WorldWideScience

Sample records for motorist aid systems

  1. Motorist actions at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Ganesh J; Nambisan, Shashi S; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2010-12-01

    An in-pavement flashing light system is used at crosswalks to alert motorists and pedestrians of possible conflicts and to influence their behavior to enhance safety. The relative behaviors of the drivers and the pedestrians affect safety. An evaluation of motorist behavior at a pedestrian crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system is presented in this manuscript. Field observations provide the basis to evaluate motorist behavior at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system. Outcomes of pedestrian and motorists actions were observed to quantify measures of effectiveness (MOEs) such as yielding behavior of motorists, vehicle speeds, and yielding distance from the crosswalk. A before-and-after study design was used. The before condition was prior to the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system and the after condition was after the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system. The study was conducted on a relatively low-volume roadway located in the Henderson, Nevada. The significance of the differences in the MOEs between the 2 study periods was evaluated using statistical analysis tools such as a one-tailed test for proportions and the Welch-Satterthwaite t-test. The results show that the installation of the in-pavement flashing light system increased the yielding behavior of motorists significantly (P pavement flashing light system is seen to be effective to improve motorists' yielding behavior and the speeds of vehicles were also observed to decrease in the presence of pedestrians.

  2. A system of tradable CO2 permits applied to fuel consumption by motorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raux, C.; Marlot, G.

    2005-01-01

    Decentralized transferable permit systems in the transport sector can be of interest with regard to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in spite of anticipated transaction costs. This paper describes a potential application of a domestic market for car fuel consumption permits. The marginal costs of consumption reduction vary sufficiently according to motorists' residential locations to consider permit exchanges. Economic evaluation of this system shows that there are transfers of surplus between the various groups of motorists according to their residential locations. The central government may lose significant revenues when compared with a conventional fuel tax. Lastly, the issue of transaction costs, the benefits and disadvantages in terms of social acceptability and equity are discussed. (author)

  3. Programs across the United States that aid motorists in the reporting of impaired drivers to law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this project was to identify States that use a statewide cellular drunk driving reporting program which provides free airtime and allows motorists with cell phones to dial a special number (such as *DUI) to report suspected drunk dri...

  4. Personality Features of Motorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Justinek tries to answer the question whether or not motorists have specific personality features which predispose them for safe and well-mannered driving. A good driver should have sensory abilities which enable psycho-motor coordiation of a vehicle, intellectual and cognitive features that are important for solving problems in new, unknown situations, and emotional and motivational trails defining a driver's maturity. Justmek advocates the belief that in training future drivers greater attention should be paid to developing these features which are vital for safe driving and appropriate behaviour of drivers in traffic. He also suggests certain learning methods leading to development of the above­ mentioned personality traits. Justinek introduces the notion of the 'philosophy of driving' as an essential educational category in training future drivers.

  5. Motorists' knowledge of the 'No Smoking' ordinance in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1966-01-01

    Twenty-nine percent of motorists interviewed in an area where smoking was restricted were misinformed about, or didn't know of, the regulation prohibiting smoking while traveling. Familiarity with the regulation was related to whether the motorist smoked, frequency of use of the area, and place of residence. It was not related to the age and sex of the respondents...

  6. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  7. Metropolitan transportation management center : a case study : Michigan intelligent transportation system : improving safety and air quality while reducing stress for motorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The following case study provides a snapshot of Michigan's Intelligent Transportation Systems transportation management center (MITSC). It follows the outline provided in the companion document, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center Concepts ...

  8. Using signal detection theory to understand grade crossing warning time and motorist stopping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Motorist error or poor judgment is a significant causal factor in highway-rail grade crossing collisions. Crashes at grade crossings : equipped with warning devices often involve motorists who drive around gates or across railroad tracks while flashi...

  9. Computer-aided instruction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneze, Jean Claude

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode

  10. Computer-aided system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  11. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a testing certification mechanism (either paper-based or electronic) that shall be used for... (iii) Whether the vehicle passed or received a waiver; (4) Routinely issue citations to motorists with... stratification of non-compliance by length of noncompliance and model year. (ii) The program as currently...

  12. Airports and Navigation Aids Database System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Airport and Navigation Aids Database System is the repository of aeronautical data related to airports, runways, lighting, NAVAID and their components, obstacles, no...

  13. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  14. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  15. Operator aid system for Dhruva fueling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, S.M.; Ramaswamy, L.R.; Gohel, N.; Bharadwaj, G.; Ranade, M.R.; Khadilkar, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Systems with significant software contents are replacing the old hardware logic systems. These systems not only are versatile but are easy to make changes in the program. Extensive use of such systems in critical real-time operation environment warrants not only excessive training on simulators, documentation but also fault tolerant system to bring the operation to a safe state in case of error. With new graphic user software interface and advancement in personal computer hardware design, the dynamic status of the physical environment can be shown on the visual display at near real time. These visual aids along with the software covering all the interlocks aids an operator in his professional work. This paper highlights the operator aid system for Dhruva fueling machine. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  16. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  17. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  18. Active transportation: do current traffic safety policies protect non-motorists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the impact that state traffic safety regulations have on non-motorist fatality rates. Data obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) were analyzed through a pooled time series cross-sectional model using fixed effects regression for all 50 states from 1999 to 2009. Two dependent variables were used in separate models measuring annual state non-motorist fatalities per million population, and the natural log of state non-motorist fatalities. Independent variables measuring traffic policies included state expenditures for highway law enforcement and safety per capita; driver cell phone use regulations; graduated driver license regulations; driver blood alcohol concentration regulations; bike helmet regulations; and seat belt regulations. Other control variables included percent of all vehicle miles driven that are urban and mean per capita alcohol consumption per year. Non-motorist traffic safety was positively impacted by state highway law enforcement and safety expenditures per capita, with a decrease in non-motorist fatalities occurring with increased spending. Per capita consumption of alcohol also influenced non-motorist fatalities, with higher non-motorist fatalities occurring with higher per capita consumption of alcohol. Other traffic safety covariates did not appear to have a significant impact on non-motorist fatality rates in the models. Our research suggests that increased expenditures on state highway and traffic safety and the initiation/expansion of programs targeted at curbing both driver and non-motorist intoxication are a starting point for the implementation of traffic safety policies that reduce risks for non-motorists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer aided training system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software

  20. Reactor core design aiding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Hamaguchi, Yukio; Nakao, Takashi; Kondo, Yasuhide

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional radial power distribution and an axial one-dimensional power distribution are determined based on a distribution of a three-dimensional infinite multiplication factor, to obtain estimated power distribution estimation values. The estimation values are synthesized to obtain estimated three-dimensional power distribution values. In addition, the distribution of a two-dimensional radial multiplication factor and the distribution of an one-dimensional axial multiplication factor are determined based on the three-dimensional power distribution, to obtain estimated values for the multiplication factor distribution. The estimated values are synthesized to form estimated values for the three-dimensional multiplication factor distribution. Further, estimated fuel loading pattern value is determined based on the three-dimensional power distribution or the two-dimensional radial power distribution. Since the processes for determining the estimated values comprise only additive and multiplying operations, processing time can be remarkably saved compared with calculation based on a detailed physical models. Since the estimation is performed on every fuel assemblies, a nervous circuit network not depending on the reactor core system can be constituted. (N.H.)

  1. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  2. Computer-aided control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebenhaft, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Control systems are typically implemented using conventional PID controllers, which are then tuned manually during plant commissioning to compensate for interactions between feedback loops. As plants increase in size and complexity, such controllers can fail to provide adequate process regulations. Multivariable methods can be utilized to overcome these limitations. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, modern control systems are designed and analyzed with the aid of MVPACK, a system of computer programs that appears to the user like a high-level calculator. The software package solves complicated control problems, and provides useful insight into the dynamic response and stability of multivariable systems

  3. Expert system aided operator's mental activities training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.; Gese, A.

    1994-01-01

    The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  4. A decision-aiding system: DACFOOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, A.; Heymes, P.

    1994-01-01

    The DACFOOD (Decision Aiding for Contaminated FOODstuffs) system provides decision makers with necessary data for the implementation of optimized protection measures in case of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. The system evaluates the dose impact due to ingestion of these products, calculates the dose reduction after implementation of specific actions and, by combining these actions, assesses several strategies by using their cost-effectiveness ratios. Such evaluations need the description of contamination as radionuclide activities in each foodstuff, and the description of consumers' groups according to their dietary habits. Then it is possible to define areas in which the doses received are reasonably homogeneous in different age classes. If deposition occurs at a period of the year without harvest, the system applies dynamic transfer models to calculate the concentration in future productions. (authors). 2 refs

  5. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  6. Computer-Aided Facilities Management Systems (CAFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyros, Kreon L.

    Computer-aided facilities management (CAFM) refers to a collection of software used with increasing frequency by facilities managers. The six major CAFM components are discussed with respect to their usefulness and popularity in facilities management applications: (1) computer-aided design; (2) computer-aided engineering; (3) decision support…

  7. Expert system aids transport regulation users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshire, R.D.; Straw, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    During late 1984 the IAEA Regulations were identified as an area of application for an expert system adviser which could offer many advantages. Over the following year some simple tests were carried out to examine its feasibility, but TRANAID did not get underway until 1986 when British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Corporate Management services were engaged on the product. By this time a greater choice of suitable software, in the form of expert system shells, had become available. After a number of trial systems the shell Leonardo was finally adopted for the final system. In order for TRANAID to emulate the expert it was necessary to spend time extracting and documenting the expert knowledge. This was a matter of investigating how the regulations are used and was achieved by a series of meetings including opportunity for the computer specialists to interview the regulations experts. There are several benefits in having an expert system advisor in this area. It is useful to both experienced and inexperienced users of regulations. For those who are learning to use the regulations it is an excellent training aid. For those who know the regulations but use them infrequently it can save time and provide a valuable reassurance. The adviser has enabled the expert user's know how to be captured and to be made widely available to those with less experience. (author)

  8. Design Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulewski, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Design-Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS) is a tool that assists in defining embedded computer systems through tree structured graphics, military standard documentation support, and various analyses including automated Software Science parameter counting and metrics calculation. These analyses provide both static and dynamic design quality feedback which can potentially aid in producing efficient, high quality software systems.

  9. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, H; Yoshida, T; Butsuen, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N; Nakano, T; Nakamoto, T

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  10. A computer-aided continuous assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C.H. Turton

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities within the United Kingdom have had to cope with a massive expansion in undergraduate student numbers over the last five years (Committee of Scottish University Principals, 1993; CVCP Briefing Note, 1994. In addition, there has been a move towards modularization and a closer monitoring of a student's progress throughout the year. Since the price/performance ratio of computer systems has continued to improve, Computer- Assisted Learning (CAL has become an attractive option. (Fry, 1990; Benford et al, 1994; Laurillard et al, 1994. To this end, the Universities Funding Council (UFQ has funded the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP. However universities also have a duty to assess as well as to teach. This paper describes a Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA system capable of assisting in grading students and providing feedback. In this particular case, a continuously assessed course (Low-Level Languages of over 100 students is considered. Typically, three man-days are required to mark one assessed piece of coursework from the students in this class. Any feedback on how the questions were dealt with by the student are of necessity brief. Most of the feedback is provided in a tutorial session that covers the pitfalls encountered by the majority of the students.

  11. Framework for computer-aided systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced computer technology, analytical methods, graphics capabilities, and expert systems contribute to significant changes in the design process. Continued progress is expected. Achieving the ultimate benefits of these computer-based design tools depends on successful research and development on a number of key issues. A fundamental understanding of the design process is a prerequisite to developing these computer-based tools. In this paper a hierarchical systems design approach is described, and methods by which computers can assist the designer are examined. A framework is presented for developing computer-based design tools for power plant design. These tools include expert experience bases, tutorials, aids in decision making, and tools to develop the requirements, constraints, and interactions among subsystems and components. Early consideration of the functional tasks is encouraged. Methods of acquiring an expert's experience base is a fundamental research problem. Computer-based guidance should be provided in a manner that supports the creativity, heuristic approaches, decision making, and meticulousness of a good designer

  12. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  13. Computer aided information system for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidian, T.A.; Karmakar, G.; Rajagopal, R.; Shankar, V.; Patil, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The computer aided information system (CAIS) is designed with a view to improve the performance of the operator. CAIS assists the plant operator in an advisory and support role, thereby reducing the workload level and potential human errors. The CAIS as explained here has been designed for a PWR type KLT- 40 used in Floating Nuclear Power Stations (FNPS). However the underlying philosophy evolved in designing the CAIS can be suitably adopted for other type of nuclear power plants too (BWR, PHWR). Operator information is divided into three broad categories: a) continuously available information b) automatically available information and c) on demand information. Two in number touch screens are provided on the main control panel. One is earmarked for continuously available information and the other is dedicated for automatically available information. Both the screens can be used at the operator's discretion for on-demand information. Automatically available information screen overrides the on-demand information screens. In addition to the above, CAIS has the features of event sequence recording, disturbance recording and information documentation. CAIS design ensures that the operator is not overburdened with excess and unnecessary information, but at the same time adequate and well formatted information is available. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs

  14. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  15. Cyclist–motorist crash patterns in Denmark: A latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    to prioritize safety issues and to devise efficient preventive measures. Method: The current study focused on cyclist–motorist crashes that occurred in Denmark during the period between 2007 and 2011. To uncover crash patterns, the current analysis applied latent class clustering, an unsupervised probabilistic...

  16. The Modern Hearing Aid – an Extreme System Integration Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) to produce a competitive advantage in terms of size and features. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry and a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids. The system integration challenge will be illustrated......People with reduced hearing generally want to hide this disability and thus the size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing in the effort to make them virtually invisible. However, as for all other modern electrical devices more and more features are constantly added to hearing aids driven...

  17. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I.

    2003-01-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and bony

  18. Computer-aided system for cryogenic research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, V.P.; Zhelamsky, M.V.; Mozin, I.V.; Repin, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided system is developed for the more effective choice and optimization of the design and manufacturing technologies of the superconductor for the magnet system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with the aim to ensure the superconductor certification. The computer-aided system provides acquisition, processing, storage and display of data describing the proceeding tests, the detection of any parameter deviations and their analysis. Besides, it generates commands for the equipment switch off in emergency situations. ((orig.))

  19. "Them or Us": Perceptions, cognitions, emotions, and overt behavior associated with cyclists and motorists sharing the road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    In emerging cycling regions, cyclists and motorists share the road due to cycling infrastructure scarcity. This study investigates the chain of stimuli, cognition, emotion, and behavior associated with the road-sharing experience through the thematic analysis of talk-backs posted in response...... to news items related to cyclist-motorist crashes. Results show: (a) cycling infrastructure scarcity and perceived road use rights trigger emotional stress; (b) motorists and cyclists perceive the road-sharing experience as life-threatening and experience anxiety, anger, and fear; (c) drivers' coping...

  20. Wireless communication for hearing aid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer

    This thesis focuses on the wireless coupling between hearing aids close to a human head. Hearing aids constitute devices withadvanced technology and the wireless communication enables the introduction of a range of completely new functionalities. Such devices are small and the available power...... the ear-to-ear wireless communication channel by understanding the mechanisms that control the propagations of the signals and the losses. The second objective isto investigate the properties of magneto-dielectric materials and their potential in antenna miniaturization. There are three approaches...... to study the ear-to-ear wireless communication link; a theoretical approach models the human head asa sphere that has the electrical properties of the head, a numerical approach implements a more realistic geometry of the head, and an experimental approach measures directly the coupling between...

  1. [Clinical skills and outcomes of chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q

    2018-04-09

    Computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology is a kind of oral digital system which is applied to clinical diagnosis and treatment. It overturns the traditional pattern, and provides a solution to restore defect tooth quickly and efficiently. In this paper we mainly discuss the clinical skills of chair-side CAD/CAM system, including tooth preparation, digital impression, the three-dimensional design of prosthesis, numerical control machining, clinical bonding and so on, and review the outcomes of several common kinds of materials at the same time.

  2. Mobile health information system: a mobile app. to aid health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile health information system: a mobile app. to aid health workers relate health information. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences ... phones in delivering vital health information and effective fieldwork reporting is of significance.

  3. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  4. Motorist comprehension of the slow-moving vehicle emblem in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, A M; Mann, D D

    2010-04-01

    Despite the existence of the slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblem for almost 50 years, there continues to be a large number of preventable accidents between SMVs and other motorists. In this study, the current SMV emblem was tested against other common road signs as well as alternative slow-moving vehicle emblems to determine motorist comprehension of the signs. An open-ended test method was used to determine the level of comprehension by Manitoba motorists. Written answers from 50 participants were classified as either "correct" or "incorrect" by the authors based on the meaning of the traffic signs provided in a driver's handbook. Only 3 of the 16 Manitoba traffic signs attained the 85% level of comprehension required by ANSI standards. Only 22% of participants correctly identified the current SMV emblem. Two alternatives to the SMV emblem found in the literature, both iconic in nature, were understood to mean "slow-moving vehicle" by only 2% and 8% of participants, respectively. Two alternatives to the SMV developed for this project were evaluated with levels of comprehension of 68% and 84%: however, these levels of comprehension were likely biased by the presence of text. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that the current symbolic SMV emblem should be replaced by an alternative emblem that is iconic in nature.

  5. Ergonomics: an aid to system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, the engineering community has recognized that ergonomics can make significant contributions to system design. Working together engineers and ergonomists can create designs that effectively meet system goals. By considering the role of humans and technology in the context of systems and by reducing the potential for errors, gains can be made in overall system reliability. Such efforts can reduce the need for costly backfits and increase system efficiency. (author)

  6. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility

  7. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  8. Environmental information systems - practicable decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Environmental information systems are classified in documentation systems and environmental planning systems. In environmental information systems emphasis is laid on scientific documentation. Environmental planning systems, on the other hand, involve facts on the state of the environment with respect to the air, noise, water, soil, waste management, the ecology and nature conservation. They can be used as instruments for documenting trends in enviromental pollution and the state of the art in environmental engineering. The relation polluter-environment-enforcement plays a central role for the protection of the environment (integration in terms of the KMSYS). The 'trade and process-specific emissions' system already represents an instrument for the transfer of knowledge in the field of air pollution abatement (see, e.g., Clean Air Technical Code, and the backfitting of existing plants). (DG) [de

  9. A Complete Interactive Graphical Computer-Aided Instruction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven Selby

    The use of interactive graphics in computer-aided instruction systems is discussed with emphasis placed on two requirements of such a system. The first is the need to provide the teacher with a useful tool with which to design and modify teaching sessions tailored to the individual needs and capabilities of the students. The second is the…

  10. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  11. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  12. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing

  13. Decision aid systems for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Martinez, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of new techniques, especially in the field of artificial intelligence, makes it possible to design more powerful computerized systems, supporting tasks related to the design and operation of nuclear power plants. The potential contribution and perspectives for the integration of such systems depend upon whether the improvement of existing plants, the design of next generation reactors or future projects are concerned. We present four systems which show the state-of-the-art as regards knowledge-based systems. The first system is related to the automatic generation of procedures dealing with loss of electrical sources. The second one aims at assisting the power plant utility in following the technical specifications during maintenance operations. Finally, the last two are designed to help an emergency team evaluate and forecast the evolution of an accidental situation in a nuclear reactor. Perspectives for on-line operator assistance are then discussed, as well as the main technical themes which will make it possible to design such systems. We conclude with the difficulties which are encountered upon the integration of these tools: their validation and task sharing between man and machine

  14. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  15. Computer aided accountancy for tritium handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spannagel, G.; Schmid, C.

    1993-03-01

    A program is presented which can be used in tritium bearing systems for inventory taking and accountancy purposes. In particular, a detailed description is given of the environment in which this program has been integrated. It is explained in which way a high user friendliness has been attained and which structures contribute to achieving the flexibility required. (orig.) [de

  16. Benefits of the computerized operator aid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMeeken, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Duke Power company continues to seek out technological advances which could potentially enhance safe, reliable, efficient power generation, transmission and distribution. The application of process computer systems is a good example of advancing technology at work, assisting power companies in fulfilling their objective. It is the focus of this paper to give an overview of the range of applications applied at Duke Power Company and to highlight their associated benefits

  17. Computer aided operation of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-09-01

    Advanced technology is having the effect that industrial systems are becoming more highly automated and do not rely on human intervention for the control of normally planned and/or predicted situations. Thus the importance of the operator has shifted from being a manual controller to becoming more of a systems manager and supervisory controller. At the same time, the use of advanced information technology in the control room and its potential impact on human-machine capabilities places additional demands on the designer. This report deals with work carried out to describe the plant-operator relationship in order to systematize the design and evaluation of suitable information systems in the control room. This design process starts with the control requirements from the plant and transforms them into corresponding sets of decision-making tasks with appropriate allocation of responsibilities between computer and operator. To further effectivize this cooperation, appropriate information display and accession are identified. The conceptual work has been supported by experimental studies on a small-scale simulator. (author)

  18. Computer aided system for parametric design of combination die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranje, Vishal G.; Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a computer aided system for parametric design of combination dies is presented. The system is developed using knowledge based system technique of artificial intelligence. The system is capable to design combination dies for production of sheet metal parts having punching and cupping operations. The system is coded in Visual Basic and interfaced with AutoCAD software. The low cost of the proposed system will help die designers of small and medium scale sheet metal industries for design of combination dies for similar type of products. The proposed system is capable to reduce design time and efforts of die designers for design of combination dies.

  19. Assisted supervision of a computer aided tele-operation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bars, H; Gravez, P; Fournier, R

    1994-12-31

    This paper talks about Computer Aided Tele-operation (CAT) in dismantling and maintenance of nuclear plants. The current research orientations at CEA, basic concepts of the supervision assistance system and the realisation of a prototype are presented. (TEC). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Assisted supervision of a computer aided tele-operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bars, H.; Gravez, P.; Fournier, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper talks about Computer Aided Tele-operation (CAT) in dismantling and maintenance of nuclear plants. The current research orientations at CEA, basic concepts of the supervision assistance system and the realisation of a prototype are presented. (TEC). 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Computer Aided Education System SuperTest. Present and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing process for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES SuperTest, used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chisinau, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacau, Romania. We discuss here the future of this software, from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.

  2. Microcomputer-aided monitor for liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1983-03-01

    A microcomputer-aided monitor for a liquid hydrogen target system has been designed and tested. Various kinds of input data such as temperature, pressure, vacuum, etc. are scanned in a given time interval. Variation with time in any four items can be displayed on CRT and, if neccessary, printed out on a sheet of recording paper. (author)

  3. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  4. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  5. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  6. System-wide versus component-specific trust using multiple aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David; Rice, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research in operator trust toward automated aids has focused primarily on single aids. The current study focuses on how operator trust is affected by the presence of multiple aids. Two competing theories of multiple-trust are presented. A component-specific trust theory predicts that operators will differentially place their trust in automated aids that vary in reliability. A system-wide trust theory predicts that operators will treat multiple imperfect aids as one "system" and merge their trust across aids despite differences in the aids' reliability. A simulated flight task was used to test these theories, whereby operators performed a pursuit tracking task while concurrently monitoring multiple system gauges that were augmented with perfect or imperfect automated aids. The data revealed that a system-wide trust theory best predicted the data; operators merged their trust across both aids, behaving toward a perfectly reliable aid in the same manner as they did towards unreliable aids.

  7. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  8. CADRIGS--computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwik, R.J.; Polizzi, L.M.; Sticco, S.; Gerrard, P.B.; Yeater, M.L.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Phillips, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated reliability analysis program combining graphic representation of fault trees, automated data base loadings and reference, and automated construction of reliability code input files was developed. The functional specifications for CADRIGS, the computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system, are presented. Previously developed fault tree segments used in auxiliary feedwater system safety analysis were constructed on CADRIGS and, when combined, yielded results identical to those resulting from manual input to the same reliability codes

  9. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  10. Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS) are two modules of a single data management system that share common tables and...

  11. Method of Computer-aided Instruction in Situation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy O. Kargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of computer-aided instruction in context-chain motivated situation control system of the complex technical system behavior. The conceptual and formal models of situation control with practical instruction are considered. Acquisition of new behavior knowledge is presented as structural changes in system memory in the form of situational agent set. Model and method of computer-aided instruction represent formalization, based on the nondistinct theories by physiologists and cognitive psychologists.The formal instruction model describes situation and reaction formation and dependence on different parameters, effecting education, such as the reinforcement value, time between the stimulus, action and the reinforcement. The change of the contextual link between situational elements when using is formalized.The examples and results of computer instruction experiments of the robot device “LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT”, equipped with ultrasonic distance, touch, light sensors.

  12. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  13. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  14. A supervisor system for computer aided laser machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers achieve non divergent beam of short wavelength energy which can propagate through normal atmosphere with little divergence and can be focused on very fine points. The final high energy per unit area on target is highly localised and suitable for various types of machining at high speeds. The most notable factor is that this high energy spot can be located precisely using light-weight optical components. The laser-machining is very amenable to environmental conditions unlike electron beam and other techniques. Precision cutting and welding of nuclear materials in normal or non oxidising atmosphere can be done using this fairly easily. To achieve these objectives, development of a computer controlled laser machining system has been undertaken. The development project aims at building a computer aided machine with indegenous controller and medium power laser suitable for cutting, welding, and marking. This paper describes the integration of the various computer aided functions, spanning over the full range, from job-defining to final finished part-delivary, in computer aided laser machining. Various innovative features of the system that render it suitable for laser tool development as well as for special machining applications with user-friendliness have been covered. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. [A computer-aided image diagnosis and study system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangyong; Xie, Zhengxiang

    2004-08-01

    The revolution in information processing, particularly the digitizing of medicine, has changed the medical study, work and management. This paper reports a method to design a system for computer-aided image diagnosis and study. Combined with some good idea of graph-text system and picture archives communicate system (PACS), the system was realized and used for "prescription through computer", "managing images" and "reading images under computer and helping the diagnosis". Also typical examples were constructed in a database and used to teach the beginners. The system was developed by the visual developing tools based on object oriented programming (OOP) and was carried into operation on the Windows 9X platform. The system possesses friendly man-machine interface.

  16. A Home Integral Telecare System for HIV/AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Cesar; Gomez, Enrique J; Garcia, Felipe; Chausa, Paloma; Guzman, Jorge; Del Pozo, Francisco; Gatell, Jose Maria

    2005-01-01

    VIHrtual Hospital is a telemedicine web system for improving home integral care of chronic HIV patients through the Internet. Using the videoconference, chat or messaging tools included in the system, patients can visit their healthcare providers (physician, psychologist, nurse, psychiatrist, pharmacist, and social worker), having these access to the Electronic Patient Record. The system also provides a telepharmacy service that controls treatment adherence and side effects, sending the medication to the patient's home by courier. A virtual community has been created, facilitating communication between patients and improving the collaboration between professionals, creating a care plan for each patient. As a complement, there is a virtual library where users can find validated HIV/AIDS information helping to enhance prevention. This system has been developed using low cost technologies in order to extend the number of patients involved in its trial. Thus, VIHrtual Hospital is now on trial in the Hospital Clinic (Barcelona, Spain) involving a hundred patients and twenty healthcare professionals during two years.Although we are still waiting for the final results of the trial, we can already say that the use of telemedicine systems developed ad hoc for a chronic disease, like HIV/AIDS, improve the quality of care of the patients and their care team. The system described is a good example of the possibilities that technologies are offering to create new chronic patient care models based on telemedicine.

  17. Computer aided approach for qualitative risk assessment of engineered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, W.K.; Arendt, J.S.; Fussell, J.B.; Rooney, J.J.; Wagner, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper outlines a computer aided methodology for determining the relative contributions of various subsystems and components to the total risk associated with an engineered system. Major contributors to overall task risk are identified through comparison of an expected frequency density function with an established risk criterion. Contributions that are inconsistently high are also identified. The results from this analysis are useful for directing efforts for improving system safety and performance. An analysis of uranium hexafluoride handling risk at a gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plant using a preliminary version of the computer program EXCON is briefly described and illustrated

  18. Computer-based expert system aids underground mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, S.G.

    1987-04-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems have been rapidly expanded over the last few years to aid in the decision making processes in a whole range of industries, including the use of machines for operating in high risk/dangerous areas such as at the working faces in longwall mining. Using Prolog software a program for mine management is being developed called CHOOZ. This system can help managers identify staffing problems and change manpower shifts to cope with unexpected labor problems such as absenteeism and sickness. All the programs have been developed for the IBM PC microcomputer.

  19. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  20. Diagnosis aids with artificial intelligence in the PSAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourgnon-Hanoune, A.; Porcheron, M.; Ricard, B.

