suiso erergy system ni okeru hoan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    In this study, samples were surveyed and collected of the present regulations and standard, disaster accident, basic literature, etc. concerning the safety of hydrogen in Japan and abroad. Further, according to the necessity, these collected data were translated. The data to be examined/collected are those in and after 1950, and the data except the above-mentioned are collected if those are thought to be important. As to the condition of hydrogen to be examined/surveyed, those under all conditions from gas (normal pressure) to liquid and solidified hydrogen. The data for survey were classified into law/standard, corporate standard, samples of disaster accident, and general literature. The general literature was classified into general physical property, material relation, fire/explosion, and harmfulness/environment. The number of the disasters collected is 81, from which 3 in relation to suffocation and handicap were excluded. The rest is related to fire/explosion and burst. Most accidents occurred at plant or on corporate side, however, it is worthy of note that accidents occurred during the charge of buttery and with advertising balloon or balloon. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on safety technology for hydrogen energy systems; 1975 nendo suiso energy system ni okeru hoan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-01

    Important notices and problems on the safety for hydrogen gas were analyzed. Analysis was made on hydrogen gas property, flammability, explosivility, bio-toxicity, equipment, storage, transport, leakage, fire, technology and education for safety management, and quality and analysis of products. Study was also made on the relation between the above items and every domestic or overseas standard. Important notices and problems on the safety for liquid hydrogen were analyzed. Analysis was made on liquid hydrogen property, liquefaction and refining equipment, transport, storage, materials concerned, bio-toxicity, leakage, fire fighting technique, and safety management. Among them, such problems are pointed out from the viewpoint of accident prevention, as O-P conversion, refining of hydrogen gas for liquefaction, selection of structural materials, hydrogen embrittlement, layout of various equipment and devices, explosion-proof electric devices, and leakage detection. Research on effective fire fighting and fire preventive measures against hydrogen leakage and diffusion from tanks or piping are also in demand. (NEDO)

  8. WE-NET substask 3. Conceptual design of total system (Safety measures and evaluation techniques); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei anzen taisaku hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Under the hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy system technology project WE-NET (World Energy NET Work) in fiscal 1998, researches and studies were conducted to clearly define safety designs and to improve on accident-and-safety analyses. In relation with system safety design, investigations continued into Japanese and foreign manuals and regulations about the handling of hydrogen and its peripherals, and safe design guidelines (draft) were compiled. Anomalies and accidents supposed to be typical of each of the systems concerned were investigated. As for accident-and-safety analyses, incorporation of a turbulence model was studied in relation to models representing the leak, evaporation, and diffusion of liquid hydrogen, and improvement was achieved when the scope of evaluation was enlarged concerning the hydrogen detonation model. The integration of the two models was discussed for the due evaluation of a series of processes of liquid hydrogen leak, evaporation, diffusion, and detonation. Calculation was performed for two assumed accidents, and the results were found to justify the integration of the two models. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1982 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    In this research on a hydrogen energy total system, studies are conducted on the plan of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base and on hydrogen as fuel for automobiles. It is estimated that the construction of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base will cost 7.125-billion yen in total. The sum includes 6.410-billion yen for the construction of a system on an island named Island A, 500-million yen for structures on an island named Island B, and 215-million yen for the construction of a marine transportation system between the two islands. Large shares will go to a hydroelectric power plant and a hydrogen liquefaction system, the two occupying approximately half of the total sum. In the study of hydrogen as fuel for automobiles, it is concluded that hydrogen is advantageously employed as fuel for automobiles. When comparison is made in terms of heat value, it is found that even a hydrogen engine which is a mere modification of a currently used engine is comparable to the currently used engine in terms of performance. As for abnormal combustion, a hydrogen/air 2-system injection method is contrived, and this solves the problem almost completely. Cryogenic hydrogen is advantageous in both NOx emission and heat efficiency though within certain limitations. From the viewpoint of safety, the recommended automobile fuel structural formula is GH{sub 2}(MH). (NEDO)

  10. Report on surveys and researches at the New Energy General Development Organization in fiscal 1980. Surveys and researches on hydrogen energy; 1980 nendo suiso energy ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-09-01

    This paper describes surveys and researches on hydrogen energy in fiscal 1980. The high-temperature high-pressure water decomposition process in hydrogen manufacturing technologies had development proceeded on membranes and electrodes, and succeeded operating a 4 Nm{sup 3}/hr plant. Also for the solid electrolyte electrolytic process, a test plant of 1.3 m{sup 3}/hr was completed. The paper describes iodine and bromine system cycle, high-temperature gas atomic reactor cycle, and hybrid process with regard to the thermo-chemical method cycle. Problems in different cycles include necessities to advance the development paying attention on sufficient discussions on thermal efficiency of 35% or higher, heat regeneration and recovery, discussions on separation and transportation, and durability of reactive device materials. The paper also introduces research on hydrogen manufacturing utilizing chemical conversion of solar energy, biomass, and microorganisms. For technologies to store and transport hydrogen, the paper introduces metal hydrides, whereas Ti-based and misch metal-based alloys were found suitable. For transportation, Mg-based alloy hydrides were regarded as the most expected hydrogen absorbing material. Surveys were made also on the current status of the manufacturing industry, production and utilization of hydrogen. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1992 Report on results of the survey/research project commissioned by Sunshine Project. Surveys on hydrogen-fired turbines; 1992 nendo suiso nensho turbine no chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    Summarized herein are results of comprehensive surveys on hydrogen energy supply/utilization systems, centered by hydrogen-fired turbines for power generation. The surveyed items include hydrogen energy supply/utilization systems on an international scale, current state of power generation techniques and utilization of hydrogen, hydrogen-fired turbines for power generation, materials techniques for hydrogen-fired turbines, studies on and evaluation of economic viability of each system, expected effects, and problems involved in development. The surveys on the hydrogen production techniques pick up electrolysis with a solid polymer electrolyte as a promising candidate, and extract the scaling-up techniques, improvement of membrane durability, etc. as the research themes. The surveys on the hydrogen storage/transportation techniques indicate that hydrogen can be carried by a chemical medium for transportation/storage at normal temperature and pressure, for which the problems associated with medium loss and safety must be studied, and that the research themes for hydrogen-occluding alloys should include increasing quantities of hydrogen occluded for bulk transportation/storage at low energy, and decreasing cost. The surveys on hydrogen-fired turbines extract a number of problems to be solved, e.g., controlling hydrogen combustion, turbine designs, materials withstanding superhigh temperature for high-temperature combustion of hydrogen, and optimization of the power generation systems. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using thermochemical method; 1976 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    The research and development centers on the details of the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle. The items studied in this connection are (1) the development of a process simulator, (2) an experimental study of the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle, and (3) the recapitulation of the Fe-Cl-based cycle. The outcome of the comparison of Fe-Cl-based cycles widely conducted in the past enables a conclusion that the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle is at present is the most practical, technologically as well as in the way of thermal efficiency. The achievement on the first reaction (hydrolysis of ferrous chloride) of fiscal 1975, and then what is reported in literature on the fifth reaction (reverse Deacon process), are incorporated into the experiment of fiscal 1976, and this completes the acquisition of basic data necessary to develop the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle into an application process. Using optimum conditions chosen out of these basic data, a flowchart is compiled and the details of the process are calculated. As the result, a thermal efficiency of 30-33% is obtained, and the figures are deemed to indicate that the thermochemical method is sufficiently superior to the electrolytic method. (NEDO)

  13. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  14. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on the conceptual design of the total system for the WE-NET project in 1996. Basic conditions are as follows: solid polymer water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, hydrogen transport/storage through ammonia medium, power generation scale of 1000-4000MW (2-5 yen/kWh), and transport distance of 5000-20000km between supply and consumption places. The system efficiency was estimated to be 68% and 23% at an ammonia arrival time and power sending end, respectively, and it was dependent on a transport distance, while no power generation scale. The power cost was estimated to be 7 yen/Mcal and 33 yen/kWh, respectively. The system efficiency at a sending end was lower by 15% and 2% than that of the liquid hydrogen and methanol system, while the power cost was higher by 0 and 8 yen/kWh, respectively. It was necessary for loss reduction of this ammonia system to develop a new high-efficiency ammonia synthesis process, and hydrogen separation (decomposition/refining) process. 80 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Plan auxiliary project. Report on results on development of coal hydrogasification technology (Support research); 1996 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu shien kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing the alternative natural gas manufacturing process that, using coal as the raw material, is highly efficient as well as environmentally superior, with the fiscal 1996 results reported. A test research was carried out on the coal hydrogasification process which was selected as the optimum process based on the studies in the previous years. On the basis of the results of the studies, a free fall pyrolyzer was employed as the test equipment for the use of behavior research of hetero-elements in the test. The basic specifications were set based on a hydrogen/coal ratio of 0.2, a temperature of 950 degrees C and a pressure of 7 MPa, which are the reaction conditions of the ARCH reactor, with the basic design drafted accordingly. In a preliminary examination on the mechanisms of the coal hydrogasification reaction, analysis was made on the representative 20 different kinds of coals, on the six kinds of which studies were made on the gasification behavior using a constant heating rate pyrolyzer. As a result, from the temperature dependency of a methane forming speed, it was assumed that three components of coal had bearing upon the gasification behavior. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Studies on a hydrogen energy total system; 1978 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Analysis was made on timing, patterns and scales of introducing hydrogen energy into the Japan's total energy system, and case studies were made on transfer of the comprehensive systems that can be realized in the years of 1985, 2000 and 2025. The basic conception for the analytic method employed a method to analyze and present theoretically the conditions in which prerequisites or results of the estimation can be established, rather than intending elucidation of the estimation itself. An energy model was used for the theoretical means thereof. The objective function to be optimized was assumed to maximize (estimate over the planned period of time) the total effectiveness of the hydrogen energy system converted into the present value being given appropriate discount. The economic performance measures for different secondary energies working as the comparison measures are the limiting production cost of each energy. A consideration was given to the point that the electrolytic hydrogen cannot compete with that made by using the thermo-chemical method (if developed successfully) using heat from high-temperature gas reactor if the fossil fuel price rises sharply. Considerations are also required in replaceability of hydrogen energy with other energies, and hydrogen utilization in petroleum refining. (NEDO)

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1984 on surveys and studies commissioned from Sunshine Project. Surveys and studies on patent information. (Hydrogen energy); 1984 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    With an objective of smooth and efficient promotion of Sunshine Project, surveys were made on inventions related to Sunshine Project. This paper reports the survey result on patents applied for in 1984 in relation with hydrogen energy. With regard to manufacture of hydrogen using photo-chemical method, there is a number of patent applications that relate to methods to adjust semiconductors used as photo catalysts. Fossil fuel related patents were seen mainly in reforming fuels from methanol. In the electrolytic method related patents, those on electrodes and SPE are overwhelmingly great in number. However, researches on SPE are thought somewhat declining in activity. Regarding hydrogen transportation and storage, the trend differs now from the previous trend in which large increase had been continuing, and the number has hit the ceiling. Attention is given continually on new hydrogen absorbing alloys. With respect to hydrogen fuel cells, patent applications are still many in phosphoric acid fuel cells and molten salt fuel cells, and their systems. Applications for alkaline type fuel cell patent are also increasing. (NEDO)

  18. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1979 in Sunshine Project. Development of a hydrogen sulfide removing technology; 1979 nendo ryuka suiso jokyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    Development is made on a technology to treat waste gas and fluid such as condensate generated from steam on a turbine inlet side and from the condenser on an outlet side of a geothermal power plant turbine. The technology shall remove hydrogen sulfide at a removing rate of 90% or higher. This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1979. Physical treatment in treating the steam on the turbine inlet side needs discussion on reducing the cost, while chemical treatment had the cost still higher. With regard to waste gas from treating fluid downstream the turbine, the RET method agrees with the conventionally hypothesized prerequisites, and the reliability in its application has been enhanced. High-concentration hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide containing simulated gas were used to test the RET method, where the reaction characteristics of an RET catalyst was found capable of maintaining the very stable performance for an extended period of time. An air bubble column is suitable as a suction column type. A simulated condensate with H{sub 2}S at 10 mg/L and temperature of 40 degrees C was used for an engineering test using a discharge column. It was possible to estimate a standard discharge condition. Effects of pH and NaHCO{sub 3} in the condensate requires discussions in the future using actual fluids. Fundamental experiments were carried out on a method to continually analyze hydrogen sulfide contained in geothermal steam. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Surveys and researches on patent information (Hydrogen energy); 1976 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper describes surveys on patent information about hydrogen energy. For the thermo-chemical hydrogen manufacturing method, considerable number of experiments have been carried out, and discussions have been given on possibility of establishing the cyclic performance. However, in the patent aspect, many of them are the discussions on desk. The electrolytic hydrogen manufacturing method is considered to have reached the limit of improvements, whereas no new patent applications have been filed on electrodes and diaphragms. The number of patent applications on storage and transportation of hydrogen is largest in those for hydrogen storing alloys. However, patent applications having contents worth discussing are relatively few. What is common to patents related to safety assurance is that the object is not necessarily focused on hydrogen, but in many cases relevant to combustible gases in general. In the hydrogen fuel cells, a tendency can be observed of using higher temperatures and pressures, such as in the one using phosphoric acid as electrolyte the operation temperature of 135 degrees C or higher. Amount of platinum added into electrodes is decreasing. Few patents are found that tackle squarely with hydrogen fueled engines. An invention is desired on a new engine using hydrogen as fuel. No patents can be found that have contents responding to the current problems to which the hydrogen combustion study is facing now. Solution is expected on the hydrogen flame dilemma of NOx generation and reverse ignition. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Development of a hydrogen sulfide removing technology; 1980 nendo ryuka suiso jokyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    As part of geothermal development promotion program in the Sunshine Project, a hydrogen sulfide removing technology development has been worked on since fiscal 1977 for the purpose of environment preservation and multi-purpose utilization. Hydrogen sulfide in downstream fluid in a turbine is removed by more than 90% (as the target value), and the removed hydrogen sulfide is converted into single sulfur having an added value. For condenser waste gas processing, selection was made in fiscal 1980 on the RET process (sulfur is obtained by removing hydrogen sulfide in a suction column and an oxidation column), and for condensate processing, the stripping process (gas having been sent into a stripping column and stripped is fed into the RET device via demister for processing). Field tests were carried out by using fluid generated in a geothermal power plant. Conclusions were reached at high accuracy on optimal process selection corresponding to conditions of the fluid on the turbine outlet side and on the hydrogen sulfide removing cost. A process to treat fluid on the turbine inlet side is available, but not as economically effective as the downstream fluid processing. Same applies to the chemical processing method. A method to measure continually hydrogen sulfide in geothermal steam has been established. (NEDO)

  1. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yago, K; Endo, H [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis; 1976 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Basic data are collected for the construction of a high-temperature high-pressure membrane-assisted water electrolysis test plant of the constant load type and another of the variable load type. To collect the data, basic experiments are conducted on a small water electrolysis unit, diaphragms are fabricated and tested for performance, design calculation is performed using a computer, a test unit for testing electrolysis bath constituting materials is built for the construction of a gas/liquid separation unit. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis test apparatus. The first part of this report is titled 'Outline' and states the objectives of this research, summarizes the achievements of fiscal 1974, 1975, and 1976, and mentions the names of officers responsible for the execution of the research and development, etc. The second part is titled 'Contents of research' and reports the details of the research conducted in fiscal 1976. The subjects taken up in the second part are 'Research on constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on Teflon-based diaphragms for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis baths,' 'Research on variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on small test plant electrolysis bath design,' etc., which are being undertaken by Showa Denko K.K. and four other corporations. (NEDO)

  4. Study on the best utilization of solar energy. Experimental study of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using solar battery; Taiyo energy no yuko riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Taiyo denchi riyosui denki bunkai suiso hassei field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y; Murai, K; Nakai, T [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Shortcomings of solar energy are that it is subject to weather and is not available in the nighttime. The weak points may be effectively made up for when solar energy collected on a fine day is stored in the form of hydrogen energy for recovery as required. In this report, power generated by solar cells is used for the electrolysis of water for the generation of hydrogen. The amounts of the thus-generated hydrogen and hydrogen energy are determined and, on the basis of the measured amount of insolation, the solar energy availability rate (hydrogen conversion performance) is calculated. The amount of hydrogen generated in fiscal 1996 is also calculated for every month. The hydrogen generation level is quite low in the TiO2 wet type solar cell, approximately 0.2% at most. The current efficiency is fairly high in hydrogen generation using electrolysis, which is approximately 96-97%. The efficiency is higher when several units of electrolyte are connected in series until the solar cell optimum voltage is attained. A linear relationship is found between the daily summation of insolation and the amount of hydrogen generated. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1975 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process; 1975 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-28