    1996-01-01

    To improve monitoring and diagnosis capabilities in nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF) has designed an integrated monitoring and diagnosis assistance system: PSAD - Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic. The development of this sophisticated monitoring and data processing system requires the addition of analysis and diagnosis assistance capabilities. Diagnostic knowledge based systems have thus been added to the functions monitored in PSAD: DIVA for turbine generators, and DIAPO for reactor coolant pumps. These systems rely on a representation of the diagnostic reasoning process of experts and of supporting knowledge. Diagnosis in both systems is performed through an abductive reasoning process applied to component fault models and observations derived from their actual behavior, as provided by the monitoring functions. The basic theoretical elements of this diagnostic model are summarized in a first part of this paper. In a second part, DIVA and DIAPO specific elements are described. (authors)

  1. Development and implementation of an HIV/AIDS trials management system: a geographical information systems approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Busgeeth, K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of randomised and clinically controlled trials of HIV/AIDS interventions can provide invaluable information to decision-making processes. Using the newly emerging geographical information systems (GIS) technology, researchers have developed a tool which assists...

  2. On the obstacles and solutions in the application of Chinese criminal legal aid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sh.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the article discovers the problem of application of Chinese legal aid system, which is very low. The problem should be solved as below. The author suggests strengthening the education to investigators, changing the way of employing legal aid lawyers and clarify the content of the right informing and applying for legal aid system. These actions application might well improve the situation.

  3. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  4. ARCHITECTURE OF WEB BASED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Filyukov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with design of a web-based system for Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM. Remote applications and databases located in the "private cloud" are proposed to be the basis of such system. The suggested approach contains: service - oriented architecture, using web applications and web services as modules, multi-agent technologies for implementation of information exchange functions between the components of the system and the usage of PDM - system for managing technology projects within the CAM. The proposed architecture involves CAM conversion into the corporate information system that will provide coordinated functioning of subsystems based on a common information space, as well as parallelize collective work on technology projects and be able to provide effective control of production planning. A system has been developed within this architecture which gives the possibility for a rather simple technological subsystems connect to the system and implementation of their interaction. The system makes it possible to produce CAM configuration for a particular company on the set of developed subsystems and databases specifying appropriate access rights for employees of the company. The proposed approach simplifies maintenance of software and information support for CAM subsystems due to their central location in the data center. The results can be used as a basis for CAM design and testing within the learning process for development and modernization of the system algorithms, and then can be tested in the extended enterprise.

  5. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Masuda, Takahiro; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  6. Automated dental identification system: An aid to forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated dental identification system is computer-aided software for the postmortem identification of deceased individuals based on dental characteristics specifically radiographs. This system is receiving increased attention because of the large number of victims encountered in the mass disasters and it is 90% more time saving and accurate than the conventional radiographic methods. This technique is based on the intensity of the overall region of tooth image and therefore it does not necessitate the presence of sharp boundary between the teeth. It provides automated search and matching capabilities for digitized radiographs and photographic dental images and compares the teeth present in multiple digitized dental records in order to access their similarity. This paper highlights the functionality of its components and techniques used in realizing these components.

  7. Developing a surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, F.; Bokhari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Apart from other interventions, surveillance remains a major focus of the national response to HIV/AIDS. However, with a shift in the epidemic pattern, the existing surveillance strategies are barely insufficient and long-term structural changes are desirable. This article provides a conceptual framework for developing a scientific system for HIV surveillance in Pakistan. Second generation surveillance system including repeated cross-sectional surveys in high risk population groups are suggested to collect behavioral and serological data at regular intervals on an annual basis to monitor the epidemic trend as well as the associated behaviors. In addition, multiple data resources have been highlighted, which could be coordinated to describe the epidemic pattern in the country. This information should form the basis for national prevention planning and ought to be used for making sensible choices through which prevention efforts are most likely to reduce new infections. (author)

  8. A Novel Attitude Determination System Aided by Polarization Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a novel attitude determination system aided by polarization sensor. An improved heading angle function is derived using the perpendicular relationship between directions of E-vector of linearly polarized light and solar vector in the atmospheric polarization distribution model. The Extended Kalman filter (EKF with quaternion differential equation as a dynamic model is applied to fuse the data from sensors. The covariance functions of filter process and measurement noises are deduced in detail. The indoor and outdoor tests are conducted to verify the validity and feasibility of proposed attitude determination system. The test results showed that polarization sensor is not affected by magnetic field, thus the proposed system can work properly in environments containing the magnetic interference. The results also showed that proposed system has higher measurement accuracy than common attitude determination system and can provide precise parameters for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV flight control. The main contribution of this paper is implementation of the EKF for incorporating the self-developed polarization sensor into the conventional attitude determination system. The real-world experiment with the quad-rotor proved that proposed system can work in a magnetic interference environment and provide sufficient accuracy in attitude determination for autonomous navigation of vehicle.

  9. A Novel Attitude Determination System Aided by Polarization Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wei; Chu, Jinkui; Li, Jinshan; Wang, Yinlong

    2018-01-09

    This paper aims to develop a novel attitude determination system aided by polarization sensor. An improved heading angle function is derived using the perpendicular relationship between directions of E-vector of linearly polarized light and solar vector in the atmospheric polarization distribution model. The Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with quaternion differential equation as a dynamic model is applied to fuse the data from sensors. The covariance functions of filter process and measurement noises are deduced in detail. The indoor and outdoor tests are conducted to verify the validity and feasibility of proposed attitude determination system. The test results showed that polarization sensor is not affected by magnetic field, thus the proposed system can work properly in environments containing the magnetic interference. The results also showed that proposed system has higher measurement accuracy than common attitude determination system and can provide precise parameters for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control. The main contribution of this paper is implementation of the EKF for incorporating the self-developed polarization sensor into the conventional attitude determination system. The real-world experiment with the quad-rotor proved that proposed system can work in a magnetic interference environment and provide sufficient accuracy in attitude determination for autonomous navigation of vehicle.

  10. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  11. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Yang, Qiang; Xie, Qing; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  12. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  13. Efficacy of computer-aided detection system for screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mioko; Ohnuki, Koji; Yamada, Takayuki; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for screening mammography (MMG). Screening mammograms of 2,231 women aged over 50 yr were examined. Medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images were obtained, and two expert observers interpreted the mammograms by consensus. First, each mammogram was interpreted without the assistance of CAD, followed immediately by a re-evaluation of areas marked by the CAD system. Data were recorded to measure the effect of CAD on the recall rate, cancer detection rate and detection rate of masses, microcalcifications and other findings. The CAD system increased the recall rate from 2.3% to 2.6%. Six recalled cases were diagnosed as breast cancer pathologically, and CAD detected all of these lesions. Seven additional cases in which CAD detected abnormal findings had no malignancy. The detection rate of CAD for microcalcifications was high (95.0%). However, the detection rate for mass lesions and other findings was low (29.2% and 25.0% respectively). The false positivity rate was 0.13/film for microcalcifications, and 0.25/film for mass lesions. The efficacy of the CAD system for detecting microcalcifications on screening mammograms was confirmed. However, the low detection rate of mass lesions and relatively high rate of false positivity need to be further improved. (author)

  14. CAISSE (Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy) technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelon, P E; Beinhauer, F W

    1979-01-01

    The Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy (CAISSE) was developed to provide the general public with information on solar energy and its potential uses and costs for domestic consumption. CAISSE is an interactive computing system which illustrates solar heating concepts through the use of 35 mm slides, text displays on a screen and a printed report. The user communicates with the computer by responding to questions about his home and heating requirements through a touch sensitive screen. The CAISSE system contains a solar heating simulation model which calculates the heating load capable of being supplied by a solar heating system and uses this information to illustrate installation costs, fuel savings and a 20 year life-cycle analysis of cost and benefits. The system contains several sets of radiation and weather data for Canada and USA. The selection of one of four collector models is based upon the requirements input during the computer session. Optimistic and pessimistic fuel cost forecasts are made for oil, natural gas, electricity, or propane; and the forecasted fuel cost is made the basis of the life cycle cost evaluation for the solar heating application chosen. This manual is organized so that each section describes one major aspect of the use of solar energy systems to provide energy for domestic consumption. The sources of data and technical information and the method of incorporating them into the CAISSE display system are described in the same order as the computer processing. Each section concludes with a list of future developments that could be included to make CAISSE outputs more regionally specific and more useful to designers. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Computer-aided safety systems of industrial high energy objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolsky, N.G.; Gordeev, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern objects of fuel and energy, chemical industries are characterized by high power consumption; by presence of large quantities of combustible and explosive substances used in technological processes; by advanced communications of submission systems of initial liquid and gasiform reagents, lubricants and coolants, the products of processing, and wastes of production; by advanced ventilation and pneumatic transport; and by complex control systems of energy, material and information flows. Such objects have advanced infrastructures, including a significant quantity of engineering buildings intended for storage, transportation, and processing of combustible liquids, gasiform fuels and materials, and firm materials. Examples of similar objects are nuclear and thermal power stations, chemical plants, machine-building factories, iron and steel industry enterprises, etc. Many tasks and functions characterizing the problem of fire safety of these objects can be accomplished only upon the development of special Computer-Aided Fire Safety Systems (CAFSS). The CAFSS for these objects are intended to reduce the hazard of disastrous accidents both causing fires and caused by them. The tasks of fire prevention and rescue work of large-scale industrial objects are analyzed within the bounds of the recommended conception. A functional structure of CAFSS with a list of the main subsystems forming a part of its composition has been proposed

  16. A Visual-Aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three-dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  17. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  18. Geo-Spatial Tactical Decision Aid Systems: Fuzzy Logic for Supporting Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Raffaele; Giannecchini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper describes a tactical decision aid system based on fuzzy logic reasoning for data fusion and on current Open Geospatial Consortium specifications for interoperability, data dissemination...

  19. Allegheny County Beltway System Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Authoritative dataset of the beltway system in Allegheny County. The system was developed to help motorists navigate through Allegheny County on low-traffic roads....

  20. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  1. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, ...

  2. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, Meg; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience

  3. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  4. [First aid system for trauma: development and status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D K; Lin, W C; Zhang, P; Kuang, S J; Huang, W; Wang, T B

    2017-04-18

    With the great progress of the economy, the level of industrialization has been increasing year by year, which leads to an increase in accidental trauma accidents. Chinese annual death of trauma is already more than 400 000, which makes trauma the fifth most common cause of death, following malignant tumor, heart, brain and respiratory diseases. Trauma is the leading cause of the death of young adults. At the same time, trauma has become a serious social problem in peace time. Trauma throws great treats on human health and life. As an important part in the medical and social security system, the emergency of trauma system occupies a very important position in the emergency medical service system. In European countries as well as the United States and also many other developed countries, trauma service system had a long history, and progressed to an advanced stage. However, Chinese trauma service system started late and is still developing. It has not turned into a complete and standardized system yet. This review summarizes the histories and current situations of the development of traumatic first aid system separately in European countries, the United States and our country. Special attentions are paid to the effects of the pre- and in-hospital emergency care. We also further try to explore the Chinese trauma emergency model that adapts to the situations of China and characteristics of different regions of China. Our review also introduces the trauma service system that suits the situations of China proposed by Professor Jiang Baoguo's team in details, taking Chinese conditions into account, they conducted a thematic study and made an expert consensus on pre-hospital emergency treatment of severe trauma, providing a basic routine and guidance of severe trauma treatment for those pre-hospital emergency physicians. They also advised to establish independent trauma disciplines and trauma specialist training systems, and to build the regional trauma care system as

  5. Development of computer-aided diagnosis systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu; Arimura, Hidetaka; Kumazawa, Seiji; Morishita, Junji; Sakai, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is a practice done by medical doctors based on computer image analysis as the second opinion, and CAD studies have been government-adopted projects. CAD is already on popular practice in the cancers of the breast by mammography, lung by flat plate and CT images, and large bowel by CT colonoscopy. This paper describes four examples of authors' actual CAD investigations. First, the temporal subtraction image analysis by CAD is for the detection of abnormality in the chest by radiographs taken at different times. Examples are shown in cases of interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer out of 34 patients with diffuse lung diseases. Second, development of CAD system is recorded for detection of aneurysm by the brain MR angiography (MRA). Third is the CAD detection of fascicles in cerebral white matters by the diffuse tensor MRI, which will help the surgery for brain tumors. Final is an automated patient recognition based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication systems. This is on the radiograph giving biological fingerprints of the patients. CAD will be applied in a wider field of medicare not only in imaging technology. (T.I)

  6. Cyclists' experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclists’ experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076

  8. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  9. Theoretical Limits of Lunar Vision Aided Navigation with Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    THEORETICAL LIMITS OF LUNAR VISION AIDED NAVIGATION WITH INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM THESIS David W. Jones, Capt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-020 DEPARTMENT...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-020 THEORETICAL LIMITS OF LUNAR VISION AIDED NAVIGATION WITH...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-020 THEORETICAL LIMITS OF LUNAR VISION AIDED NAVIGATION WITH INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM THESIS David W. Jones

  10. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2017-03-08

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners. ©Amos Cahan, James J Cimino. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 08.03.2017.

  11. Application of the Quality Functional Deployment Method in Mobility Aid Securement System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Independent Locking Securement System Project (ILS System Project) is a : successful attempt to respond to the transportation community's need for a : "universal" securement/restraint system that will accommodate most wheeled : mobility aids, inc...

  12. Computer aided instrumented Charpy test applied dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1986-01-01

    Micro computer aided data treatment system and personal computer aided data analysis system were applied to the traditional instrumented Charpy impact test system. The analysis of Charpy absorbed energy (E i , E p , E t ) and load (P y , P m ), and the evaluation of dynamic toughness through whole fracture process, i.e. J Id , J R curve and T mat was examined using newly developed computer aided instrumented Charpy impact test system. E i , E p , E t , P y and P m were effectively analyzed using moving average method and printed out automatically by micro computer aided data treatment system. J Id , J R curve and T mat could be measured by stop block test method. Then, J Id , J R curve and T mat were effectively estimated using compliance changing rate method and key curve method on the load-load point displacement curve of single fatigue cracked specimen by personal computer aided data analysis system. (author)

  13. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  14. Development of the cancer patient financial aid system and analysis of user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Ho; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Myung Ha; Kim, Yun-Mi; Choi, Soo Mi

    2006-01-01

    A financial aid program for low income cancer patients in Korea was initiated in 2005, which required a web-based system. Therefore, the Cancer Patient Financial Aid System (CPFAS) was developed. To improve the CPFAS, we evaluated the nationwide satisfaction of public health center users.

  15. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Reproducibility of computer-aided detection system in digital mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Cho, Nariya; Cha, Joo Hee; Chung, Hye Kyung; Lee, Sin Ho; Cho, Kyung Soo; Kim, Sun Mi; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the computer-aided detection (CAD) system for digital mammograms. We applied the CAD system (ImageChecker M1000-DM, version 3.1; R2 Technology) to full field digital mammograms. These mammograms were taken twice at an interval of 10-45 days (mean:25 days) for 34 preoperative patients (breast cancer n=27, benign disease n=7, age range:20-66 years, mean age:47.9 years). On the mammograms, lesions were visible in 19 patients and these were depicted as 15 masses and 12 calcification clusters. We analyzed the sensitivity, the false positive rate (FPR) and the reproducibility of the CAD marks. The broader sensitivities of the CAD system were 80% (12 of 15), 67%(10 of 15) for masses and those for calcification clusters were 100% (12 of 12). The strict sensitivities were 50% (15 of 30) and 50% (15 of 30) for masses and 92% (22 of 24) and 79% (19 of 24) for the clusters. The FPR for the masses was 0.21-0.22/image, the FPR for the clusters was 0.03-0.04/image and the total FPR was 0.24-0.26/image. Among 132 mammography images, the identical images regardless of the existence of CAD marks were 59% (78 of 132), and the identical images with CAD marks were 22% (15 of 69). The reproducibility of the CAD marks for the true positive mass was 67% (12 of 18) and 71% (17 of 24) for the true positive cluster. The reproducibility of CAD marks for the false positive mass was 8% (4 of 53), and the reproducibility of CAD marks for the false positive clusters was 14% (1 of 7). The reproducibility of the total mass marks was 23% (16 of 71), and the reproducibility of the total cluster marks was 58% (18 of 31). CAD system showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility of CAD marks for the calcification clusters which are related to breast cancer. Yet the overall reproducibility of CAD marks was low; therefore, the CAD system must be applied considering this limitation

  17. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs' ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical.

  18. Implementation and testing of the travel time prediction system (TIPS)

    OpenAIRE

    PANT, Prahlad D; UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

    2001-01-01

    RAPPORT DE RECHERCHE FINAL The Travel Time Prediction System (TIPS) is a portable automated system for predicting and displaying travel time for motorists in advance of and through freeway construction work zones,on a real-time basis

  19. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Junyi; Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  20. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Mart, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Bayouth, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, K4/B55, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-0600 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  1. Role and Relative Effectiveness of Immune System for Combating Small Pox and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Taqaddas

    2014-01-01

    The human body has a complex system of innate and adaptive mechanisms for combating infection. This article discusses the role and relative effectiveness of these mechanisms in relation to small pox and AIDS.

  2. Establish an e-learning system for radiation protection as a teaching aid at STTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyono; Joko Susilo; Muhtadan

    2013-01-01

    A system e-learning of radiation protection lesson as a teaching aids has built, for lectures activities and teaching aids in deepening the course materials of radiation protection in STTN. This system contains learning materials of radiation protection lesson, they are : Basic radiation physics, Dosimetry, basic radiation protection, radiation measuring equipment, effects of radiation, radioactive waste management, transport of radioactive substances, etc. In building of this system, Moodle platform is used with the support from some softwares, they are : Apache web server, MySql, PHP in local host computer that use XAMPP 1.8.1. The one who has rights to access this system is an admin who has obligation to manage the system and to edit, add, and remove the materials and users that consist of teachers, students, and operators who have access to use that system, as a learning aids as well as teaching aids. The materials of E-learning displayed in the forms : lesson materials, animations, pictures, and simulations. The results of this system show that E-learning able to works well as a teaching aids. With this teaching aids, we hope it will increase the quality of learning and teaching process in STTN and also it will increase the accreditation of STTN. (author)

  3. Computer-Aided Prototyping Systems (CAPS) within the software acquisition process: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Mary Kay

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis provides a case study which examines the benefits derived from the practice of computer-aided prototyping within the software acquisition process. An experimental prototyping systems currently in research is the Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) managed under the Computer Science department of the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. This thesis determines the qualitative value which may be realized by ...

  4. AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a Norwegian national survey 1989–2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldorsen, Ingfrid S; Kråkenes, Jostein; Goplen, Anne K; Dunlop, Oona; Mella, Olav; Espeland, Ansgar

    2008-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989–2003. We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003. Histologic material and radiological images were reviewed. We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway). Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989–2003. Only 2 patients had this diagnosis established while alive. AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL. Their absolute incidence rate of PCNSL per 100 person-years was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.1–2.4) and decreased during the consecutive 5-year periods from 3.6, to 2.5, and to 0.4 (p < 0.001). Median survival from initial symptom of PCNSL was 2.3 months, but one patient was still alive 4 years after completed radiotherapy. This is the first national survey to confirm decreasing incidence of AIDS-related PCNSL. Despite dismal survival in most patients, the possibility of long term survival should prompt more aggressive diagnostics in suspected PCNSL

  5. A computer-aided diagnostic and troubleshooting system for fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkle, C.R.

    1990-10-01

    This Interactive Computer-Aided Troubleshooting System (ICATS) was designed as a troubleshooting aid for the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) 11-megawatt dc Module (DCM). ICATS represents an integration of the System Testability and Maintenance Program (STAMP reg-sign) and the Portable Interactive Troubleshooter (POINTER trademark) software packages developed by ARINC Research Corporation. ICATS was designed to aid in the fault isolation of shutdown conditions that may occur in the DCM during on-load operations and start-up, and hold conditions that may occur during start-up. ICATS may also be used to help fault-isolate a return-to-standby condition occurring from on-load operation of the DCM. This report describes the development of ICATS and the ICATS functional design. The unique features of STAMP and POINTER, which allow for diagnostic aids to be designed for systems not yet built and operating, are also described. 10 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  7. Rade-aid a decision support system to evaluate countermeasures after a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; Van Den Bosch, C.J.H.; Weger, D. de.

    1990-01-01

    After Chernobyl the authorities in many countries were overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information that was being generated by measuring and monitoring programs. In making decisions, this information had to be combined with the results of specific countermeasures, in order to determine the optimal strategy with respect to a large number of consequences. The development of RADE-AID, the Radiological Accident Decision AIDing system, is aimed at providing a powerful tool in the decision-making process. RADE-AID is developed by TNO (The Netherlands) in a joint contract with KfK (FRG) and NRPB (UK). In the first phase a demonstration system will be built, called RADE-AID/D. RADE-AID/D will be used as a decision support system in the intermediate and late phase after a radiological accident. RADE-AID/D will consider countermeasures with respect to external exposure and internal exposure by food ingestion. Countermeasures are evaluated considering reduction in doses and in numbers of health effects, costs, and social effects. The paper covers the structure of the program, presentation of data and results, and the decision analysis technique that is being used. This decision analysis part is an important feature of the system; an advanced decision analysis technique is used, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Furthermore the place of RADE-AID in the decision-making process will be treated. RADE-AID/D is an interactive computer program, that offers the user the possibility to enter relevant data and to have data and results displayed in a variety of ways. Furthermore the system contains an advanced decision analysis technique, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Input data for the decision analysis calculations are provided by models from UFOMOD and MARC-codes

  8. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  9. Design aid system for nuclear power plant instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Ito, Toshiichiro; Fujii, Makoto; Shimada, Nobuhide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to provide design aid for the nuclear power plant instrumentation of high reliability with the minimum cost while eliminating unrequired condition even if there are no data for the ground of the instrumentation design. Constitution: The information data base for the design of process radiation ray monitors are administrated by a data base administration device. The conditions to be satisfied in the process radiation monitors designed based on the data for the circumstances where particular predetermined process radiation monitors are installed, are derived by deduction using information obtained from the data base by way of the data base administration device. The derived design conditions are displayed and the optimum conditions are again reduced and displayed. In this way, the designers are assisted such that optimum designs can be obtained while sufficiently satisfying the safety and also in view of the cost. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Development of a unified web-based national HIV/AIDS information system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Wang, Changhe; Qin, Qianqian; Ma, Ye; Ma, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In the past, many data collection systems were in operation for different HIV/AIDS projects in China. We describe the creation of a unified, web-based national HIV/AIDS information system designed to streamline data collection and facilitate data use. Integration of separate HIV/AIDS data systems was carried out in three phases. Phase 1, from January 2006 to December 2007, involved creating a set of unified data collection forms that took into account existing program needs and the reporting requirements of various international organizations. Phase 2, from January to October 2007, involved creating a web-based platform to host the integrated HIV/AIDS data collection system. Phase 3, from November to December 2007, involved pilot testing the new, integrated system prior to nationwide application. Eight web-based data collection subsystems based on one platform began operation on 1 January 2008. These eight subsystems cover: (i) HIV/AIDS case reporting; (ii) HIV testing and counselling; (iii) antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adults; (iv) ART for children; (v) behavioural interventions for high-risk groups; (vi) methadone maintenance treatment; (vii) sentinel and behavioural surveillance; and (viii) local county background information. The system provides real-time data to monitor HIV testing, prevention and treatment programs across the country. China's new unified, web-based HIV/AIDS information system has improved the efficiency of data collection, reporting, analysis and use, as well as data quality and security. It is a powerful tool to support policy making, program evaluation and implementation of the national HIV/AIDS program and, thus, may serve a model for other countries.

  11. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  12. Model-aided optimization of delta-endotoxin-formation in continuous culture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, V; Schorcht, R; Ignatenko, Yu N; Sakharova, Z V; Khovrychev, M P

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model of growth, sporulation and delta-endotoxin-formation of bac. thuringiensis is given. The results of model-aided optimization of steady-state continuous culture systems indicate that the productivity in the one-stage system is 1.9% higher and in the two-stage system is 18.5% higher than in the batch process.

  13. Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic feedback problems occur when the output loudspeaker signal of an audio system is partly returned to the input microphone via an acoustic coupling through the air. This problem often causes significant performance degradations in applications such as public address systems and hearing aids....... In the worst case, the audio system becomes unstable and howling occurs. In this work, first we analyze a general multiple microphone audio processing system, where a cancellation system using adaptive filters is used to cancel the effect of acoustic feedback. We introduce and derive an accurate approximation...... in acoustic feedback cancellation for hearing aids. It utilizes a probe noise signal which is generated with a specific characteristic so that it can facilitate an unbiased adaptive filter estimation with fast tracking of feedback path variations/changes despite its low signal level. We show in a hearing aid...

  14. The law isn't everything: The impact of legal and non-legal sanctions on motorists' drink driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Szogi, Elizabeth; Truelove, Verity; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures (such as sanctions) to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the impact the offending behavior has on the community. However, questions remain regarding the extent that both legal and non-legal factors influence drink driving behaviors. This is of particular concern given that both factors are widely used as either sanctioning outcomes or in media campaigns designed to deter drivers (e.g., highlighting the physical risk of crashing). This paper reports on an examination of 1,253 Queensland motorists' perceptions of legal and non-legal drink driving sanctions and the corresponding deterrent impact of such perceptions on self-reported offending behavior. Participants volunteered to complete either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Encouragingly, quantitative analysis of the data revealed that participants' perceptions of both legal sanctions (e.g., certainty, severity and swiftness) as well as non-legal sanctions (e.g., fear of social, internal or physical harm) were relatively high, with perceptual certainty being the highest. Despite this, a key theme to emerge from the study was that approximately 25% of the sample admitted to drink driving at some point in time. Multivariate analyses revealed six significant predictors of drink driving, being: males, younger drivers, lower perceptions of the severity of sanctions, and less concern about the social, internal, and physical harms associated with the offense. However, a closer examination of the data revealed that the combined deterrence model was not very accurate at predicting drink driving behaviors (e.g., 21% of variance). A range of non-legal deterrent factors have the potential to reduce the prevalence of drink driving although further research is required to determine how much exposure is required to produce a strong effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights

  15. Web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Simone Virginia; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Sigulem, Daniel; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Adults and elderly users of hearing aids suffer psychosocial reactions as a result of hearing loss. Auditory rehabilitation is typically carried out with support from a speech therapist, usually in a clinical center. For these cases, there is a lack of computer-based self-training tools for minimizing the psychosocial impact of hearing deficiency. To develop and evaluate a web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids. Two modules were developed for the web system: an information module based on guidelines for using hearing aids; and an auditory training module presenting a sequence of training exercises for auditory abilities along the lines of the auditory skill steps within auditory processing. We built aweb system using PHP programming language and a MySQL database .from requirements surveyed through focus groups that were conducted by healthcare information technology experts. The web system was evaluated by speech therapists and hearing aid users. An initial sample of 150 patients at DSA/HRAC/USP was defined to apply the system with the inclusion criteria that: the individuals should be over the age of 25 years, presently have hearing impairment, be a hearing aid user, have a computer and have internet experience. They were divided into two groups: a control group (G1) and an experimental group (G2). These patients were evaluated clinically using the HHIE for adults and HHIA for elderly people, before and after system implementation. A third web group was formed with users who were invited through social networks for their opinions on using the system. A questionnaire evaluating hearing complaints was given to all three groups. The study hypothesis considered that G2 would present greater auditory perception, higher satisfaction and fewer complaints than G1 after the auditory training. It was expected that G3 would have fewer complaints regarding use and acceptance of the system. The web system, which was named Sis

  16. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  17. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  18. Computer-aided instruction system; Systeme d'enseignement programme par ordinateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teneze, Jean Claude

    1968-12-18

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode.

  19. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  20. The INGECAD multidisciplinary integrated computer aided engineering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisielewicz, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the key criteria of an integrated CAE system, and to discuss the solution developed by Ingevision to match these criteria. An information flow model of process plant engineering is presented as a background to the key criteria of CAE systems. This model includes multidisciplinary interfaces and project changes up to the as-built stage. The key quality criteria of CAE systems correspond to managerial issues, such as project control, to technical issues, consistency and quality assurance, and to economical issues, such as cost optimization. The INGECAD system answers these criteria with a tripod nucleus underlying a set of specialized applications. The nucleus includes a Data Base Management System, basic Graphical Tools, and a Decision Support System. The paper overviews the different modules of the INGECAD system emphasizing the general architecture and the basic tools. Specific examples are developed in functional design, cost optimized items selection, and semi-automated routing of piping system. These examples are not intended to illustrate exhaustively the capabilities of the INGECAD system, but rather to highlight some of the advantages the multidisciplinary integration of the system provides to the users. (orig./HP)

  1. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  2. Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  3. Environmental information systems - practicable decision aids. Umweltinformationssysteme - praktikable Entscheidungshilfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Environmental information systems are classified in documentation systems and environmental planning systems. In environmental information systems emphasis is laid on scientific documentation. Environmental planning systems, on the other hand, involve facts on the state of the environment with respect to the air, noise, water, soil, waste management, the ecology and nature conservation. They can be used as instruments for documenting trends in enviromental pollution and the state of the art in environmental engineering. The relation polluter-environment-enforcement plays a central role for the protection of the environment (integration in terms of the KMSYS). The 'trade and process-specific emissions' system already represents an instrument for the transfer of knowledge in the field of air pollution abatement (see, e.g., Clean Air Technical Code, and the backfitting of existing plants). (DG).