    Research and development is conducted about the Fe-Cl-based cycle from an engineering viewpoint, and endeavors are focused on four items, which are (1) the development of a process simulator, (2) the comprehension of the characteristics of reaction of Fe-Cl system elements when placed under pressure, (3) the basic plan of a solid/gas reaction unit, and (4) process improvement for the Fe-Cl-based cycle. Under item (1), the initial goals which are the simplification of data origination, the enlargement of the scope of objects of computation including hybrid processes, tempering with separation energy, setting of computation conditions, and alteration made easier to perform, etc., are satisfied as the result of extensive expansion of the system. Under item (2), pressure tests up to 30kg/cm{sup 2}/G are conducted for the hydrolysis of ferrous chloride and high-temperature chlorination of triiron tetroxide, and basic data are acquired for building an apparatus to work under pressure. Under item (3), a basic plan is worked out for a multi-stage fluidized bed test unit of the heat medium particle circulation type. Under item (4), an Fe-Cu-Cl cycle is found in which chlorine generation is replaced by cupric chloride decomposition. A conclusion is reached that the technology is promising in terms of thermal efficiency. (NEDO)

  6. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. WE-NET substask 3. Conceptual design of the total system (City-level energy estimation and assessment); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei (toshi kibo deno yosoku hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The effort of fiscal 1997 at isolating the best way to introduce a relatively small amount of hydrogen into urban fuel economy was carried over to fiscal 1998. In the research of fiscal 1998, comparison was made between Tokyo and London in connection with hydrogen introduction, and a transition scenario was proposed for introducing hydrogen into Tokyo. Models were built for Tokyo and London, and studied. The result of this study was different from that obtained in the previous study, and places the two cities under similar conditions. The difference is attributed to the rapid progress in the development of the fuel cell and to the resultant reduction in cost. It is inferred that, in consideration of the transportation situation, the introduction of pure hydrogen will be the most cost-effective for both cities at least for some time to come. According to the revised data, natural gas may be procured in Tokyo as in London but the size of supply available in Tokyo is fairly smaller than that in London. Several transition scenarios covering the period up to 2025 were subjected to discussion. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on hydrogen production technology by high-temperature high- pressure water electrolysis; 1975 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-29

    This report details the research result in fiscal 1975. Part 1 'Outlines' includes the research target, the summary of fiscal 1974 research results, the summary of fiscal 1975 research results, and responsible researchers. Part 2 'Details of the research' includes the fiscal 1975 research results. Chapter 1 reports 'Study on constant-load high- temperature high-pressure (multi-electrode type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 2 reports 'Study on Teflon system diaphragm for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis tanks' promoted by Yuasa Battery Co. through Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 3 reports 'Study on variable-load high- temperature high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 4 reports 'The first detailed design of the electrolysis tank for a small test plant' promoted by Hitachi Zosen Corp. through Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 5 reports 'Research on the applicability of water electrolysis systems to various fields' promoted by Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. through Showa Denko K.K. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1983 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Survey and research on patent information (Hydrogen energy); 1983 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    For the purpose of propelling forward the Sunshine Program smoothly and efficiently, a survey is conducted on inventions related to the contents of researches being conducted under the Sunshine Program. The survey covers hydrogen energy-related patents laid open in 1983. As the result of the survey, it is learned that, among the patents related to thermochemical or photochemical processes, those that relate to hydrogen production technologies using the photochemical process is found to be on the increase. There is a remarkable increase also in the number of patents related to metallic hydrides, as in the preceding year. As for their contents, many involve containers for hydrogenation heat utilization, but now novel hydrogen storage alloys are also evoking interest. As for the hydrogen fuel cell, there is an increase in the number of applications for the phosphoric acid fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell which are expected to be introduced into the power system. As for the hydrogen engine, the number of applications concerning alcohol-reformed gas engines is approximately three times larger than that of the preceding year. In relation with the hydrogen combustion system, many patents relate to catalytic combustion. This is probably because the technique has come to be recognized as a controlled burning method which has in itself a measure to inhibit NOx emissions. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Plan auxiliary project. Report on results on development of coal hydrogasification technology (Support research); 1998 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu shien kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing the alternative natural gas manufacturing process that, using coal as the raw material, is highly efficient as well as environmentally superior, with the fiscal 1998 results reported. A hydrogasification test was conducted on Taiheiyo coal at a temperature of 1,173k and a pressure of 7 MPa, which showed that all gaseous products other than methane stopped their evolution roughly in the heat-up process, while methane continued to evolve to show the highest yield. In the reactivity comparison of various types of coal, coals with carbon content of 80% or below were high in reactivity and considered suitable for hydrogasification feedstock. It was also suggested that the hydrogasification reactivity of low rank coals including sub-bituminous coals or below might be greatly affected by the presence/absence of the catalytic effects of ion-exchanged metals. Behavior experiments of sulfur and nitrogen in coal in the hydrogenation reaction were carried out using a continuous free-fall type reactor, which elucidated the effects of hydrogen pressure and gas residence time among various operational elements. (NEDO)

  11. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on promotion of international cooperation in the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project aims at development of the total system for hydrogen production, transport, storage and utilization, and construction of the earth-friendly innovative global clean energy network integrating elemental technologies. Since the standpoint is different between latent resource supplying countries and technology supplying countries, the WE-NET project should be constantly promoted under international understanding and cooperation. The committee distributed the annual summary report prepared by NEDO to overseas organizations, and made positive PR activities in the 11th World Conference and others. The committee made the evaluation on the improvement effect of air pollution by introducing a hydrogen vehicle in combination with Stanford University, and preparation of PR video tapes for hydrogen energy. Preliminary arrangement of Internet home pages, establishment of a long-term vision for international cooperation, and proposal toward the practical WE-NET are also made. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Report on the basic design of a hydrogen transportation system utilizing metal hydrides and the evaluation thereon; Kinzoku suisokabutsu wo riyoshita suiso yuso system no kihon sekkei to sono hyoka ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-26

    This paper describes a hydrogen transportation system utilizing metal hydrides. For a storage method for moving, metal hydrides having high hydrogen containing performance like Mg-based hydrides would have high portability, less weight disadvantage, and high economic performance. In the fixed location storage, metal hydrides are superior in safety and maintenance cost to the conventional high-pressure gas holder and liquefied hydrogen storage. Because of their high dependence on equilibrium pressure and temperature, the significance of development thereof is large as the source of high-pressure hydrogen generation and motive force. More effective utilization of low-level heat, and separation and refining of hydrogen may also be expected. With regard to fuel supply for hydrogen fueled automobiles, metal hydrides are better in safety and total energy cost than liquefied hydrogen, but have a number of disadvantageous points in weight demerit. Eliminating the weight demerit would be the central issue of the development. Accompanying the development of hydrogen fueled automobiles, there are a number of technological elements to be developed on fuel supply system, such as storage, moving and transportation in hydrogen manufacturing sites, and filling and storage at using sites. Arranging the related infrastructures would be the issue. (NEDO)

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1984 on research and development commissioned from Sunshine Project. Studies on hydrogen manufacturing utilizing solar beam; 1984 nendo taiyoko riyo ni yoru suiso seizo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture hydrogen effectively from water utilizing solar beam and using an organics oxidizing and reducing system as the intermediary, and its achievements in fiscal 1984 was reported. With regard to the process in hydrogen generation stage as the first step, water dissolvable rhodium complex was synthesized to improve the process having been developed in the previous fiscal year. Its photo-hydrogen generation capability was discussed. In the rhodium complex of ligand having sulfonic acid group for water solution, a system using only water as a solvent was discovered to show the photo-hydrogen generation capability equivalent to or greater than the system of organic solvent and water using non-water dissolvable rhodium complex. In the stage of reduction of oxidized type organics by water as the second step, discussions were given on photo-electrochemical behavior of iron oxide sintered electrodes. Photo-hydrogen generation was investigated by retaining the electrode potential to a potential generated by beam irradiation onto the iron oxide sintered electrodes, and using a system of water dissolvable rhodium complex and rhuthenium complex. As a result, a possibility of recycling the materials was discovered. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research on systems for hydrogen refining, transporting, and storing, and technology for assuring safety; 1976 nendo suiso no seisei yuso chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    The results of studies conducted in the 3-year period beginning in fiscal 1974 are collected in this report. Dealt with in Chapter 1 are hydrogen production systems that constitute the stages before and after a hydrogen refining/transporting/storing subsystem, the future outlook of a hydrogen supply system with consideration bestowed on its connection with hydrogen-using systems, and how subsystems involving transportation and storage should be in such a hydrogen supply system. In Chapter 2, for the purpose of helping the construction in the future of a total energy system for hydrogen, the flows of energy and substances in Japan based on the records of fiscal 1974 and charts of the actualities of hydrogen utilization are shown. In Chapter 3, tentative designs of hydrogen supply systems are taken up for assessment. In Chapter 5, subsystems for a hydrogen supply system including topological patterns are tentatively designed. In Chapter 6, the transportation and storage of hydrogen are quantitatively evaluated, and assessment is conducted about investment for the embodiment of a topological model, selection of a profitable system, and environmental safety. Reference is also made in this chapter to research and development policies under which a hydrogen system to be the target is manifestly defined, where the aim of such research and development is declared and the need of its achievement is emphasized. (NEDO)

  15. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Study of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden`yo suiso denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On the study on low-cost electrode materials, the physical properties and electrode characteristics were studied of the prototype hydrogen absorbing alloys prepared by substituting Cu or Ni for Co in Mm(Ni-Co-Mn-Al)5 (Mm: mixture of rare earth elements). The result clarified that it is difficult to reduce Co content in the alloy to 0.4 atom or less. Simple heat treatment and milling processes in production of hydrogen absorbing alloy electrodes were achieved by adopting an improved metal mold and gas atomization method. Characteristics and cycle life of the Ni positive electrode prepared by applying active paste material of Ni(OH)2 were studied, however, the result showed only lives of nearly 300 cycles. (2) On the study on electrode structure for high-performance (long-life) battery, the 3-D porous metal electrode support was evaluated, and various battery configurations were studied. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Survey on patent and information (Hydrogen energy); 1982 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Patents related to the research under the Sunshine Program are surveyed so as to ensure that the program be promoted smoothly and efficiently. Since the scope of the hydrogen energy technology is extensive, branches supposed to be relatively important only are surveyed, which include the production of hydrogen (thermochemical process, photochemical process, and electrolysis), storage and transportation of hydrogen, safety of hydrogen, hydrogen fuel cells, hydrogen-fueled engines, and hydrogen combustion devices. The basic policy to follow in the extraction of necessary patents is that all related to the hydrogen energy technology be collected from as many fields as possible. However, it is impossible to read all the laid-open patents. Under such circumstances, out of the items in IPC (International Patent Classification) used by the Patent Agency, those deemed to be closely related to the hydrogen energy technology are designated and, when the classification item attached to the official gazette matches one of the IPC classification items, it is extracted as a desired item after deliberation of its relationship with the hydrogen energy technology. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Research on a hydrogen energy total system; 1980 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes research on a hydrogen energy total system. Fiscal 1980 has surveyed R/D technologies in the sectors anticipated to have large possibility of introducing hydrogen in Japan's energy systems in the future (ammonia/methanol industries, automobiles and aircraft fuel), and discussed the possibility of the introduction. The value factors (VF) applied to them are 1.7 for the ammonia industry, 1.1 to 1.6 for the methanol industry, 1.4 for gasoline as automobile and jet fuel, and 2.8 for jet fuel. Whether hydrogen would be introduced in all of these sectors depends on conditions of introducing hydrogen utilizing HTGR heat, and the VF of hydrogen against competing energies. Therefore, case studies were performed by using these factors as the parameters. If the VF is fixed and HTGR introduction speed is accelerated, introduction of hydrogen will be accelerated in the fields of chemical materials, air conditioning and process heat. On the other hand, the introduction will decrease in the automobile and aircraft fuel fields. If the methanol VF is made smaller, hydrogen introduction will be decelerated in the chemical industry field (methanol), and that in the air conditioning, automobiles and aircraft fuel fields will be accelerated. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on investigative research on society compatibility of development of coal hydrogasification technology; 1997 nendo sekitan suiso tenka gas ka gijutsu kaihatsu shakai tekigosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of possibility of the future tightness in natural gas supply, establishment of coal gasification technology was set as the final objective, which can supply cheaply and stably the substitution natural gas of high quality by using coal existing affluently over the world as the raw material. An investigative research is carried out under a five-year plan on society compatibility required to assess the possibility of the practical application thereof. Fiscal 1997 has performed in continuation from the previous year the 'survey on process level elevation' and 'survey on the society compatibility'. This report summarizes the achievements thereon. In the investigative research on the process level elevation, the Shell's methane synthesis process based on an oxygen blown and dry feed coal gasifier was evaluated, and the calculation process was pursued on material balance in a hydrogasification reactor as having been performed in the 'survey on developing the coal hydrogasification technology' in which its reasonability was verified. In the survey on the society compatibility of the process, a survey was carried out on natural gas (including non-conventional methane hydrate and coal bed methane) and coals as raw materials for hydrogasification. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report on a feasibility of international collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the production technology of biohydrogen is an option effective for the world energy supply technology and the world environmental preservation technology in the 21st century. At present, a project named `R and D of the environment harmony type hydrogen production technology` tackles the R and D of the hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic microorganisms, and promotes the R and D in this field from both aspects of a basis and application as seen in a workshop held including interchanges with researchers and research institutes overseas. With the recently increasing interest in bio-hydrogen production technology also overseas, search and bleeding/improvement of microorganisms related to the hydrogen production and utilization technology of biomass have been advancing. For development in this field, it is necessary to construct a widespread research network and promote the comprehensive research and development. In this survey, most of the research institutes visited recognized an importance of international cooperation in this field and agreed to make future research interchanges in a wide range. Based on the survey, a feasibility of concrete international collaboration is searched. 146 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. FY 1998 annual report on the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Murase, a NEDO's director, outlines R and D of techniques for hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy systems, high-efficiency power generation by wastes, reutilization of combustible wastes as fuels, high-efficiency clean energy vehicles and pioneer techniques for utilization of supercritical fluids, and commercialization of waste water treatment techniques for prevention of global warming, in the report entitled (General situations of the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology development group). The researchers presented the R and D results of development of externally circulating type fluidized bed, demonstration tests therefor by a pilot plant, phase 1 WE-NET project, phase 1 hydrogen-fueled turbine, phase 1 closed type high-efficiency gas turbine system equipped with a CO2 recovery system, and simple systems for cleaning up industrial wastes. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study of the hydrogen production technology mainly using photoconductor; 1974 nendo hikari handotai wo shutai to suru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Among semiconductor materials which absorb solar light and produce great photoelectromotive force, materials usable to the electrode of photoelectric cell were sought, the photoelectrode reaction of various electrode materials was investigated, and the photosensitization phenomenon in the solar light region was studied. As to electrode materials, semiconductor materials were sought which have a characteristic of band gap of 1-3eV, and the photosensitization polarization characteristic of a part of the semiconductor materials was measured. Concerning photoelectric cells, the photoelectric cell characteristic was measured by the combination of semiconductor electrode, for the study of the structure of photoelectric cell such as kinds, combination, etc. of electrode materials. As electrode materials, various semiconductors were acquired such as TiO{sub 2}, CdS, GaP, GaAs, Si, Ge, etc., and the electrochemical base photoelectrode characteristic under light irradiation was measured. It was confirmed that GaP and GaAs have good photosensitization polarization characteristics. As the result of the measurement of photoelectric cell characteristics, n-type GaP and n-type GaAs showed good characteristics to anode, and p-type GaP and p-type GaAs to cathode. It was confirmed that there is a possibility of hydrogen production in the solar light wavelength region by the measurement of photoelectric cell characteristics of xenon light and the filter penetration light of xenon light. (NEDO)

  2. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigara, K; Watanabe, K; Kawamura, K; Kawada, T; Mizusaki, J; Ishigame, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements

    1996-10-27

    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on prevention of disaster of hydrogen explosion; 1974-1980 nendo suiso no bakuhatsu saigai boshi no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The research aims to develop technologies for predicting and preventing the danger of accidental ignition and explosion of gaseous or liquid hydrogen during the process of production, storage, transportation, or application. As for the ignition of high-pressure hydrogen upon its outburst, experiments are conducted and findings are obtained that an outburst alone is not a cause of ignition and that ignition occurs when the hydrogen is charged with static electricity. As for the limits of explosion at low temperatures due to liquid hydrogen outburst, it is shown by experiments that the scope of explosion is narrowed at both upper and lower limits and that the pressure created by explosion upon ignition is greater when the temperature is lower. In the presence of air if any mixing into liquid hydrogen upon its introduction into an explosion testing container, the explosion is tremendous. As for metallic hydrides for the storage of hydrogen, tests are conducted and the results show that it is probable that every one of such hydrides ignites when exposed to temperatures beyond a certain level in the air. It is also found that metallic hydrides pulverizing after repeated hydrogen absorption and adsorption are more dangerous when grains are finer because finer grains result in a more intense explosion. (NED)