  4. System for Delivering Student Aid Is Flawed, Many Agree, But What's the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Public officials and student aid experts agree that the federal program delivery system is outdated, inefficient, and vulnerable to fraud, but they disagree on how bad the situation is and whether the Education Department has the structure necessary to fix it. A 1995 project to integrate all federal grant and loan programs into one system has not…

  5. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  6. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Takashi; Tokumasu, Shinji; Kumamoto, Kenjiro.

    1986-01-01

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  7. Computer-aided system for detecting runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano B.

    1994-07-01

    A synthetic vision system for enhancing the pilot's ability to navigate and control the aircraft on the ground is described. The system uses the onboard airport database and images acquired by external sensors. Additional navigation information needed by the system is provided by the Inertial Navigation System and the Global Positioning System. The various functions of the system, such as image enhancement, map generation, obstacle detection, collision avoidance, guidance, etc., are identified. The available technologies, some of which were developed at NASA, that are applicable to the aircraft ground navigation problem are noted. Example images of a truck crossing the runway while the aircraft flies close to the runway centerline are described. These images are from a sequence of images acquired during one of the several flight experiments conducted by NASA to acquire data to be used for the development and verification of the synthetic vision concepts. These experiments provide a realistic database including video and infrared images, motion states from the Inertial Navigation System and the Global Positioning System, and camera parameters.

  8. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS... industrial centers, including important routes into, through, and around urban areas, serve the national... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103 (e...

  9. Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.

  10. Theoretical Issues of Validity in the Measurement of Aided Speech Reception Threshold in Noise for Comparing Nonlinear Hearing Aid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Graham

    2016-07-01

    Adaptive Speech Reception Threshold in noise (SRTn) measurements are often used to make comparisons between alternative hearing aid (HA) systems. Such measurements usually do not constrain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at which testing takes place. Meanwhile, HA systems increasingly include nonlinear features that operate differently in different SNRs, and listeners differ in their inherent SNR requirements. To show that SRTn measurements, as commonly used in comparisons of alternative HA systems, suffer from threats to their validity, to illustrate these threats with examples of potentially invalid conclusions in the research literature, and to propose ways to tackle these threats. An examination of the nature of SRTn measurements in the context of test theory, modern nonlinear HAs, and listener diversity. Examples from the audiological research literature were used to estimate typical interparticipant variation in SRTn and to illustrate cases where validity may have been compromised. There can be no doubt that SRTn measurements, when used to compare nonlinear HA systems, in principle, suffer from threats to their internal and external/ecological validity. Interactions between HA nonlinearities and SNR, and interparticipant differences in inherent SNR requirements, can act to generate misleading results. In addition, SRTn may lie at an SNR outside the range for which the HA system is designed or expected to operate in. Although the extent of invalid conclusions in the literature is difficult to evaluate, examples of studies were nevertheless identified where the risk of each form of invalidity is significant. Reliable data on ecological SNRs is becoming available, so that ecological validity can be assessed. Methodological developments that can reduce the risk of invalid conclusions include variations on the SRTn measurement procedure itself, manipulations of stimulus or scoring conditions to place SRTn in an ecologically relevant range, and design and analysis

  11. Computer aided construction engineering system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Nakajima, Akira; Miyahara, Ryohei; Miura, Jun

    1990-01-01

    The construction CAE system for nuclear power plants is the tool for the construction work simulator (procedure, processes and management simulation) connected to 3D-CAD (three-dimensional plant layout planning CAD). The data used for construction work simulation are registered in the data base as the installation smallest unit data from the 3D-CAD. This construction work simulator comprises the automatic installation procedure decision system, with which a construction planner decides installation procedure by using a high performance graphic work station, and based on a 3D-CAD model, utilizing empirical procedure logic, the dialogue system for making the installation procedure more optimal by utilizing effectively the graphic function, the evaluation system for synthetically evaluating workability, personnel plan and so on by adding the simulation of human behavior based on these procedures, the schedule system which carries out work process simulation based on the above, the data base system for letting to do these plans effectively and the project management system. By means of these, the plant construction of high quality is expected. (K.I.)

  12. Computer aided fault tree construction for electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A technique is presented for automated construction of the Boolean failure logic diagram, called the fault tree, for electrical systems. The method is a technique for synthesizing a fault tree from system-independent component characteristics. Terminology is defined and heuristic examples are given for all phases of the model. The computer constructed fault trees are in conventional format, use conventional symbols, and are deductively constructed from the main failure of interest to the individual component failures. The synthesis technique is generally applicable to automated fault tree construction for other types of systems

  13. Development of a Computer-aided Learning System for Graphical Analysis of Continuous-Time Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Opadiji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the development and deployment process of a computer-aided learning tool which serves as a training aid for undergraduate control engineering courses. We show the process of algorithm construction and implementation of the software which is also aimed at teaching software development at undergraduate level. The scope of this project is limited to graphical analysis of continuous-time control systems.

  14. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  15. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with approx......In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  16. Introduction to ISOCAD (Integrated System of Computer Aided Dosimetry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Amit

    2014-01-01

    A novel, bar code based computerized application package from BRIT for the Ceric cerous Potentiometric Dose Measurement System for Gamma Irradiators. The present generation of gamma irradiators operating worldwide and catering to the radiation processing requirements of medium and high dose products from the healthcare and food processing industry invariably resort to Ceric cerous Potentiometric Dose Measurement Systems (CCPDMs). BRIT, being of the major supplier of this dose measurement system in the country has expanded its clientele to the Asian continent as well in the recent past, had been endeavoring to provide its valued clients this internationally acclaimed dose measurement system at competitive pricing. The perpetually changing quality conscious business environment with demanding cGMP requirements particularly from the healthcare and the food sector propelled the development of the ISOCAD

  17. A calculational system to aid economical use of MTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, F.; Joubert, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of a fast and accurate core neutronic calculational system is a valuable asset in the operation and utilization of research reactors. Its primary value lies in optimum reload design, fuel management, safety and utilization studies. In this paper the OSCAR-3 calculational system of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa (AEC) is discussed in detail. The different components and important features are explained with a short summary of some comparisons with experiments. (author)

  18. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  19. Augmented reality aided operation and maintenance system for indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Yuichi; Umetani, Tomohiro; Kubo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an Augmented Reality (AR) system to assist operation and maintenance tasks in an indoor environment, such as a nuclear fusion reactor and its building. AR is a technology that enhances real information by adding 3D virtual objects, images, sounds, or movies via a web camera. The AR system often uses “markers” such as QR code to detect the place where the virtual content should appear. However, these markers are unnatural and they can disturb the scenery. We propose an AR system that can detect natural markers, which provides AR content via a network. This system stores the information related to markers and virtual objects on a server. A device connected to this system automatically downloads this content so that the user can watch the AR content via a web camera. We add a real-time numerical simulation function that allows us to simulate physical phenomena by touching AR contents. It also enables us to observe simulation results by downloading a movie of numerical simulation results from the simulation server. Overall, this system allows us to watch the same content with multiple devices and to simulate physical phenomena using various parameters. (author)

  20. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe; Modelisation systeme pour l`aide a l`exploitation du reacteur de recherche Siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Baradel, C. [ITMI APTOR, 38 - Meylan (France)

    1995-12-31

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system aided by fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yutaka; Nakamura, Masato; Yagi, Naomi; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system for measuring the blood flow direction in brain under skull. In this system, we use an ultrasonic array probe with the center frequency of 1.0 MHz. The system determines the fuzzy degree of blood flow by Doppler Effect, thereby it locates blood vessel. This Doppler Effect is examined by the center of gravity shift of the frequency magnitudes. In in-vitro experiment, a cow bone was employed as the skull, and three silicon tubes were done as blood vessels, and bubble in water as blood. We received the ultrasonic waves through a protein, the skull and silicon tubes in order. In the system, fuzzy degrees are determined with respect to the Doppler shift, amplitude of the waves and attenuation of the tissues. The fuzzy degrees of bone and blood direction are calculated by them. The experimental results showed that the system successfully visualized the skull and flow direction, compared with the location and flow direction of the phantom. Thus, it detected the flow direction by Doppler Effect under skull, and automatically extracted the region of skull and blood vessel.

  2. Automatic computer aided analysis algorithms and system for adrenal tumors on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hanchao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-12-04

    The adrenal tumor will disturb the secreting function of adrenocortical cells, leading to many diseases. Different kinds of adrenal tumors require different therapeutic schedules. In the practical diagnosis, it highly relies on the doctor's experience to judge the tumor type by reading the hundreds of CT images. This paper proposed an automatic computer aided analysis method for adrenal tumors detection and classification. It consisted of the automatic segmentation algorithms, the feature extraction and the classification algorithms. These algorithms were then integrated into a system and conducted on the graphic interface by using MATLAB Graphic user interface (GUI). The accuracy of the automatic computer aided segmentation and classification reached 90% on 436 CT images. The experiments proved the stability and reliability of this automatic computer aided analytic system.

  3. Computer-aided segmentation system for 3D chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Tae; Komagata, Takanobu; Ogura, Takashi; Iwao, Yuma; Goto, Toshiyuki; Asakura, Akira; Inoue, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    We will introduce the quantitative analysis of the chest CT images using computer-assisted segmentation system (Gaussian Histogram Normalized Correlation; GHNC). This system can divide the lung into several patterns, for example, normal, emphysema and fibrous lesion, and measure each lesion volume quantitatively. We analyzed 3D-CT images of 20 patients with lung cancer. GHNC could measure the volumes of emphysema and fibrosis lesions, respectively. GHNC analysis will be feasible for preoperative CT evaluation, especially in the patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (author)

  4. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4...

  5. Patient setup aid with wireless CCTV system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang Kyun; Cho, Woong; Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung Whan; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Suk Won [Chung-Ang University Cellege of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Soon Nyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To develop a wireless CCTV system in semi-beam's eye view (BEV) to monitor daily patient setup in radiation therapy. In order to get patient images in semi-BEV, CCTV cameras are installed in a custom-made acrylic applicator below the treatment head of a linear accelerator. The images from the cameras are transmitted via radio frequency signal ( {approx} 2.4 GHz and 10 mW RF output). An expected problem with this system is radio frequency interference, which is solved utilizing RF shielding with Cu foils and median filtering software. The images are analyzed by our custom-made software. In the software, three anatomical landmarks in the patient surface are indicated by a user, then automatically the 3 dimensional structures are obtained and registered by utilizing a localization procedure consisting mainly of stereo matching algorithm and Gauss-Newton optimization. This algorithm is applied to phantom images in investigate the setup accuracy. Respiratory gating system is also researched with real-time image processing. A line-laser marker projected on a patient's surface is extracted by binary image processing and the breath pattern is calculated and displayed in real-time. More than 80% of the camera noises from the linear accelerator are eliminated by wrapping the camera with copper foils. The accuracy of the localization procedure is found to be on the order of 1.5 {+-} 0.7 mm with a point phantom and sub-millimeters and degrees with a custom-made head/neck phantom. With line-laser marker, real-time respiratory monitoring is possible in the delay time of {approx} 0.7 sec. The wireless CCTV camera system is the novel tool which can monitor daily patient setups. The feasibility of respiratory gating system with the wireless CCTV is hopeful.

  6. Patient setup aid with wireless CCTV system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Kyun; Cho, Woong; Park, Jong Min; Ha, Sung Whan; Ye, Sung Joon; Park, Suk Won; Huh, Soon Nyung

    2006-01-01

    To develop a wireless CCTV system in semi-beam's eye view (BEV) to monitor daily patient setup in radiation therapy. In order to get patient images in semi-BEV, CCTV cameras are installed in a custom-made acrylic applicator below the treatment head of a linear accelerator. The images from the cameras are transmitted via radio frequency signal ( ∼ 2.4 GHz and 10 mW RF output). An expected problem with this system is radio frequency interference, which is solved utilizing RF shielding with Cu foils and median filtering software. The images are analyzed by our custom-made software. In the software, three anatomical landmarks in the patient surface are indicated by a user, then automatically the 3 dimensional structures are obtained and registered by utilizing a localization procedure consisting mainly of stereo matching algorithm and Gauss-Newton optimization. This algorithm is applied to phantom images in investigate the setup accuracy. Respiratory gating system is also researched with real-time image processing. A line-laser marker projected on a patient's surface is extracted by binary image processing and the breath pattern is calculated and displayed in real-time. More than 80% of the camera noises from the linear accelerator are eliminated by wrapping the camera with copper foils. The accuracy of the localization procedure is found to be on the order of 1.5 ± 0.7 mm with a point phantom and sub-millimeters and degrees with a custom-made head/neck phantom. With line-laser marker, real-time respiratory monitoring is possible in the delay time of ∼ 0.7 sec. The wireless CCTV camera system is the novel tool which can monitor daily patient setups. The feasibility of respiratory gating system with the wireless CCTV is hopeful

  7. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system: part 1 - system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.; Cocking, S.J.

    1982-02-01

    A computer aided, X-ray fluorographic (CAF) system has been assembled for application in non-destructive testing. The fluorographic hardware comprises a rare earth phosphor viewed with a low-light level SIT (Silicon intensifier target) TV camera, suitable for real time imaging in an industrial environment. A digital image processor allows integration to reduce noise and hence increase the thickness sensitivity. It also provides image modification for optimum visual detection of defects. Measurements of the resolution of the system and the noise on the fluorographic images are presented. Observations of wire type IQIs gave subjective thickness sensitivities of 2 to 4% for steel specimens up to 9mm thick. The observed noise was caused primarily by the camera rather than by the fundamental limit expected from X-ray photon statistics. The present system has, in practical applications, shown a capability to detect small (0.5mm) volumetric defects in castings. Further developments of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that a micro-focus X-ray set should be used with the existing hardware to investigate projection magnification fluoroscopy. (author)

  8. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  9. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.

    1995-12-01

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  10. The NIAID Division of AIDS enterprise information system: integrated decision support for global clinical research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Varghese, Suresh; Virkar, Hemant

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Enterprise Information System (DAIDS-ES) is a web-based system that supports NIAID in the scientific, strategic, and tactical management of its global clinical research programs for HIV/AIDS vaccines, prevention, and therapeutics. Different from most commercial clinical trials information systems, which are typically protocol-driven, the DAIDS-ES was built to exchange information with those types of systems and integrate it in ways that help scientific program directors lead the research effort and keep pace with the complex and ever-changing global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas commercially available clinical trials support systems are not usually disease-focused, DAIDS-ES was specifically designed to capture and incorporate unique scientific, demographic, and logistical aspects of HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and vaccine research in order to provide a rich source of information to guide informed decision-making. Sharing data across its internal components and with external systems, using defined vocabularies, open standards and flexible interfaces, the DAIDS-ES enables NIAID, its global collaborators and stakeholders, access to timely, quality information about NIAID-supported clinical trials which is utilized to: (1) analyze the research portfolio, assess capacity, identify opportunities, and avoid redundancies; (2) help support study safety, quality, ethics, and regulatory compliance; (3) conduct evidence-based policy analysis and business process re-engineering for improved efficiency. This report summarizes how the DAIDS-ES was conceptualized, how it differs from typical clinical trial support systems, the rationale for key design choices, and examples of how it is being used to advance the efficiency and effectiveness of NIAID's HIV/AIDS clinical research programs. PMID:21816958

  11. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. Th...

  12. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD [computer-aided design] system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described

  13. Comparison of Different Computer–Aided Surgery Systems in Skull Base Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ecke, U.; Luebben, B.; Maurer, J.; Boor, S.; Mann, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Computer–aided surgery (CAS) based on high–resolution imaging techniques represents an important adjunct to precise intraoperative orientation when anatomical landmarks are distorted or missing. Several commercial systems, mostly based on optical or electromagnetic navigation principles, are on the market. This study investigated the application of EasyGuide®, VectorVision®, and InstaTrak® CAS systems in ENT surgery under practical and laboratory conditions. System accuracy, time required, ha...

  14. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  15. Modelling physics detectors in a computer aided design system for simulation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahvenainen, J.; Oksakivi, T.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of transferring physics detector models from computer aided design systems into physics simulation packages like GEANT is receiving increasing attention. The problem of exporting detector models constructed in CAD systems into GEANT is well known. We discuss the problem and describe an application, called DDT, which allows one to design detector models in a CAD system and then transfer the models into GEANT for simulation purposes. (orig.)

  16. Computer-aided system for interactive psychomotor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Karina G.; Ignashchuk, Olena V.; Koval, Leonid G.; Kilivnik, Volodymyr S.; Zlepko, Alexandra S.; Sawicki, Daniel; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Zhanpeisova, Aizhan; Smailova, Saule

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays research of psychomotor actions has taken a special place in education, sports, medicine, psychology etc. Development of computer system for psychomotor testing could help solve many operational problems in psychoneurology and psychophysiology and also determine the individual characteristics of fine motor skills. This is particularly relevant issue when it comes to children, students, athletes for definition of personal and professional features. The article presents the dynamics of a developing psychomotor skills and application in the training process of means. The results of testing indicated their significant impact on psychomotor skills development.

  17. A new CT-aided robotic stereotaxis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, H.M.; Chen, J.Y.; Truong, T.K.; Reed, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that a robot arm may be programmed to replace the stereotaxic frame for trajectory guidance. Since the robot is driven by a computer, it offers substantial flexibility, speed and accuracy advantages over the frame. It allows a surgeon to conveniently manipulate the probe trajectory in a variety of possible directions. As a consequence, even more sophisticated stereotaxic procedures are now possible. An experimental robotic stereotaxic system is now in operation. It is described in detail in this paper

  18. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  19. Advanced Navigation Aids System based on Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong OH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many maritime accidents have been caused by human-error including such things as inadequate watch keeping and/or mistakes in ship handling. Also, new navigational equipment has been developed using Information Technology (IT technology to provide various kinds of information for safe navigation. Despite these efforts, the reduction of maritime accidents has not occurred to the degree expected because, navigational equipment provides too much information, and this information is not well organized, such that users feel it to be complicated rather than helpful. In this point of view, the method of representation of navigational information is more important than the quantity of that information and research is required on the representation of information to make that information more easily understood and to allow decisions to be made correctly and promptly. In this paper, we adopt Augmented Reality (AR technologies for the representation of information. AR is a 3D computer graphics technology that blends virtual reality and the real world. Recently, this technology has been widely applied in our daily lives because it can provide information more effectively to users. Therefore, we propose a new concept, a navigational system based on AR technology; we review experimental results from a ship-handling simulator and from an open sea test to verify the efficiency of the proposed system.

  20. Prevention and preservation aid system for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishisato, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Yoko.

    1992-01-01

    The system of the present invention can select control rod drives (CRD) as an object of inspection, and can manage maintenance hysteresis even by unskilled persons upon maintenance operation for the CRD. That is, the system of the present invention comprises a data base concerning prevention and preservation for the CRD and hydraulic pressure control unit (HCU), a data base management device for retrieving and managing the intelligence of the data base and a maintenance data base for storing data measured based on the data base on every periodical inspections. Further, it also comprises a function for displaying, on a map, the CRD to be disassembled and inspected upon periodical inspection on every inspection recommendation priority groups, based on these data base. Further, it also comprises a function for evaluating exchange hysteresis maintenance data for incore structures which require periodical exchange. As a result, high reliability of the CRD can be maintained and reliability of a nuclear power plant can further be improved. (I.S.)

  1. Unmanned Aerial System Aids Dry-season Stream Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M.; Detweiler, C.; Higgins, J.; Ore, J. P.; Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, temperature affects biogeochemistry and ecology, and is thus a primary physical determinant of habitat quality. Measuring temperatures in spatially heterogeneous water bodies poses a serious challenge to researchers due to constraints associated with currently available methods: in situ loggers record temporally continuous temperature measurements but are limited to discrete spatial locations, while distributed temperature and remote sensing provide fine-resolution spatial measurements that are restricted to only two-dimensions (i.e. streambed and surface, respectively). Using a commercially available quadcopter equipped with a 6m cable and temperature-pressure sensor system, we measured stream temperatures at two confluences at the South Fork Eel River, where cold water inputs from the tributary to the mainstem create thermal refugia for juvenile salmonids during the dry season. As a mobile sensing platform, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) can facilitate quick and repeated sampling with minimal disturbance to the ecosystem, and their datasets can be interpolated to create a three-dimensional thermal map of a water body. The UAS-derived data was compared to data from in situ data loggers to evaluate whether the UAS is better able to capture fine-scale temperature dynamics at each confluence. The UAS has inherent limitations defined by battery life and flight times, as well as operational constraints related to maneuverability under wind and streamflow conditions. However, the platform is able to serve as an additional field tool for researchers to capture complex thermal structures in water bodies.

  2. Computer aided radiation protection system at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, J.; Saruta, J.; Yonezawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation control for workers and workforce has been carried out strictly and effectively taking into account ALARA principle at Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) which has treated about 860 tons of irradiated fuels by now since 1977. The outline of radiation control method at TRP has already been described. This paper briefly describes our experiences and the capabilities of Radiological Information Management System (RIMS) for the safety operation of TRP, followed by radiation exposure control and activity discharge control as examples. By operating the RIMS, the conditions of workplace such as dose equivalent rate and air-contamination are easily and rapidly grasped to take prompt countermeasures for radiological protection, localization and elimination of contamination, and also the past experience data are properly applied to new radiological works to reduce exposures associated with routine and special repetitive maintenance operations at TRP. Finally, authors would like to emphasize that the form and system for radiological control of reprocessing plant has been established throughout our 15-year-experience at TRP. (author)

  3. A Computer Aided System for Correlation and Prediction of Phase Equilibrium Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.L.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2001-01-01

    based on mathematical programming. This paper describes the development of a computer aided system for the systematic derivation of appropriate property models to be used in the service role for a specified problem. As a first step, a library of well-known property models ha's been developed...

  4. Systems for aiding operators at university-owned research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, H.; Kimura, Y.; Shibata, T.

    1984-01-01

    University-owned research reactors are operated for various purposes, and small disturbances may arise from various experimental facilities. Also not uniform are the technical levels of operators who range from supervised-students to reactor physicists. Considerable efforts are therefore devoted to the preventive maintainance. With these boundary conditions imposed, systems for aiding operators are designed at these research reactor facilities. (author)

  5. Commodification of Higher Education: Students, Study Loan Systems and State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The main argument presented in this paper is that the application of economic principles in the higher education sector, turning higher education institutes into undertakings operating on markets, leads to the application of rules on State aid. This has consequences for the financial support systems

  6. Possible Computer Vision Systems and Automated or Computer-Aided Edging and Trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses research which is underway to help our industry reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market more accurately graded and described products. The research is part of a team effort to help the hardwood sawmill industry automate with computer vision systems, and computer-aided or computer controlled processing. This paper...

  7. A Diagnostic/Prescriptive System to Aid in the Treatment of Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.; And Others

    Described is the development of a diagnostic/prescriptive system--developed as part of the Pendleton Project--which would aid in the understanding of causes and ultimate treatment of dysfunctional behavior in 6- through 12-year-old children. Reported are the objectives and rationale of the Pendleton Project, an interdisciplinary, community based…

  8. The computer-aided design of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper treats the selection of controller gains of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem. In contrast to the usual optimization-based approaches to computer-aided design, inequality constraints are included in the problem as unconstrained objectives. This considerably simplifies

  9. Energy-aware memory management for embedded multimedia systems a computer-aided design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balasa, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Energy-Aware Memory Management for Embedded Multimedia Systems: A Computer-Aided Design Approach presents recent computer-aided design (CAD) ideas that address memory management tasks, particularly the optimization of energy consumption in the memory subsystem. It explains how to efficiently implement CAD solutions, including theoretical methods and novel algorithms. The book covers various energy-aware design techniques, including data-dependence analysis techniques, memory size estimation methods, extensions of mapping approaches, and memory banking approaches. It shows how these techniques

  10. Piping data retrieval system (PDRS): An integrated package to aid piping layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Sharma, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated package to aid piping layout has been developed and implemented on PDP-11/34 system at Hall 7. The package allows various equipments to be modelled, consisting of primitive equipment components. The equipment layout for the plant can then be reproduced in the form of drawings such as plan, elevation, isometric or perspective. The package has the built in function to perform hidden line removal among equipments. Once the equipment layout is finalised, the package aids in superimposing the piping as per the specified pipe routine. The report discusses the general capabilities and the major input requirements for the package. (author)

  11. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  12. Development of computer aided engineering system for TRAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Itoya, Seihiro; Uematsu, Hitoshi; Tsunoyama, Shigeaki

    1990-01-01

    An advanced best estimate computer program for nuclear reactor transient analysis, TRAC has been extensively used to carry out various thermal hydraulic calculations in the nuclear engineering field, because of its versatility. To perform efficiently a wide variety of TRAC calculation, the efficient utilization of computers and the convenient environment for input and output processing is necessary. We have applied a computer network comprising a super-computer, engineering work stations and personal computers to TRAC calculations and have assigned the appropriate functions to each computer. We have also been developing an interactive graphics system for input and output processing on an EWS. This hardware and software environment can improve the effectiveness of TRAC utilization for various thermal hydraulic calculations. (author)

  13. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21% reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women and hypertension (more significant in men. Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting.

  14. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  15. Practical considerations for a second-order directional hearing aid microphone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen C.

    2003-04-01

    First-order directional microphone systems for hearing aids have been available for several years. Such a system uses two microphones and has a theoretical maximum free-field directivity index (DI) of 6.0 dB. A second-order microphone system using three microphones could provide a theoretical increase in free-field DI to 9.5 dB. These theoretical maximum DI values assume that the microphones have exactly matched sensitivities at all frequencies of interest. In practice, the individual microphones in the hearing aid always have slightly different sensitivities. For the small microphone separation necessary to fit in a hearing aid, these sensitivity matching errors degrade the directivity from the theoretical values, especially at low frequencies. This paper shows that, for first-order systems the directivity degradation due to sensitivity errors is relatively small. However, for second-order systems with practical microphone sensitivity matching specifications, the directivity degradation below 1 kHz is not tolerable. A hybrid order directive system is proposed that uses first-order processing at low frequencies and second-order directive processing at higher frequencies. This hybrid system is suggested as an alternative that could provide improved directivity index in the frequency regions that are important to speech intelligibility.

  16. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design Using Describing Function Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nassirharand, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided approach provides a versatile setting for the control engineer to overcome the complications of controller design for highly nonlinear systems. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design provides such an approach based on the use of describing functions. The text deals with a large class of nonlinear systems without restrictions on the system order, the number of inputs and/or outputs or the number, type or arrangement of nonlinear terms. The strongly software-oriented methods detailed facilitate fulfillment of tight performance requirements and help the designer to think in purely nonlinear terms, avoiding the expedient of linearization which can impose substantial and unrealistic model limitations and drive up the cost of the final product. Design procedures are presented in a step-by-step algorithmic format each step being a functional unit with outputs that drive the other steps. This procedure may be easily implemented on a digital computer with example problems from mecha...

  17. Analysis of three-phase power-supply systems using computer-aided design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberst, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    A major concern of every designer of large, three-phase power-supply systems is the protection of system components from overvoltage transients. At present, three computer-aided circuit design programs are available in the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) National Computer Center that can be used to analyze three-phase power systems: MINI SCEPTRE, SPICE I, and SPICE II. These programs have been used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to analyze the operation of a 200-kV dc, 20-A acceleration power supply for the High Voltage Test Stand. Various overvoltage conditions are simulated and the effectiveness of system protective devices is observed. The simulated overvoltage conditions include such things as circuit breaker openings, pulsed loading, and commutation voltage surges in the rectifiers. These examples are used to illustrate the use of the computer-aided, circuit-design programs discussed in this paper

  18. Online LDA BASED brain-computer interface system to aid disabled people

    OpenAIRE

    Apdullah Yayık; Yakup Kutlu

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to develop brain-computer interface system based on electroencephalography that can aid disabled people in daily life. The system relies on one of the most effective event-related potential wave, P300, which can be elicited by oddball paradigm. Developed application has a basic interaction tool that enables disabled people to convey their needs to other people selecting related objects. These objects pseudo-randomly flash in a visual interface on computer screen. The user must...