  4. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Study on the global network; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Global network kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the introduction condition of hydrogen as substituting energy and CO2 reduction effect were analyzed using a global energy model. The WE-NET project aims at global-wide introduction of clean energy by converting abundant renewable clean energy into hydrogen transportable to distant consumers all over the world. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. Undeveloped hydroelectric resources in the world are estimated to be 12 trillion kWh/y equivalent to the existing developed one in the world. Since the cost of the hydroelectric power generation projects over 1000MW in the planning stage is estimated to be 0.02-0.05$/kWh lower than that of other renewable energies, such projects are expected as energy source in the initial stage of the practical WE-NET project. The GREEN model was modified by adding a hydrogen analysis function, and extending an analysis period. The modified model allowed evaluation of the long-term important role of hydrogen energy, in particular, the capability of CO2 gas reduction all over the world. 28 refs., 92 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology; 1974 nendo suiso no seisei yuso chozo system oyobi hoan gijjutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-31

    This study aims at the following. As to an alternative plan of the hydrogen distribution system, this paper makes the comprehensive evaluation from viewpoints of possibility, adaptability to society, economical efficiency, reliability, dynamic characteristics, etc., selects the most rational system and picked up the problems for realization of the system. It also sets up standards for safety technology relating to the hydrogen energy system and acquires the basic knowledge/information on concrete disaster prevention technology which backs up the standards. Among those, in this fiscal year, as system analysis of the hydrogen distribution system, study was made on system analysis of the system alternative plan and problems on system realization. Next, as an investigational study on safety technology in hydrogen energy system, the paper conducted the survey/collection in Japan and abroad of the present law, standards for handling, and examples of disaster/accident in relation to hydrogen, and the survey research on the concrete safety problem predicted. The paper studied the technology related to the safety problem required for safety (survey of effects of impurities, measuring technology, technology to prevent leakage accidents, etc. ). (NEDO)

  6. FY 1996 report on the results of the R and D of the environmentally friendly type hydrogen production technology. For public use; 1996 nendo kankyo chowagata suiso seizo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the efficient hydrogen production technology using the hydrogen generation ability of microorganisms, the R and D were conducted, and the 1996 results were summed up. As to the R and D of the screening and breeding improvement of photosynthetic microorganisms, the following were conducted: measurement of hydrogen generation ability by the experiment on artificial solar simulated irradiation, characterization of breeding improvement strains, breeding of blue-green algae, survey/study of correlations between PHB metabolism and hydrogen metabolism, breeding improvement of photosynthetic bacteria by genetic characterization of hydrogen generation enzyme and genetic recombination, etc. Concerning the R and D of the quantity culture technology, a two-step experimental device combined with the photosynthetic bacteria multiplication process and the hydrogen generation process was fabricated, and functions were confirmed by the experiment using sugar-containing waste liquid. Also conducted were the acquisition of the data on the quantity culture test on anaerobic bacteria and photosynthetic bacteria using waste water containing cellulose, etc., fabrication/experiment of the quantity culture module reactor of photosynthetic bacteria using sewage sludge, experiment on the quantity culture of photosynthetic bacteria using raw refuse, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons by manifestation of functions of methane mono-oxygenase (MMO); 1999 nendo metamonookishinaze (MMO) no kino hatsugen ni yoru tanka suiso no chokusetsu sanka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The metallic enzyme, methane mono-oxygenase (MMO) collected from methanotrophic bacteria, may perform a reaction that has a possibility to proceed direct conversion from methane to methanol under normal temperatures and pressures. However, its utilization of biological bacteria makes massive cultivation and handling difficult, not having realized its practical use. Therefore, research and development has been carried out on a process that can convert directly and selectively hydrocarbons including methane under normal temperatures and pressures, mimicking the excellent functions of MMO. To achieve the development, surveys and discussions were given on the following elementary researches: elucidation of the reaction mechanism in the activation point in microorganism enzymes; analysis of structures in microorganism MMO; creation of a technology to develop a bio-mimetic catalyst; improvement in selectivity of the bio-mimetic catalyst; and international joint research (basic analysis of the catalyst mechanism). As a result, technological problems in developing the mimetic catalyst were put into order, and guidelines and measures for specific catalyst designing are being proposed. Furthermore, a way was opened for international joint research with the complex synthesis research group in CNRS in France, and progress into the step of demonstrating and discussing the feasibility thereof is now ready. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report on surveys and researches in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Surveys and researches on patent information (Hydrogen energy); 1979 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes surveys in fiscal 1979 on patent information related to hydrogen energy. For the hydrogen manufacturing cycle based on the thermo-chemical method, many patents are related to HI decomposition and separation. A number of technologically superior patents were found in the electrolytic method, but those applicable directly to water decomposition development in the Sunshine Project are not many. The number of patents on metal hydrides in relation with hydrogen storage and transportation has shown some increase, but no change in the qualitative aspect. In safety assurance, many proposals were seen relating to earthquakes. Patents on hydrogen fuel cells decreased in number as a whole, while half of the domestic patent applications is for alkaline electrolyte type fuel cells. In contrast in other countries, many patents are related to the second and third generation fuel cells, not to speak of the first generation, indicating that Japan is standing behind. Technologies to use hydrogen engines practically are concentrated on establishment of hydrogen storage and transportation methods and development of systems with high total energy efficiency, which are reflected in patent applications. Combustion device related problems are in NOx emission suppressing technologies and reverse ignition preventing measures, but trend is lacking in applying for patents that endorse technological progress in this respect. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Surveys and studies on patent information (Hydrogen energy); 1977 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu shosa seika hokokusho, Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    This paper describes achievements in fiscal 1977 of patent information surveys and studies on hydrogen energy (the Sunshine Project). In the thermo-chemical hydrogen manufacturing process, the basic cycles that have had been applied for patents started to go for searching efficient and feasible cycles such as in auxiliary reactions and catalysts, from the stage at which the efficiency of the basic cycles has not been considered so much. Developments have also been performed on devices and operating conditions. Worth mentioning in the electrolytic method is that patents on electrodes have been released. In the fields of hydrides for storage and transportation, patents on alloys for storage are the most in number. In safety assurance technologies, few patents deal with hydrogen itself, whereas further studies on liquefied hydrogen is especially desired. For hydrogen fuel cells, patent applications for phosphoric acid type fuel cells were found. There are few patents tackling squarely with hydrogen fueled engines. However, their levels of the contents were found higher than those in the previous fiscal year. Patents applied for from private corporations are concentrated on low-pollution engines using hydrogen as sub-fuel. No patents were found applied for measures to solve the dilemma of NOx generation and reverse ignition in hydrogen combustion. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on hydrogen combustion technology); 1975 nendo suiso nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This research mainly aims at establishment of various conditions necessary for using hydrogen fuel. The research includes (1) properties of hydrogen-methane mixture gas, and the proposal to future R and D, (2) extraction of various problems in practical use of home or industrial combustors, and evaluation of existing technologies, (3) the environmental impact of hydrogen fuel and its reduction measures, and (4) estimation of energy structures in cities and placing of hydrogen fuel in 2000. Detailed study items are as follows. In (1), general and proper combustion characteristics of and combustion technology for hydrogen- methane mixture system. In (2), problems for every use of various gas equipment, application of various gas equipment to hydrogen, peripheral technologies, conversion from natural gas, problems of heating furnaces and hydrogen burners, combustion safety/control equipment for various combustors, water content recovery combustion system, hydrogen embrittlement, and sealing. In (3), NO{sub x} generation in hydrogen combustion and its reduction measures. In (4), problems in introduction of a hydrogen-electric power energy system to an assumed model city in 2000. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology (Investigational study of the measuring control system for safety in the stage of low temperature storage and refining of hydrogen); 1974 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no teion chozo, seisei dankai no anzen no tame no keisoku seigyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    Safety technology is necessary and indispensable for future materialization of a hydrogen energy system. The survey was made from a viewpoint of safety technology in refining hydrogen at low temperature and in storing it in a low temperature liquid state. Japan has so far had no experiences for the handling and consumption of liquid hydrogen except the partial use at laboratory. Accordingly, collected here was literature on the storage, transportation, handling, low temperature refining of the liquid, etc. The present state of technology in Japan and abroad was grasped and items in the safety relation were picked up. As to the existing literature on the hydrogen relation, there is much literature on the U.S. NASA project, and there is also much on practical business details such as the handling of a large quantity of liquid. Therefore, from each literature mostly on the above, the literature on the liquid storage, transportation use storage tank and refining method was reviewed and arranged, and at the same time, the items were picked up of the safe disposal method, disaster prevention relation, and measuring relation. The paper also arranged the results of surveying hydrogen physical properties and equipment materials which are closely related to safety general, in particular, and examples of disaster. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation; survey/study on the standardization for hydrogen energy technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In relation to the basic study of the standardization for hydrogen energy technology and ISO/TC197, the results of the fiscal 1997 survey were summarized. From fiscal 1994 through 1996, in the wide-range field related to hydrogen energy technology, the survey of the present situation of the related standards/laws was made and the needs/subjects of standardization to be studied in the future were extracted. At the present stage, however, it is still early to enter into the stage of discussing the standardization. Therefore, in this fiscal year, only in the field of the storage/transportation/handling of liquid hydrogen, standards/laws abroad and in Japan were comparatively investigated for the basic study toward the standardization. Further, concerning ISO/TC197, studies were proceeded with of the liquid hydrogen land vehicle fueling system interface/fuel tanks/transportation containers/hydrogen fuel product specifications/airport hydrogen fueling facilities. Some are at the stage of drafting the international standard. Three drafts for the new standard were added such as gaseous hydrogen/hydrogen blend vehicular fuel systems, gaseous hydrogen fuel tanks, and basic requirements for safety of hydrogen systems. The standardization is indispensable to introducing the developed technology to the commercialization. 9 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Researches related to hydrogen refining, transporting and storing systems, and safety assurance technologies (Surveys and researches on low-temperature storage of hydrogen, and measurement and control systems for safety in refining stage); 1976 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no teion chozo, seisei dankai no anzen no tame no keisoku seigyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper discusses low-temperature storage of hydrogen, and safety in the refining stage thereof. Discussions were given on a device to discharge safely hydrogen evaporated from a liquefied hydrogen storing tank rolly. A testing equipment of a 1/10 size of a full size equipment was fabricated on a trial basis. The equipment was used to test discharging a gaseous mixture containing hydrogen at concentration of about 2%, while air is being supplied from a blower directly connected to a gas motor (rotating on gas pressure) with treatment rate of 15 Nm{sup 3}/h. In order to keep the hydrogen concentration below the lower explosion limit of 4%, uniformity in the spatial distribution of the concentration is important. Full consideration should be given thereto in future designing works. With a cryogenic adsorption refining device for hydrogen, oxygen content is adsorbed, and hydrogen is refined. During regeneration of the adsorption device, oxygen is discharged. Experiments on regeneration methods were performed for comparing and discussing oxygen discharge behavior by using three systems: nitrogen purge, hydrogen purge, and temperature raising. Cases were found in which oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas exceeds the lower explosion limit of 4%. There is a number of important assignments to assure safety, including specific measures to prevent the above excess, reciprocal influence of multiple impurities, and removal of ignition sources. The present experiments have great significance in providing fundamental items of information. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1996 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for effective use of saturated hydrocarbon, technology for reducing excess of aromatic hydrocarbon, high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke); 1996 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (howa tanka suiso no yuko riyo gijutsu, hokozoku tanka suiso no yojo taisaku gijutsu, sekiyu cokes no kodo shori gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: (1) technology for effective use of saturated hydrocarbon, (2) technology for reducing excess of aromatic hydrocarbon, (3) high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke. In (1), surveys were conducted of technologies of effective use of natural gas and effective use of C4 saturated hydrocarbon. Surveyed were a method for producing synthesis gas from natural gas, a technology to liquefy natural gas into fuel following the synthesis gas production process, a technology to liquefy natural gas into fuel without the synthesis gas production process, and the trend of effective use of C4 saturated hydrocarbon. In (2), surveys were made of process to reduce production of aromatic hydrocarbon as much as possible, process to effectively separate aromatic hydrocarbon, and process to convert excess aromatic hydrocarbon into polymer, etc. In (3), surveys were conducted on petroleum coke and pitch in terms of production methods, the supply/demand situation, property characteristics, usability to new fields, etc. 170 refs., 114 figs., 65 tabs.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen - WE-NET (Sub-task 8. Development of hydrogen burning turbines - Development of main components including turbine blades and rotors); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Sub tusk 8: Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - tabin yoku rota tou shuyou kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Among the research and development items in relation with the 'development of hydrogen burning turbines' based on the WE-NET project, surveys have been performed on developing the main components including turbine blades and rotors. The current fiscal year has surveyed the latest trends in the existing gas turbine and rotor cooling technologies, and the technological problems were extracted from the viewpoint of application to the hydrogen fueled turbines. Since the hydrogen fueled turbines have the entrance temperature higher than that of power generation gas turbines, development of the blade cooling technology is important. Main cooling methods available are the film cooling and transpiration cooling, whose technological development is necessary in the advanced forms. Cooling method for the inner side of blades includes the impingement cooling and the pin fin cooling, whereas the V-letter shaped turbulence accelerating rib and the serpentine flow path structure are considered promising. Increasing the anti-heat temperature of blades may be realized by utilizing ceramics. As a technology close to putting it into practical use, application of heat shield coating is promising. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen - WE-NET (Sub-task 5. Development of hydrogen transportation and storage technology - Edition 4. Development of different common devices); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Sub tusk 5: Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - Dai 4 hen. Kakushu kyotsu kikirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    In developing hydrogen transportation and storage technologies based on the WE-NET project under the theme of the 'development of different common devices', surveys and discussions have been performed on four themes with high urgency. It was revealed that, with respect to the large liquid hydrogen pump, the survey report should be reported on the pump models, motors, reduction of NPSH, and bearings, and that the cryogenic pump technology has a necessity of further development because the technology is biased to pumps for rocket with high head. With regard to the vacuum heat-insulated piping with large diameters, such strict problems in the technological development were made clear as high heat insulating performance, optimization of the shield structure, measures for thermal stress, anti-seismic measures, and sealing mechanism at joints, in addition to the vacuum heat insulating piping technology that has been built to date. The liquid hydrogen valve is subjected to a technological problem of the very low temperature and combustion performances of liquid hydrogen, which requires further researches. With respect to the instrumentation facilities, as a result of discussing the liquid level meter system and the flow rate meter system, it was found that there is no almighty method, whereas selection of the method should be as required in particular situation. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on refining, transport and storage systems for hydrogen, and their safety technologies (Research on measurement/control system for safety management in low-temperature storage and refining processes of hydrogen); 1975 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no teion chozo, seisei dankai no anzen no tame no keisoku seigyo system ni kansuru kenkyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-28

    The following were selected as themes necessary and important for the safety of the forthcoming hydrogen energy system, based on the fiscal 1974 document survey result, and the fiscal 1975 research results. First as for low- temperature storage of hydrogen, since safe discharge of hydrogen gas generated in a storage tank is important, gas motor discharging usually used for such transport tanks as tank lorry, and burn bond discharging suitable for discharge of a large amount of hydrogen were selected as test items. Next as for storage and transport of low-temperature hydrogen such as liquid hydrogen, a low-temperature control valve to control the amount of liquid hydrogen for transport was selected as a test item. Under the assumption of the model tests on the above 3 items in fiscal 1976, various studies and trial designs were made on concrete test equipment. The test plans were also prepared for some ones among them. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on preparing criteria for the safety assuring technologies for hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no hoan gijutsu kijun no sakusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    Studies have been made on preparing criteria for the safety assuring technologies for hydrogen energy total systems. The outline of the technological guideline for hydrogen manufacturing processes in the high temperature and pressure water decomposition method is the same as that in the normal pressure water decomposition method. However, its high temperature and pressure environment can cause new safety problems. Considerations should be given on, for example, material problems in structural materials and insulation materials including electrodes and membranes, introduction of gas-liquid separation and pressure balancing devices, problems in electrolyte circulation, and safety problems that may occur because of generation of hydrogen and oxygen under high temperature and pressure conditions. This paper summarizes these matters by surveying literature data. In order to provide basic information to prepare criteria for safety assuring technologies for the gaseous hydrogen liquefaction process, surveys and studies were made based on different items of technological information and experimental study results. Safety assuring technologies were discussed on metal hydrides (promising means for storing hydrogen). Powder is used to enhance hydrogen absorbing performance, whereas the metal hydrides are pulverized as a result of repetition of absorption and discharge of hydrogen. This paper describes also metal dust explosion disaster and its risk of occurrence. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international research cooperation project for a feasibility survey for finding out seeds of the international joint research. Effective use technology of saturated hydrocarbon (technology against the surplus aromatic hydrocarbon/technology of high grade treatment of petroleum coke); 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo (kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa). Howa tanka suiso no yuko riyo gijutsu / hokozoku tanka suiso no yojo taisaku gijutsu / sekiyu cokes no kodo shori gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of the effective international research cooperation, the paper surveyed in fiscal 1997 the effective use technology of saturated hydrocarbon, technology against the surplus aromatic hydrocarbon and technology of high grade treatment of petroleum coke. In the survey of the effective use technology of saturated hydrocarbon, trends of FT synthesis technology and DME synthesis technology were studied as trends of technology to produce synthetic gas, and a project was proposed for technical development of using natural gas as liquid fuel in Japan. In the survey of technology against the surplus aromatic hydrocarbon, studied were the benzene law regulation and the supply/demand trend of aromatic hydrocarbon, process to reduce production of aromatic hydrocarbon as much as possible, process to reduce aromatics of the produced petroleum products, and process to effectively use aromatic hydrocarbon as chemical raw material. In the survey of high grade treatment of petroleum coke, studied were a possibility of using HS petroleum coke in the DIOS method, iron bath gasification, and copper bath gasification technology. 108 refs., 146 figs., 103 tabs.

  20. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology (Data book); 1974 nendo suiso no seisei yuso chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    The paper studied separately some items which become pre-conditions or periphery conditions for study work included in the report work of a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology. Those were arranged as data in the form of figure/tables. The data as literature related to the hydrogen energy system were also arranged. Included in these are a concept of so-called hydrogen economy system, ideas for end users and technology development, etc. The safety problem was also arranged in the form of characteristics of hydrogen and the comparison with other systems. As to the hydrogen production, the paper outlined primary energy sources and included the outline of hydrogen production technology. It also centered on the hydrogen refining/storage/transport system and made a list of research institutes, researchers, details of study, main related study, main topics, etc. The data are those about energy related data, features and safety of hydrogen energy system, various examples of the concept of hydrogen energy system, concept and development of end user use technology, production of hydrogen, etc. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on fuel cell system); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    In this paper, surveys were conducted on 'the developmental situation of the body of fuel cell' and 'the performance required for the inverter connecting fuel cell and electric power system and the peripheral device, and fuel cell.' However, the economical evaluation was to be made at an appropriate time, and the FY 1974 survey was limited to the technology. The results of the investigational study made based on the above-mentioned policy were described in and after Chapter 2. In Chapter 2, described were the prospects of fuel cell and the guide for this fiscal year. In Chapter 3, the relative evaluation of various kinds of fuel cells in terms of the following: electrode structure, catalyst, cell stack, auxiliary machine, dynamic characteristics of cell, efficiency, life, reliability, maintenance, safety, environmental safety, construction cost, maintenance/running cost, and material cost. In Chapter 4, the present technical situation of inverter and the peripheral device, and the situation of the future R and D in Japan and abroad. In Chapter 5, the positioning of the fuel cell system in the hydrogen energy system, and various kinds of performance required for structural elements. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Research on a hydrogen manufacturing technology by using thermo-chemical method. (Research on equipment materials for iodine system cycle); 1980 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle no sochi zairyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes research on materials of equipment for the second stage reaction in relation with development on a hydrogen manufacturing technology by using the iodine system cycle in the thermo-chemical method. The second stage reaction produces MgO, I{sub 2} and O{sub 2} by decomposition of Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} at 600 to 650 degrees C. Corrosion tests were carried out by using 25Cr-20Ni steel and Ni-50Cr alloy having shown relatively high corrosion resistance in the researches to date, which were added with trace amount of different alloy elements. The tests were performed in gas mixture of I{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at 600 to 700 degrees C for 48 to 192 hours. The average corrosion rate of 25Cr-20Ni steel was reduced by adding Y(0.2%), Ca (0.2%) or Si+Al (1%Si+1%Al), by which relatively uniform corrosion pattern was shown, and the corrosion resistance was improved remarkably. The average corrosion rate of 25Cr-20Ni steel showed a trend of increasing by adding Si and Nb, and non-uniform corrosion like pitting has occurred, revealing that it is not preferable from the aspect of corrosion resistance. The average corrosion rates of the tested materials tended to become somewhat greater under heat insulated condition than under continuously heating condition. Effect of Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} deposition is very small. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on fuel cell (Research on high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell); 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi no kenkyu (koon kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Relative to the research and development of technologies for fabricating, and assessing, materials for the constitution of high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cells, stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte fuel cell manufacturing technologies are developed by use of thin film formation techniques such as high-frequency sputtering, plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), and the thermolysis of organic zirconia compound coating. As the result, it is found that high-frequency sputtering produces thin film which is satisfying in terms of cost efficiency. Furthermore, it is found that defects in solid electrolytic thin film formed by the high-frequency sputtering method, that is, pinholes and cracks, will be remedied when the coating thermolysis method is jointly applied. In the research on fuel cell power systems, column-type high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cells are built, and a power generation test is conducted. The test is successfully completed when the output of a fuel cell of the 9-column module structure gradually increases until a maximum output of 110W is achieved. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine and ultrahigh-temperature materials; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 (suiro nensho turbine no kaihatsu/chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are the materials designs/production and tests/evaluation results of heat-resistant materials, i.e., alloys, ceramic composites and carbon-based composites, which are expected to be applicable to the hydrogen combustion turbines. These have been studied since 1993, and this paper summarizes the overall evaluation results of the phase I program. The intermetallic compound as one of the candidate materials has a high-temperature strength in a range from 1200 to 1400 degrees C by optimizing elements added. However, no prospect is obtained for heat resistance at 1700 degrees C or more for the material not coated or cooled moderately. Each of the other candidate materials tested shows a bright prospect of applicability at the base material and specimen levels. The single-crystal superalloy for hybrid cooling structures has novelty in that it is free of Cr but incorporated with Si and Hf, showing approximately 10 degrees C higher heat-resistant temperature than CMSX-4. CMC and C/C are inherently excellent heat-resistant materials, and are attractive advanced composites, because they are expected to realize no-cooled blades at 1700 degrees C. (NEDO)

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 (edition B) on auxiliary New Sunshine Project. Development of coal hydrogasification technology (Research by using experimental device); 1999 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho (B ban). Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Jikken sochi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of using practically the coal hydrogasification technology (the ARCH process), developmental research has been performed on important elementary technologies using different experimental devices. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research by using a small testing apparatus, the Taiheiyo coal was used to have performed demonstration operation on the replacement natural maximized case, the heat efficiency maximized case, and the BTX maximized case. As a result, the three cases were found nearly as anticipated in the simulation, whereas the replacement natural gas maximized case has achieved the targeted whole coal conversion rate of 60% or more. However, the BTX maximized case presented a value lower than the targeted BTX yield of 12%. In the developmental research on the injector, the injector having been fabricated for the hot model test was given another combustion test, where the focal temperature of 1,200 degree C or higher was derived. The hot model test has verified the non-agglomeration performance of coal by using as parameters the focal temperatures, coal cross sectional area loads, coal types, and injectors. It was verified that the Taiheiyo and Shin Mu coals do not agglomerate excessively. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1985 Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1985 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jikken seisei kensho (chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    The operation continues of the experimental device capable of producing 10 tons/year of SOG (spun on glass)-Si, and efforts are under way to carry out improvements, to verify such improvements for the results, and to develop operation control technologies. During the operation, improvements are made with respect to the length of stable operation period, granule quality, and device operation, and the results are verified. An automated control test system is verified, and a reactor tube newly developed by Shin-Etsu Chemical Company is subjected to a durability verification test. On the other hand, development is started of SiC-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) technology for materials for large reactor tubes, studies are started on a basic experimental device, basic studies are conducted for designing a large reactor, and investigations are conducted of a large plant conceptual design, an automated control system for reactors, and so forth. The results achieved are all found to be satisfactory. Above all, the granule quality is improved to be quite high in purity, and a cast cell made from improved granules exhibits a photoelectric conversion efficiency to exceed 13%. It is also found that the newly developed reactor tube is stronger than conventional reactor tubes and will be advantageous over others in the future enlargement of devices. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1986 Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1986 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jikken seisei kensho (Chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The aim is to develop a fluidized bed reactor high in productivity and low in power consumption for the realization of mass production of low cost polycrystalline silicon usable for solar cell construction. An experimental device capable of producing 10 tons/year of SOG (spun on glass)-Si is built and operated. The fluidized bed reactor treating trichlorosilane as the material and the product quality achieve the initially set goals, and the essence is seized of operation management technology. In fiscal 1986, for development of the technology into a practical application technology, designs are prepared for a larger reactor unit and a large plant of the commercial scale. From the viewpoints of production efficiency and cost, the enlargement of a reactor unit is an inevitable task to discharge before practical application. There are two challenges to meet. One is the development of technologies for manufacturing large reactor tubes strong enough to withstand practical service and the other the development of a reactor structure fit for dimensional enlargement. It is then found that the concept of an economically optimum design relative to device series or device block formation is variable in the case of large plants, dependent on the scale of production, and that therefore it is necessary to arrange problems in a proper order to facilitate further deliberation. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 9. Research and evaluation of innovative and leading technologies; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 (kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to make useful suggestions and proposals for the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project and thereby to promote the research and development activities, the innovative and leading technologies have been studied, investigated and evaluated. In FY 1998, a total of 6 proposals were collected, and evaluated to prioritize for the conceptual studies. These are related to methanol-fueled power generation turbine system, conceptual design of high-efficiency production system for high-efficiency solar cell by the 10 GW/y scale production process, investigation of potential of wind power, CO2 recycling methanol fuel cell, investigation of catalysis materials for hydrogen combustion and catalytic combustion systems, development of reversible high-temperature steam electrolysis cell/solid oxide fuel cell by the synthesis from aqueous solutions, and mobile heat recovery hydrogen production system. Promising technologies to be reflected on the WE-NET project were examined, based on the new technologies acquired from the research and investigation so far. As a result, two candidates were selected; hydrogen liquefaction by magnetic refrigeration technology, and catalytic combustion gas turbine. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 6. Development of cryogenic temperature materials technologies; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 6 (teion zairyo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are the cryogenic temperature materials technologies for the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project, developed in FY 1998. The R and D programs have been implemented continuously since 1994. For stainless steel, the base and TIG weld metals were evaluated for their material characteristics in liquid hydrogen. The items investigated included the influences of hydrogen charge, 20% of stretch working on the base metal, welding methods, and ?-ferrite content on the characteristics. Fatigue strength of the base metal was found to increases as temperature decreases, but remain unchanged in a range from 20 to 77K. No significant difference was observed between 304L and 316L. For aluminum alloy, mechanical characteristics, centered by fatigue characteristics, were investigated for the base and weld metals. The sample of higher tensile strength showed a higher fatigue strength, at room temperature, 77 and 4K. The other tested items investigated included embrittlement characteristics in a hydrogen atmosphere, phase transformation, hydrogen diffusion and fracture toughness, for establishing the databases of cryogenic temperature materials. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 4. Development of motive power generation technology; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 4. Doryoku hassei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-4, the development of a motive power generation technology. The objective is to build a 100-kW class single cylinder hydrogen-argon circulating diesel system. For a hydrogen injection valve being the key to the system, development was made on the conventional hydraulic system with quick compression, expansion, and electronics control. Discussions were given on an exhaust gas condenser and a gas-liquid separator to handle gas mixture with low steam concentration. In order to assure the mechanical strength to deal with the argon working gas, super-chargers and expansion turbines were also discussed. When the hydrogen injection pressure is increased from 20 to 25 MPa in the basic test, the combustion speed has increased, and the indicated thermal efficiency has been improved. The same effect was obtained also when the oxygen/argon ratio was increased. Although the thermal loss increases if the oxygen/argon ratio is increased, the loss in the indicated thermal efficiency is compensated by the gain derived from increasing the combustion speed. When argon is used as the working gas, the temperatures in parts of the combustion chamber rise much higher than that in the case of a light oil diesel system. Therefore, discussions were given on materials and structures that can withstand elevated temperatures, and assessments and tests were performed on high-temperature lubricants. (NEDO)

  11. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system (safety measures and evaluation technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei (anzen taisaku hyoka gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Safety measures and assessment technology were studied for the WE-NET project. As the study result in fiscal 1996, the information on safety design, anomaly and accident was collected and arranged. The information on safety measures, ideology and criterion was also collected by visiting some domestic and overseas organizations experienced about handling of liquid hydrogen (LH). The initial survey was made for the safety design ideology, analytical technique and disaster preventive measures of LNG systems as the similar cold liquid system. Accidents and explosion accident of a hydrogen production plant (water electrolysis) in Germany were analyzed. Events on storage tanks and leakage around the tanks were studied as typical risk of LH considering temporary and LNG system design information. The model based on the LH spillage test result and 3-D dispersion of vapor cloud were prepared by modifying a simulation code. The model allowed evaluation of the effect of explosion and fire accidents of compressed hydrogen gas and flying fragments on structures and people, and visual display of distances from a tank and damage conditions. 19 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process (Research on materials for devices for iodine-based cycles); 1982 nendo netsu kagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle no sochi zairyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    The research involves tests and studies conducted for the evaluation of corrosion resistance of various metallic materials in molten iodine and for the selection of materials to stay usable under iodine-handling conditions. In fiscal 1982, an iodine transportation system is studied, and corrosion tests are conducted for panels of carbon steels, various stainless steels, titanium, niobium, tantalum, etc., of the grade available in the market, under the conditions where the temperature is 113-170 degrees C, I{sub 2} contains 0-10wt% H{sub 2}O, and the gas phase is of N{sub 2}+O{sub 2}. It is made clear as the result that the effect of water present in I{sub 2} is fairly grave while the influence is but a little of the intensity of temperature and the amount of O{sub 2} gas on the corrosion rates of the respective materials, that materials other than niobium and tantalum are not usable as corrosion resistant materials, etc. In a real device, it is recommended that composite materials be used in the form of a liner or the like because both niobium and tantalum are high-cost materials and therefore create economic disadvantages if employed for the construction of pipes, heat exchangers, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on auxiliary New Sunshine Project. Development of coal hydrogasification technology (Survey and research on its social acceptability); 1999 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to evaluate feasibility of practical use and economy of the coal hydrogasification technology (the ARCH process), survey and research have been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the survey on the social acceptability, survey has been made on the future trend in the demand and supply and the price of LNG, LPG, and coal for hydrogasification. As a result, it was discovered that the price of LNG imported into Japan is determined as if linked with the crude oil price, and Saudi Arabia is the price leader of the LPG price. With respect to the survey on the possibility of international cooperation, surveys were conducted on the prospects of the long-term demand and supply in China, natural gas resources, and the demand and supply thereof. The feasibility study has estimated the product gas manufacturing cost after the process has been improved. In the trial calculation on the three-mode cost, it was discovered that, although the profit from byproducts is great, the BTX maximized mode causes the manufacturing cost to be higher by as much as 2 to 3 yen per Nm{sup 3} than that of other modes because of higher unit consumption in raw materials and higher construction cost. (NEDO)

  14. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 1. Research study on integrated evaluation and development plan; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 1. Sogo hyoka to kaihatsu keikaku no tame no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project is composed of various elemental technologies such as hydrogen production, transport, storage, low-temperature material, utilization and hydrogen combustion turbine. The organic integrated cooperation and coordination between individual subtasks are indispensable for effective promotion of the project and optimization of the total system. The current R and D states of every elemental technology were surveyed, and its findings were utilized for coordination of the whole project and examination of the research project including pilot studies. Eleven important items in the total coordination including a total system cost and safety measures in a developmental stage were examined. The development results for 4 years of fiscal 1993-1996 were assessed together, and the draft working plan for fiscal 1997-1998 was also decided. The verification test plan of a hydrogen combustion turbine scheduled in Phase II was studied, and the basic plans of development step were proposed. The draft report of a transition scenario was also prepared. 6 figs., 68 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on chemical use); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kagaku riyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-04-15