  19. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  20. The third therapeutic system: faith healing strategies in the context of a generalized AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Nicolette D; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-03-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences.

  1. The Third Therapeutic System: Faith Healing Strategies in the Context of a Generalized AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Nicolette D.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences. PMID:21362615

  2. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...... a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savings in the ΣΔ modulator, overdesign and subsequent coarse coefficient quantization are used. A figure of merit (FOM) is introduced to confirm this optimization approach...

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  4. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...... in a full band, a subband system, a subband system with frequency shifting, and a recently proposed subband system with a novel probe noise deployment. All systems outperformed the traditional full-band system in cancellation performance, especially the subband system with probe noise is most effective...... for cancellation. However, in all cases there was a trade-off between performance and computational cost. With a 3-times increase in computation load, the probe noise based cancellation system can be realized that functions even in the most challenging feedback situation....

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Brain Diseases in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Yamashita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basics and recent researches of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems for assisting neuroradiologists in detection of brain diseases, e.g., asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and multiple sclerosis (MS, in magnetic resonance (MR images. The CAD systems consist of image feature extraction based on image processing techniques and machine learning classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines. We introduce useful examples of the CAD systems in the neuroradiology, and conclude with possibilities in the future of the CAD systems for brain diseases in MR images.

  6. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d'; Taelman, H.

    1989-01-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS. (orig.)

  7. SAMO [Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion]: An operational aids computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, T.D.; Laflor, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion) is a sensor-driven, computer-based, graphic display system designed by Westinghouse to aid the A. N. Asco operations staff during all modes of plant operations, including emergencies. The SAMO system is being implemented in the A. N. Asco plant in two phases that coincide with consecutive refueling outages for each of two nuclear units at the Asco site. Phase 1 of the SAMO system implements the following functions: (1) emergency operational aids, (2) postaccident monitoring, (3) plant graphics display, (4) high-speed transient analysis recording, (5) historical data collection, storage, and retrieval, (6) sequence of events, and (7) posttrip review. During phase 2 of the SAMO project, the current plant computer will be removed and the functions now performed by the plant computer will be performed by the SAMO system. In addition, the following functions will be implemented: (1) normal and simple transients operational aid, (2) plant information graphics; and (3) real-time radiological off-site dose calculation

  8. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d' ; Taelman, H.

    1989-03-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS.

  9. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part "creates" the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies....

  10. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Kolar, P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part 'creates' the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  11. Towards a Mobile Intelligent Information System with Application to HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, D; Eckhardt, R; Tamang, S; Reinharth, D

    2005-01-01

    The United Nations Security Council reports HIV/AIDS as the fastest growing threat to human development. In addition, the World Health Organization [1] reports that nearly 5 million persons (4.3 million adults and 700,000 children) are newly infected with HIV each year; more than 95% of them found in developing countries. Since STDs as a group are a personal problem which few people feel comfortable discussing, we believe that hand-held PDAs can provide an opportunity for learning about this disease while insuring anonymity. This device will employ the newest technologies including Bluetooth wireless technology, which can transmit and receive data via a short-range radio link using a globally available frequency band (2.4 GHz ISM band), enabling rapid and accurate synchronous and asynchronous data communication. The first generation of Bluetooth permits exchange of data up to a rate of 1 Mbps, even in areas with much electromagnetic disturbance. This emerging technology can facilitate HIV/AIDS outreach around the globe.Recent advances in learning have taken a particularly cognitive perspective and these findings have implications for education in general as well as for the development of intelligent tutoring systems in particular. In the past, effective SmartBookstrade markhave been developed for AIDS education to disseminate the critical knowledge relevant to this epidemic [2].Since 1993, the proliferation of the World Wide Web has created a plethora of new opportunities for the delivery of electronic distance learning systems. However, we feel that it is important that a whatever technology is employed is based on a sound educational theory. A new, comprehensive, web-based learning system called SmartTutor has been developed, at Brooklyn College of The City University of New York [3]. This technology provides a user-friendly, self-paced, easy to modify, software environment intended to serve the user's learning needs and is based on a generic Smart

  12. Using linguistic descriptions with multi-criteria decision aid approaches in urban energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Afsordegan, Arayeh; Sánchez Soler, Monica; Agell Jané, Núria; Gamboa Jimenez, Gonzalo; Cremades Oliver, Lázaro Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Aid (MCDA) methods include various collections of mathematical techniques related to decision support systems in non-deterministic environments to support such applications as facility management, disaster management and urban planning. This paper applies MCDA approaches based on qualitative reasoning techniques with linguistic labels assessment. The aim of this method is ranking multi-attribute alternatives in group decision-making with qualitative labels. Finally ...

  13. Computer-aided System of Semantic Text Analysis of a Technical Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Zaboleeva-Zotova, Alla; Orlova, Yulia

    2008-01-01

    The given work is devoted to development of the computer-aided system of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. The purpose of this work is to increase efficiency of software engineering based on automation of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. In work it is offered and investigated the model of the analysis of the text of the technical project is submitted, the attribute grammar of a technical specification, intended for formalization of limited Ru...

  14. An integrated computer aided system for integrated design of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hytoft, Glen; Jaksland, Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS), which is particularly suitable for solving problems related to integrated design of chemical processes; is presented. ICAS features include a model generator (generation of problem specific models including model simplification and model ...... form the basis for the toolboxes. The available features of ICAS are highlighted through a case study involving the separation of binary azeotropic mixtures. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Decomposition recovery extension to the Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) change-merge tool.

    OpenAIRE

    Keesling, William Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A promising use of Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) is to support concurrent design. Key to success in this context is the ability to automatically and reliably combine and integrate the prototypes produced in concurrent efforts. Thus, to be of practical use in this as well as most prototyping contexts, a CAPS tool must have a fast, automated, reliable prototype integration capability. The current CAPS Change Merge Tool is fast...

  16. Conceptualizing the dynamics of workplace stress: a systems-based study of nursing aides

    OpenAIRE

    Jetha, Arif; Kernan, Laura; Kurowski, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace stress is a complex phenomenon that may often be dynamic and?evolving over time. Traditional linear modeling does not allow representation of recursive feedback loops among the implicated factors. The objective of this study was to develop a multidimensional system dynamics model (SDM) of workplace stress among nursing aides and conduct simulations to illustrate how changes in psychosocial perceptions and workplace factors might influence workplace stress over time. Metho...

  17. Development of a computer-aided digital reactivity computer system for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.-K.; Sung, K.-Y.; Kim, D.; Cho, D.-Y.

    1993-01-01

    Reactor physics tests at initial startup and after reloading are performed to verify nuclear design and to ensure safety operation. Two kinds of reactivity computers, analog and digital, have been widely used in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core physics test. The test data of both reactivity computers are displayed only on the strip chart recorder, and these data are managed by hand so that the accuracy of the test results depends on operator expertise and experiences. This paper describes the development of the computer-aided digital reactivity computer system (DRCS), which is enhanced by system management software and an improved system for the application of the PWR core physics test

  18. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  19. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  20. Experimental evaluation of ontology-based HIV/AIDS frequently asked question retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yirsaw; Moeng, Barbara; Mosweunyane, Gontlafetse

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation. The second experiment focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the ontology in retrieving relevant answers. For this we used an open-source information retrieval platform, Terrier, with retrieval models BM25 and PL2. For the measurement of performance, we used the measures mean average precision, mean reciprocal rank, and precision at 5. The results suggest that frequently asked question retrieval with ontology is more effective than frequently asked question retrieval without ontology in the domain of HIV/AIDS.

  1. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  2. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the fuzzy-FSA model of risk assessment for aids to navigation was established. The model was implemented for the assessment of aids to navigation in Shanghai area based on the aids to navigation three-dimensional simulation system. The real-time data were extracted from the existing information system of aids to navigation, and the real-time risk assessment for aids to navigation of the chosen channel was performed on platform of the three-dimensional simulation system, with the risk assessment software. Specifically, the deep-water channel of the Yangtze River estuary was taken as an example to illustrate the general assessment procedure. The method proposed presents practical significance and application prospect on the maintenance and management of the aids to navigation.

  3. ATHENA AIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  4. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  5. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  6. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs

  7. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  8. Building a durable response to HIV/AIDS: implications for health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Bataringaya, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    The remarkable rise in investments for HIV control programs in 2003-2010 enabled an unprecedented expansion of access to HIV services in low-income and middle-income countries. By the end of 2010, more than 5.2 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), which transformed HIV infection, once a death sentence, into a long-term illness. The rapid expansion in the number of persons receiving ART means that health systems must continue to provide acute life-saving care for those with advanced HIV/AIDS although also providing chronic care services to expanding cohorts of more stable patients who are doing well on ART. This expansion also means a transition from an emergency response to the epidemic, characterized by a public health approach, to a more integrated and durable approach to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services that fosters individualized care for those requiring long-term antiretroviral treatment. Yet most low-income and middle-income countries, which have weak health systems, are poorly prepared to make this transition. In this article, we highlight the challenges health systems face in developing a sustained and durable response to HIV/AIDS. The article analyses the readiness of health systems to combine rapid expansion of ART access with long-term treatment and continuity of care for a growing cohort of patients. We argue that effective management of a transition from an emergency AIDS response to long-term programatic strategies will require a paradigm shift that enables leveraging investments in HIV to build sustainable health systems for managing large cohorts of patients receiving ART although meeting the immediate needs of those who remain without access to HIV treatment and care.

  9. Computer-aided system for diabetes care in Berlin, G.D.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoelke, H; Meusel, K; Ratzmann, K P

    1990-01-01

    In the Centre of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders of Berlin, G.D.R., a computer-aided care system has been used since 1974, aiming at relieving physicians and medical staff from routine tasks and rendering possible epidemiological research on an unselected diabetes population of a defined area. The basis of the system is the data bank on diabetics (DB), where at present data from approximately 55,000 patients are stored. DB is used as a diabetes register of Berlin. On the basis of standardised criteria of diagnosis and therapy of diabetes mellitus in our dispensary care system, DB facilitates representative epidemiological analyses of the diabetic population, e.g. prevalence, incidence, duration of diabetes, and modes of treatment. The availability of general data on the population or the selection of specified groups of patients serves the management of the care system. Also, it supports the computer-aided recall of type II diabetics, treated either with diet alone or with diet and oral drugs. In this way, the standardised evaluation of treatment strategies in large populations of diabetics is possible on the basis of uniform metabolic criteria (blood glucose plus urinary glucose). The system consists of a main computer in the data processing unit and of personal computers in the diabetes centre which can be used either individually or as terminals to the main computer. During 14 years of experience, the computer-aided out-patient care of type II diabetics has proved efficient in a big-city area with a large population.

  10. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on the Computer Aided System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chaczko, Zenon; Jacak, Witold; Łuba, Tadeusz; Computational Intelligence and Efficiency in Engineering Systems

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited and reviewed volume addresses the increasingly popular demand for seeking more clarity in the data that we are immersed in. It offers excellent examples of the intelligent ubiquitous computation, as well as recent advances in systems engineering and informatics. The content represents state-of-the-art foundations for researchers in the domain of modern computation, computer science, system engineering and networking, with many examples that are set in industrial application context. The book includes the carefully selected best contributions to APCASE 2014, the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on  Computer Aided System Engineering, held February 10-12, 2014 in South Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. The book consists of four main parts that cover data-oriented engineering science research in a wide range of applications: computational models and knowledge discovery; communications networks and cloud computing; computer-based systems; and data-oriented and software-intensive systems.

  11. Model-based Computer Aided Framework for Design of Process Monitoring and Analysis Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2009-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, for example, the pharmaceutical industry, a thorough understanding of the process is necessary in addition to a properly designed monitoring and analysis system (PAT system) to consistently obtain the desired end-product properties. A model-based computer....... The knowledge base provides the necessary information/data during the design of the PAT system while the model library generates additional or missing data needed for design and analysis. Optimization of the PAT system design is achieved in terms of product data analysis time and/or cost of monitoring equipment......-aided framework including the methods and tools through which the design of monitoring and analysis systems for product quality control can be generated, analyzed and/or validated, has been developed. Two important supporting tools developed as part of the framework are a knowledge base and a model library...

  12. Requisites, benefits, and challenges of sustainable HIV/AIDS system-building: where theory meets practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indyk, Debbie; Rier, David A

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the third and final of a series that has previously presented the rationale (Rier and Indyk, this volume) and major program elements (Indyk and Rier, this volume) of an approach to link community and tertiary sociomedical providers, clients/patients, sites, and systems into an integrated response to HIV/AIDS. The primary goal has been to improve sociomedical HIV/AIDS services for a hard-to-reach inner city population. The current paper first summarizes the main advantages (e.g., greater efficiency; more realistic, effective programs with greater credibility among the community; stimulation of knowledge production and dissemination amongst players rarely formally engaged in such activities; creation of a platform useful for other applications) of this work. It then examines some of the main organizational challenges in conducting the work (involving issues such as personnel, coordination, funding, turf conflicts, sustainability). From this discussion emerge organizational requisites to conducting this work (e.g., development of key boundary-spanning figures; attention to the specific interests of potential linkage partners; translation efforts to demonstrate the value of participation; a continuous quality improvement approach featuring wide distribution of feedback in user-friendly form; flexibility, tact and patience), so that others can adapt and apply the linkage approach to manage HIV/AIDS or other problems. Finally, we explain how theory and practice have driven one another in this work.

  13. Driving on electricity, hydrogen or biofuels; what does the motorist want?; Rijden op elektriciteit, waterstof of biobrandstoffen, wat wil de automobilist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, A.; Koetse, M.J.

    2012-04-15

    The average Dutch motorist is still very reserved about buying alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) such as the electric vehicle, the hydrogen vehicle, the(plug-in) hybrid vehicle or a vehicle fuelled by biofuels. This is the main conclusion of this consumer study [Dutch] De gemiddelde Nederlandse automobilist staat nog erg terughoudend tegenover het kopen van alternatief aangedreven auto's (AFV's), zoals de elektrische auto, waterstofauto, (plug-in) hybride of een auto die op biobrandstoffen rijdt. Dat is de voornaamste conclusie uit dit consumentenonderzoek.

  14. Driving on electricity, hydrogen or biofuels; what does the motorist want?; Rijden op elektriciteit, waterstof of biobrandstoffen, wat wil de automobilist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, A; Koetse, M J

    2012-04-15

    The average Dutch motorist is still very reserved about buying alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) such as the electric vehicle, the hydrogen vehicle, the(plug-in) hybrid vehicle or a vehicle fuelled by biofuels. This is the main conclusion of this consumer study [Dutch] De gemiddelde Nederlandse automobilist staat nog erg terughoudend tegenover het kopen van alternatief aangedreven auto's (AFV's), zoals de elektrische auto, waterstofauto, (plug-in) hybride of een auto die op biobrandstoffen rijdt. Dat is de voornaamste conclusie uit dit consumentenonderzoek.

  15. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 2 the Rade-Aid system post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnaeve, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 2 describes the RADE-AID project to develop a computer system which can be used to support the formulation of decisions on countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides. The system is intended as an aid following an actual accident and a tool for assistance in planning and training

  16. Application of balanced score card to development aid : a system dynamic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Vicky Bahati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract For years mechanisms have been implemented in attempt to improve aid effectiveness. The latest of these being the Paris Declaration established in 2005. However, years after the declaration there is little evidence of effective aid performance in Africa. Evidences of ineffective management of foreign aid are spread around Africa (Andrews 2009). Resulting in unintended effects like corruption and dependence on aid. Many of the unintended effects are associated with the way aid is a...

  17. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong San; Baek, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2010-01-01

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  18. Laser experimental system as teaching aid for demonstrating basic phenomena of laser feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ling; Zhao, Shijie; Zhang, Shulian

    2015-01-01

    An experimental laser teaching system is developed to demonstrate laser feedback phenomena, which bring great harm to optical communication and benefits to precision measurement. The system consists of an orthogonally polarized He-Ne laser, a feedback mirror which reflects the laser output light into the laser cavity, and an optical attenuator which changes the intensity of the feedback light. As the feedback mirror is driven by a piezoelectric ceramic, the attenuator is adjusted and the feedback mirror is tilted, the system can demonstrate many basic laser feedback phenomena, including weak, moderate and strong optical feedback, multiple feedback and polarization flipping. Demonstrations of these phenomena can give students a better understanding about the intensity and polarization of lasers. The system is well designed and assembled, simple to operate, and provides a valuable teaching aid at an undergraduate level. (paper)

  19. Computer-aided stress analysis system for nuclear plant primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Tsutomu; Tokumaru, Yoshio; Yamazaki, Junko.

    1980-06-01

    Generally it needs a vast quantity of calculation to make the stress analysis reports of nuclear plant primary components. In Japan, especially, stress analysis reports are under obligation to make for each plant. In Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., We have been making great efforts to rationalize the process of analysis for about these ten years. As the result of rationalization up to now, a computer-aided stress analysis system using graphic display, graphic tablet, data file, etc. was accomplished and it needs us only the least hand work. In addition we developed a fracture safety analysis system. And we are going to develop the input generator system for 3-dimensional FEM analysis by graphics terminals in the near future. We expect that when the above-mentioned input generator system is accomplished, it will be possible for us to solve instantly any case of problem. (author)

  20. Computer-aided design model for anaerobic-phased-solids digester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tiangco, V. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic-phased-solids (APS) digester system is a newly developed anaerobic digestion system for converting solid wastes, such as crop residues and food wastes, into biogas for power and heat generation. A computer-aided engineering design model has been developed to design the APS-digester system and study the heat transfer from the reactors and energy production of the system. Simulation results of a case study are presented by using the model to predict the heating energy requirement and biogas energy production for anaerobic digestion of garlic waste. The important factors, such as environmental conditions, insulation properties, and characteristics of the wastes, on net energy production are also investigated. (author)

  1. A Robust and Fast System for CTC Computer-Aided Detection of Colorectal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Beddoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a complete, end-to-end computer-aided detection (CAD system for identifying lesions in the colon, imaged with computed tomography (CT. This system includes facilities for colon segmentation, candidate generation, feature analysis, and classification. The algorithms have been designed to offer robust performance to variation in image data and patient preparation. By utilizing efficient 2D and 3D processing, software optimizations, multi-threading, feature selection, and an optimized cascade classifier, the CAD system quickly determines a set of detection marks. The colon CAD system has been validated on the largest set of data to date, and demonstrates excellent performance, in terms of its high sensitivity, low false positive rate, and computational efficiency.

  2. Online LDA BASED brain-computer interface system to aid disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apdullah Yayık

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop brain-computer interface system based on electroencephalography that can aid disabled people in daily life. The system relies on one of the most effective event-related potential wave, P300, which can be elicited by oddball paradigm. Developed application has a basic interaction tool that enables disabled people to convey their needs to other people selecting related objects. These objects pseudo-randomly flash in a visual interface on computer screen. The user must focus on related object to convey desired needs. The system can convey desired needs correctly by detecting P300 wave in acquired 14-channel EEG signal and classifying using linear discriminant analysis classifier just in 15 seconds. Experiments have been carried out on 19 volunteers to validate developed BCI system. As a result, accuracy rate of 90.83% is achieved in online performance.

  3. Phase aided 3D imaging and modeling: dedicated systems and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongkai; He, Dong; Liu, Zeyi; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Dedicated prototype systems for 3D imaging and modeling (3DIM) are presented. The 3D imaging systems are based on the principle of phase-aided active stereo, which have been developed in our laboratory over the past few years. The reported 3D imaging prototypes range from single 3D sensor to a kind of optical measurement network composed of multiple node 3D-sensors. To enable these 3D imaging systems, we briefly discuss the corresponding calibration techniques for both single sensor and multi-sensor optical measurement network, allowing good performance of the 3DIM prototype systems in terms of measurement accuracy and repeatability. Furthermore, two case studies including the generation of high quality color model of movable cultural heritage and photo booth from body scanning are presented to demonstrate our approach.

  4. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, William Lafayette [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Cameron, Don [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Timmermans, Jean-Pierre [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp (Belgium); De Clerck, Nora [Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Antwerp (Belgium); Sasov, Alexander [Skyscan (Belgium); Casteleyn, Christophe [College of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University (Belgium); Piegl, Les A [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  5. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, William Lafayette; Cameron, Don; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; De Clerck, Nora; Sasov, Alexander; Casteleyn, Christophe; Piegl, Les A

    2009-01-01

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  6. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, William Lafayette; Cameron, Don; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; De Clerck, Nora; Sasov, Alexander; Casteleyn, Christophe; Piegl, Les A

    2009-09-01

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  7. IT Systems in Aid of Welding Processes Quality Management in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restecka M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue for the producers nowadays is to meet the requirements of customers, satisfying their perceived but also the unperceived needs. In order to control the quality of welding processes correctly one must have knowledge of welding drawings, symbols, designs of welded joints, welding procedures, requirements set in codes and standards, also have knowledge of the techniques of inspection and testing connected with the automotive industry. The article shows ways to increase quality in the industry through the use of robotization and computerization. Presented examples and application of IT systems in aid of welding processes quality management in the automotive industry.

  8. A computer system to aid in the planning of steel rolls cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maculan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The planning of cuts in steel rolls is a combinatory optimization problem. Some companies of the metallurgical industry use the steel cold lamination process so that it acquires the necessary physical properties. In this case, the cutting patterns should consist of compartments of items compatible with the lamination process, hindering the task of cuts planning. A compartment represents an intermediate roll to be laminated, so that it is possible to combine intermediate rolls with different lamination needs in the same roll of the stock. In this work the prototype of the RollCut System will be presented to aid with the cuts planning.

  9. Computer-aided system for fire fighting in an underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, F; Sikora, M; Urbanski, J [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa

    1989-01-01

    Discusses structure of an algorithm for computer-aided planning of fire fighting and rescue in an underground coal mine. The algorithm developed by the Mining Institute of the Wroclaw Technical University consists of ten options: regulations on fire fighting, fire alarm for miners working underground (rescue ways, fire zones etc.), information system for mine management, movements of fire fighting teams, distribution of fire fighting equipment, assessment of explosion hazards of fire gases, fire gas temperature control of blower operation, detection of endogenous fires, ventilation control. 2 refs.

  10. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... the interpolation filter and the SD modulator on the system level so that the switching frequency of the Class D PA - the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. A figure-of-merit (FOM) which allows judging the power consumption of the digital part of the back end early in the design process is used...

  11. Computer-aided structure elucidation Pt. 3. Extended version of assigner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szalontai, G; Csapo, Z; Recsey, Zs [Nehezvegyipari Kutato Intezet, Veszprem (Hungary)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-aided interpretation of /sup 13/C-NMR, /sup 1/H-NMR and IR spectra of organic molecules (M.W.<=500) has been performed by an artificial intelligence approach. A procedure for the joint /sup 13/C-NMR - /sup 1/H-NMR - IR spectrum interpretation is outlined. Possible ways of finding acceptable greater fragments on the basis of /sup 1/H-NMR - /sup 13/C-NMR data and of /sup 13/C-NMR data alone are also described. Detailed examples are given to demonstrate the capability of the system.

  12. Development of computer-aided auto-ranging technique for a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Shimura, K.; Nakajima, N.; Kato, H.

    1988-01-01

    For a computed radiography system, the authors developed a computer-aided autoranging technique in which the clinically useful image data are automatically mapped to the available display range. The preread image data are inspected to determine the location of collimation. A histogram of the pixels inside the collimation is evaluated regarding characteristic values such as maxima and minima, and then the optimal density and contrast are derived for the display image. The effect of the autoranging technique was investigated at several hospitals in Japan. The average rate of films lost due to undesirable density or contrast was about 0.5%

  13. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  14. Computer-aided load monitoring system for nuclear power plant steel framing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaczylo, A.T.; Fung, S-J; Hooks, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant steel framing structures is a long and involved process. It is often complicated by numerous changes in design loads as a result of additions, deletions and modifications of HVAC hangers, cable tray hangers, electric conduit hangers, and small bore and large bore mechanical component supports. Manual tracking of load changes of thousands of supports and their impact to the structural steel design adequacy is very time-consuming and is susceptible to errors. This paper presents a computer-aided load monitoring system using the latest technology of data base management and interactive computer software. By linking the data base to analysis and investigation computer programs, the engineer has a very powerful tool to monitor not only the load revisions but also their impact on the steel structural floor framing members and connections. Links to reporting programs allow quick information retrieval in the form of comprehensive reports. Drawing programs extract data from the data base to draw hanger load system drawings on a computer-aided drafting system. These capabilities allow engineers to minimize modifications by strategically locating new hangers or rearranging auxiliary steel configuration

  15. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Hong, Sung Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter. PMID:27973429

  16. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  17. Development of computer-aided design system of elastic sensitive elements of automatic metering devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkina, M. E.; Kozlov, A. S.; Labkovskaia, R. I.; Pirozhnikova, O. I.; Tkalich, V. L.; Shmakov, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The object of research is the element base of devices of control and automation systems, including in its composition annular elastic sensitive elements, methods of their modeling, calculation algorithms and software complexes for automation of their design processes. The article is devoted to the development of the computer-aided design system of elastic sensitive elements used in weight- and force-measuring automation devices. Based on the mathematical modeling of deformation processes in a solid, as well as the results of static and dynamic analysis, the calculation of elastic elements is given using the capabilities of modern software systems based on numerical simulation. In the course of the simulation, the model was a divided hexagonal grid of finite elements with a maximum size not exceeding 2.5 mm. The results of modal and dynamic analysis are presented in this article.

  18. Use of logic flowgraph models in a computer aided process analysis and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.; Okrent, D.

    1985-07-01

    The development of a multi-function computer-aided process analysis and management (CAPAM) system, to be implemented in nuclear power plant control rooms, is proposed and discussed. The design goals identified for such a system are early disturbance detection and diagnosis, accompanied by identification of the best possible recovery actions or alternative success paths. The CAPAM structure is articulated in three functional levels with dedicated CRT displays. Increasing amount of diagnostic or recovery information is made available to the operators at the lower display levels. Probabilistic safety margins to the loss of important safety functions may be also calculated. The proposed implementation of the CAPAM concept is based on the use of logic flowgraph networks for the more detailed system modeling. Examples of such an implementation are given. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Joseph S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor viruses are linked to approximately 20% of human malignancies worldwide. This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS. The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively. We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  20. Control-C and ACSL for computer-aided control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrick, B.; Anex, R.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-aided engineering package, called CTRL-C, provides an easy-to-use work-bench for the analysis and design of multivariable systems. ACSL, a powerful simulation language, complements CTRL-C and provides a flexible evaluation tool. Combined, the CTRL-C/ACSL package is an interaction environment with a comprehensive set of tools for analysis, design, simulation, and evaluation. A unified software system is possible for engineering analysis and presentation. Recognizing that no software can satisfy all needs, Ctrl-C provides consistent and flexible communication with the operating system and other software, most especially ACSL. CTRL-C and ACSL demonstrate that an interactive environment can be a powerful, accessible, and extensible tool for engineering

  1. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  2. Computer-aided detection system for chest radiography: reducing report turnaround times of examinations with abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, E-Fong; Liu, Gin-Chung; Lee, Lo-Yeh; Tsai, Huei-Yi; Jaw, Twei-Shiun

    2015-06-01

    The ability to give high priority to examinations with pathological findings could be very useful to radiologists with large work lists who wish to first evaluate the most critical studies. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for identifying chest examinations with abnormalities has therefore been developed. To evaluate the effectiveness of a CAD system on report turnaround times of chest examinations with abnormalities. The CAD system was designed to automatically mark chest examinations with possible abnormalities in the work list of radiologists interpreting chest examinations. The system evaluation was performed in two phases: two radiologists interpreted the chest examinations without CAD in phase 1 and with CAD in phase 2. The time information recorded by the radiology information system was then used to calculate the turnaround times. All chest examinations were reviewed by two other radiologists and were divided into normal and abnormal groups. The turnaround times for the examinations with pathological findings with and without the CAD system assistance were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of the CAD for chest abnormalities were 0.790 and 0.697, respectively, and use of the CAD system decreased the turnaround time for chest examinations with abnormalities by 44%. The turnaround times required for radiologists to identify chest examinations with abnormalities could be reduced by using the CAD system. This system could be useful for radiologists with large work lists who wish to first evaluate the most critical studies. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. An IMM-Aided ZUPT Methodology for an INS/DVL Integrated Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiqing; Xu, Xiaosu; Xu, Xiang

    2017-09-05

    Inertial navigation system (INS)/Doppler velocity log (DVL) integration is the most common navigation solution for underwater vehicles. Due to the complex underwater environment, the velocity information provided by DVL always contains some errors. To improve navigation accuracy, zero velocity update (ZUPT) technology is considered, which is an effective algorithm for land vehicles to mitigate the navigation error during the pure INS mode. However, in contrast to ground vehicles, the ZUPT solution cannot be used directly for underwater vehicles because of the existence of the water current. In order to leverage the strengths of the ZUPT method and the INS/DVL solution, an interactive multiple model (IMM)-aided ZUPT methodology for the INS/DVL-integrated underwater navigation system is proposed. Both the INS/DVL and INS/ZUPT models are constructed and operated in parallel, with weights calculated according to their innovations and innovation covariance matrices. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results indicate that the IMM-aided ZUPT solution outperforms both the INS/DVL solution and the INS/ZUPT solution in the underwater environment, which can properly distinguish between the ZUPT and non-ZUPT conditions. In addition, during DVL outage, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is also verified.