    The whole amount of hydrogen consumption for chemical industries all over the world is estimated to be 249.7 billion Nm{sup 3} in 1974, while 367.2 billion Nm{sup 3} in 1980 roughly under a bold assumption, based on 3 current big consumption fields of ammonia production, methanol production and petroleum refining, and some promising fields in the future such as reduced iron and synthetic protein. Consumption ratios for every field are probably 54.9% in ammonia production, 30% in petroleum refining, 9.5% in methanol production and 5.6% in others in 1974, and nearly similar in 1980. However, although there are various troubles, if a large amount of methanol is used as fuel in the future, and its production plan is promoted to satisfy the demand of methanol fuel, hydrogen consumption for methanol production will increase drastically. In the future, if the production process of hydrogen as secondary fuel is established, such hydrogen also will be used for various chemical industries naturally. Research was thus made on use of oxygen as byproduct inevitably. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 9 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study on the innovative and leading technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of giving useful suggestions/proposals to the course of WE-NET and contributing to the R and D, conducted were survey/collection/evaluation of new technologies. The paper described the fiscal 1997 results. The number of the proposals of new technology accumulated during fiscal 1993 to 1997 is 28. The proposals of new technology made in fiscal 1997 are hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen storage using fullerene, and the methanol power generation turbine system. Four technologies proposed in fiscal 1996 and 1997 were evaluated. The evaluation method requires two steps of the marking using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the adjustment by the committee. The highly evaluated proposals out of those having been made were analysis/evaluation of hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling engine, hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration method for hydrogen liquefaction, hydrogen production technology using photocatalyst, etc. The paper also stated the result of studying concepts of innovative/leading technologies in fiscal 1996. 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 (edition B) on auxiliary New Sunshine Project. Development of coal hydrogasification technology (Research by using experimental device); 1997 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho (B ban). Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Jikken sochi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective of using practically the coal hydrogasification technology (the ARCH process), developmental research has been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1997. In the research by using a small testing device, the Taiheiyo coal was used to have derived hydrogasification data (distribution and yield of the reaction products) in case of having changed the temperature, residential time and H{sub 2}/caoal ratio at a pressure of 7.0 MPa. In the developmental research on the injector, a test to verify mixing performance was performed by simulating the coal/hydrogen with gas/gas and coal/gas at normal temperature and pressure. Furthermore, discussions were given on the heat conduction analysis and cooling structure, whereas an injector was designed and fabricated. With respect to the hot model test to verify the performance of the injector, detailed design and partial fabrication of the test device were carried out. In addition, development was conducted on the coal/gas system mixing simulation to simulate the states of dispersion and mixing of the coal as the first phase of developing the mixing and temperature rise simulation. (NEDO)

  18. Mercury free zinc alloy powder for alkaline manganese battery. 2. Effect of additive species to zinc particle on suppressing hydrogen gas evolution; Arukari mangan denchiyo mukoka aen gokin funmatsu. 2. Suiso gas hassei ni oyobosu aen ryushi eno tenka genso no yokusei koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, M.; Fujitani, S.; Nishio, K. [Sanyo electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Akai, Y.; Kurimura, M. [Sanyo Excell Co. Ltd., Tottori (Japan)

    1997-08-05

    In order to make alkaline manganese batteries mercury-free and suppress hydrogen gas generation, investigations were given on the effect of additive species on modification of zinc particles present on negative electrode surface. Mercury with high hydrogen overvoltage has been added conventionally, but the mercury can cause an environmental problem. Surface modification by using indium exhibited hydrogen gas generation suppressing effect. With the surface modification amount of 0.10% by weight or more, the suppressing effect is saturated, reducing the effect to 50% of that of mercury. Surface-modifying the bismuth added zinc particles with indium showed greater suppressing effect than the case where each element is used independently. Zinc-indium (0.10% by weight) - bismuth (0.025% by weight) based alloy powder showed the same hydrogen generation suppressing effect as zinc-mercury (0.15% by weight) alloy powder. A sealed test battery using this alloy powder in negative active material exhibited a discharge capacity of 1700 mAh similarly to the initial stage even after having been stored for 20 days at 60 degC. Self-discharge characteristics equivalent to that of zinc-mercury (0.15% by weight) based alloy powder were obtained. An environment compatible dry cell battery containing no mercury whatsoever was developed successfully. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for the hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 1. Investigations and researched on system assessment; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-1. Technologies drawing attentions relate to fuel cell driven automobiles and hybrid automobiles in the field of utilizing hydrogen derived from reproducible energies and fossil energies, and fuel cell co-generation and micro gas turbine co-generation in the field of electric power generation. Hydrogen reformed from gasoline on board the automobile as the fuel for fuel cell driven automobiles, hydrogen as a by-product of coke furnace off-gas (COG), and reproducible energy hydrogen have the same fuel consumption performance as in the hybrid automobiles. Particularly the COG is low in cost, and has large supply potential. Liquefied hydrogen is as promising as compressed hydrogen in view of the cost for automotive hydrogen supply stations. What has high economic performance as the self-sustaining systems for islands are photovoltaic and wind power generation, and the system using hydrogen as the secondary energy. Since much of the reproducible energies is used for electric power demand in Japan, the by-product hydrogen and the reformed hydrogen in an amount of 9.3 billion Nm{sup 3}/year would take care of majority of the demand in view of the short time period. For a longer time span, hydrogen originated from the reproduced energies in the Pan-Pacific Region should be introduced. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 1. Survey/study concerning system evaluation); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the aim of formulating a strategy for introducing hydrogen, assessment was carried out on the energy consumption, environmental impacts and cost effiectiveness concerning various hydrogen utilization systems. In regard to soda-electrolysis by-product hydrogen and coke-oven by-product hydrogen, hydrogen supply capacity and cost effectiveness were evaluated. As a result, the two systems were found to have an annual hydrogen supply capacity of 11.52 GNm{sup 3} in total. As to the cost effectiveness, transportation by pipeline was 34 yen/Nm{sup 3}-H{sub 2} in the case of soda-electrolysis by-product hydrogen, and 40 yen/Nm{sup 3}-H{sub 2} in the case of coke-oven by-product hydrogen. An estimated cost of power generation showed 56 yen to 67 yen/kWh in such a system on remote islands as replacing diesel power generation by wind power generation, storing part of the electric energy produced in the form of hydrogen through water electrolysis, and using it as fuel for power generation by the fuel cell unit if wind conditions are unfavorable. Power generation cost on remote islands at present is sometimes in excess of 50 yen/kWh; therefore, this combined system showed promising results. The cost of using wooden biomass was estimated to be 51,000 yen/TOE , whose competitiveness is uncertain. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on automobile engine); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Jidosha engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-10

    The paper made an investigational study of the data of a wide range which seems to be related to the use of hydrogen as automobile use fuel. The advantage is that the exhaust can almost be non-pollutant. The engine performance can be on the same level as that of the present gasoline engine or can be improved. The reasons are that the compression rate is heightened and that automobile can be driven at lean mixture rate. As to weak points, the volume and weight increase when it is loaded on vehicle. The cost of hydrogen is higher than that of petroleum. The problems to be quickly solved are as follows. Improvement of the combustion method: a wide range of development not only the electric ignition method, but the diesel method, and the basic study for it. It is necessary to establish the basis for a method to connect the storage method and engine. It is also necessary to comprehensively review rules related to safety. For the future, the conversion to artificial fuel is indispensable, and hydrogen has the most characteristics as energy medium. The problem is much larger sizes of fuel tank and pump, but there will be a possibility of producing a new technology together with the hydrogen production technology. The fundamental research should be promoted without any hesitation. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and researches on peripheral technologies (Research on fuel cell systems); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper discusses hydrogen fuel cell systems. In the economic performance of fuel cells, the ratio of fuel cost accounting for in the power generation cost is as very high as 66% or higher to 82%, if hydrogen unit cost is in the range of 20 to 50 yen per Nm{sup 3}. Enhancing the power generation efficiency contributes more greatly to reduction of the power generation cost than by reducing the construction cost. There should be no much influence on the power generation cost if a system lasts four to five years. The paper also discusses the discrete type power generation system. Discussions were given on a waste heat recovering fuel cell system using as the model an office building of 16 stories above the ground, with one basement and a total floor area of 16,000 m{sup 2}. If the system can be constructed in such a way that the fuel cell capacity is made slightly larger than that corresponds to power load, and whole air conditioning load can be taken care only by waste heat by using a heat pump, the auxiliary heat source can be made smaller, and the overall fuel conservation ratio can be larger, thus the fuel was found saved by 40% than in existing systems. In using hydrogen in automobiles, weight problem will emerge if high-pressure hydrogen or metallic hydride is used for hydrogen storage. Liquefied hydrogen is light in weight, but large in volume. Development is desired on high-performance hydrogen absorbing alloys. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies (Research on equipment materials for iodine system cycle); 1979 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle no sochi zairyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    From among researches on hydrogen manufacturing technologies using thermo-chemistry in the Sunshine Project, discussions were given on equipment materials, with the second-stage reaction in the iodine system cycle as the object. This paper describes achievements in fiscal 1979. The reaction produces MgO, I{sub 2} and O{sub 2} from Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Corrosion tests were performed by using test pieces made of Ni alloy, iron-Ni-Cr alloy, Ti alloy, Zr alloy, Nb and Ta. These materials are thought to have excellent corrosion resistance in high temperature gaseous phase composed of iodine, oxygen and water. Corrosion tests were carried out also by using sheet formed test pieces of 24 kinds of alloys and six kinds of commercially available non-ferrous metallic materials in different temperatures and atmospheres, mainly the iodine plus oxygen plus H{sub 2}O mixed gas atmosphere at 600 degrees C. The corrosion resistance of the tested materials can be divided into three ranks. Materials having relatively good resistance were Ni-50Cr alloy and Co group alloy. Materials having good corrosion resistance are very little affected by water content. The higher the temperature, the more the metal corrosivity has increased. Preliminary discussions were given on pipe formability in materials having good corrosion resistance as the equipment piping materials. Their mechanical properties were also tested. This paper also describes corrosion resistance tests under heat transferring condition by using pipe-formed test pieces. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on automobile engine); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Jidosha engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-10

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1975 research results, and proposes the policy toward the future as follows. (1) Computational prediction on the future trend of hydrogen energy is active in the U.S.A. (2) For application of hydrogen derived from coal to transport, chemical synthesis of methane, methanol and gasoline from such hydrogen is in proposal because of difficult transport of LH{sub 2} or MH{sub 2}. (3) Complete run of Musashi Institute of Technology's LH{sub 2} passenger car in a long-distance rally, and trial run of Billings' MH{sub 2} minibus as challenge to practical use indicated new data, features and problems for hydrogen vehicles through experiences. (4) Conversion from a conventional soft-oriented attitude to a hard-oriented one is thus necessary. (5) Preparation of LH{sub 2} production facility is also necessary. (6) Stabilization of atomic hydrogen, expected various hydrides, and an H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-water engine as new ideas are stimulating many researchers. (7) Study on gasoline cracking methods such as JPL is active. (8) Doubled cost of gasoline will probably promote practical use of hydrogen vehicles. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2000 strategic surveys for respective technical fields. Hydrogen-based energy working group (Analysis of project results relating to hydrogen technology); 2000 nendo bun'yabetsu senryaku chosa hokokusho. Suisokei energy WG (Suiso kanren gijutsu ni kakawaru jigyo seika tou bunseki chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Attention is focused on the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology which has enjoyed the largest number of industrial property applications out of hydrogen-related technologies under development by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). The patent application is utilized as a tool for analysis, and endeavors are made to systematize and then analyze the correlations between the tasks to discharge and the results of studies in the process of MCFC development. Findings are described below. It is quite difficult to specify the technology involved by the study of patent abstracts. Since an applicant for patent is inclined to describe the application so that it will cover an extensive scope (or, so that the patent will be taken in a broad sense), it takes much time for researchers other than the applicant to specify the field of technological studies where the application originates. Such being the case, it cannot be easily determined whether or not a patent applied for by a private-sector corporation has its origin in a NEDO-implemented project. In addition, it is found that there is not necessarily a correlationship between the importance of a research and development goal and the number of patents generated. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research for aircraft engines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koku engine ni kansuru kenkyu (furoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-01

    This paper introduces two out of six theses related to hydrogen fueled aircraft engines presented at the First World Hydrogen Energy Conference held in Miami in March 1976. One thesis mentions several initial prospects related to terrestrial requirements on hydrogen fueled transport aircraft. Liquefied hydrogen is attractive for large long-distance transport aircraft. Its high energy content can reduce the take-off full load weight by more than 30%, enhancing the economic effect of the aircraft. Saving fossil fuels will require national policy decisions in the near future, where introduction of liquefied hydrogen is more advantageous for long-distance aircraft. However, its introduction into wide-body transport aircraft being the major consumer requires transportation companies and airport authorities to carry out joint development with transport aircraft makers and liquefied hydrogen suppliers. The second thesis describes special natures of fuel subsystems for liquefied hydrogen fueled aircraft. Requirements to major fuel system elements and operation characteristics require evaluation as a comprehensive system, rather than as individual component criteria. In addition, hardware, experience and fuel systems as they are now in space development may not necessarily serve for the purpose. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (conceptual design of the total system/city-level energy estimation and assessment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask zentai system gainen sekkei (toshi kibo deno yosoku hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the study of scenarios for introducing hydrogen to the urban area. In the case of studying it in London, it was found that hythane (mixture of hydrogen into town gas) was effective, but in the case of doing in Tokyo, it was found that the scenario was undesirable because of the increasing infracost. Accordingly, another scenario was studied. It was assessed from the aspects of environmental advantages, infracosts, and potential advantageous values in urban areas associated with hydrogen utilization (hydrogen premium). It is most effective to use hydrogen as a fuel of transportation means from the aspect of environmental merits as the decrease in external cost. In Tokyo, the dependence upon electric power is large, and therefore it is attractive to introduce highly efficient fuel cells which enable the dispersed cogeneration using hydrogen. The value of hydrogen is determined by the avoidance of environmentally influential substances and the surplus generated output by fuel cells (substitution for the existing natural gas). When the high external cost can be assumed, the value of hydrogen becomes large. The paper also considered the arrangement of infrastructures in Tokyo. 187 refs., 14 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no choa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was aimed at developing the WE-NET as a joint project worldwide by taking concrete measures such PR activities to obtain international understanding and cooperation of WE-NET based on the survey/grasp of researches of research institutes in each country and the developmental trend of hydrogen energy in each of the main countries. Implementing a `long-term vision for the WE-NET international cooperation,` the following measures were taken in fiscal 1997. PR activities were positively developed which coped with the worldwide increasing interest in WE-NET such as delivery to overseas institutions of the fiscal 1996 survey report in English summarized by NEDO and information exchanges, and participation in international conferences and presentation of the research results. From a standpoint of positively proceeding with the international technical information exchange, the following were conducted following fiscal 1996: 1) the evaluation study jointly made with Stanford University of effects of reducing air pollution by introducing hydrogen cars, 2) survey on the U.S. hydrogen project, and 3) preparation for opening of the WE-NET internet home pages. 17 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Report on the results of the FY 1998 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 1. Survey/research for the comprehensive evaluation and developmental plan; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 1. Sogo hyoka to kaihatsu keikaku no tame no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper described the results of the FY 1998 WE-NET project survey. WE-NET is composed of various element technologies such as hydrogen production, hydrogen transportation, storage technology, low-temperature materials, hydrogen utilization, and hydrogen combustion turbine technology. Therefore, considering the effectiveness as a total system, it is extremely important to traversally evaluate the situation of the R and D of each technology and developmental achievements and to work out developmental plans with integration, considering the effectiveness as a total system. From viewpoints of making effective promotion of the project and attempting optimization as a total system, it is necessary to make organic/comprehensive connection and adjustment among individual subtasks all the time. In this survey/research, in the case of proceeding with the above-mentioned studies, a committee having knowledgeable persons and learned persons as members was established. There, an investigational study was conducted over the whole WE-NET structural technology, and at the same time the following were attempted: the constant/mobile comprehensive adjustment of the whole project, evaluation of the developmental results, and optimization of the developmental plans. The results obtained in 6 years of Period I were evaluated traversally and comprehensively, and how to proceed with the development in Period II was proposed, which showed the developmental continuity. (NEDO)