  4. Patterns of trauma care costs and reimbursements: the burden of uninsured motorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, D D; Holcomb, S F; Sherck, J P

    1985-08-01

    In today's rapidly changing medical-economic environment, hospitals must continually reexamine their services to determine which are cost efficient. We used a database system to analyze our financial experience with motor vehicle accident victims discharged between July 1982 and June 1983. We found that motor vehicle accidents accounted for 2.1% of discharges, but 6.6% of patient-days. The average length of stay was 23.8 days, more than three times the hospital average (7.4 days). Charges averaged +723 per day, essentially identical with the hospital average. In terms of patient-days, 51% of accident victims were covered by private insurance, 39% by Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid), and 3% by Medicare; 7% were uninsured and unsponsored. Hospital charges related directly to patient-days and were identical for the four financial categories. Overall reimbursement for these patients was 80.3% of charges, approximately equal to our estimated costs. Reimbursement as a percentage of charges varied greatly according to the category of sponsorship: private insurance, 90%; Medicare, 78%; and unsponsored, 15%. Medi-Cal paid a fixed confidential per diem rate. Caring for victims of motor vehicle accidents was a break-even proposition for our institution in 1982-1983. Uninsured and unsponsored patients produced a large deficit which of necessity had to be made up by cost shifting to privately insured patients or by direct tax subsidies. Motor vehicle insurance per se made only a modest contribution to our reimbursement for the care of these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Machine Learning in Ultrasound Computer-Aided Diagnostic Systems: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuelong

    2018-01-01

    The ultrasound imaging is one of the most common schemes to detect diseases in the clinical practice. There are many advantages of ultrasound imaging such as safety, convenience, and low cost. However, reading ultrasound imaging is not easy. To support the diagnosis of clinicians and reduce the load of doctors, many ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are proposed. In recent years, the success of deep learning in the image classification and segmentation led to more and more scholars realizing the potential of performance improvement brought by utilizing the deep learning in the ultrasound CAD system. This paper summarized the research which focuses on the ultrasound CAD system utilizing machine learning technology in recent years. This study divided the ultrasound CAD system into two categories. One is the traditional ultrasound CAD system which employed the manmade feature and the other is the deep learning ultrasound CAD system. The major feature and the classifier employed by the traditional ultrasound CAD system are introduced. As for the deep learning ultrasound CAD, newest applications are summarized. This paper will be useful for researchers who focus on the ultrasound CAD system.

  6. Machine Learning in Ultrasound Computer-Aided Diagnostic Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound imaging is one of the most common schemes to detect diseases in the clinical practice. There are many advantages of ultrasound imaging such as safety, convenience, and low cost. However, reading ultrasound imaging is not easy. To support the diagnosis of clinicians and reduce the load of doctors, many ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems are proposed. In recent years, the success of deep learning in the image classification and segmentation led to more and more scholars realizing the potential of performance improvement brought by utilizing the deep learning in the ultrasound CAD system. This paper summarized the research which focuses on the ultrasound CAD system utilizing machine learning technology in recent years. This study divided the ultrasound CAD system into two categories. One is the traditional ultrasound CAD system which employed the manmade feature and the other is the deep learning ultrasound CAD system. The major feature and the classifier employed by the traditional ultrasound CAD system are introduced. As for the deep learning ultrasound CAD, newest applications are summarized. This paper will be useful for researchers who focus on the ultrasound CAD system.

  7. Noise reduction in binaural hearing aids : Analyzing the benefit over monaural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beamforming using signals from both left and right hearing aids offers greater potential for noise reduction than using signals from a single aid. However, wireless transmission of data imposes power constraints. Since most modern hearing aids have multiple microphones and are capable of

  8. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described.

  9. A practical technique for benefit-cost analysis of computer-aided design and drafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, R.R.; Yan, G.

    1979-03-01

    Analysis of benefits and costs associated with the operation of Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Systems (CADDS) are needed to derive economic justification for acquiring new systems, as well as to evaluate the performance of existing installations. In practice, however, such analyses are difficult to perform since most technical and economic advantages of CADDS are ΣirreduciblesΣ, i.e. cannot be readily translated into monetary terms. In this paper, a practical technique for economic analysis of CADDS in a drawing office environment is presented. A Σworst caseΣ approach is taken since increase in productivity of existing manpower is the only benefit considered, while all foreseen costs are taken into account. Methods of estimating benefits and costs are described. The procedure for performing the analysis is illustrated by a case study based on the drawing office activities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. (auth)

  10. Development of the integrated core on-line monitoring and protection aid surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Oh; In, Wang Kee; Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Core On-line Monitoring and Protection Aid Surveillance System (COMPASS) is developed for the purpose of supporting the reactor operation, based on the three-dimensional nodal design code, MASTER. The heart of COMPASS is an adaptive nodal core simulator for the on-line calculation of three-dimensional assembly and pin power distributions which are used for the evaluation of the thermal margins and for the guide in operation. In this paper, the overall structures and the solution methods of COMPASS are described. The uncertainty of COMPASS for SMART core was also evaluated by comparing that of MASTER. The results showed that COMPASS uncertainty in power shape prediction is identical to that of the design code system, MASTER. The application of COMPASS to the analysis of peaking factor for SMART core resulted with about 4% gain in peaking factor margin when compared to COLSS

  11. Data-Fusion for a Vision-Aided Radiological Detection System: Sensor dependence and Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnikia, Kelsey; Martin, Allan; Henderson, Kristofer; Koppal, Sanjeev; Enqvist, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The University of Florida is taking a multidisciplinary approach to fuse the data between 3D vision sensors and radiological sensors in hopes of creating a system capable of not only detecting the presence of a radiological threat, but also tracking it. The key to developing such a vision-aided radiological detection system, lies in the count rate being inversely dependent on the square of the distance. Presented in this paper are the results of the calibration algorithm used to predict the location of the radiological detectors based on 3D distance from the source to the detector (vision data) and the detectors count rate (radiological data). Also presented are the results of two correlation methods used to explore source tracking.

  12. Evaluation of the efficiency of computer-aided spectra search systems based on information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaarschmidt, K.

    1979-01-01

    Application of information theory allows objective evaluation of the efficiency of computer-aided spectra search systems. For this purpose, a significant number of search processes must be analyzed. The amount of information gained by computer application is considered as the difference between the entropy of the data bank and a conditional entropy depending on the proportion of unsuccessful search processes and ballast. The influence of the following factors can be estimated: volume, structure, and quality of the spectra collection stored, efficiency of the encoding instruction and the comparing algorithm, and subjective errors involved in the encoding of spectra. The relations derived are applied to two published storage and retrieval systems for infared spectra. (Auth.)

  13. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Majid Mehmood

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.

  14. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed

    2016-07-07

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  15. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system: Part II - image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.; Cocking, S.J.

    1981-12-01

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I 2 S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interference lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings. (author)

  16. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  17. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  18. A Profiling System for the Assessment of Individual Needs for Rehabilitation With Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter A. Dreschler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of a profiling system to specify the needs of hearing-aid candidates. As a basis for the profile of compensation needs, we used a slightly modified version of the Amsterdam Inventory of Disability and Handicap, combined with the well-known Client-Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI. The first questionnaire results in scores for six audiological dimensions: detection, speech in quiet, speech in noise, localization, focus or discrimination, and noise tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine whether the six dimensions derived from the disability questionnaire are appropriate to also categorize individual COSI targets. The results show a good agreement between eight audiologists in the categorization of COSI goals along the six dimensions. The results per dimension show that the dimension focus or discrimination can be regarded as superfluous. Possible additional dimensions were tinnitus and listening effort. The results indicate that it is possible to translate individual user needs (administered using COSI into more general dimensions derived from a disability questionnaire. This allows to summarize the compensation needs for individual patients in a profile of general dimensions, based on the degree of disability and the individual user needs. This profile can be used as a starting point in hearing aid selection. This approach also offers a well-structured method for the evaluation of the postfitting results.

  19. Establishment of a high production system for AIDS retroviruses with a human T-leukemic cell line Molt-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Yoshio; Harada, Shinji; Yamamoto, Naoki

    1986-01-01

    A cell culture system was developed for the continuous and efficient production of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) retrovirus. After infection of a human T-cell line Molt-4 with HTLV-III and LAV the cells grow permanently and produce large amounts of virus continuously. The yields of production of virus were assessed either with reverse transcriptase activity or a newly established biological quantitation assay of active virus. The amounts of virus with this cell system were much higher than those of the H9 cell system. This procedure enabled us first to compare the two viral isolates HTLV-III and LAV directly in the same cell lines. Establishment of the culture system, allowing efficient production of AIDS retroviruses, provides a useful tool for the isolation of the virus from patients with AIDS and for more basic research, such as the mechanisms of immune destruction caused by the virus leading to the occurence of various malignancies (author)

  20. Development of computer-aided design and production system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masanori

    1983-01-01

    The technically required matters related to the design and production of nuclear power stations tended to increase from the viewpoint of the safety and reliability, and it is indispensable to cope with such technically required matters skillfully for the rationalization of the design and production and for the construction of highly reliable plants. Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., has developed the computer-aided design data information and engineering system which performs dialogue type design and drawing, and as the result, the design-production consistent system is developed to do stress analysis, production design, production management and the output of data for numerically controlled machine tools consistently. In this paper, mainly the consistent system in the field of plant design centering around piping and also the computer system for the design of vessels and others are outlined. The features of the design works for nuclear power plants, the rationalization of the design and production management of piping and vessels, and the application of the CAD system to other general equipment and improvement works are reported. This system is the powerful means to meet the requirement of heightening quality and reducing cost. (Kako, I.)

  1. Computer-Aided Modelling and Analysis of PV Systems: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Koukouvaos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems.

  2. Image formation simulation for computer-aided inspection planning of machine vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgenfried, Stephan; Bergmann, Stephan; Mohammadikaji, Mahsa; Beyerer, Jürgen; Dachsbacher, Carsten; Wörn, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a simulation toolset for Computer Aided Inspection Planning (CAIP) of systems for automated optical inspection (AOI) is presented along with a versatile two-robot-setup for verification of simulation and system planning results. The toolset helps to narrow down the large design space of optical inspection systems in interaction with a system expert. The image formation taking place in optical inspection systems is simulated using GPU-based real time graphics and high quality off-line-rendering. The simulation pipeline allows a stepwise optimization of the system, from fast evaluation of surface patch visibility based on real time graphics up to evaluation of image processing results based on off-line global illumination calculation. A focus of this work is on the dependency of simulation quality on measuring, modeling and parameterizing the optical surface properties of the object to be inspected. The applicability to real world problems is demonstrated by taking the example of planning a 3D laser scanner application. Qualitative and quantitative comparison results of synthetic and real images are presented.

  3. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  4. Detailed cost-benefit analysis of potential impairment countermeasures. Research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing) Deliverable P2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W. Wesemann, P. Devillers, E. Elvik, R. & Veisten, K.

    2005-01-01

    Almost all kinds of driver impairments increase accident risks. This study forms part of the European IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods Of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing) project. The study provides a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of several possible policies of impairment

  5. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  6. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  7. Computer aided process planning system based on workflow technology and integrated bill of material tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chun-guang; MENG Li-li

    2006-01-01

    It is extremely important for procedure of process design and management of process data for product life cycle in Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) system,but there are many shortcomings with traditional CAPP system in these respects.To solve these questions,application of workflow technology in CAPP system based on web-integrated Bill of Material (BOM) tree is discussed,and a concept of integrated BOM tree was brought forward.Taking integrated BOM as the thread,CAPP systematic technological process is analyzed.The function,system architecture,and implementation mechanism of CAPP system based on Browser/Server and Customer/Server model are expatiated.Based on it,the key technologies of workflow management device were analyzed.Eventually,the implementation mechanism of integrated BOM tree was analyzed from viewpoints of material information encoding,organization node design of integrated BOM tree,transformation from Engineering BOM (EBOM)to Process BOM (PBOM),and the programming implementation technology.

  8. Stakeholder Analysis as a Medium to Aid Change in Information System Reengineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davison

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving stakeholders within a change process is well recognised, and successfully managed change is equally important. Information systems development and redesign is a form of change activity involving people and social issues and therefore resistance to change may occur. A stakeholder identification and analysis (SIA technique has been developed as an enhancement to PISO® (Process Improvement for Strategic Objectives, a method that engages the users of a system in the problem solving and reengineering of their own work-based problem areas. The SIA technique aids the identification and analysis of system stakeholders, and helps view the projected outcome of system changes and their effect on relevant stakeholders with attention being given to change resistance to ensure smooth negotiation and achieve consensus. A case study is presented here describing the successful implementation of a direct appointment booking system for patients within the National Health Service in the UK, utilising the SIA technique, which resulted in a feeling of empowerment and ownership of the change of those involved.

  9. Design of the decision aiding system for the control of the research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, F.; Allek, M.; Larbes, C.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent and decision aiding systems as support to operators are becoming increasingly a necessity in nuclear installations and in nuclear reactors in particular, specially after the Tree Mile Island. Development of new technologies based on linguistic approaches such as fuzzy logic has given rise to much interest during the last years. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has many advantage compared to conventional controllers using classical techniques. The aim of the present work is to use a fuzzy logic controller in parallel to actual semi-automatic controller in order to supervise in real time the operation of the research nuclear reactor. The principal of this controller is based on rules which are established previous from experiment using the semi-automatic controller and from the knowledge of the operators. (authors)

  10. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  11. Development of COMPAS, computer aided process flowsheet design and analysis system of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Shunji; Sakamoto, Susumu; Takanashi, Mitsuhiro; Nammo, Akihiko; Satoh, Yoshihiro; Soejima, Takayuki; Koga, Jiro; Matsumoto, Shiro

    1995-01-01

    A computer aided process flowsheet design and analysis system, COMPAS has been developed in order to carry out the flowsheet calculation on the process flow diagram of nuclear fuel reprocessing. All of equipments, such as dissolver, mixer-settler, and so on, in the process flowsheet diagram are graphically visualized as icon on a bitmap display of UNIX workstation. Drawing of a flowsheet can be carried out easily by the mouse operation. Not only a published numerical simulation code but also a user's original one can be used on the COMPAS. Specifications of the equipment and the concentration of components in the stream displayed as tables can be edited by a computer user. Results of calculation can be also displayed graphically. Two examples show that the COMPAS is applicable to decide operating conditions of Purex process and to analyze extraction behavior in a mixer-settler extractor. (author)

  12. The circulatory system: blood procurement, AIDS, and the social body in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Kathleen

    2006-06-01

    The market for blood thrived in China for more than a decade, preying on rural villagers desperate for cash. Profit motives and unhygienic collection created an AIDS epidemic, where now up to 80 percent of adults in some villages are HIV infected. Today, illegal blood banks continue to operate in some areas. Moreover, better screening and blood testing do little to address the underlying cultural reluctance to give blood. This article examines what is at stake for blood donors in the circulation of blood through both the physical and the social bodies in China today. I argue that public health and social policy solutions require consideration of the symbolic meanings of blood and the body, kin relations, and gift exchange. China's HIV-contaminated blood procurement crisis demands a critical reexamination of the hidden processes embedded in a "circulatory system" that has inseparably bound the "gift of life" and a "commodity of death".

  13. Computer aided system for segmentation and visualization of microcalcifications in digital mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reljin, B.; Reljin, I.; Milosevic, Z.; Stojic, T.

    2009-01-01

    Two methods for segmentation and visualization of microcalcifications in digital or digitized mammograms are described. First method is based on modern mathematical morphology, while the second one uses the multifractal approach. In the first method, by using an appropriate combination of some morphological operations, high local contrast enhancement, followed by significant suppression of background tissue, irrespective of its radiology density, is obtained. By iterative procedure, this method highly emphasizes only small bright details, possible microcalcifications. In a multifractal approach, from initial mammogram image, a corresponding multifractal 'images' are created, from which a radiologist has a freedom to change the level of segmentation. An appropriate user friendly computer aided visualization (CAV) system with embedded two methods is realized. The interactive approach enables the physician to control the level and the quality of segmentation. Suggested methods were tested through mammograms from MIAS database as a gold standard, and from clinical praxis, using digitized films and digital images from full field digital mammograph. (authors)

  14. Using existing health care systems to respond to the AIDS epidemic: research and recommendations for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, L H; Smith, H L; Lake, E T

    1997-01-01

    Chile is a country with a relatively low prevalence of HIV infection, where successful prevention has the potential to change the future course of the epidemic. A controversial national prevention strategy based upon public education has emerged in response to characterizations of the epidemic as well-dispersed with a growing involvement of heterosexuals. This characterization is not consistent with the observed facts. There is a comparatively well-organized health care system in Santiago that is doing a good job of detecting HIV infection and already has in place the elements of a targeted intervention scheme. Chile should place priority on the use of the existing health care infrastructure for implementing both the traditional public health interventions for sexually transmitted diseases (contact tracing and partner notification) and the AIDS-necessitated strategy of focused counseling and education.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa

    2012-01-01

    higher performance than the corresponding CAD software trained with a European database for the analysis of bone scans from Japanese patients. These results could at least partly be caused by the physical differences between Japanese and European patients resulting in less influence of attenuation......Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...... scans from Japanese patients.The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from...

  16. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results.

  17. Operation and validation of the decision aid system 'CAIRE' in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witt, H.; Nuesser, A.; Brenk, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Based on telemetric surveillance networks, an advanced automatic on-line decision support system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed and is in operation now at 4 sites as a real time emergency response tool. This tool is designed to provide decision makers with precise radiation exposure data for the population at risk. Depending on the individual layout of the connected telemetric networks, CAIRE is able to satisfy the following main requirements: automatic identification of the source location and of the source term, automatic diagnosis of the actual radiological situation and identification of the endangered area, projection of the radiological situation, delivery of all this information in the form computer graphics. (R.P.)

  18. An application of computer aided requirements analysis to a real time deep space system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farny, A. M.; Morris, R. V.; Hartsough, C.; Callender, E. D.; Teichroew, D.; Chikofsky, E.

    1981-01-01

    The entire procedure of incorporating the requirements and goals of a space flight project into integrated, time ordered sequences of spacecraft commands, is called the uplink process. The Uplink Process Control Task (UPCT) was created to examine the uplink process and determine ways to improve it. The Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer (PSL/PSA) designed to assist the designer/analyst/engineer in the preparation of specifications of an information system is used as a supporting tool to aid in the analysis. Attention is given to a definition of the uplink process, the definition of PSL/PSA, the construction of a PSA database, the value of analysis to the study of the uplink process, and the PSL/PSA lessons learned.

  19. Selection of examples in case-based computer-aided decision systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A; Zurada, Jacek M; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2008-01-01

    Case-based computer-aided decision (CB-CAD) systems rely on a database of previously stored, known examples when classifying new, incoming queries. Such systems can be particularly useful since they do not need retraining every time a new example is deposited in the case base. The adaptive nature of case-based systems is well suited to the current trend of continuously expanding digital databases in the medical domain. To maintain efficiency, however, such systems need sophisticated strategies to effectively manage the available evidence database. In this paper, we discuss the general problem of building an evidence database by selecting the most useful examples to store while satisfying existing storage requirements. We evaluate three intelligent techniques for this purpose: genetic algorithm-based selection, greedy selection and random mutation hill climbing. These techniques are compared to a random selection strategy used as the baseline. The study is performed with a previously presented CB-CAD system applied for false positive reduction in screening mammograms. The experimental evaluation shows that when the development goal is to maximize the system's diagnostic performance, the intelligent techniques are able to reduce the size of the evidence database to 37% of the original database by eliminating superfluous and/or detrimental examples while at the same time significantly improving the CAD system's performance. Furthermore, if the case-base size is a main concern, the total number of examples stored in the system can be reduced to only 2-4% of the original database without a decrease in the diagnostic performance. Comparison of the techniques shows that random mutation hill climbing provides the best balance between the diagnostic performance and computational efficiency when building the evidence database of the CB-CAD system.

  20. A Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Network Effects on Frequency and Severity of Cyclist-Motorist Crashes in the Copenhagen Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Giacomo Prato, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Urban and transport planners worldwide have recently designed and implemented policies for increasing the number of cyclists. Although cycling is on the rise even in car-oriented cities and regions, the fear of being involved in a crash is still the main obstacle to further increases in cycling market shares. The current study proposes the first joint model of frequency and severity of cyclist-motorist collisions with the aim of unraveling the factors contributing to both the probability of being involved in a crash and, conditional on the crash occurrence, experiencing a severe injury outcome. A multivariate Poisson-lognormal model with correlated autoregressive priors was estimated on a sample of 5,349 cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred in the Copenhagen region between 2009 and 2013. The model considered the links of the road network in the region as the unit of observation, controlled for traffic exposure of nonmotorized and motorized transport modes, evaluated the effect of infrastructure and land use, and accounted for heterogeneity and spatial correlation across links. Results confirmed the existence of the phenomenon of safety in numbers and added to the narrative by emphasizing that the most severe crashes are the ones most benefiting from an increase in the number of cyclists. In addition, results argued that the construction of Copenhagen-style bicycle paths would significantly contribute to increasing safety, especially in suburban areas where the speed differential between cyclists and motorists is greater. Last, results illustrated a need for thinking about cycling safety in intersection design and reflecting on the importance of spatial and aspatial correlation both within and between injury categories. The findings from this study illustrated how encouraging cycling would increase safety in relation to the phenomenon of safety in numbers and how, in turn, increasing safety would convince more people to cycle. In addition, they suggested how the

  1. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries' national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions.

  2. Accuracy evaluation of metal copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kyoung; Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) systems in comparison to casting method. Ten metal copings were fabricated by casting, computer-aided milling, and DMLS. Seven mesiodistal and labiolingual positions were then measured, and each of these were divided into the categories; marginal gap (MG), cervical gap (CG), axial wall at internal gap (AG), and incisal edge at internal gap (IG). Evaluation was performed by a silicone replica technique. A digital microscope was used for measurement of silicone layer. Statistical analyses included one-way and repeated measure ANOVA to test the difference between the fabrication methods and categories of measured points (α=.05), respectively. The mean gap differed significantly with fabrication methods (P<.001). Casting produced the narrowest gap in each of the four measured positions, whereas CG, AG, and IG proved narrower in computer-aided milling than in DMLS. Thus, with the exception of MG, all positions exhibited a significant difference between computer-aided milling and DMLS (P<.05). Although the gap was found to vary with fabrication methods, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and DMLS fell within the range of clinical acceptance (<120 µm). However, the statistically significant difference to conventional casting indicates that the gaps in computer-aided milling and DMLS fabricated restorations still need to be further reduced.

  3. Computer-aided detection system for lung cancer in computed tomography scans: Review and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The goal of this paper is to present a critical review of major Computer-Aided Detection systems (CADe) for lung cancer in order to identify challenges for future research. CADe systems must meet the following requirements: improve the performance of radiologists providing high sensitivity in the diagnosis, a low number of false positives (FP), have high processing speed, present high level of automation, low cost (of implementation, training, support and maintenance), the ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules, and software security assurance. Methods The relevant literature related to “CADe for lung cancer” was obtained from PubMed, IEEEXplore and Science Direct database. Articles published from 2009 to 2013, and some articles previously published, were used. A systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized. Discussion Based on literature search, it was observed that many if not all systems described in this survey have the potential to be important in clinical practice. However, no significant improvement was observed in sensitivity, number of false positives, level of automation and ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules in the studied period. Challenges were presented for future research. Conclusions Further research is needed to improve existing systems and propose new solutions. For this, we believe that collaborative efforts through the creation of open source software communities are necessary to develop a CADe system with all the requirements mentioned and with a short development cycle. In addition, future CADe systems should improve the level of automation, through integration with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the electronic record of the patient, decrease the number of false positives, measure the evolution of tumors, evaluate the evolution of the oncological treatment, and its possible prognosis. PMID:24713067

  4. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  5. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  6. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  7. Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) for Heterogeneous Systems Development and Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Berzins, V.; Shing, M.; Nada, N.; Eagle, C.

    2000-01-01

    2000 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (CCRTS), June 11-13, 2000, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA This paper addresses the problem of how to produce reliable software that is also flexible and cost effective for the DoD distributed software domain. DoD software systems fall into two categories: information systems and war fighter systems. Both types of systems can be distributed, heterogeneous and network-based, consisting of a set of components running...

  8. System-Level Power Optimization for a ΣΔ D/A Converter for Hearing-Aid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level optimization of a back-end of audio signal processing chain for hearing-aids, including a sigma-delta modulator digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and a Class D power amplifier. Compared to other stateof-the-art designs dealing with sigma-delta modulator design...... hearing-aid audio back-end system resulting in less hardware and power consumption in the interpolation filter, in the sigma-delta modulator and reduced switching rate of the Class D output stage....

  9. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  10. Lung nodule detection on chest CT: evaluation of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Gamsu, Gordon; Czum, Julianna; Johnson, Rebecca; Chakrapani, Sanjay; Wu, Ning

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to detect lung nodules in clinical chest CT. A total of 210 consecutive clinical chest CT scans and their reports were reviewed by two chest radiologists and 70 were selected (33 without nodules and 37 with 1-6 nodules, 4-15.4 mm in diameter). The CAD system (ImageChecker CT LN-1000) developed by R2 Technology, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) was used. Its algorithm was designed to detect nodules with a diameter of 4-20 mm. The two chest radiologists working with the CAD system detected a total of 78 nodules. These 78 nodules form the database for this study. Four independent observers interpreted the studies with and without the CAD system. The detection rates of the four independent observers without CAD were 81% (63/78), 85% (66/78), 83% (65/78), and 83% (65/78), respectively. With CAD their rates were 87% (68/78), 85% (66/78), 86% (67/78), and 85% (66/78), respectively. The differences between these two sets of detection rates did not reach statistical significance. In addition, CAD detected eight nodules that were not mentioned in the original clinical radiology reports. The CAD system produced 1.56 false-positive nodules per CT study. The four test observers had 0, 0.1, 0.17, and 0.26 false-positive results per study without CAD and 0.07, 0.2, 0.23, and 0.39 with CAD, respectively. The CAD system can assist radiologists in detecting pulmonary nodules in chest CT, but with a potential increase in their false positive rates. Technological improvements to the system could increase the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pulmonary nodules and reduce these false-positive results

  11. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  12. A Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Network Effects on Frequency and Severity of Cyclist-Motorist Crashes in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Urban and transport planners worldwide have recently designed and implemented policies for increasing the number of cyclists. Although cycling is on the rise even in car-oriented cities and regions, the fear of being involved in a crash is still the main obstacle to further increases...... in cycling market shares. The current study proposes the first joint model of frequency and severity of cyclist-motorist collisions with the aim of unraveling the factors contributing to both the probability of being involved in a crash and, conditional on the crash occurrence, experiencing a severe injury......, controlled for traffic exposure of nonmotorized and motorized transport modes, evaluated the effect of infrastructure and land use, and accounted for heterogeneity and spatial correlation across links.Results: Results confirmed the existence of the phenomenon of safety in numbers and added to the narrative...

  13. A Generalized Visual Aid System for Teleoperation Applied to Satellite Servicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latest results of a newly developed visual aid system for direct teleoperation. This method is extended to visual control to make an efficient teleoperation system by combining direct teleoperation and automatic control. On the one hand, an operator can conduct direct teleoperation with 3D graphic prediction simulation established by the VR technique. In order to remove inconsistencies between the virtual and real environments, a practical model-matching method is investigated. On the other hand, to realize real-time visual servoing control, a particular object recognition and pose estimation algorithm based on polygonal approximation is investigated to ensure a low computational cost for image processing. To avoid undesired forces involved in contact operation, 3D visual servoing incorporating a compliant control based on impedance control is developed. Finally, in a representative laboratory environment, a typical satellite servicing experiment is carried out based on this combined system. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Web-based computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system for bone age assessment (BAA) of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Uyeda, Joshua; Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Kevin; Vachon, Linda A.; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on a left hand and wrist radiograph. The most commonly used standard: Greulich and Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas was developed 50 years ago and exclusively based on Caucasian population. Moreover, inter- & intra-observer discrepancies using this method create a need of an objective and automatic BAA method. A digital hand atlas (DHA) has been collected with 1,400 hand images of normal children from Asian, African American, Caucasian and Hispanic descends. Based on DHA, a fully automatic, objective computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method was developed and it was adapted to specific population. To bring DHA and CAD method to the clinical environment as a useful tool in assisting radiologist to achieve higher accuracy in BAA, a web-based system with direct connection to a clinical site is designed as a novel clinical implementation approach for online and real time BAA. The core of the system, a CAD server receives the image from clinical site, processes it by the CAD method and finally, generates report. A web service publishes the results and radiologists at the clinical site can review it online within minutes. This prototype can be easily extended to multiple clinical sites and will provide the foundation for broader use of the CAD system for BAA.

  15. MVPACK: a computer-aided design tool for multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.; Frketich, G.

    1985-10-01

    The design and analysis of high-performance controllers for complex plants require a collection of interactive, powerful computer software. MVPACK, an open-ended package for the computer-aided design of control systems, has been developed in the Reactor Control Branch of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art mathematical library to support development of complex, multivariable, control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK is portable with minimal changes. It operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. This paper provides a brief tutorial overview of the package. It reviews the specifications used in the design and implementation of the package and briefly describes the database structure, supporting libraries and some design and analysis modules of MVPACK. Several application examples to illustrate the capability of the package are given. Experience with MVPACK shows that the package provides a synergistic environment for the design of control and regulation systems, and that it is a unique tool for training of control system engineers

  16. Computer aided detection system for lung cancer using computer tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Shanthi; Rakesh, Spoorthi; Patil, Vidya C.

    2018-04-01

    Lung Cancer is a disease can be defined as uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If we detect the Lung Cancer in its early stage, then that could be the key of its cure. In this work the non-invasive methods are studied for assisting in nodule detection. It supplies a Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CAD) for early detection of lung cancer nodules from the Computer Tomography (CT) images. CAD system is the one which helps to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in their image interpretations. The main aim of this technique is to develop a CAD system for finding the lung cancer using the lung CT images and classify the nodule as Benign or Malignant. For classifying cancer cells, SVM classifier is used. Here, image processing techniques have been used to de-noise, to enhance, for segmentation and edge detection of an image is used to extract the area, perimeter and shape of nodule. The core factors of this research are Image quality and accuracy.

  17. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giso Grimm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS. The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  18. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Giso; Guilmin, Gwénaël; Poppen, Frank; Vlaming, Marcel S. M. G.; Hohmann, Volker

    2009-12-01

    A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS) is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS). The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN). To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  19. MVPACK: a package for the computer-aided design of multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and analysis of high performing controllers for large complex plants require a collection of interactive, powerful computer software. MVPACK, an open-ended package for the computer aided design of control systems has been developed in the Reactor Control Branch of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive, and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art mathematical library to support development of complex multivariable control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. This report provides the technical description of the package. It reviews the specifications used in the design and implementation of the package. The database structure, the supporting libraries and the design and analysis modules of MVPACK are described. The report includes several application examples to illustrate the capability of the package. Experience with MVPACK shows that the package provides a synergistic environment for control and regulation systems design, and that it is a unique tool in training of control system engineers

  20. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images to support a refined Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2017-02-01

    The Gleason grading system used to render prostate cancer diagnosis has recently been updated to allow more accurate grade stratification and higher prognostic discrimination when compared to the traditional grading system. In spite of progress made in trying to standardize the grading process, there still remains approximately a 30% grading discrepancy between the score rendered by general pathologists and those provided by experts while reviewing needle biopsies for Gleason pattern 3 and 4, which accounts for more than 70% of daily prostate tis- sue slides at most institutions. We propose a new computational imaging method for Gleason pattern 3 and 4 classification, which better matches the newly established prostate cancer grading system. The computer- aided analysis method includes two phases. First, the boundary of each glandular region is automatically segmented using a deep convolutional neural network. Second, color, shape and texture features are extracted from superpixels corresponding to the outer and inner glandular regions and are subsequently forwarded to a random forest classifier to give a gradient score between 3 and 4 for each delineated glandular region. The F1 score for glandular segmentation is 0.8460 and the classification accuracy is 0.83+/-0.03.

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Based on Convolutional Neural Network System for Colorectal Polyp Classification: Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Yoriaki; Handa, Hisashi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Nomura, Takanobu; Kitahashi, Misaki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Okamoto, Ayana; Minami, Tomohiro; Kono, Masashi; Arizumi, Tadaaki; Takenaka, Mamoru; Hagiwara, Satoru; Matsui, Shigenaga; Nishida, Naoshi; Kashida, Hiroshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is becoming a next-generation tool for the diagnosis of human disease. CAD for colon polyps has been suggested as a particularly useful tool for trainee colonoscopists, as the use of a CAD system avoids the complications associated with endoscopic resections. In addition to conventional CAD, a convolutional neural network (CNN) system utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) has been developing rapidly over the past 5 years. We attempted to generate a unique CNN-CAD system with an AI function that studied endoscopic images extracted from movies obtained with colonoscopes used in routine examinations. Here, we report our preliminary results of this novel CNN-CAD system for the diagnosis of colon polyps. A total of 1,200 images from cases of colonoscopy performed between January 2010 and December 2016 at Kindai University Hospital were used. These images were extracted from the video of actual endoscopic examinations. Additional video images from 10 cases of unlearned processes were retrospectively assessed in a pilot study. They were simply diagnosed as either an adenomatous or nonadenomatous polyp. The number of images used by AI to learn to distinguish adenomatous from nonadenomatous was 1,200:600. These images were extracted from the videos of actual endoscopic examinations. The size of each image was adjusted to 256 × 256 pixels. A 10-hold cross-validation was carried out. The accuracy of the 10-hold cross-validation is 0.751, where the accuracy is the ratio of the number of correct answers over the number of all the answers produced by the CNN. The decisions by the CNN were correct in 7 of 10 cases. A CNN-CAD system using routine colonoscopy might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of colorectal polyp classification. Further prospective studies in an in vivo setting are required to confirm the effectiveness of a CNN-CAD system in routine colonoscopy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Studies on computer-aided diagnosis systems for chest radiographs and mammograms (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for chest radiographs and mammograms. Preprocessing and imaging processing methods for each CAD system include dynamic range compression and region segmentation technique. A new pattern recognition technique combines genetic algorithms with template matching methods to detect lung nodules. A genetic algorithm was employed to select the optimal shape of simulated nodular shadows to be compared with real lesions on digitized chest images. Detection performance was evaluated using 332 chest radiographs from the database of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. Our average true-positive rate was 72.8% with an average of 11 false-positive findings per image. A new detection method using high resolution digital images with 0.05 mm sampling is also proposed for the mammogram CAD system to detect very small microcalcifications. An automated classification method uses feature extraction based on fractal dimension analysis of masses. Using over 200 cases to evaluate the detection of mammographic masses and calcifications, the detection rate of masses and microcalcifications were 87% and 96% with 1.5 and 1.8 false-positive findings, respectively. The classification performance on benign vs malignant lesions, the Az values that were defined by the areas under the ROC curves derived from classification schemes of masses and microcalcifications were 0.84 and 0.89. To demonstrate the practicality of these CAD systems in a computer-network environment, we propose to use the mammogram CAD system via the Internet and WWW. A common gateway interface and server-client approach for the CAD system via the Internet will permit display of the CAD results on ordinary computers

  3. Optimization of an Angle-Aided Mirror Diversity Receiver for Indoor MIMO-VLC Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2017-02-07

    In this paper, we investigate the channel correlation problem which affects the performance of indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. More specifically, in order to reduce the high correlation of channel matrix in MIMO-VLC intensity channel, we propose a non-imaging receiver called angle-aided mirror diversity receiver (AMDR) which utilizes not only a mirror placement but also a variation of orientation angle for the photodetector (PD) plane. Deploying a mirror helps reducing the correlation by blocking the reception of the light in one specific direction and by receiving additional light reflected in the mirror in another direction, while orienting the angle of PD plane into specific direction enables the directional reception of light. Applying a zero-forcing decorrelator at the receiver, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance for a 2×2 multiplexing MIMO-VLC system using a 2-dimensional geometric model. In particular, we formulate a min-max BER problem and find the optimal height of mirror and elevation angle of PD plane. Some selected numerical results validate our proposed optimal solution to our min-max BER problem and show that the BER performance of our proposed AMDR outperforms that of the previous non-imaging receivers.

  4. A semantically-aided architecture for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolias, Vassileios D; Stamou, Giorgos; Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, Giannis; Gkekas, Christos D; Liapis, Christos D; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-08-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and its clinical diagnosis depends on the evaluation of heterogeneous clinical data, such as imaging exams, biochemical tests and the patient's clinical history. The lack of interoperability between Health Information Systems (HIS) does not allow the physicians to acquire all the necessary data for the diagnostic process. In this paper, a semantically-aided architecture is proposed for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis that is able to gather and unify heterogeneous data with the use of an ontology and to create a common interface for data access enhancing the interoperability of HIS. The architecture is based on an application ontology of carotid atherosclerosis that is used to (a) integrate heterogeneous data sources on the basis of semantic representation and ontological reasoning and (b) access the critical information using SPARQL query rewriting and ontology-based data access services. The architecture was tested over a carotid atherosclerosis dataset consisting of the imaging exams and the clinical profile of 233 patients, using a set of complex queries, constructed by the physicians. The proposed architecture was evaluated with respect to the complexity of the queries that the physicians could make and the retrieval speed. The proposed architecture gave promising results in terms of interoperability, data integration of heterogeneous sources with an ontological way and expanded capabilities of query and retrieval in HIS.

  5. Development of on-line operator aid system (OASYSTM) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig; Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Hee Kyo; Yi, Chul Un

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the development of On - line operator Aid SYStem (OASYS TM ) are discussed by focusing attention on the importance of the operator's role for nuclear power plants. The OASYS TM is under development to support the operator's decision making process and to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing the plant operators with timely and proper guideline during abnormal and emergency conditions. The OASYS TM has capabilities for the signal validation/management, the alarm processing, the failure diagnosis using abnormal operating procedures, and the dynamic tracking of emergency operating procedures using function restoration guidelines and optimal recovery guidelines with a series of complex logic steps covering a broad spectrum of event sequences. The proposed system is being implemented on a SUN-4/75 Workstation using C and Quintus TM prolog language. For verification studies a full-scope real-time simulator is being used. Test results show that the OASYS TM is capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and providing an operator guideline with fast response time. After verification the OASYS TM will be installed in the simulator II of Kori nuclear training center

  6. Operation aid system upon occurrence of abnormality and display method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Ueno, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid system for a plant having a large number of systematic equipments upon occurrence of an abnormality and a method of displaying it. Namely, contents of an operation manual upon occurrence of an abnormality is displayed in the form of a flow chart divided into a judging section and an operation section depending on symptoms of plant parameters. Discrimination numbers are provided to a plurality sets of the judging sections and the operation sections respectively. With such procedures, using various measured signals of the plant as inputted data, the discrimination numbers of the judging sections in accordance with the inputted data are stored. Then a flow chart for the judging sections and the operation sections corresponding to the stored discrimination numbers are displayed. Further, an operation manual upon occurrence of abnormalities relevant to the judging sections and the operation sections in the form of writings, and previously determined drawings of relevant systems and trend graphs of the plant are also displayed with reference to the discrimination numbers described above. As a result, both of an appropriate operation manual and relevant information are displayed simultaneously for the occurrence of a plant abnormality and an operator's erroneous operation. (I.S.)

  7. Computer Aided Analysis and Prototype Testing of an Improved Biogas Reactor For Biomass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy (Zheng Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel resources substituting for conventional fuels are required due to less availability of fuel resources than demand in the market. A large amount of crude oil and petroleum products are required to be imported in many countries over the world. Also the environmental pollution is another serious problem when use petroleum products. Biogas, with the composition of 54.5% CH4, 39.5% CO2, and 6% other elements (i.e., H2, N2, H2S, and O2, is a clear green fuel that can substitute the regular petroleum fuels to reduce the pollutant elements. Biogas can be produced by performing enriching, scrubbing, and bottling processes. The purification process can be further applied to take away the pollutants in biogas. The pure biogas process analyzed in this research is compressed to 2950 psi while being filled into gas cylinder. The daily produced biogas capacity is around 5480 ft3 and the processing efficacy is affected by surrounding environment and other factors. The design and development of this biogas system is assisted through mathematical analysis, 3D modeling, computational simulation, and prototype testing. Both computer aided analysis and prototype testing show close results which validate the feasibility of this biogas system in biomass applications.

  8. Experience gained in using a computer-aided teaching system in Azov maritime institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Миколайович Зиновченко

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brief analysis of the known teaching methods through the use of computer has been given. Computer-aided teaching system includes an interactive lecture, laboratory works, an application for online testing and evaluation of the new knowledge assimilation and the software used by the teacher. The virtual lecture presents information as sound tracked dynamic pictures accompanied by permanent practical work that fixes the acquired knowledge in the student’s mind. Each teaching step in the virtual lecture is followed with practical work evaluated by the computer. Virtual labs make it possible to consolidate the new knowledge by practice. They provide for the individual activity of the student, monitor his progress and automatically evaluate his knowledge. These applications are installed in the student's computer. The computer applications of the teacher include a generator of the tests for testing and evaluation of the new knowledge, a typical problems base, personal information files generator for each student and a computer application forming the final mark of the student. The results of the testing of this teaching system show that it is efficient, making it possible to organize a flexible schedule of the educational process,cutting down the working hours of the teacher

  9. Optimization of an Angle-Aided Mirror Diversity Receiver for Indoor MIMO-VLC Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the channel correlation problem which affects the performance of indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. More specifically, in order to reduce the high correlation of channel matrix in MIMO-VLC intensity channel, we propose a non-imaging receiver called angle-aided mirror diversity receiver (AMDR) which utilizes not only a mirror placement but also a variation of orientation angle for the photodetector (PD) plane. Deploying a mirror helps reducing the correlation by blocking the reception of the light in one specific direction and by receiving additional light reflected in the mirror in another direction, while orienting the angle of PD plane into specific direction enables the directional reception of light. Applying a zero-forcing decorrelator at the receiver, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance for a 2×2 multiplexing MIMO-VLC system using a 2-dimensional geometric model. In particular, we formulate a min-max BER problem and find the optimal height of mirror and elevation angle of PD plane. Some selected numerical results validate our proposed optimal solution to our min-max BER problem and show that the BER performance of our proposed AMDR outperforms that of the previous non-imaging receivers.

  10. High School Students' Written Argumentation Qualities with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) Designed about Human Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekli, Gülsah Sezen; Çimer, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated development of students' scientific argumentation levels in the applications made with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) designed about Human Endocrine System. The case study method was used: The study group was formed of 43 students in the 11th grade of the science high school in Rize. Human Endocrine System…

  11. CADDS [Computer-aided Drafting and Design System] brings quality and precision to the Canadian Maple [research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, D.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) has found that using the ''intelligent'' Computer-Aided Drafting and Design System (CADDS) helped address design problems at an early stage and led to productivity gains of around 50 per cent. Other bonuses were the quality and precision of the designs and documents produced. Its application to the MAPLE research reactor project is described. (author)

  12. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbiao Chen; Chaojian Shi; Dongxing Jia

    2014-01-01

    The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs) can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs) in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuz...

  13. Computer-aided pulmonary nodule detection. Performance of two CAD systems at different CT dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Patrick Alexander; Rogalla, P.; Klessen, C.; Lembcke, A.; Romano, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose reduction on the performance of computer-aided lung nodule detection systems (CAD) of two manufacturers by comparing respective CAD results on ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULD-CT) and standard dose CT (SD-CT). Materials and Methods: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data sets of 26 patients (13 male and 13 female, patients 31 - 74 years old) were retrospectively selected for CAD analysis. Indication for CT examination was staging of a known primary malignancy or suspected pulmonary malignancy. CT images were consecutively acquired at 5 mAs (ULD-CT) and 75 mAs (SD-CT) with 120kV tube voltage (1 mm slice thickness). The standard of reference was determined by three experienced readers in consensus. CAD reading algorithms (pre-commercial CAD system, Philips, Netherlands: CAD-1; LungCARE, Siemens, Germany: CAD-2) were applied to the CT data sets. Results: Consensus reading identified 253 nodules on SD-CT and ULD-CT. Nodules ranged in diameter between 2 and 41 mm (mean diameter 4.8 mm). Detection rates were recorded with 72% and 62% (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 73% and 56% for ULD-CT. Median also positive rates per patient were calculated with 6 and 5 (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 8 and 3 for ULD-CT. After separate statistical analysis of nodules with diameters of 5 mm and greater, the detection rates increased to 83% and 61% for SD-CT and to 89% and 67% for ULD-CT (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2). For both CAD systems there were no significant differences between the detection rates for standard and ultra-low-dose data sets (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dose reduction of the underlying CT scan did not significantly influence nodule detection performance of the tested CAD systems. (orig.)

  14. Conceptualizing the dynamics of workplace stress: a systems-based study of nursing aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Kernan, Laura; Kurowski, Alicia

    2017-01-05

    Workplace stress is a complex phenomenon that may often be dynamic and evolving over time. Traditional linear modeling does not allow representation of recursive feedback loops among the implicated factors. The objective of this study was to develop a multidimensional system dynamics model (SDM) of workplace stress among nursing aides and conduct simulations to illustrate how changes in psychosocial perceptions and workplace factors might influence workplace stress over time. Eight key informants with prior experience in a large study of US nursing home workers participated in model building. Participants brainstormed the range of components related to workplace stress. Components were grouped together based on common themes and translated into feedback loops. The SDM was parameterized through key informant insight on the shape and magnitude of the relationship between model components. Model construction was also supported utilizing survey data collected as part of the larger study. All data was entered into the software program, Vensim. Simulations were conducted to examine how adaptations to model components would influence workplace stress. The SDM included perceptions of organizational conditions (e.g., job demands and job control), workplace social support (i.e., managerial and coworker social support), workplace safety, and demands outside of work (i.e. work-family conflict). Each component was part of a reinforcing feedback loop. Simulations exhibited that scenarios with increasing job control and decreasing job demands led to a decline in workplace stress. Within the context of the system, the effects of workplace social support, workplace safety, and work-family conflict were relatively minor. SDM methodology offers a unique perspective for researchers and practitioners to view workplace stress as a dynamic process. The portrayal of multiple recursive feedback loops can guide the development of policies and programs within complex organizational contexts

  15. Computer-Aided Design System Development of Fixed Water Distribution of Pipe Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou , Mingyao; Wang , Susheng; Zhang , Zhen; Chen , Lidong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; It is necessary to research a cheap and simple fixed water distribution device according to the current situation of the technology of low-pressure pipe irrigation. This article proposed a fixed water distribution device with round table based on the analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of low-pressure pipe irrigation systems. The simulation of FLUENT and GAMBIT software conducted that the flow of this structure was steady with a low head loss comparing to other t...

  16. Computer-aided software understanding systems to enhance confidence of scientific codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Oeren, T.I.

    1991-01-01

    A unique characteristic of nuclear waste disposal is the very long time span over which the combined engineered and natural containment system must remain effective: hundreds of thousands of years. Since there is no precedent in human history for such an endeavour, simulation with the use of computers is the only means we have of forecasting possible future outcomes quantitatively. The need for reliable models and software to make such forecasts so far into the future is obvious. One of the critical elements necessary to ensure reliability is the degree of reviewability of the computer program. Among others, there are two very important reasons for this. Firstly, if there is to be any chance at all of validating the conceptual models as implemented by the computer code, peer reviewers must be able to see and understand what the program is doing. It is all but impossible to achieve this understanding by just looking at the code due to possible unfamiliarity with the language and often due as well to the length and complexity of the code. Secondly, a thorough understanding of the code is also necessary to carry out code maintenance activities which include among others, error detection, error correction and code modification for purposes of enhancing its performance, functionality or to adapt it to a changed environment. The emerging concepts of computer-aided software understanding and reverse engineering can answer precisely these needs. This paper will discuss the role they can play in enhancing the confidence one has on computer codes and several examples will be provided. Finally a brief discussion of combining state-of-art forward engineering systems with reverse engineering systems will show how powerfully they can contribute to the overall quality assurance of a computer program. (13 refs., 7 figs.)

  17. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  18. [Tianjin characteristics of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first aid medical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun

    2018-05-01

    Tianjin, as the earliest city to open up, the exchange of Chinese and Western cultures also started earlier. Therefore, today's emergency medicine system with integrated features of Chinese and Western medicine is formed. Professor Wang Jinda, who works in Tianjin First Center Hospital, makes the theory of "treating bronchitis and treating diseases" and "three methods of three syndromes" for the treatment of severe diseases such as sepsis. The surgical aspect is the treatment of acute abdomen with the combination of Chinese and Western medicine which is proposed by Academician Wu Xianzhong who worked in Tianjin Nankai Hospital. In the aspect of acupuncture and moxibustion, Professor Guo Yi, who works in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, provides the twelve Jing points blood-letting therapy for cerebral diseases such as stroke. Professor Liu Xinqiao from the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine also conducts in-depth studies on brain protection after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). He proposes the importance of traditional Chinese medicine in addition to mild hypothermia and neuroprotective agents. The author summarized these achievements, in light of which looked forward to the future and proposed the concept of establishing a multi-specialist collaboration and an emergency center with obvious characteristics of integrated Chinese and Western medicine, which would pave the way for the development of integrated Chinese and Western medicine first aid.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  20. Construction of a system for aid in running irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allanic, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The availability of a diagnostic aid tool may prove to be extremely useful for monitoring complex processes such as those employed in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the case of a malfunction, the choice of a corrective action demands the accurate knowledge of the disturbed state, because the same action applied to two distinct states of the process may have different consequences. The very high non-linearity of the responses of the process and the complexity of the mechanisms involved preclude the use of expert systems to perform the diagnosis. It was therefore decided to construct a diagnostic program based on the use of an available model allowing the dynamic simulation of the process. The program serves to identify a disturbance from its consequences, thus in some way achieving the 'inversion' of the model. The method adopted uses a regular mesh of a disturbance space and uses simulation to calculate the corresponding response space, in which a point close to the measured response is identified, thus helping to locate the disturbance. Tests on simulated and experimental data proved fairly conclusive, making it possible to consider the application of techniques used in industrial processes, despite the scale of the data processing resources required

  1. TAO-2/SPARTE, a language-enhanced computer aided teleoperation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravez, P.; Fournier, R.

    1991-01-01

    TAO-2 is a computer system designed by CEA/DTA/UR for the remote control of nuclear servicing servomanipulators. It results from several years of research which have led to the current availability of an industrial product featuring highly advanced performances. For undersea applications, a development has also been carried out with CYBERNETIX for controlling the new hydraulic arm built by this company. An integral element of TAO-2 is the SPARTE language which deals with off-line task programming and focuses on combined manual, automatic and mixed control modes. Additionally, it takes into account the on-line part of the human operator relative to adjustment, monitoring and incident recovery. Other promising features are hybrid control specification, mechanisms for the management of external events and 'learning by touching' capabilities. The present paper describes the basic principles of TAO-2. It first recalls the fundamentals of Computer Aided Teleoperation (CAT). The functional and hardware architectures which implement the TAO-2 CAT concepts are then outlined. The next parts emphasize the original characteristics of the SPARTE control and programming language. The paper ends with a brief presentation of our approach for CAT symbolic control

  2. Computer-aided detection in CT colonography: initial clinical experience using a prototype system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graser, A.; Geisbuesch, S.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.R.; Kolligs, F.T.; Schaefer, C.; Mang, T.

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms help to detect colonic polyps at CT colonography (CTC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of CAD versus an expert reader in CTC. One hundred forty individuals (67 men, 73 women; mean age, 59 years) underwent screening 64-MDCT colonography after full cathartic bowel cleansing without fecal tagging. One expert reader interpreted supine and prone scans using a 3D workstation with integrated CAD used as ''second reader.'' The system's sensitivity for the detection of polyps, the number of false-positive findings, and its running time were evaluated. Polyps were classified as small (≤5 mm), medium (6-9 mm), and large (≥10 mm). A total of 118 polyps (small, 85; medium, 19; large, 14) were found in 56 patients. CAD detected 72 polyps (61%) with an average of 2.2 false-positives. Sensitivity was 51% (43/85) for small, 90% (17/19) for medium, and 86% (12/14) for large polyps. For all polyps, per-patient sensitivity was 89% (50/56) for the radiologist and 73% (41/56) for CAD. For large and medium polyps, per-patient sensitivity was 100% for the radiologist, and 96% for CAD. In conclusion, CAD shows high sensitivity in the detection of clinically significant polyps with acceptable false-positive rates. (orig.)

  3. Two Different Percutaneous Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Abutment Systems: Comparative Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Beldan; İşeri, Mete; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Yılmazer, Ayça Başkadem; Enver, Necati; Ceylan, Didem; Kara, Ahmet; Güldiken, Yahya; Çomoğlu, Şenol

    2016-04-01

    To compare two different percutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) abutment systems regarding operation time, scar healing, quality of life, implant stability, audiologic results, and complications. The study involves a prospective multi-center clinical evaluation. Thirty-two consecutive patients who had undergone BAHA surgery from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary centers were included in the study. The Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was used to assess the patients at least 6 months after surgery. The operation time and complications were recorded. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded using resonance frequency analysis. Holger's classification was used to evaluate skin reactions. The mean length of the operation was 39.2±4 min for standard abutment and 18.3±5.7 min for hydroxyapatite-coated abutment. ISQ scores were significantly better for standard abutment in all tests. The mean total Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was 39.3±19 for the standard abutment and 46.3±24.5 for the hydroxyapatite-coated abutment groups, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups. There was no difference in audiological improvement between the two groups after surgery. Hydroxyapatite-coated abutment provided a shorter operation time that was significantly different from standard abutment. There were no significant differences between standard abutment and hydroxyapatite-coated abutment regarding audiologic improvement, quality of life, loading time, and complications.