  11. Fermentation characteristics in conversion of organic acids obtained by oxidation of low-rank coals to poly({beta}-hydroxybutyrate) using A. eutrophus cells with some analysis on metabolic flux distribution; Kattan no ekisosanka de erareru yukisan wo suiso saikin wo riyoshite pori {beta}-hidorokishi rakusan (PHB) ni henkansaseru tameno baiyo kogakuteki kento to taisha ryusoku bunpu shisutemu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, Shoko.; Shin, Huidong.; Shimizu, Kazuyuki. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Biochemical engineering and science; Mae, Kazuhiro.; Miura, Koichi. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    Fermentation characteristics are investigated for the conversion of glycolate, acetate, formate, and malonate obtained by the oxidation of low-rank coals to poly ({beta}-hydrox butyrate) (PHB) using A. eutrophus cells. Based on the cultivation experiments using one of the organic acids as a sole carbon source, it is found that acetate is the most effectively converted to PHB. When mixed organic acids are used, formate is preferentially consumed, followed by acetate, and finally glycolate. Although malate can not be utilized, it is implied that it might change the pathway flux distributions based on the metabolic flux analysis. Namely, it shows competitive inhibition to succinate dehydrogenase so that its addition during fermentation results in flux reduction from succinate to maleic acid as well as glyoxylate flux and gluconeogenesis flux. It is also found that NADPH generated from isocitrate is preferentially utilized for the reaction from {alpha}-ketoglutarate to glutamate when NH{sub 3} concentration is high, while it is eventually used for the PHB production from acetoacetyl CoA as NH{sub 3} concentration decreases. (author)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 12. Search and assessment of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 12. Kakushinteki sendoteki kenkyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Search and assessment were carried out on innovative and leading technologies which are outside the development objects at the present, but are promising for the future. This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the hydrogen manufacturing method using natural gas as the raw material, but not generating carbon dioxide, a method using plasma has the hydrogen conversion rate of more than 90%, capable of providing carbon black with added value. On a hydrogen selective enzyme hydrogenase sensor, verification was given on its sensitivity and response speed, but the discussion was interrupted because of difficulty in obtaining the enzyme. Naphthenic hydrogen storage and transportation media (easy in hydrogenation and dehydrogenation) were discussed, whereas the reaction promoting effect was identified in both of the super heating liquid film process and the membrane reactor system. Enhancement in output and efficiency may be anticipated if hydrogen-rich reformed gas is obtained by reforming methane (natural gas) by utilizing waste heat from a gas turbine of several MW capacity. Hydrogen liquefaction technologies using the magnetic freezing process was discussed as the fundamental research assignment, wherein fiscal 2000 has studied the basic design and optimal magnetic materials. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research for aircraft engines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koku engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-01

    With an objective to utilize hydrogen fuel in aircraft engines, a conceptual design survey was carried out on medium size transport aircraft. Large size long-distance aircraft and SST loaded with a great amount of fuel have the jet fuel (JP) increase take-off weight, affecting largely the selection of wing area and engine thrust. If the hydrogen fuel can be liquefied, large reduction can be achieved and the economic effect can be increased. However, for short-distance transport aircraft, the fuel weight ratio is small, where no large advantage is anticipated even if hydrogen is liquefied. Nevertheless, considering oil depletion in the future, a conceptual design was performed on the YX2688 short-medium distance aircraft being discussed of development. Even the short-medium distance aircraft that can be developed and commercialized as civilian use aircraft has a number of common points with large aircraft development, such as hydrogen fuel using technologies and safety. Although the advantage of using liquefied hydrogen as fuel may of course be smaller in the short-medium distance aircraft than in larger aircraft, the trend of using hydrogen fuel is historical necessity, whose development plans should be moved forward. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean system technology) (WE-NET) (total system conceptual design/safety measures/evaluation technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 3 zentai system gainen sekkei - anzen taisaku hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the study of safety measures in WE-NET, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. For drawing up a policy for safety design, technology of preserving hydrogen at high temperature/pressure, continuing collecting information on existing plants (liquid hydrogen, LNG). Investigating manuals of NASA and NASDA and also referring to people`s opinions at chemical plants, etc., the study entered into the setting-up of the safety policy and design standards. Examples of anomalies/accidents were extracted, and classification/arrangement were commenced of the measures for anomalies of detection/prevention/protection. Toward the diffusion of hydrogen and the enhancement and unification of explosion/fire simulation models, the extraction of problems has been almost finished. The second mini work shop on safety was held in the U.S., and exchanges of information were made among researchers of each country. All agreed on the importance of collecting data as the base of safety standards. As to safety measures in various tests using combustor evaluation experimental facilities, experimental equipment for materials under liquid hydrogen and experimental equipment of thermal insulation under liquid hydrogen, problems were extracted between researchers and people concerned with safety measures, and the measures to solve them were studied. 18 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical method (Research on iodine-based cycle etc.); 1974-1980 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Iodine-alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca) cycles are discovered, and the one with Mg is found excellent. The reaction consists of four stages, that is, Stage (1) where 1/5Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}+MgI{sub 2}(aq) is obtained from 6/5MgO+6/5I{sub 2}, Stage (2) where 1/5MgO+1/5I{sub 2}+1/2O{sub 2} is obtained from 1/5Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Stage (3) where MgO+2HI is obtained from MgI{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O, and Stage (4) where H{sub 2}+I{sub 2} is obtained from 2HI. Since there is much iodine and water at Stage (1), MgO thrice MgI{sub 2} in mol is added for reforming and concentration. At Stage (4), where the decomposition rate is as low as 17-27% with the equilibrium dissociation reaction proceeding at 300-700 degrees C, hydrogen is selectively separated by permeation through a porous diaphragm for the acceleration of the reaction. As for materials for the device, they are narrowed down to high-priced ones, that is, Ta and Nb for Stage (1), Ni-50Cr for Stage (2), and Mo etc. for Stages (3) and (4). Under the circumstances, a study is started for the development of a chemical vapor plating process which is high in corrosion resistance. Other cycles such as sulfur-based cycles and hybrid cycles are also investigated. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1982 Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1982 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jikken seisei kensho (Chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    The effort aims to develop a reactor and its peripheral devices and process management technology therefor and to develop chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process technology as part of the endeavors to develop a low cost production process for silicon for photovoltaic cells for the purpose of building a model plant capable of approximately 10 tons/year in terms of SOG (spin on glass) silicon. The installation of a 10 tons/year class model plant for SOG-Si production is completed in July 1982. Flaws are removed after a test run, and four reactions are accomplished without damage on the reactor tube in the period from February-end to March-beginning marking 550 hours of operation in total. Thanks to the four operations, 1,086kg of granules are experimentally produced and an electric power consumption rate of 30.6KWH/kg Si is achieved, control of the flowing particle amount by reactor differential pressure is accomplished and the same of the yield by recovered silane liquid composition analysis, and essence is seized of operation control technologies. In an experimental apparatus for seed production, Si is crushed by a roll crusher and then subjected to separation by a quartz-made air elutriator. A high yield of 130kg is obtained after crushing for 75 hours. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1983 Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1983 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jikken seisei kensho (Chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    The effort aims to develop a reactor and its peripheral devices and process management technology therefor and to develop chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process technology as part of the endeavors to develop a low cost production process for silicon for photovoltaic cells for the purpose of building a model plant capable of approximately 10 tons/year in terms of SOG (spin on glass) silicon. A study is made of ten operations (total reaction time of 2,264 hours), and it turns out that the electric power consumption efficiency is near the initially planned value. The yield of Si is, however, but 16.5% which is lower than the initially planned value of 20%. The value is elevated to 18% by raising the reactor temperature. To prevent overcleaning, a reactor with its internal walls experimentally coated with SiC is tested. The problems with devices other than the reactor tube are extraction rendered difficult by anomalously grown granules and processing devices choked by Si powder contained in waste gas after reaction. The first problem is settled by modifying the extraction tube but the other still needs a remedy. The produced granules are found to be high in quality. The seed producing roll crusher is operated for a total of 92 hours yielding 857kg in total. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1983 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen production technology using electrolysis (Research on electrolysis of water using alkali type solid polymer electrolyte); 1983 nendo denki bunkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Arukarigata kotai kobunshi denkaishitsu suidenkai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    The report covers the outcome of the research conducted for the establishment of basic techniques for the electrolysis of water using the alkali type solid polymer electrolyte. This fiscal year, following the previous fiscal year, anode materials fit for the electrolysis of water by the AZEC method are investigated, and a medium-size cell, high-temperature cell, and test unit are built. As the result, it becomes clear that the Raney Nickel electrode is relatively active as anode as well as cathode and that it is excellent in durability. The Raney Nickel electrode, with its activity further improved by modification using rhodium and rhenium, is durable, and exhibits the lowest overvoltage. As for the medium-size cell, a cell structure excellent in outgassing while maintaining electrode flatness is sought for, and it is found that it is capable of electrolytic performance similar to that of a small-size cell. As for the high-temperature cell, studies are conducted about the impact of temperature and pressure on the bath voltage. The pressure control system experimentally built in this research is found to be excellent in transient response too. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology (Summary); 1974 nendo suiso no seisei yuso chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yoyakuban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This study aims at the following. As to an alternative plan of the hydrogen distribution system, this paper makes the comprehensive evaluation from viewpoints of possibility, adaptability to society, economical efficiency, reliability, dynamic characteristics, etc., selects the most rational system and picked up the problems for realization of the system. It also sets up standards for safety technology relating to the hydrogen energy system and acquires the basic knowledge/information on concrete disaster prevention technology which backs up the standards. Among those, in this fiscal year, as system analysis of the hydrogen distribution system, study was made on system analysis of the system alternative plan and problems on system realization. Next, as an investigational study on safety technology in hydrogen energy system, the paper conducted the survey/collection in Japan and abroad of the present law, standards for handling, and examples of disaster/accident in relation to hydrogen, and the survey research on the concrete safety problem predicted. The paper studied the technology related to the safety problem required for safety. Industrial Research Institute, Japan, and the four companies under re-consignment made each report in which the results of the research were detailedly arranged. This paper is a summary of these reports. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Survey and research on patent and information (Survey of new energy technology development information - Hydrogen and other energies); 1981nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu joho chosa seika hokokusho. Suiso sonotano energy hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Surveys are conducted and the results are reported on the development of technologies in the U.S., Canada, Britain, West Germany, and France, for hydrogen energy, and for wind power, biomass power, marine power, wave power, etc. In the U.S., development funds are being introduced by the Government into wind power systems since 1975, and part of the power is utilized in the fields of agriculture and power supply business. The task is now being transferred from the Government to private sector businesses. Probabilities are that hydrogen will not be an important source of energy in the U.S. In the Province of Ontario, Canada, where there is surplus electricity, people have a great interest in the development of hydrogen energy, and there is a task force to discuss hydrogen energy. As for wind power, it is already in the realm of practical application. In Britain, wind power is expected to come into practical use very early, and the first practical plant will begin its service operation by 1984. As for the study of tidal power, however, it is narrowed down to a project at the mouth of the Severn river. As for hydrogen energy, the research remains at the basic stage, and the energy enjoys but a low precedence. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on automobile engine); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Jidosha engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-10

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1975 research results, and proposes the policy toward the future as follows. (1) Computational prediction on the future trend of hydrogen energy is active in the U.S.A. (2) For application of hydrogen derived from coal to transport, chemical synthesis of methane, methanol and gasoline from such hydrogen is in proposal because of difficult transport of LH{sub 2} or MH{sub 2}. (3) Complete run of Musashi Institute of Technology's LH{sub 2} passenger car in a long-distance rally, and trial run of Billings' MH{sub 2} minibus as challenge to practical use indicated new data, features and problems for hydrogen vehicles through experiences. (4) Conversion from a conventional soft-oriented attitude to a hard-oriented one is thus necessary. (5) Preparation of LH{sub 2} production facility is also necessary. (6) Stabilization of atomic hydrogen, expected various hydrides, and an H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-water engine as new ideas are stimulating many researchers. (7) Study on gasoline cracking methods such as JPL is active. (8) Doubled cost of gasoline will probably promote practical use of hydrogen vehicles. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 10. Development of low-temperature materials; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 10. Teion zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on material property test under liquid hydrogen environment, and development of optimum welding material and welding technique for the WE-NET plan. In the study on material properties in a liquid hydrogen temperature range, fatigue strength tests of base metals and weld metals were conducted under liquid hydrogen environment continuously, and further fatigue data were collected. As a result, it was clarified that both SUS304L and SUS316L have extremely high fatigue strength. To improve the tenacity of candidate weld metals under liquid hydrogen environment, material tests of welds were conducted on the laser-welded stainless steel joint and friction stir- welded Al alloy joint prepared by TWI (The Welding Institute) in the U.K. The laser-welded stainless steel joint showed higher low-temperature tenacity and lower ductility than TIG- welded joints. The friction stir-welded Al alloy joint showed extremely improved tensile strength and tenacity in a liquid hydrogen temperature range. For the low-temperature material database, both addition of new data and improvement of software were promoted. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 2. Investigations and researched on safety measures; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 2. Anzen taisaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-2, the safety measures. In order to structure safety design criteria, potential anomalies, accident phenomena, and safety measures that can be applied were put into order based on the conceptual designs on hydrogen supply stations. Items of information were collected and put into order on failure rates and other factors to estimate accident occurrence frequency required for quantitative risk assessment. Representative event scenarios were selected by estimating the event evolving processes. In order to obtain knowledge about the steady state of run-off and evaporation of liquefied hydrogen, experiments were performed by using a small-size experimenting device, whereas new findings were discovered. To identify the fundamental knowledge related to explosion of hydrogen, and to verify a program simulating the explosion, explosion experiments were inaugurated to have established the stable experiment performing method. A calculation program simulating leakage and evaporation of liquefied hydrogen was verified and analyzed from the experimental results, and the program improvements were discussed. Pre-estimation and verification were carried out on the explosion experiments by using the hydrogen explosion and combustion simulating calculation program, and discussions were given on program improvement. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 6. Development of fuel cell of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 6. Junsuiso kyokyu kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for research and development Task-6. The objective is to verify performance and reliability, by means of field tests, of a power generation plant using fuel cells of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type with power transmission terminal efficiency of 45% and output of 30 kW. The fuel cells were developed by using the cathode humidification process as a humidification method suitable for operation at high utilization rates. With a three-cell stack made by using this humidification process (having an effective area of 289 cm{sup 2}), verification was made on the current density of 0.2A/cm{sup 2}, the characteristics of 0.75V or higher, and the uniform voltage distribution performance being the immediate targets. In order to mitigate the hydrogen utilization in the fuel cells, discussions were given on the serial flow system that divides the laminated cells into two blocks. Thus, operation was found possible with the utilization rate in each block reduced to about 80% by selecting an adequate division rate even if the hydrogen utilization rate is 96% in the entire stack. Stable operation has been performed in the 5-kW class power generation test using the cathode interior humidifying system. Specifications for 30-kW class power plant, system configuration, safety, and material balance were discussed. The basic design was made on the hydrogen gas humidity adjusting system. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 6. Development of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell supplied with pure hydrogen; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 6. Junsuiso kyokyu kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on development of element technologies for a pure hydrogen fuel cell power system of nearly 45% in efficiency at terminal, and demonstration test result on the 30kW class polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system supplied with pure hydrogen. On cell voltage characteristics in high-utilization operation, study was made on degradation and corrosion caused by short supply of hydrogen by using a single cell. As a result, it was found out that reverse polarization of -3.0V has small effect, however, that of -0.7V causes corrosion and deterioration of cell characteristics in a short time. In operation using actual-size cells for the 30kW class plant, it was effective to wet cells on the air side. On hydrogen high-utilization operation technique, study was made on hydrogen recovery and recycle operation, anode outlet line closed operation, and anode recycle operation. In addition, some studies were made on specifications of auxiliary facilities for fuel cells, safety measures for fuel cells and humidity control of supplied hydrogen gas. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 2. Research on safety measures; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 2. Anzen taisaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 WE-NET phase 2, task 2 research result on safety measures. In the study on preparation of the safety design standard, based on the concept design of the hydrogen supply station under investigation in task 7, latent anomalies and accidents, safety measures against them, and precautions for the safety design were arranged. Survey was made on databases available to collect failure rates necessary for quantitative risk assessment. In the study on establishment of a safety evaluation method, an evaporation apparatus for liquid hydrogen was prepared for comparative experiment with liquid nitrogen. Various information on flow and evaporation properties of liquid hydrogen were obtained. Survey was made on previously reported documents for hydrogen explosion experiment and preparation of an experiment plan. The simulation model for spillage, evaporation and diffusion of liquid hydrogen was verified and improved on the basis of the experiment results. A commercially available computation program for hydrogen deflagration was introduced, and its implementation was studied. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1980-1987 Sunshine Program achievement reports. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Overview: Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1980-1987 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jijkken seisei kensho sokatsuban (chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    The chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction technology development period may be divided into the first phase (fiscal 1980-1985) and the second phase (fiscal 1986-1988). During the former phase, efforts were exerted to develop a small experimental device (10 tons/year class) and technologies to operate the same. Important challenges were to cause reaction to occur only on the seed grains in the reactor and to create a proper material for the reactor tube. In the latter phase, element technologies were developed, indispensable for the development of a practical reactor. Endeavors exerted to solve these challenges were the development of a high-strength large-diameter reactor tube, the development of an SiC-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) coating technology, and the development of a technology to join parts to the ceramic-made reactor tube. After eight years' striving, a fluidized bed reactor has been successfully constructed, capable of continuously reducing trichlorosilane by hydrogen. The success promises stable production and supply of polycrystalline silicon. The SOG (spun on glass)-Si produced by the reactor is pure enough to serve the purpose of photovoltaics, and its unit cost has been lowered as initially intended. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1984 Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1984 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jikken seisei kensho (chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    In fiscal 1984, studies are conducted for long-time stabilized operation of the device (extension of reactor tube service life, elimination of flaws in the granule extraction process, control of deposited silicon), improved granule quality (measures to deal with Cu pollution), cost reduction (improvement on yield of silicon after reaction, reduction in electric power consumption rate), and so forth. The results are found to be satisfactory in outline. The problem of strengthening the reactor tube material itself remains to be solved, however, with many knotty issues to settle before practical application. In the effort to deliberate these difficulties, as many as 4,377 hours (reaction hours) in total are spent in fiscal 1984. During the operation, 8.3 tons of granules are produced of which approximately 7 tons are fed to the next stage of processing. The quality of granules produced in this way is stable thanks to efforts to prevent pollution and to prolong continuous reaction time, and is found to satisfy NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) specifications. Furthermore, the cast cell and the ribbon cell using thus-produced granules achieve photoelectric conversion rates of 10% and 9%, respectively, thereby meeting the target goal of 9%. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1993 report on the results of the subsidy project for the Sunshine Project. Development of coal use hydrogen production technology (Support study of pilot plant - Trial development of materials of plant use equipment); 1993 nendo Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu (Plant yo kiki zairyo no shisaku kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As to the development of coal use hydrogen production technology, the paper made the test study on the improvement of gasifier use materials and evaluation of the characteristics, the evaluation test in the environment using the actual machine, etc., and the FY 1993 results were reported. The results of the study were as follows. Concerning the shaped refractory for gasifier hearth, it was found that high chromia base and picrochromite base refractory development materials had much more excellent coal slag resistance than other existing component-system materials. It was shown that the development materials began to deteriorate under the coal gasification environment at temperatures of about 1,500 degrees C or higher. As to the mullite ceramics, a possibility was shown of improving the slag permeation resistance by making the crystal grain coarse by long-time sintering. By the survey of the state of damage of the proposed materials (refractory and iridium) used in the operational environment of the pilot plant, the outlook for use limit was made clear. In the environment test using the actual machine on the proposed metal base alloy of the typical equipment of the pilot plant, the correspondence between the operational environment and material corrosion was made clear. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on fuel cell system); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    In fiscal 1974, the domestic and overseas developmental states of fuel cell bodies were surveyed, and some problems on the interconnection between a fuel cell system and power system were studied. Since the maximum outputs of conventional fuel cells are only nearly 10kW, however, those from several hundreds kW to several ten thousands kW are required for buildings or commercial power facilities, in the fiscal 1975, some supposed problems derived from such scale- up of fuel cells were extracted to study their solutions. Study was made on 4 kinds of fuel cells such as alkaline electrolyte, acidic electrolyte, molten salt electrolyte and solid electrolyte fuel cells, and fuel modifier for generating hydrogen. As preliminary modeling work for dynamic performance analysis of fuel cell systems, study was made on scale of the model, DC devices and equipment for customers, environmental impact, power supply reliability, various characteristics and problems in load variation including start and stop, and kinds of accidents and their measures. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. R and D of hydrogen production technology by the high-temperature/high-pressure water electrolysis method (outline); 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-30