  4. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  5. Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS: experience of a Mexican neurological centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Silva, Erik A; Ramírez-Crescencio, María A; Soto-Hernández, José Luís; Cárdenas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) restores the inflammatory immune response in AIDS patients and it may unmask previous subclinical infections or paradoxically exacerbate symptoms of opportunistic infections. Up to 25% of patients receiving HAART develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We describe six patients with IRIS central nervous system (CNSIRIS) manifestations emphasizing the relevance of CSF cultures and neuroimaging in early diagnosis and management. Patients with CNSIRIS were identified among hospitalized HIV-infected patients that started HAART from January 2002 through December 2007 at a referral neurological center in Mexico. One-hundred and forty-two HIV-infected patients with neurological signs were hospitalized, 64 of which had received HAART, and six (9.3%) developed CNSIRIS. Five patients were male. Two cases of tuberculosis, two of cryptococcosis, one of brain toxoplasmosis, and one possible PML case were found. IRIS onset occurred within 12 weeks of HAART in five patients. Anti-infective therapy was continued. In one case, HAART was temporarily suspended. In long-term follow-up the clinical condition improved in all patients. CNSIRIS associated to opportunistic infections appeared in 9% of patients receiving HAART. Interestingly, no cases of malignancy or neoplasm IRIS-related were found. Frequent clinical assessment and neuroimaging studies supported diagnosis and treatment. Risk factors were similar to those found in other series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer- Aided diagnosis system for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Hosseini M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the most prevalent pulmonary diseases. Use of an automatic system for the detection and diagnosis of the disease will be beneficial to the patients' treatment decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD of the disease and determination of its severity axial CT scan images."n"nMethods: In this study, 24 lung CT scans in full inspiratory and expiratory states were performed. Variations in the normalized pattern of the lungs' external parenchyma were exploited as a feature for COPD diagnosis. Subsequently, a Bayesian classifier was used to classify variations into two normal and abnormal patterns for the discrimination of patients and healthy individuals. Finally, the accuracy of the classification was assessed statistically. "n"nResults: With the proposed method, the lungs parenchymal elasticity and air-trapping were determined quantitatively. The more this feature tended to zero, the more severe air-trapping and obstructive pulmonary disease is. By analyzing CT images in the healthy and patient groups, we calculated the hard threshold for the diagnosis of the disease. Clinical results

  7. Augmented reality as an aid in maxillofacial surgery: validation of a wearable system allowing maxillary repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiali, Giovanni; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Freschi, Cinzia; Caramella, Davide; Bianchi, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    We present a newly designed, localiser-free, head-mounted system featuring augmented reality as an aid to maxillofacial bone surgery, and assess the potential utility of the device by conducting a feasibility study and validation. Our head-mounted wearable system facilitating augmented surgery was developed as a stand-alone, video-based, see-through device in which the visual features were adapted to facilitate maxillofacial bone surgery. We implement a strategy designed to present augmented reality information to the operating surgeon. LeFort1 osteotomy was chosen as the test procedure. The system is designed to exhibit virtual planning overlaying the details of a real patient. We implemented a method allowing performance of waferless, augmented-reality assisted bone repositioning. In vitro testing was conducted on a physical replica of a human skull, and the augmented reality system was used to perform LeFort1 maxillary repositioning. Surgical accuracy was measured with the aid of an optical navigation system that recorded the coordinates of three reference points (located in anterior, posterior right, and posterior left positions) on the repositioned maxilla. The outcomes were compared with those expected to be achievable in a three-dimensional environment. Data were derived using three levels of surgical planning, of increasing complexity, and for nine different operators with varying levels of surgical skill. The mean error was 1.70 ± 0.51 mm. The axial errors were 0.89 ± 0.54 mm on the sagittal axis, 0.60 ± 0.20 mm on the frontal axis, and 1.06 ± 0.40 mm on the craniocaudal axis. The simplest plan was associated with a slightly lower mean error (1.58 ± 0.37 mm) compared with the more complex plans (medium: 1.82 ± 0.71 mm; difficult: 1.70 ± 0.45 mm). The mean error for the anterior reference point was lower (1.33 ± 0.58 mm) than those for both the posterior right (1.72 ± 0.24 mm) and posterior left points (2.05 ± 0.47 mm). No significant difference

  8. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  9. Model-Aided Altimeter-Based Water Level Forecasting System in Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, H.; Hossain, F.; Okeowo, M. A.; Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Hwang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mekong River, one of the massive river systems in the world, has drainage area of about 795,000 km2 covering six countries. People living in its drainage area highly rely on resources given by the river in terms of agriculture, fishery, and hydropower. Monitoring and forecasting the water level in a timely manner, is urgently needed over the Mekong River. Recently, using TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry water level measurements in India, Biancamaria et al. [2011] has demonstrated the capability of an altimeter-based flood forecasting system in Bangladesh, with RMSE from 0.6 - 0.8 m for lead times up to 5 days on 10-day basis due to T/P's repeat period. Hossain et al. [2013] further established a daily water level forecasting system in Bangladesh using observations from Jason-2 in India and HEC-RAS hydraulic model, with RMSE from 0.5 - 1.5 m and an underestimating mean bias of 0.25 - 1.25 m. However, such daily forecasting system relies on a collection of Jason-2 virtual stations (VSs) to ensure frequent sampling and data availability. Since the Mekong River is a meridional river with few number of VSs, the direct application of this system to the Mekong River becomes challenging. To address this problem, we propose a model-aided altimeter-based forecasting system. The discharge output by Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is used to reconstruct a daily water level product at upstream Jason-2 VSs based on the discharge-to-level rating curve. The reconstructed daily water level is then used to perform regression analysis with downstream in-situ water level to build regression models, which are used to forecast a daily water level. In the middle reach of the Mekong River from Nakhon Phanom to Kratie, a 3-day lead time forecasting can reach RMSE about 0.7 - 1.3 m with correlation coefficient around 0.95. For the lower reach of the Mekong River, the water flow becomes more complicated due to the reversal flow between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River

  10. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed

  11. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: Temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavel, D. T.; Pittenger, L. C.; McDonald, J. S.; Cramer, P. G.; Herget, C. J.

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, AND LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  12. Re-engineering software systems in the Department of Defense using integrated computer aided software engineering tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Department of Defense (DoD) is plagues with severe cost overruns and delays in developing software systems. Existing software within Dod, some developed 15-to 20 years ago, require continual maintenance and modification. Major difficulties arise with maintaining older systems due to cryptic source code and a lack of adequate documentation. To remedy this situation, the DoD, is pursuing the integrated computer aided software engi...

  13. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Combining Digital Mammography and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Huang, "Breast cancer diagnosis using self-organizing map for sonography." Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 405 (2000). 20 K. Horsch, M.L. Giger, L.A. Venta ...L.A. Venta , "Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography." Acad Radiol 11, 272 (2004). 22 W. Chen...418. 27. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography

  14. Promoting the dissemination of decision aids: an odyssey in a dysfunctional health care financing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, John

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of patient decision aids (PtDAs) is well documented, yet they are not in widespread use. Barriers include assuring balance and fairness (auspices matter), the cost of producing and maintaining them, and getting them into the hands of patients at the right time. The Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making and its for-profit partner, Health Dialog, have developed a creative business model that helps overcome these barriers and has greatly expanded the reach of decision aids.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and data base system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Niki, N.; Eguchi, K.; Masuda, H.; Machida, S.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information. (author)

  16. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  17. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  18. Creation of system of computer-aided design for technological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkova, T. M.; Tokareva, M. A.; Sultanov, N. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the competition in the market of process equipment, its production should be flexible, retuning to various product configurations, raw materials and productivity, depending on the current market needs. This process is not possible without CAD (computer-aided design). The formation of CAD begins with planning. Synthesizing, analyzing, evaluating, converting operations, as well as visualization and decision-making operations, can be automated. Based on formal description of the design procedures, the design route in the form of an oriented graph is constructed. The decomposition of the design process, represented by the formalized description of the design procedures, makes it possible to make an informed choice of the CAD component for the solution of the task. The object-oriented approach allows us to consider the CAD as an independent system whose properties are inherited from the components. The first step determines the range of tasks to be performed by the system, and a set of components for their implementation. The second one is the configuration of the selected components. The interaction between the selected components is carried out using the CALS standards. The chosen CAD / CAE-oriented approach allows creating a single model, which is stored in the database of the subject area. Each of the integration stages is implemented as a separate functional block. The transformation of the CAD model into the model of the internal representation is realized by the block of searching for the geometric parameters of the technological machine, in which the XML-model of the construction is obtained on the basis of the feature method from the theory of image recognition. The configuration of integrated components is divided into three consecutive steps: configuring tasks, components, interfaces. The configuration of the components is realized using the theory of "soft computations" using the Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm.

  19. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverso, A; Lopez Torres, E; Cerello, P; Fantacci, M E

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists. (paper)

  20. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  1. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  2. Hearing aid controlled by binaural source localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right

  3. A computer - aided system for the the E.D.F. 1400 MW. Nuclear power plants control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltranda, G.; Philipps, C.

    1988-01-01

    The future E.D.F. 1400 MW nuclear power plants (due to be commissioned in 1991 at CHOOZ) are provided with a control and instrumentation system including the following levels: - sensors and actuators (LEVEL 0): this is the interface of the elementary acquisition and control signals; - the programmable logical and numerical controllers (LEVEL 1) for the logical control sequences and analog adjustment sequences for the whole equipment of the facilities; - the control room (LEVEL 2) including the computer-aided operation system as well as the wall mimic diagram and the auxiliary panel directly connected to the controllers. This is the processing and control conversational level; - the maintenance and site computer-aided systems (LEVEL 3). This paper aims at describing the computer-aided operation system (called KIC N4), its main functions, its architecture and the solutions retained as regards its softwares and the high-quality of data required. The achievement of this system has been entrusted by EDF to the SEMA. METRA/CIMSA-SINTRA grouping, among which SEMA.METRA is the leading company

  4. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir

    2002-07-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  5. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  6. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  7. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  8. Cognitive Systems Engineering Tool Survey - A Subtask in Support of Commander's Decision Aids for Predictive Battle-Space Awareness (CDA4PBA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Mary; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    ...) DO 6, Commander's Decision Aids for Predictive Battle-Space Awareness, (CDA4PBA) is to identify system requirements necessary to capture the entire software and systems engineering process from concept...

  9. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  10. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  11. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Combining Mammography and Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    for sonography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 405-411 2000. 20K. Horsch, M. L. Giger, L. A. Venta , and C. J. Vyborny, “Computerized diagnosis of breast...lesions on ultrasound,” Med. Phys. 29, 157-164 2002. 21K. Horsch, M. L. Giger, C. J. Vyborny, and L. A. Venta , “Performance of computer-aided...Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography. Acad Radiol

  12. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...... - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM...

  13. Application of a B ampersand W developed computer aided pictorial process planning system to CQMS for manufacturing process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, D.C.; VandeBogart, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) will utilize its internally developed Computer Aided Pictorial Process Planning or CAPPP (pronounced open-quotes cap cubedclose quotes) system to create a paperless manufacturing environment for the Collider Quadruple Magnets (CQM). The CAPPP system consists of networked personal computer hardware and software used to: (1) generate and maintain the documents necessary for product fabrication, (2) communicate the information contained in these documents to the production floor, and (3) obtain quality assurance and manufacturing feedback information from the production floor. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various components of the CAPPP system and explain their applicability to product fabrication, specifically quality assurance functions

  14. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  15. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  16. The health system benefits of attending an HIV/AIDS conference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respondents reported that they attended ICASA 2013 to learn more about tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted infections and networking opportunities. The majority reported that they gained professionally from attending ICASA 2013 and made 'new contacts and opportunities for partnership and collaboration' and ...

  17. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence from Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Method: Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-­in-­noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid…

  18. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients; Patologia del sistema musculosqueletico en pacientes con sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and

  19. The software developing method for multichannel computer-aided system for physical experiments control, realized by resources of national instruments LabVIEW instrumental package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskaya, E.A.; Samojlov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    This work is describing the method of developing the computer-aided control system in integrated environment of LabVIEW. Using the object-oriented design of complex systems, the hypothetical model for methods of developing the software for computer-aided system for physical experiments control was constructed. Within the framework of that model architecture solutions and implementations of suggested method were described. (author)

  20. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  3. Computer-aided topological analysis of Nd-Fe-B ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, P.; Zhang, W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional partially matrixed topological model of the Nd-Fe-B ternary phase diagram has been established based on experimental results assessed comprehensively with the aid of a computer-aided design and graphic and graphics software, AutoCAD (R10), and application programs developed in this work. Vertical sections at 5.88 at.% B, Nd:B = 1:1, Fe-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd, Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 7/B/sub 6/ have been cut out from the model and the corresponding phase relationships have been analyzed. Among them, those on the Nd-rich protons of both the sections at 5.88 at.% B and Nd:B = 2:1 and those on the Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd section are given for the first time. (author)

  4. A computer-aided audit system for respiratory therapy consult evaluations: description of a method and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2013-05-01

    Use of respiratory therapist (RT)-guided protocols enhances allocation of respiratory care. In the context that optimal protocol use requires a system for auditing respiratory care plans to assure adherence to protocols and expertise of the RTs generating the care plan, a live audit system has been in longstanding use in our Respiratory Therapy Consult Service. Growth in the number of RT positions and the need to audit more frequently has prompted development of a new, computer-aided audit system. The number and results of audits using the old and new systems were compared (for the periods May 30, 2009 through May 30, 2011 and January 1, 2012 through May 30, 2012, respectively). In contrast to the original, live system requiring a patient visit by the auditor, the new system involves completion of a respiratory therapy care plan using patient information in the electronic medical record, both by the RT generating the care plan and the auditor. Completing audits in the new system also uses an electronic respiratory therapy management system. The degrees of concordance between the audited RT's care plans and the "gold standard" care plans using the old and new audit systems were similar. Use of the new system was associated with an almost doubling of the rate of audits (ie, 11 per month vs 6.1 per month). The new, computer-aided audit system increased capacity to audit more RTs performing RT-guided consults while preserving accuracy as an audit tool. Ensuring that RTs adhere to the audit process remains the challenge for the new system, and is the rate-limiting step.

  5. Gravity Gradiometry and Map Matching: An Aid to Aircraft Inertial Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    wife, who listened to my techno-babble and fully supported long hours of study . I think it’s time we take a vacation… together this time...Air Force Institute of Technology BEP Break Even Point CEP Circular Error Probable (50th percentile) CSAF Chief of Staff of the Air Force DTED...matching to aid an aircraft INS. Comprehensive, in this case , refers to an assessment that shows the potential for this concept to provide certain

  6. SINCRO/CAR: An interactive numerical system for computer-aided control engineering and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Despujols, A.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes a dialogue-oriented software implemented on a portable computer for computer-aided engineering and training in control instrumentation and also for on-line verification of the performances of the analog controllers installed on power plants. The SINCRO/CAR software includes algorithms for controller design, simulation, identification, optimization, frequency response and real time data acquisition. Various results obtained on fossil-fired and nuclear plants are given to illustrate the efficiency of the SINCRO/CAR software

  7. Computer-aided diagnostic system for detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images from a Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Molinari, Filippo; Zieleźnik, Witold; Bardales, Ricardo H; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques aid physicians in better diagnosis of diseases by extracting objective and accurate diagnostic information from medical data. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common type of inflammation of the thyroid gland. The inflammation changes the structure of the thyroid tissue, and these changes are reflected as echogenic changes on ultrasound images. In this work, we propose a novel CAD system (a class of systems called ThyroScan) that extracts textural features from a thyroid sonogram and uses them to aid in the detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this paradigm, we extracted grayscale features based on stationary wavelet transform from 232 normal and 294 Hashimoto thyroiditis-affected thyroid ultrasound images obtained from a Polish population. Significant features were selected using a Student t test. The resulting feature vectors were used to build and evaluate the following 4 classifiers using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation technique: support vector machine, decision tree, fuzzy classifier, and K-nearest neighbor. Using 7 significant features that characterized the textural changes in the images, the fuzzy classifier had the highest classification accuracy of 84.6%, sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 87.0%, and a positive predictive value of 88.9%. The proposed ThyroScan CAD system uses novel features to noninvasively detect the presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images. Compared to manual interpretations of ultrasound images, the CAD system offers a more objective interpretation of the nature of the thyroid. The preliminary results presented in this work indicate the possibility of using such a CAD system in a clinical setting after evaluating it with larger databases in multicenter clinical trials.

  8. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  9. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...

  10. Two adults with multiple disabilities use a computer-aided telephone system to make phone calls independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Singh, Nirbhay N; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and the B represented intervention phases, during which the special telephone system was available. The system involved among others a net-book computer provided with specific software, a global system for mobile communication modem, and a microswitch. Both participants learned to use the system very rapidly and managed to make phone calls independently to a variety of partners such as family members, friends and staff personnel. The results were discussed in terms of the technology under investigation (its advantages, drawbacks, and need of improvement) and the social-communication impact it can make for persons with multiple disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  12. Using Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)--tools to document the current logical model of a system for DoD requirements specifications.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzer, Donna A.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Naval Postgraduate School's final exam scheduling system serves as a test case with which to compare two commercially available Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The tools, Nastec Corporation's DesignAid (Release 3.55) and Index Technology's Excelerator (Release 1.7) are used to create Section 4.1 of two Abbreviated Systems Decision Papers to determine if their output can satisfy and should replace some of the Life...

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Esophageal vocalization aid system; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shokudo hassei hojo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on element technologies for an esophageal vocalization aid system. With regard to the speaker, selection and trial production were performed on a speaker used for a phono-coupler to be used in coupling with a telephone transmitter. Performance not differing from that in the currently used telephone set was obtained in the overall characteristics evaluation using a dummy telephone circuitry. For the microphone, two kinds of hands-free microphones were fabricated on a trial basis. In order to develop pitch extraction and amplitude pitch conversion systems, pitch extraction performances were compared and discussed on the following five methods: the auto-correlation method, the Cepstram method, the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) method, the simplified inverse filter tracking (SIFT) method, and the time-domain excitation extractor using minimum perturbation operator (TEMPO) method. The hauling phenomenon, having come up as a problem in an auxiliary digital device, was analyzed to discuss methods for prevention thereof. In developing a voice/unvoiced distinction judgment method, a method using low domain power and high domain power was discussed. Development has been made on exclusive ICs, a voice analyzer, and the using feeling enhancing technology. In developing a total system, a digital unit incorporated esophageal vocalization aid system was developed and improved. (NEDO)

  14. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Noriko; Suzuki, Kenzo; Abe, Katsumi; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Ushimi, Hisashi; Terada, Kazushi

    1997-01-01

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201 Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201 Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  15. Feedback control of plasma equilibrium with control system aided by personal computer on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, T.; Toi, K.; Matsuura, K.

    1991-04-01

    A feedback control system aided by a personal computer is developed to maintain plasma position on the required position in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The personal computer enables to adjust various control parameters easily. In this control system, a control demand for driving the power supply of feedback controlled vertical field coils is composed to be proportional to a total plasma current. This system has been successfully employed throughout the discharge where the plasma current substantially changes from zero to hundreds of kiloamperes, because the feedback control can be done, being independent of the plasma current. The analysis of this feedback control system taken into account of digital sampling agrees well with the experimental results. (author)

  16. Situation-assessment and decision-aid production-rule analysis system for nuclear plant monitoring and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvillo, D.; Ragheb, M.; Parker, M.; Swartz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC)

  17. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  18. Situation-Assessment And Decision-Aid Production-Rule Analysis System For Nuclear Plant Monitoring And Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvillo, D.; Ragheb, M.; Parker, M.; Swartz, S.

    1987-05-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC).

  19. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...

  20. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  2. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  3. Feasibility Study of a Generalized Framework for Developing Computer-Aided Detection Systems-a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Nomura, Yukihiro; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu

    2017-10-01

    We propose a generalized framework for developing computer-aided detection (CADe) systems whose characteristics depend only on those of the training dataset. The purpose of this study is to show the feasibility of the framework. Two different CADe systems were experimentally developed by a prototype of the framework, but with different training datasets. The CADe systems include four components; preprocessing, candidate area extraction, candidate detection, and candidate classification. Four pretrained algorithms with dedicated optimization/setting methods corresponding to the respective components were prepared in advance. The pretrained algorithms were sequentially trained in the order of processing of the components. In this study, two different datasets, brain MRA with cerebral aneurysms and chest CT with lung nodules, were collected to develop two different types of CADe systems in the framework. The performances of the developed CADe systems were evaluated by threefold cross-validation. The CADe systems for detecting cerebral aneurysms in brain MRAs and for detecting lung nodules in chest CTs were successfully developed using the respective datasets. The framework was shown to be feasible by the successful development of the two different types of CADe systems. The feasibility of this framework shows promise for a new paradigm in the development of CADe systems: development of CADe systems without any lesion specific algorithm designing.

  4. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  5. HIV/AIDS and tourism in the Caribbean: an ecological systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

    2010-01-01

    The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research.

  6. Does AIDS involve some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the disarmament strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Korzybski's general semantics recommends considering living beings as organisms-as-a-whole in their environment. Our cognitive abilities, specific to the human species, have thus to be taken into account. In this framework we establish a semantic similarity between particular stressful events of the 20th century and AIDS in which the immune-deficiency-caused is semiotically seen as a biological state of disarmament of the organism. It then appears that: These observations suggest that AIDS could benefit from some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the semiotic concept of disarmament, thus making the terrain favorable to the germ in response to intense stress. The disease would then result from a conditioning process based on semiotics and involve some confusion at the level of the unconscious cognitive system between disarmament toward outside the body and disarmament toward inside the body. This hypothesis is discussed within a multidisciplinary perspective considering the specificities of our modern lifestyles, the cybernetic ability of signs to control metabolism and behavior, and the recent advances of epigenetics and cognition sciences. This hypothesis may explain the multiple cross-species transmissions of the immunodeficiency virus into humans during the 20th century. Further research is suggested for evaluating this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport: A Systemic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-10-01

    Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors.

  8. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  9. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  10. Computer-aided analysis of power-electronic systems simulation of a high-voltage power converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordry, F.; Isch, H.W.; Proudlock, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the study of semiconductor devices, simulation methods play an important role in both the design of systems and the analysis of their operation. The authors describe a new and efficient computer-aided package program for general power-electronic systems. The main difficulty when taking into account non-linear elements, such as semiconductors, lies in determining the existence and the relations of the elementary sequences defined by the conduction or nonconduction of these components. The method does not require a priori knowledge of the state sequences of the semiconductor nor of the commutation instants, but only the circuit structure, its parameters and the commands to the controlled switches. The simulation program computes automatically both transient and steady-state waveforms for any circuit configuration. The simulation of a high-voltage power converter is presented, both for its steady-state and transient overload conditions. This 100 kV power converter (4 MW) will feed two klystrons in parallel

  11. DASS: A decision aid integrating the safety parameter display system and emergency functional recovery procedures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.E.

    1984-08-01

    Using a stand-alone developmental test-bed consisting of a minicomputer and a high-resolution color graphics computer, displays and supporting software incorporating advanced on-line decision-aid concepts were developed and evaluated. The advanced concepts embodied in displays designed for the operating crew of a PWR plant include: (1) an integrated display format which supports a top-down approach to problem detection, recovery planning, and control; (2) introduction of nonobservable plant parameters derived from first principles mass and energy balances as part of the displayed information; and (3) systematic processing and display of key success path (plant safety system) attributes. The prototype system, referred to as the PWR-DASS (Disturbance Analysis and Surveillance System), consists of 18 displays targeted for principal use by the control room systems manager. PWR-DASS was conceived to fulfill an operational void not fully supported by safety parameter display systems or reformulated emergency procedure guidelines. The results from the evaluation by licensed operators suggest that organization and display of desired critical safety function and success path information as incorporated in the PWR-DASS prototype can support the systems manager's overview. The results also point to the need for several refinements required for a field grade system, and to the need for a simulator-based evaluation of the prototype or its successor. (author)

  12. Principles and models of a co-operative systems of a supervision aid; SCAS: principes et modeles d`un systeme cooperatif d`assistance a la supervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, J.M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Cases, E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Brezillon, P. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Minault, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the functioning principles and the necessary models for a cooperative system of supervision aid (SCAS) used for a high-automated workshop. A meta-system of supervision is made up of the operator and the SCAS. The SCAS can operate under 2 different modes: wakefulness and cooperation. On the first one the behaviours of the process and the operator is observed and analysed. On the second one, it helps to solve the problems occurred by the operator. (TEC). 3 refs.

  13. A comparison of survival of patients treated for AIDS-related central nervous system lymphoma with and without tissue diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Thomas; Nisce, Lourdes Z.; Coleman, Morton

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This is a retrospective review of the treatment outcome of radiation therapy (RT) in acquired immunedeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with presumed primary central nervous system (CNS) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), with and without tissue verification. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with AIDS-related CNS NHL were treated between 1986 and 1992. They were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of nine patients with a positive histology for NHL. They were treated with dexamethasone (DXM) and whole brain RT. Group 2 consisted of 18 patients who, because of unique circumstances, were treated without histologic confirmation of NHL. Rapid clinical and/or radiologic response to DXM and whole-brain RT was interpreted as NHL. Results: For group 1, the response rate was 87.5%, mean survival 6.1 months, and median survival 4.5 months. For group 2, the response rate was 72.2%, mean survival 5.2 months, and median survival 4.5 months. The overall response rate was 76.9%, mean survival 5.8 months, and median survival 4.5 months. Conclusions: In instances where a tissue diagnosis cannot be established, a positive response to an empiric trial of DXM and RT to 20 Gy may constitute presumptive evidence of NHL

  14. Computer Aided Tracing System 「CATS」(version I)の使用手引書

    OpenAIRE

    谷 啓二; 納 俊樹; 木原 和久

    1984-01-01

    コンピューターグラフィックスの一応用として、各種の図形、表などをタブレットデジタイザーを用いて計算機に入力し、グラッフィックディスプレイ(GD)上で図形を編集、表示し、その結果をカラーハードコピーやNLP(レーザープリンター)に清書出力するソフトプログラム Computer Aided Tracing System「CATS」を開発を行なった。「CATS」におけるデータの入力は、全て日本語による全活形式を採用しているため、ユーザーはGD専用の複雑なソフトを意識することなくGD上で図形の編集が行える。本報告は「CATS」の使用手引書としてまとめたものである。...

  15. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : final report, March 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed by ...

  16. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work : zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and : distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed...

  17. Decision optimization of case-based computer-aided decision systems using genetic algorithms with application to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A; Habas, Piotr A; Zurada, Jacek M; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization framework for improving case-based computer-aided decision (CB-CAD) systems. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that each example in the knowledge database of a medical decision support system has different importance in the decision making process. A new decision algorithm incorporating an importance weight for each example is proposed to account for these differences. The search for the best set of importance weights is defined as an optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is employed to solve it. The optimization process is tailored to maximize the system's performance according to clinically relevant evaluation criteria. The study was performed using a CAD system developed for the classification of regions of interests (ROIs) in mammograms as depicting masses or normal tissue. The system was constructed and evaluated using a dataset of ROIs extracted from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Experimental results show that, according to receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the proposed method significantly improves the overall performance of the CAD system as well as its average specificity for high breast mass detection rates

  18. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system with a 3D algorithm for small acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Acute Intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) requires urgent diagnosis in the emergency setting to mitigate eventual sequelae. However, experienced radiologists may not always be available to make a timely diagnosis. This is especially true for small AIH, defined as lesion smaller than 10 mm in size. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of small AIH would facilitate timely diagnosis. A previously developed 2D algorithm shows high false positive rates in the evaluation based on LAC/USC cases, due to the limitation of setting up correct coordinate system for the knowledge-based classification system. To achieve a higher sensitivity and specificity, a new 3D algorithm is developed. The algorithm utilizes a top-hat transformation and dynamic threshold map to detect small AIH lesions. Several key structures of brain are detected and are used to set up a 3D anatomical coordinate system. A rule-based classification of the lesion detected is applied based on the anatomical coordinate system. For convenient evaluation in clinical environment, the CAD module is integrated with a stand-alone system. The CAD is evaluated by small AIH cases and matched normal collected in LAC/USC. The result of 3D CAD and the previous 2D CAD has been compared.

  19. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  20. Computer-aided N. M. R. spectra interpretation. I. An artificial intelligence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vida, M [Central N.M.R. Laboratory, Slovak Technical University, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-03-01

    Some desirable hardware and software features of an artificial intelligence system tailored to the needs of a modern computerized n.m.r. laboratory are discussed. A system corresponding to this idea is described.

  1. Usage of aids monitoring in automatic braking systems of modern cars

    OpenAIRE

    Dembitskyi V.; Mazylyuk P.; Sitovskyi O.

    2016-01-01

    Increased safety can be carried out at the expense the installation on vehicles of automatic braking systems, that monitor the traffic situation and the actions of the driver. In this paper considered the advantages and disadvantages of automatic braking systems, were analyzed modern tracking tools that are used in automatic braking systems. Based on the statistical data on accidents, are set the main dangers, that the automatic braking system will be reduced. In order to ensure the acc...

  2. Research on the Strategy of Motion Constraint-Aided ZUPT for the SINS Positioning System of a Shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of position and orientation for shearers is a key technology in realizing an automated, fully-mechanized, coal mining face. Since Global Positioning System (GPS signal cannot arrive at the coal mine underground, wireless sensor network positioning system cannot operate stably in the coal mine; thus a strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS is used to measure the position and orientation of the shearer. Aiming at the problem of the SINS accumulative error, this paper proposes a positioning error correction method based on the motion constraint-aided SINS zero velocity updated (ZUPT model. First of all, a stationary state detection model of the shearer is built with median filter based on the acceleration and angular rate measured by the SINS. Secondly, the motion of the shearer is analyzed using coal mining technology, then the motion constraint model of the shearer is established. In addition, the alternate action between the motion constraint model and the ZUPT model is analyzed at the process of movement and cessation of the shearer, respectively; hence, the motion constraint-aided SINS ZUPT model is built. Finally, by means of the experimental platform of the SINS for the shearer, the experimental results show that the maximum position error with the positioning model proposed in this paper is 1.6 m in 180 s, and increases by 92.0% and 88.1% compared with the single motion constraint model and single ZUPT model, respectively. It can then restrain the accumulative error of the SINS effectively.

  3. 76 FR 15311 - Legacy Learning Systems, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 102 3055] Legacy Learning Systems, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed... electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``Legacy Learning Systems, File No. 102 3055'' to... it. A comment filed in paper form should include the ``Legacy Learning Systems, File No. 102 3055...

  4. On the use of computerised decision aids : an investigation into the expert system as persuasive communicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob Jan

    2006-01-01

    The results of this study show that an expert system is a persuasive message source and that users tend to follow the advice of an expert system without critically examining it. Accordingly, users will probably not notice when an expert system gives incorrect advice. These facts comprise a serious

  5. Usage of aids monitoring in automatic braking systems of modern cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembitskyi V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased safety can be carried out at the expense the installation on vehicles of automatic braking systems, that monitor the traffic situation and the actions of the driver. In this paper considered the advantages and disadvantages of automatic braking systems, were analyzed modern tracking tools that are used in automatic braking systems. Based on the statistical data on accidents, are set the main dangers, that the automatic braking system will be reduced. In order to ensure the accuracy of information conducted research for determination of optimal combination of different sensors that provide an adequate perception of road conditions. The tracking system should be equipped with a combination of sensors, which in the case of detection of an obstacle or dangers of signal is transmitted to the information processing system and decision making. Information from the monitoring system should include data for the identification of the object, its condition, the speed.