    As the R and D of hydrogen production technology by the high-temperature/high pressure water electrolysis method, this paper outlined (1) the concept design and the investigational research on the constant load type high-temperature/high-pressure (multi-pole type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank (in charge of Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd.); (2) the concept design and the investigational research on the load variation type high-temperature/high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis equipment (in charge of Showa Denko K.K. and Hitachi Zosen Corp.); (3) the investigational research on the role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources and the evaluation (in charge of Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc.). In (1), the concept design of a small test plant was made, and the detailed design and test plan on the material test equipment were drew up. In (2), Showa Denko K.K. is running the water electrolysis plant. As a result of studying the electric power unit and operational conditions of hydrogen production, it was concluded that high-temperature/high-pressure operation should be tried for making the water electrolysis tank highly efficient. Hitachi Zosen Corp. made the study of the multi-pole type pressurized filter system high-pressure water electrolysis equipment which was developed for submarine and the design of the bubble behavior observing tank and material test tank for the concept design of load variation type test plant. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 6 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of technology of low temperature materials); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 6 teion zairyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the results of the development of technology of low temperature materials in the fiscal 1997 WE-NET. Using experimental equipment for materials under the atmosphere of liquid hydrogen, an experiment on mechanical characteristics under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere (20K) was conducted of the base materials of candidate steels (SUS304L, SUS316L and A5083). In material evaluation experiments (tension/fracture toughness/fracture tests), characteristic behaviors of the materials were shown which are different from those shown in the environment of liquid He (4k), etc. Even if the amount of {delta} ferrite in the metal welded of the stainless steel is small, approximately 1%, the degradation of low temperature toughness occurred. Welded joints of stainless steel by submerged arc welding and MAG welding were in now way inferior in tension characteristic to those by TIG welding, but were inferior in toughness ranging from room temperature to extremely low temperature. As to aluminum alloys, materials excellent in extremely-low temperature toughness were able to be found. Under the low temperature hydrogen gas atmosphere, the lower the strain rate is, the higher the hydrogen brittleness susceptibility is around 220K (extremely large hydrogen brittleness temperature) (SUS304L). In the hydrogen gas of 100 atm, hydrogen invades the material at 100degC, but does not at 77k. 38 refs., 173 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 (edition B) on auxiliary New Sunshine Project. Development of coal hydrogasification technology (Research by using experimental device); 1998 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho (B ban). Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Jikken sochi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of using practically the coal hydrogasification technology (the ARCH process), developmental research has been performed on important elementary technologies using different experimental devices. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. In the research by using a small testing apparatus, the Taiheiyo coal was used to have derived hydrogasification data (distribution and yield of the reaction products) in case of having changed the reaction pressure, temperature rising rate, and H{sub 2}/caoal ratio, and to verify the possibility of increasing the BTX yield by installing a temperature zone in two steps. In the developmental research on the injector, a combustion test and a coal feeding test were performed on the injector having been designed and fabricated in the previous fiscal year to verify the basic performance and evaluate the heat resistance and durability. With respect to the hot model test, a test installation was completed with the injector mounted to conduct the trial operation and test. In addition, development was conducted on the coal temperature rise simulation as the second phase of developing the simulation of mixing of coal with high-temperature hydrogen and temperature rise. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 3. Conceptual design of the whole system; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 result on the conceptual design of the full-scale whole system from hydrogen production to end use. In elaboration of the conceptual design of a liquid hydrogen transport and storage system, a hydrogen combustion turbine generation facility was divided into a cryogenic oxygen production facility and a hydrogen combustion turbine generation facility, and their facility costs, annual expense ratios and scale factors were set separately for trial calculation of generation costs. In study on the profitability of alternative hydrogen production systems and the hydrogen combustion turbine generation system, the cost of the combination of hydrogen production by coal gasification or natural gas modification and the generation system was calculated. In addition, this cost was compared with the costs of liquid hydrogen, methanol or ammonia system. In study on the profitability of a distributed use system of hydrogen, a hydrogen diesel system, fuel cell system and fuel supply system for vehicles were studied roughly. (NEDO)

  15. Survey report on the status of new energy in the U.S. On-site research centering on fuel cell, hydrogen energy, and wind energy (4th World Energy Engineering Congress); Beikoku shin energy jijo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi, suiso furyoku energy wo chushin to suru jicchi chosa (dai 4 kai World Energy Engineering Congress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-02-01

    A survey group dispatched by the New Energy Industrial Forum technical development committee conduct researches into the status of technologies in the U.S. relative to fuel cells, hydrogen energy, and wind energy. The group also attend the 4th World Energy Engineering Congress. As for the research and development of the phosphoric acid fuel cell, it is undertaken by the United Technology Corporation, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and the Engelhard Corporation, each having its own peculiar technologies and thereby avoiding competition with others in one and the same domain. As for the molten carbonate fuel cell, the Argonne National Laboratory is entrusted with the control of technology development, and the Laboratory in turn requests the United Technology Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation to develop technologies and systems. As for the solid oxide fuel cell, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is entrusted with its development through the intermediary of the Argonne National Laboratory. As for hydrogen energy, the General Electric Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation develop hydrogen production systems and the Brookhaven National Laboratory develops hydrogen storage systems using metallic hydrides. As for wind power generation, a Bendix-made 3,000kW wind power plant is visited and discussion is held on it. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and researches on peripheral technologies (Research related to automotive engines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Jidosha engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper discusses hydrogen fueled automotive engines. Because hydrogen has a very wide ignition mixture ratio limit for spark ignition engines, very lean combustion is possible without a need of throttling, and thermal efficiency in partial load is high. Thermal efficiency while a car is being driven is reportedly higher by 30% to 50%. Values for CO and CH in exhaust gas are negligible, while NOx is at about the same degree as in gasoline engines, which can be made extremely low during lean burn operation. The spontaneous ignition temperature is higher by about 200 degrees C than that of light oil, which presents difficulty in use for diesel engines. Because of small ignition energy and high combustion velocity, excessively early ignition and reverse ignition can occur easily. Hydrogen would be promising if new manufacturing systems are developed and production cost is reduced, and on the other hand, if petroleum price rises sharply. Hydrogen is also expected as a measure to prevent pollution, including that from soot, odor and CO2. The largest difficulty is in the transportation method, and the only possible method at the present is transportation in liquefied hydrogen form. However, practical application will have such problems as tanks, feeding devices, and cost. Development is desired on light-weight metallic hydrides. Technologies for safety and engine performance must also be developed. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on transportation of hydrogen in the form of metallic hydride; 1974-1980 nendo kinzoku suisokabutsu ni yoru suiso no yuso gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

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    1981-03-01

    This report concerns the transportation and storage of hydrogen using metallic hydrides that perform absorption and desorption of hydrogen. Alloys useable for this purpose have to be capable of reversibly absorbing and desorbing hydrogen within a certain temperature range. In the absence of guidelines to follow in the quest for such alloys, the efforts at discovering them turned out to be a continual series of trials and errors. Researches were conducted into the hydrogenation reaction of Mg and Mg-based alloys and into hydrides of V-based alloys, and into Zr-based alloy hydrides such as the ZrMn{sub 2} hydride, ZrNiMn hydride, Zr(Fe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}){sub 2} hydrides, TiZrFe{sub 2} hydride, Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}(Fe{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}) hydrides, etc. Also studied were the electronics of hydrogen in metallic hydrides, rates of reaction between Mg-Ni-based alloys and hydrogen systems, endurance tests for hydrides of Mg-Ni-based alloys, effects exerted by absorbed gas molecules during the storage of hydrogen in Mg-Ni-based alloys, effective thermal conductivity in a layer filled with a metallic hydride, metallic hydride-aided hydrogen transportation systems, chemical boosters, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Survey report on the status of new energy in the U.S. On-site research centering on fuel cell, hydrogen energy, and wind energy (Westinghouse Electric Corporation); Beikoku shin energy jijo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi, suiso furyoku energy wo chushin to suru jicchi chosa (Westinghouse Electric Corporation hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-02-01

    Under the auspices of the New Energy Foundation and the New Energy Industrial Forum technical development committee, a survey team is sent to the U.S. and conducts investigations there about fuel cells, hydrogen production, wind power generation, etc. Visited in the U.S. are the Advanced Energy System Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. As for the phosphoric acid fuel cell, research and development is under way so that two 7.5MW demonstration plants will start service operation by 1987. As for the solid oxide fuel cell, a performance test has completed for a 15-cell model, and a life test is now under way. There is a plan to construct a 500kW plant in 1988. In the production of hydrogen by means of the sulfur hybrid decomposition process, a laboratory model with a capacity of 2L/min was built in 1978, and a life test is now under way for the constituent materials and catalysts. In the field of wind power, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a 200kW generator, which is now in operation in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Hawaii. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1987 Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Verification of experimental low cost silicon refining - Development of technology for chlorosilane hydrogen-reduction process); 1987 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost silicon jikken seisei kensho (Chlorosilane no suiso kangen kotei no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    Since its construction in 1982, the experimental device capable of 10 tons/year production of SOG (spun on glass)-Si has been in operation, and the trichlorosilane processing fluidized bed reactor has achieved its goals in performance and product quality. Element studies continue for the enlargement of the reactor unit for practical application and for the designing of a large plant of the commercially viable scale. In fiscal 1987, element studies are conducted for the enlargement of the reactor unit. Concerning the development of technologies for the manufacture of large reactor tubes strong enough to withstand practical application, efforts are made to strengthen materials for the fabrication of reactor element tubes (230mm and 500mm in diameter), to develop SiC-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) technology to provide reactor tube materials with resistance to corrosion, and to develop a single reactor tube structure indispensable for device enlargement. For the verification of such element technologies, in line with the study of experimental device operation capable of 10 tons/year SOG-Si production, studies are conducted on continuous stable operation technologies for the fluidized bed reactor, maintenance and improvement of product quality, and enhancement of durability of constituent parts and components. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 10. Development of low-temperature materials; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 10. Teion zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of candidate low-temperature materials for liquid hydrogen transportation and storage (including mother materials and welds) for WE-NET. Evaluation tests were performed on material properties (mechanical properties, low-temperature embrittlement, and hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity) under room temperature and low temperature regions including liquid hydrogen atmosphere. Low temperature toughness of welds was assessed particularly to identify characteristics of different welding methods developed newly for improvements. The stainless steels and the mother materials of aluminum alloy selected as the candidates have sufficient characteristics even under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere, but the welds have lower low-temperature toughness, requiring improvement. For the stainless steels, since the amount of {delta} ferrite in welds affects greatly the low-temperature toughness, adoption of complete austenite type welding metal is effective. The reduced pressure electron beam welding method can enhance drastically the low-temperature toughness of stainless steel. For the aluminum alloy, it can be one of the alternatives to use an alloy system with composition of high low-temperature toughness. The friction stir welding method for the aluminum alloy was found to provide extremely high low-temperature toughness, which can be evaluated as a new welding method. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research for chemical utilization); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kagaku riyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-04-15

    Surveys and studies were performed on chemical utilization of hydrogen regarding its status of development and utilization inside and outside the country, as well as its future prospect. This paper describes chemical utilization of hydrogen in ammonia, methanol, petroleum refining and other industries as the existing fields. It also describes chemical utilization of oxygen in iron and steel, chemical and other industries. It describes methanol as a pollution-free auxiliary fuel for electric power plants as a new type of hydrogen application. Acetic acid made by using the Monsanto method which carbonylate methanol is drawing attention in terms of economy, and is in the phase of discussing commercialization. Synthesizing ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen may be conceived economically. Methanol for synthesized protein depends on the possibility of future development. In the iron and steel industry, electric furnace steel makers are planning production of reduced iron, where the direct reduction process using hydrogen is considered as a complementary process, including countermeasures for scrap iron. This paper estimates hydrogen amount as a raw material for ammonia to remove NOx by using the ammonia reduction process. It also describes possibility of other types of utilization. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology (Investigational study of behavior of trace impurities in the liquefaction process); 1974 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Ekika katei ni okeru biryo fujunbutsu no kyodo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Hydrogen gas as material is produced mostly by steam reforming of hydrocarbons, and includes a considerable amount of impurities such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen. The concentration of impurities in the refined gas is approximately 1ppm. In the liquefaction process of hydrogen liquefaction plant, the gases entering the low temperature portion near the free expansion valve (J-T valve) are mostly oxygen and nitrogen. When oxygen is solidified, attached, accumulated near J-T valve, it incurs a possibility of exploding for reason of impact force, etc. by contact with the valve portion. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen ignites at the minimum value of approximately 0.02 milli-joule, and therefore it has great danger of explosion. As viewed from a point of danger prevention, there is a possibility of explosion when the hydrogen-oxidizing agent mixture is formed. Accordingly, it is necessary to conduct an experiment for confirming the explosion at J-T valve portion. From viewpoints of prevention of explosion accident and running operation, it is necessary to experimentally grasp the definite allowable oxygen concentration. Further, it is necessary to establish a technology to continuously and accurately measure the concentration of trace impurities in hydrogen gas. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 3. Prediction evaluation on a national scale; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 3. Ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese long-term energy demand and various energy use styles were simulated from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental preservation, and hydrogen consumption was studied. In the research in fiscal 1998, the data on available primary energy was modified based on the upper limit of CO{sub 2} emission by COP3, and the long-term energy supply and demand outlook of Advisory Committee for Energy in June, 1998. The result of scenario analysis is as follows: (1) The reference scenario showed that reduction of a hydrogen price is indispensable to use imported hydrogen, (2) The carbon externality scenario showed that market penetration of hydrogen can be large if the carbon externality amounts to $300/t-C, (3) The high fossil fuel price scenario showed that a fossil fuel price (in particular, price of hydrocarbon) highly affects market penetration of hydrogen, and (4) The low nuclear capacity scenario suggested that a competitiveness of hydrogen is considerably improved as an energy supply-demand-balance is tight. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (total system/nation-level energy estimation and assessment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 3 zentai system ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With relation to the energy supply/demand in Japan toward the second half of the 21st century, an analysis was made using the MARKAL model to predict the amount of hydrogen introduction in the future. As in the last fiscal year, conditions of the study of IEA/ETSAP were continuously used. It was decided on that hydrogen was produced by hydroelectric/photovoltaic power generation overseas. Prices were made 14 yen and 27 yen/103 kcal. The limit price of introduction of import hydrogen was calculated. During the period from 2030 to 2050, if the hydrogen price is less than 7 ten/103 kcal, the result showed that hydrogen can be introduced in a lot of scenarios (case of the severe control of CO2 emissions, case of high priced fossil fuels, case of the low capacity of the development of nuclear power generation, etc.) As the form of hydrogen use, promising are the hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, mixture with town gas (hythane) and hydrogen cars. However, a precondition for the introduction is that the cost of hydrogen car should be more economical than the competitive means of transportation. As to hydrogen combustion turbines and hythane, the quantity of hydrogen introduction depends little on variations of characteristics of the equipment used. 11 refs., 55 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. CVD coating of alumina film of CW-[Beta]t-Co cemented carbide by using hydrogen sulphide contained atmosphere. Ryuka suiso wo fukumu CVD fun'iki wo mochiite no WC-[Beta]t-Co choko gokinjo eno Al2O3 hifuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, M.; Kodama, H. (Toshiba Tungaloy Co. Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan)); Suzuki, H. (Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-06-15

    For the purpose of forming Al2O3, a hard material, of uniform thickness on an ultrahard alloy as base material, addition of H2S gas to the reaction gas was investigated. WC-9 mass% [beta]t-7 mass%Co ([beta]t is a solid solution of 22%Ti, 33%TaC and 45%WC) as base body was covered with TiC, TiN, and Al2O3 successively. At the time of CVD coating of Al2O3, H2S of 0-0.84 vol% was added to the reaction gas (H2 gas containing 2.3%AlCl3 and 2.8%CO2). As the results, the following information was obtained: Thickness (A) of Al2O3 in the edge section and that (B) in the fiat section respectively increase with the addition of H2S of up to 0.3% while A/B decreases in this range of H2S concentration and levels off above 0.3%. And the growth rate of Al2O3 increases with addition of H2S. This fact may be attributed to the reason that H2S is a catalyst of forming H2O in the reaction gas. A possible reason of decrease of A/B is that the S content in Al2O3 is larger in the edge section than in the flat section. The addition of H2S transforms the Al2O3 film to coarse columnar crystals and tends to lower the strength of the film and weaken its contact to the ground. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  6. FY 1993 report on the results of the subsidy project for the Sunshine Project. Development of coal use hydrogen production technology (Support study of pilot plant - Study using the small equipment); 1993 nendo Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu (Kogata souchi ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As to the development of coal use hydrogen production technology, the paper studied the reactivity of char and ignition characteristics of various coals in the use of electric furnace and the participation in pilot plant test and the improvement, and the FY 1993 results were reported. In the study of reactivity of char, it was found that the reactivity was the same, regardless of the equipment and kind of raw coal, if considered of the ratio of the total oxygen amount (the char-containing oxygen amount added to the oxygen supply amount) to the carbon supply amount in char. In the test on ignition characteristics of overseas coals, the same characteristics as those of the Taiheiyo coal conventionally tested were obtained and it was found that it was good to use the same method for start-up of gasifier as conventionally used. In the pilot plant test in the previous year, slag and ash stuck to the outlet of the gasification part and heat recovery part and developed, which hindered the continued operation. To improve it, the following were carried out: model study, study of ash sintering, study using the synthetic test equipment, analysis of the deposit in gasifier, etc. Based on these results, the plant was improved, and the continued operation of 1,149 hours was stably achieved in RUN8. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on the chemical utilization); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kagaku riyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    This paper reports on the present situation of the chemical use of hydrogen and oxygen, and the short-term, medium-term, and long-term forecast. The main usage of hydrogen is ammonia synthesis, petroleum refining, and methanol synthesis. In the usage of these three, there are factors of structural changes now and in future, and it is extremely difficult to predict the amount in a short term up to around 1980. In a medium term prediction, from the result of predicting the demand of ammonia, methanol and hydrodesulfurization, the total 1985 hydrogen demand is estimated at approximately 60 billion Nm{sup 3}, and approximately 67 billion Nm{sup 3} as the gross hydrogen demand. Further, judging from that synthetic protein, fuel use methanol, and reduced iron are estimated to reach a certain production size in and after 1985, new demand for hydrogen is expected to be approximately 100 billion Nm{sup 3} mostly including fuel use methanol. In a long term prediction, it is extremely hard to predict the demand because of various factors existing in Japan and abroad. As predicted in a medium term, the amount of chemical use of hydrogen is expected to increase more and more, even if calculating it only in the field of ammonia synthesis, petroleum refining, and methanol synthesis. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation - 1 (Promotion of international cooperation); 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    International research cooperation was promoted and technical information was internationally exchanged for the development of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) Project into a truly international cooperation project. In the promotion of international research cooperation, a collection of summarized achievement reports for fiscal 1999 translated into English, based on achievement reports on the respective tasks, was disseminated to 157 related organizations overseas. Activities related to the WE-NET Project were actively presented at international conferences. For research cooperation at IEA (International Energy Agency), engineers were dispatched to its committees and annexes specializing in hydrogen related implementation agreements. In the international exchange of technical information, overseas surveys were conducted for fulfilling the purposes of the respective WE-NET tasks. Investigations were conducted into the latest fuel cell development status across the world, not to mention the automotive fuel cell now attracting earnest attention. Moreover, surveys were conducted of hydrogen energy related research institutes abroad, and a Japanese booth was installed at Hyforum 2000 (The International Hydrogen Energy Forum 2000). (NEDO)

  9. FY 1994 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Development of the coal utilization hydrogen production technology. Ninth year - Part 2. Study using a pilot plant (Design/construction/operation study of the pilot plant and the dismantling study); 1994 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo Dai 9 nenji bun seika hokokusho - 2. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu (Pilot plant no sekkei kensetsu unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In the R and D of the high temperature coal gasification technology by the entrained bed system which is the core technology of the coal utilization hydrogen production technology, the paper carried out the dismantling study of pilot plant and the summarization of the results. About the summarization of the results, as the results of the HYCOL operation study, there were insufficiencies in expansion of the coal kind used and acquisition of scale-up data, but it was verified that the conceptual design of the HYCOL method was fully applicable to the higher gasification efficiency, higher reliability, adaptability to many kinds of coal and compactness of facilities (low construction cost) which were the final subjects for the realization of commercial plant. This was highly evaluated. Especially, the greatest characteristic of the HYCOL method is the freedom in selection of temperature difference between the upper stage and lower stage, that is, temperatures can be controlled to temperatures they want in each of the upper stage and lower stage in the one-chamber gasifier according to coal properties and slagging control. The verification of this freedom was the base of the total results. Moreover, a reputation was being made that the gasification efficiency and process reliability are at the world's highest level. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) -research/study concerning international cooperation (Volume 1. research/study for promoting international cooperation); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (1. kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Various measures were implemented with the aim of realizing the 'longterm vision for international cooperation' in connection with hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET) formulated in fiscal 1996. The English version of the 1998 annual summary report on results was distributed to approximately 170 pertinent organizations overseas. To develop understanding of the WE-NET project, presentations were given in numerous international conferences. In addition, as research cooperation in IEA (International Energy Agency), specialists were dispatched to the hydrogen implementation committee, the corresponding committee to hydrogen implementation agreement, and to each annex. In international exchange of technical information, each WE-NET task exchanged information with organizations abroad through overseas survey and conducted research on European hydrogen project, for example. With the purpose of developing understanding of WE-NET project activities, a preparatory work was done for participation in HYFORUM2000 (Germany) and World Hydrogen Energy Conference (Beijing) which will be held in 2000. (NEDO)

  11. Culture engineering examination and metabolism flux distribution system analysis for madding to convert into poly {beta}- hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) using the hydrogen bacteria of organic acid got in liquid-phase oxidation of lignite; Kattan no ekiso sanka de erareru yukisan wo suiso saikin wo riyoshite pori {beta}-hidorokishi rakusan(PHB) ni henkan saseru tameno baiyo kogakuteki kento to taisha ryusoku bunpu shisutemu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, Kinko; Seki, Suito; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Mae, Kazuhiro; Miura, Koichi

    1999-04-05

    The culture engineering examination for madding to convert into poly {beta} - hydroxy Wisteria (PHB) which glycolic acid. Acetic acid, ant acid, malonic acid got in liquid-phase oxidation of lignite are raw material of biodegradable plastic using hydrogen bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus was carried out. It was proven that acetic acid was the most efficiently converted into the PHB as a result of cultivating these organic acid as a single carbon source. And, it was utilized to the bacterial cell at the order of ant acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, when it was cultivated in mixing organic acid, and it was proven to convert into the PHB. Though the malonic acid was not utilized for the bacterial cell breeding, it was indicated that as the result which analyzed metabolism flow distribution by calculating using the culture data, the succinate dehydrogenase of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) circuit received competitive inhibition, when this is added in culture middle point, and that the flux of griot lysyl acid route and gluconeogenesis route lowers. And, it was proven that it was utilized in the route which comes to the PHB synthesis from acetoacetyl CoA with the lowering of the ammonia concentration on NADPH produced from the isocitric acid, though it was prior consumed to the glutamic acid of tricarboxylic acid cycle in the route, if ammonia concentration is high. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst); 1995 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kankyo chowagata shokubai kaihatsu gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst. In 1), a survey was conducted of applicability of biological surfactant to prevention measures of pollution by heavy distillate. It showed that part of the biological surfactants is reaching a stage of its being industrially produced by gene recombination bacteria, but as a whole, biosynthetic genes have hardly been elucidated. In 2), a survey of high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke was made. It pointed out that it is necessary to develop a technology which makes the most of features of petroleum coke and allows defects. In 3), scientists and engineers of Japan and Europe searched for themes on which they can jointly study in the fields of NOx removal catalyst, up-grading of fuel, and development of catalyst combustion of fuel. 287 refs., 136 figs., 128 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use unused hydrocarbon resource, technology of solid electrolyte fuel cells for high-efficient electric vehicles); 1993 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kokoritsu denki jidosha no kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) solid electrolyte fuel cell (SOFC) technology for high-efficient electric vehicles. In 1), bio-remediation is a choice as the result of trially using technologies for remediation of the environment polluted by pollutant, but it is not a technically completed one, but one which will be improved by trial and error. By the application of gene engineering, the use of gene recombination enables wide spread of decomposition genes. In 2), technical subjects were studied such as superheavy distillate, oil shale, coalhead methane and methane hydrate. In 3), designed were cylinder type and planar type SOFC of 850degC operation and 10kW output. Accumulation and weight of a total SOFC system are 81 liters and 100 kg in cylinder type and 136 liters and 200 kg in planar type. The vehicle can be equipped with the SOFC. 171 refs., 72 figs., 54 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation (Hydrogen energy technology standardization); 2000 nendo suiro riyo kokusai clean energy sytem gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts were made to establish standards necessary to promote the research and development of hydrogen energy technology and the practical application and popularization of the technology. In the study of the base of hydrogen energy technology standardization, research was conducted about Japan's difference from other countries and tasks to discharge and problems to solve in this country, relative to laws and regulations governing the construction of 'hydrogen supply stations' constituting the core of studies in the above-mentioned phase II research and development efforts. Studies conducted toward diffusion into the general public included rules and regulations over the size of hydrogen storage and the distance between dangerous matters and fire. ISO/TC197 (hydrogen technology) was established with the aim of achieving standardization of the system and equipment pertaining to the production, storage, transportation, measurement, and utilization of hydrogen for energy purposes. In fiscal 2000, Working Group 1 registered an 'interface for automated liquid hydrogen fuel delivery system' and 'hydrogen product specifications.' Moreover, Working Groups 2 through 7 were also engaged in their activities, respectively. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation (Hydrogen energy technology standardization); 2000 nendo suiro riyo kokusai clean energy sytem gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts were made to establish standards necessary to promote the research and development of hydrogen energy technology and the practical application and popularization of the technology. In the study of the base of hydrogen energy technology standardization, research was conducted about Japan's difference from other countries and tasks to discharge and problems to solve in this country, relative to laws and regulations governing the construction of 'hydrogen supply stations' constituting the core of studies in the above-mentioned phase II research and development efforts. Studies conducted toward diffusion into the general public included rules and regulations over the size of hydrogen storage and the distance between dangerous matters and fire. ISO/TC197 (hydrogen technology) was established with the aim of achieving standardization of the system and equipment pertaining to the production, storage, transportation, measurement, and utilization of hydrogen for energy purposes. In fiscal 2000, Working Group 1 registered an 'interface for automated liquid hydrogen fuel delivery system' and 'hydrogen product specifications.' Moreover, Working Groups 2 through 7 were also engaged in their activities, respectively. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1999 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Feasibility of coal hydrogasification technology in China. Investigational study of the social adaptability (Feasibility study of the international cooperation - Report of Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry); 1999 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo (Bessatsu, Kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa Pekin Bai kagaku kenkyujo) hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the coal hydrogasification technology which has a possibility of producing high-quality substitute natural gas in quantity and at low cost, an investigational study of the social adaptability was made. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: outlook of energy supply/demand in China and the problems, natural gas resource and the plan for the use, actual state of the town gas business and the future plan, etc. As a part of the study, Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, China Coal Research Institute, made a survey under the research contract. As to the general situation of natural gas in China, report was made on the following: present situation of the development of natural gas resource in China, present situation of town gas in large cities of China, present situation and outlook of coal development and utilization in China, assessment of the coal mine area adaptable to coal hydrogasification, etc. In the survey of the area suitable for coal hydrogasification, report was made on the present situation and future of energy supply/demand in Shanghai, Shanxi, Shenfua and Xinjiang, present situation and future of town gas supply, etc. Survey/report were also made on the coal hydrogasification technology and the applicability. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D field. First year report. Development of the production technology of clean hydrogen, etc. by direct methane reforming method; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu bun'ya. Methane chokusetsu kaishitsuho ni yoru clean suiso nado no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (dai 1 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the hydrogen production method using the zeolite-base methane dehydrogenation cyclization catalyst with the specific porous structure. In this production method, there is no emission of process CO2, and hydrogen can be produced by supply of energy of 1/10 of that in the conventional technology. In FY 2000, the following were conducted: 1) conceptual design of a demonstrative experiment plant; 2) development of catalyst processing technology; 3) development of element technology such as improvement of catalyst performance. In 1), design/specifications for demonstrative experiment use plant were fixed by design estimation and process analysis using the mid-term fluidized bed experiment device. It was decided that the mid-term fluidized bed experiment device will be constructed to evaluate the methane reforming performance of catalyst and that the reaction tower should be the stationary fluidized bed type. In 2), a catalyst activity experimental device 100 times as large as the laboratory was fabricated to evaluate the catalyst performance. By optimization of reaction conditions and preparation of the catalyst composition, the targeted catalyst system was obtained. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Feasibility of coal hydrogasification technology in China. II - Final report. Investigational study of the social adaptability (Feasibility study of the international cooperation - Report of Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry); 2000 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo (Bessatsu kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa Pekin Bai kagaku kenkyujo) hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the coal hydrogasification technology which has a possibility of producing high-quality substitute natural gas in quantity and at low cost, an investigational study of the social adaptability was made. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: natural gas resource and the plan for the use in China, actual state of the town gas business and the future plan, etc. As a part of the study, Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, China Coal Research Institute, made a survey under the research contract. As a result of the survey, the following was found out: In Xinjiang and Urumchi, Uigur Autonomous Region, there is an abundant coal resource that is suitable for coal hydrogasification, the transportation pipeline of natural gas had been constructed, and public facilities are prepared, and therefore, both cities are suitable for the construction of coal hydrogasification plant. Datong, Shanxi Province, is a largest city of coal production, enables the long-term coal supply for coal hydrogasification, and has a plan for remodeling of old facilities and construction of new facilities for the introduction of natural gas, and therefore, the city is suitable for the construction of coal hydrogasification plant. (NEDO)