  6. Computer-aided detection system applied to full-field digital mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Bolivar, Alfonso; Sanchez Gomez, Sonia; Merino, Paula; Alonso-Bartolome, Pilar; Ortega Garcia, Estrella; Munoz Cacho, Pedro; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although mammography remains the mainstay for breast cancer screening, it is an imperfect examination with a sensitivity of 75-92% for breast cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been developed to improve mammographic detection of breast cancer. Purpose: To retrospectively estimate CAD sensitivity and false-positive rate with full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs). Material and Methods: CAD was used to evaluate 151 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=48) and invasive breast cancer (n=103) detected with FFDM. Retrospectively, CAD sensitivity was estimated based on breast density, mammographic presentation, histopathology type, and lesion size. CAD false-positive rate was estimated with screening FFDMs from 200 women. Results: CAD detected 93% (141/151) of cancer cases: 97% (28/29) in fatty breasts, 94% (81/86) in breasts containing scattered fibroglandular densities, 90% (28/31) in heterogeneously dense breasts, and 80% (4/5) in extremely dense breasts. CAD detected 98% (54/55) of cancers manifesting as calcifications, 89% (74/83) as masses, and 100% (13/13) as mixed masses and calcifications. CAD detected 92% (73/79) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 89% (8/9) of invasive lobular carcinomas, 93% (14/15) of other invasive carcinomas, and 96% (46/48) of DCIS. CAD sensitivity for cancers 1-10 mm was 87% (47/54); 11-20 mm, 99% (70/71); 21-30 mm, 86% (12/14); and larger than 30 mm, 100% (12/12). The CAD false-positive rate was 2.5 marks per case. Conclusion: CAD with FFDM showed a high sensitivity in identifying cancers manifesting as calcifications or masses. CAD sensitivity was maintained in small lesions (1-20 mm) and invasive lobular carcinomas, which have lower mammographic sensitivity

  7. Computer-aided detection system applied to full-field digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Bolivar, Alfonso; Sanchez Gomez, Sonia; Merino, Paula; Alonso-Bartolome, Pilar; Ortega Garcia, Estrella (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)), e-mail: avegab@telefonica.net; Munoz Cacho, Pedro (Dept. of Statistics, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)); Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W. (iCAD, Inc., Nashua, NH (United States))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Although mammography remains the mainstay for breast cancer screening, it is an imperfect examination with a sensitivity of 75-92% for breast cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been developed to improve mammographic detection of breast cancer. Purpose: To retrospectively estimate CAD sensitivity and false-positive rate with full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs). Material and Methods: CAD was used to evaluate 151 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=48) and invasive breast cancer (n=103) detected with FFDM. Retrospectively, CAD sensitivity was estimated based on breast density, mammographic presentation, histopathology type, and lesion size. CAD false-positive rate was estimated with screening FFDMs from 200 women. Results: CAD detected 93% (141/151) of cancer cases: 97% (28/29) in fatty breasts, 94% (81/86) in breasts containing scattered fibroglandular densities, 90% (28/31) in heterogeneously dense breasts, and 80% (4/5) in extremely dense breasts. CAD detected 98% (54/55) of cancers manifesting as calcifications, 89% (74/83) as masses, and 100% (13/13) as mixed masses and calcifications. CAD detected 92% (73/79) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 89% (8/9) of invasive lobular carcinomas, 93% (14/15) of other invasive carcinomas, and 96% (46/48) of DCIS. CAD sensitivity for cancers 1-10 mm was 87% (47/54); 11-20 mm, 99% (70/71); 21-30 mm, 86% (12/14); and larger than 30 mm, 100% (12/12). The CAD false-positive rate was 2.5 marks per case. Conclusion: CAD with FFDM showed a high sensitivity in identifying cancers manifesting as calcifications or masses. CAD sensitivity was maintained in small lesions (1-20 mm) and invasive lobular carcinomas, which have lower mammographic sensitivity

  8. System of regional centres of first aid in cases of radiation accidents in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    When in the seventies the number of occupational radiation exposed persons in the Federal Republic of Germany increased from about 35,000 (1974) to about 160,000 (1978) the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes felt prompted to reflect about special measures to prevent radiation accidents and provide health care for this special cases. They did so without any actual occasion: accidents were persons have been exposed by ionizing radiation were in the seventies just as rare as today. But that fact does not allow the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes to neglect the existing potential for severe accidents. So the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Electrical Industry including Precision Mechanics and the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Chemical Industry created the Institute for Radiation Protection in 1978. The primary task of that Institute is to guarantee an effective first aid in the case of a radiation accident. To realize that task the Institute contracted 11 wellknown institutions like radiological departments of large hospitals or the medical departments of research centres where the i knowledge on diagnostic and therapy of radiation effects is present. They are called 'Regionale Strahlenschutzzentren', Regional Centres for Radiation Protection (RCRP). In the case of radiation accidents these RCRP are the logistical centres for all arising questions of treatment. They have facilities for reconstructing exposure situations and assessing and evaluating doses, including measurements of internal contamination as well as for medical inpatient or out-patient treating like internal or external decontamination. Another important task of the RCRP is to advise employers in ad radiation protection questions which arise with the industrial application of ionizing radiation. Of course the centres give also answer to many question from members of the public, for example the personal effects of the power plant accident at Chernobyl

  9. Evaluation of location and number of aid post for sustainable humanitarian relief using agent based modeling (ABM) and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Fauzi; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2017-12-01

    One of the crucial phases in disaster management is the response phase or the emergency response phase. It requires a sustainable system and a well-integrated management system. Any errors in the system on this phase will impact on significant increase of the victims number as well as material damage caused. Policies related to the location of aid posts are important decisions. The facts show that there are many failures in the process of providing assistance to the refugees due to lack of preparation and determination of facilities and aid post location. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the number and location of aid posts on Merapi eruption in 2010. This study uses an integration between Agent Based Modeling (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) about evaluation of the number and location of the aid post using some scenarios. The ABM approach aims to describe the agents behaviour (refugees and volunteers) in the event of a disaster with their respective characteristics. While the spatial data, GIS useful to describe real condition of the Sleman regency road. Based on the simulation result, it shows alternative scenarios that combine DERU UGM post, Maguwoharjo Stadium, Tagana Post and Pakem Main Post has better result in handling and distributing aid to evacuation barrack compared to initial scenario. Alternative scenarios indicates the unmet demands are less than the initial scenario.

  10. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  11. Development library of finite elements for computer-aided design system of reed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. S.; Shmakov, N. A.; Tkalich, V. L.; Labkovskaia, R. I.; Kalinkina, M. E.; Pirozhnikova, O. I.

    2018-05-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a modern highly reliable element base of devices for security and fire alarm systems, in particular, to the improvement of the quality of contact cores (reed and membrane) of reed sensors. Modeling of elastic sensitive elements uses quadrangular elements of plates and shells, considered in the system of curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. The developed mathematical models and the formed finite element library are designed for systems of automated design of reed switch detectors to create competitive devices alarms. The finite element library is used for the automated system production of reed switch detectors both in series production and in the implementation of individual orders.

  12. An expert system-based aid for analysis of Emergency Operating Procedures in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, Z.; Beraha, D.

    1996-01-01

    Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) generally and an accident management (AM) particularly play a significant part in the safety philosophy on NPPs since many years. A better methodology for development and validation of EOPs is desired. A prototype of an Emergency Operating Procedures Analysis System (EOPAS), which has been developed at GRS, is presented in the paper. The hardware configuration and software organisation of the system is briefly reviewed. The main components of the system such as the knowledge base of an expert system and the engineering simulator are described. (author)

  13. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  15. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development (USAID), private voluntary organizations (PVOs), the World Food Program (WFP), the Foreign... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection... Chain Management system (WBSCM) is a new procurement system in development to replace FARES at a later...

  16. Two-Layer Coding Rate Optimization in Relay-Aided Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan

    2011-01-01

    We consider a three-node transmission system, where a source node conveys a data block to a destination node with the help of a half-duplex decode and-forward (DF) relay node. The whole data block is transmitted as a sequence of packets. For reliable transmission in the three-node system, a two...

  17. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  18. Computer Aided Product Service Systems Design : Service CAD and Its integration with Life Cycle Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Integration of product design into service design, or vice versa, is considered to bring more efficient and effective value addition. Besides EcoDesign tools and methods, a methodology to design such an integration of products and services from a systemic perspective, or product-service systems

  19. Computer aided planning of distribution systems and connection with medium term load forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    di Salvatore, F; Grattieri, W; Insinga, F; Malafarina, L; Mazzoni, M; Nicola, G

    1991-12-31

    In order to perform planning studies on HV (40-l50 kV), MV and LV networks, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has developed a computation system composed of a set of integrated programs which utilize the information stored in several data bases, with the aim of: providing energy consumption forecasts for each area of the country; transfering consumption for each area to the distribution network nodes and to evaluating the electric demand by using a statistical power/energy correlation model; analyzing several network development alternatives and selecting the optimum development plan by comparing the overall costs (investments, operation, risk). In order to make its utilization by planners easier, the computation system will be operated with interactive and graphic procedures made available by the use of graphic work stations. This report describes the main objectives and basic hypotheses assumed in the preparation of the computation system, as well as, the system`s general architecture.

  20. Study on computer-aided control system design platform of 10MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Shi Lei; Sun Yuliang; Luo Shaojie

    2004-01-01

    the 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10) is the first modular pebble bed reactor built in China, which needs to be researched on engineering design, control study, safety analysis and operator training. An integrated system for simulation, control design and online assistance of the HTR-10 (HTRSIMU) has been developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University. The HTRSIMU system is based on a high-speed local area network, on which a computer-aided control system design platform (CDP) is developed and combined with the simulating subsystem in order to provide a visualized and convenient tool for the HTR-10 control system design. The CDP has friendly man-machine interface and good expansibility, in which eighteen types of control items are integrated. These control items are divided into two types: linear and non-linear control items. The linear control items include Proportion, Integral, Differential, Inertial, Leed-lag, Oscillation, Pure-lag, Common, PID and Fuzzy, while the non-linear control items include Saturation, Subsection, Insensitive, Backlash, Relay, Insensi-Relay, Sluggish-Relay and Insens-Slug. The CDP provides a visualized platform for control system modeling and the control loop system can be automatically generated and graphically simulated. Users can conveniently design control loop, modify control parameters, study control method, and analyze control results just by clicking mouse buttons. This kind of control system design method can provide a powerful tool and good reference for the actual system operation for HTR-10. A control scheme is also given and studied to demonstrate the functions of the CDP in this article. (author)

  1. Dedicated health systems strengthening of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: an analysis of grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Tsai, Feng-Jen J; Shroff, Zubin C; Nakahara, Branden; Vargha, Nabil; Weathers, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to understand the determinants of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria's dedicated channel for health systems strengthening (HSS) funding across countries and to analyze their health system priorities expressed in budgets and performance indicators. We obtained publicly available data for disease-specific and HSS grants from the Global Fund over 2004-2013 prior to the new funding model. Regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of dedicated HSS funding across 111 countries. Documents for 27 dedicated HSS grants including budgets and performance indicators were collected, and activities were analyzed by health system functions. HSS funding per capita is significantly associated with TB and HIV funding per capita, but not per capita income and health worker density. Of 27 dedicated HSS grants, 11 had line-item budgets publicly available, in which health workforce and medical products form the majority (89% or US$132 million of US$148 million) of funds. Yet these areas accounted for 41.7% (215) of total 516 performance indicators. Health worker densities were not correlated with HSS funding, despite the emphasis on health workforce in budgets and performance indicators. Priorities in health systems in line-item budgets differ from the numbers of indicators used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A computer-aided collection and construction system of terminology based on a statistically built knowledge base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, O.; Miyahara, A.

    1988-04-01

    Since a terminology is a system of concepts to which terms should be assigned, automatic processings of such concepts seem to be difficult to be realized. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided collection and construction system of terminology which creates automatically a knowledge base using the technical terms and their frequency of appearance information extracted from a bibliographic database and selects the terminologies based on the knowledge base. The experts in specialized fields can be offered a set of candidates for the technical terms with the system and determined needed terminologies through the following important procedures: 1) the relations among important concepts in a specified field can be extracted; 2) the concepts in the lower classes can be searched by specifying those in the upper classes; 3) the important terms can be distinguished from the basic terms and then the most important terms can be selected. An application of the present system to nuclear fusion research is described in detail. (author)

  3. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  4. [Interactive augmented reality systems : Aid for personalized patient education and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, F

    2018-04-01

    During patient education, information exchange plays a critical role both for patient compliance during medical or rehabilitative treatment and for obtaining an informed consent for an operative procedure. In this article the augmented reality system "Magic Mirror" as an additive tool during patient education, rehabilitation as well as anatomical education is highlighted. The Magic Mirror system allows the user of the system to inspect both a detailed model of the 3‑dimensional anatomy of the human body and volumetric slice images in a virtual mirror environment. First preliminary results from the areas of rehabilitation and learning anatomy indicate the broad potential of the Magic Mirror. Similarly, the system also provides interesting advantages for patient education situations in comparison to traditional methods of information exchange. Novel technologies, such as augmented reality are a door opener for many innovations in medicine. In the future, patient-specific systems, such as the Magic Mirror will be used increasingly more in areas such as patient education and rehabilitation. In order to maximize the benefits of such systems, further evaluation studies are necessary to find out about the best use cases and to start an iterative optimization process of these systems.

  5. Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

  6. Reactor Safety Assessment System--A situation assessment aid for USNRC emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSAS is intended for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. The system uses plant parameter data and status information from the power plant. It has a rule base that uses the parametric values, the known operator actions, and the time sequence information in the data to generate situation assessment conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS rules currently cover one specific reactor type and use setpoints specific to one power plant

  7. The development of gamma imaging system's aided software using matlab GUI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yapeng; Xu Yuan; Jin Gen

    2011-01-01

    The RadCam 2000 gamma imaging system's software supplied by the manufacture cannot be run when the PC disconnected to the system's hardware, also cannot be used to analysis the results acquired, therefore, we have developed easyRadCam using Matlab GUI with the ability of generating the 'hot point' three-dimensional distribution by importing the results acquired, giving the counts distribution versus channel number. After the system be calibrated, we can get the energy spectrum, even the type of nuclides exist. (authors)

  8. Simulink-aided Design and Implementation of Sensorless BLDC Motor Digital Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A. A.; Tsvetkov, Y. N.; Chistov, V. B.; Nyrkov, A. P.; Sokolov, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the process of creating of brushless direct current motor’s digital control system. The target motor has no speed sensor, so back-EMF method is used for commutation control. Authors show how to model the control system in MatLab/Simulink and to test it onboard STM32F4 microcontroller.This technology allows to create the most flexible system, which will control possible with a personal computer by communication lines. It is possible to examine the signals in the circuit of the actuator without any external measuring instruments - testers, oscilloscopes, etc. - and output waveforms and measured values of signals directly on the host PC.

  9. Reactor Safety Assessment System: a situation assessment aid for USNRC emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RSAS is intended for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. The system uses plant parameter data and status information from the power plant. It has a rule base which uses the parametric values, the known operator actions and the time sequence information in the data to generate situation assessment conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS rules currently cover one specific reactor type and use setpoints specific to one power plant. 5 figs

  10. A study on the development of the on-line operator aid system using rule based expert system and fuzzy logic for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig

    1995-02-01

    The on - line Operator Aid SYStem (OASYS) has been developed to support operator's decision making process and to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) by timely providing operators with proper guidelines according to the plant operation mode. The OASYS consists of four systems such as the signal validation and management system (SVMS), the plant monitoring system (PMS), the alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), and the dynamic emergency procedure tracking system (DEPTS). The SVMS and the PMS help operators to maintain a plant as a normal operation condition. The AFDS covers the abnormal events until they result in exceeding the limit range of reactor trip signals, while after a reactor trip, the DEPTS aids operators with proper guidelines so as to shutdown safely. The OASYS uses a rule based expert system and a fuzzy logic. The rule based expert system is used to classify the pre-defined events and track the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) through data processing. The fuzzy logic is used to generate the conceptual high level alarms for the prognostic diagnosis and to evaluate the qualitative fuzzy criteria used in EOPs. Performance assessment of the OASYS demonstrates that it is capable of diagnosing plant abnormal conditions and providing operators appropriate guidelines with fast response time and consistency. The developed technology for OASYS will be used to design the Integrated Advanced Control Room in which a plant can be operated by one operator during normal operation. The advanced EOP for emergency operation has been developed by focusing attention on the importance of the operators' role in emergency conditions. To overcome the complexity of current EOPs and maintain the consistency of operators' action according to plant emergency conditions, operator's tasks were allocated according to their duties in the advanced EOP and the computerized operator aid system (COAS) has been developed as an alternative to reduce operator

  11. Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems on calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indexes of NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.I.; Koryagin, A.V.; Ruzankov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems concerning calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indices of NPP power units is described. In the system there are means for automated preparation and debugging of data base software complex, which realizes th plotted algorithm in the power unit control system. Besides, in the system there are devices for automated preparation and registration of technical documentation

  12. Computer aided planning of distribution systems and connection with medium term load forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Salvatore, F.; Grattieri, W.; Insinga, F.; Malafarina, L.; Mazzoni, M.; Nicola, G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to perform planning studies on HV (40-l50 kV), MV and LV networks, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has developed a computation system composed of a set of integrated programs which utilize the information stored in several data bases, with the aim of: providing energy consumption forecasts for each area of the country; transferring consumption for each area to the distribution network nodes and to evaluating the electric demand by using a statistical power/energy correlation model; analyzing several network development alternatives and selecting the optimum development plan by comparing the overall costs (investments, operation, risk). In order to make its utilization by planners easier, the computation system will be operated with interactive and graphic procedures made available by the use of graphic work stations. This report describes the main objectives and basic hypotheses assumed in the preparation of the computation system, as well as, the system's general architecture

  13. Computer-Aided Design Methods for Model-Based Nonlinear Engine Control Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional design methods for aircraft turbine engine control systems have relied on the use of linearized models and linear control theory. While these controllers...

  14. Visualizing request-flow comparison to aid performance diagnosis in distributed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Raja R; Shafer, Ilari; Mazurek, Michelle L; Ganger, Gregory R

    2013-12-01

    Distributed systems are complex to develop and administer, and performance problem diagnosis is particularly challenging. When performance degrades, the problem might be in any of the system's many components or could be a result of poor interactions among them. Recent research efforts have created tools that automatically localize the problem to a small number of potential culprits, but research is needed to understand what visualization techniques work best for helping distributed systems developers understand and explore their results. This paper compares the relative merits of three well-known visualization approaches (side-by-side, diff, and animation) in the context of presenting the results of one proven automated localization technique called request-flow comparison. Via a 26-person user study, which included real distributed systems developers, we identify the unique benefits that each approach provides for different problem types and usage modes.

  15. Computer aided periodical and regulated service tests on radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandner, W.; Lin, R.; Rothhaupt, W.

    1994-01-01

    Measuring systems for radioactive radiation, which must be registered by official order, have to be tested periodically according to laid down rules (WKP). A strategy for a test-device was drawn up for a flexible adaption of the procedure to individual requests, but also for a standardization of the logical interface to the measuring system. Especially the interaction of testing and normal measuring procedures is clearly defined and transparent; the original functional parts of the measuring run are used during the test as far as possible. Adapation to individual requirements is controlled by ASCII-Files, so that the program code remains unchanged. The functional possibilities are extensive also for the inspections by customers and authorities. Due to the nearly automatical run of the procedure, including printout of the results, the tests are always comparable. The standard was checked by some actual projects, basede on SYSTEM 7000 (Thermo Instrument Systems GmbH) and PC runing under DOS. (orig.) [de

  16. MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN HEALT PROTECTION SYSTEM SOLVES THE PROBLEM OF RENDERING QUALITY MEDICAL AID TO POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Alexeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Last two dozen years, permanent growth of death rate and decrease birth rate take place in Russia. To great extent, this is owing to inadequate health protection system. The practice of personal payments for medical services in amounts unattainable for overwhelming majority of thepopulation grows. RF President’s Administration sets an example: cardiologist’s advice in their clinics costs 40 times more that according to obligatory medical insurance rates. 84% of the country citizens do not approve this approach and consider it socially unjust. An important national project aimed at modernization of the health protection system started in 2011. Non-private medical establishments are to be equipped with up-to-date equipment, modern information systems and medical service standards based on CRM system adopted in developed countries; salaries of health personnel are to be increased.

  17. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take into acco......Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take...... into account the performance of each constituent element and the optimisation of the design must take into consideration their interdependency. In this paper use of a membrane, to assist in the synthesis of propyl-propionate is investigated through the use of a hybrid process design framework, which consists...... and separation functionalities and to design/analyse the hybrid scheme. The generated hybrid scheme has been validated through experiments involving an esterification reaction....

  18. Personal Emergency Response Systems--Communication Technology Aids Elderly and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibner, Andrew S.

    Personal response systems (PRS) bring immediate help to aged and disabled persons at home at the touch of a button. The PRS user wears a tiny radio transmitter as a pendant or a bracelet and can send a telephone signal from any part of the home to a 24-hour emergency center when help is needed. This study examined research on the Lifeline system,…

  19. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  20. Configuration Method Design for Reconfigurable Manufacturing System with the aid of Plant Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuai; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    A new Reconfigurable Manufacturing System structure has been recently designed by a large consumer goods manufacturer in Europe, aiming to balance the performance of productivity and flexibility. This article shows an exploratory research on the (re)configuration procedure of the new RMS structure....... Following the procedure which is designed in this paper, the (re)configuration of RMS can be managed as part of the daily operation with the help of computer simulation. Keywords: Plant Simulation, Tecnomatix, Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, modular manufacturing....

  1. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  2. An expert system in C for computer-aided digital circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jorge S.

    1989-06-01

    This thesis effort documents the design, development, implementation, and test of an expert system which decomposes digital circuits into subproblems in order to detect wiring errors, which consist of improperly connected gates, missing connections, and violation of fanout or race conditions. Information needed to connect chips together is viewed as knowledge base information for the expert system. Information such type as number of pins, value of each pin (input, output, power, ground, clock), fanout for a particular type of chip are retrieved from a central database where they are represented. Implementation was done in the C programming language, which although is not design specially for dealing with problems in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) field could be used with success. An integration with a graphics package and a central database was achieved. Tests conducted with the system running in a personal computer Zenith 248 and compatible microcomputers under the Disk Operational System (DOS) version 3.2 proved the portability and efficiency of the expert system. A user's manual is included for the operation of the InterConnect Expert System (ICE).

  3. Artificial neural network-aided image analysis system for cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, P J; Frydel, B R; Wahlberg, L U

    1999-05-01

    In histological preparations containing debris and synthetic materials, it is difficult to automate cell counting using standard image analysis tools, i.e., systems that rely on boundary contours, histogram thresholding, etc. In an attempt to mimic manual cell recognition, an automated cell counter was constructed using a combination of artificial intelligence and standard image analysis methods. Artificial neural network (ANN) methods were applied on digitized microscopy fields without pre-ANN feature extraction. A three-layer feed-forward network with extensive weight sharing in the first hidden layer was employed and trained on 1,830 examples using the error back-propagation algorithm on a Power Macintosh 7300/180 desktop computer. The optimal number of hidden neurons was determined and the trained system was validated by comparison with blinded human counts. System performance at 50x and lO0x magnification was evaluated. The correlation index at 100x magnification neared person-to-person variability, while 50x magnification was not useful. The system was approximately six times faster than an experienced human. ANN-based automated cell counting in noisy histological preparations is feasible. Consistent histology and computer power are crucial for system performance. The system provides several benefits, such as speed of analysis and consistency, and frees up personnel for other tasks.

  4. VPIsystems industry training program on computer-aided design of fiber optic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andre; Chan, David K. C.

    2002-05-01

    In industry today, professional Photonic Design Automation (PDA) tools are a necessity to enable fast development cycles for the design of optical components, systems and networks. The training of industrial personnel is of great importance in facilitating the full usability of PDA tools tailored to meet these demands. As the market leader of design and planning tools for system integrators and manufacturers of optical transmission systems and components, VPIsystems offers a set of two-day training courses. Attendees are taught on the design of metro WDM networks, high speed DWDM and ultra long-haul WDM systems, analogue and digital cable access systems, EDFA and Raman amplifiers, as well as active devices and circuits. The course work compromises of: (1) lectures on physical and modeling background topics; (2) creation of typical simulation scenarios and; (3) the analysis of results. This course work is facilitated by guided, hands-on lab exercises using VPIsystems software for a variety of practical design situations. In classes of up to 15, each attendee is allocated a computer, thereby allowing for a thorough and speedy training for the individual in all of the covered topics as well as for any extra-curriculum topics to be covered. Since 1999, more than 750 people have graduated from over 60 training courses. In this paper, details of VPIsystems Industry training program will be presented.

  5. Computer aided analysis and design of industrial energy systems; Rechnergestuetzte Analyse und Konzeption industrieller Energiesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, Eckardt Marc Guenter

    2009-03-02

    In this dissertation the concept and implementation of a software system supporting the analysis and the design of industrial energy systems is presented. As a basis, a software framework was designed supplying a domain specific object model allowing the description of energy systems as well as the energy auditing projects performed with the software. Moreover, a set of graphical and textual editors needed to model the examined systems is part of the framework. On the other hand, the professional methods for analysis, assessment and optimization of energy systems are implemented in modules integrated into the system via a plug-in interface. The object model whose definition was based on a meta model approach allows the description of network like structures typical to energy systems. In order to keep track of the different work steps performed during an analysis project, these steps are reflected in the object model as ''method applications'' using a tree as the basic structure of a project. In order to allow the compatibility of information a set of conventions for the evaluation of energy flows and system balances was introduced. Moreover, all data elements used in modules or model components are derived from a central database guaranteeing a consistent usage of terms, descriptions, validity ranges and data types. The single professional modules like simulators or optimization methods access the object model via an appropriate software interface. Moreover, they make use of the framework's user interface engine by delivering a generic description of dialog screens and result reports. As all modules share the same set of objects modelling the components of the energy system surveyed, the flow of information from module to module can be designed virtually seamless. Compared to a number of stand-alone solutions, this integrated design approach has the advantage that by combining a set of specialized methods an overall solution for complex

  6. Isotope-aided studies of nutrient cycling and soil fertility assessment in humid pasture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Maintenance of primary productivity in grazed ecosystems depends on the orderly cycling of mineral nutrients. Potential applications of nuclear techniques to the study of soil fertility assessment and nutrient cycling are discussed for the plant nutrients N, P, K and S. The bioavailability of extrinsic and intrinsic sources of mineral nutrients are also discussed. With improvements in analytical technology, it appears feasible to use 15 N in grazed pasture ecosystems for N cycling studies. Sulphur cycling in soil/plant/grazing animal systems has been successfully studied, and further opportunities exist using 35 S to study nutrient flows in grazed grassland systems. Opportunities also appear for increased application of tracer technology in the evaluation of mineral intakes and mineral bioavailability to ruminants grazing semi-arid grassland herbage under native soil fertility, with supplemental fertilization, and in the evaluation of mineral supplementation procedures. Root system distribution and function also can be studied advantageously using tracer techniques. (author)

  7. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  8. Condensed summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding approach for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.

    1997-01-01

    In March 1994, the US Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. The prioritization was with respect to 40 CFR Part 191.13(a) and 40 CFR part 268.6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for long-term isolation of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities), their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. SPM results were the basis for activities recommended to DOE/CAO in May 1995. SPM identified eight activities (less than 15% of the 58 proposed for consideration) predicted to be essential in addressing key regulatory issues. The SPM method proved useful for risk or performance-based prioritization in which options are interdependent and system behavior is nonlinear. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Development of a computer-aided clinical patient education system to provide appropriate individual nursing care for psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2012-06-01

    A lot of researches have proven that health education can help patients to maintain and improve their health. And it also shortens the time staying in hospital to save medication resource. Because the patients are willing to get healthcare knowledge to enhance the ability of self-care, they pay more attention to the health education. In Taiwan, the clinical nurses play an important role in patient education, and the health education take most time in their daily work. Such work includes the collection, production and delivery of education materials. To generate the correct and customized health education material is the key of success of patient education. In this study, we established a computer-aided health education contents generating system for psychiatric patients by integrating the databases for disease, medicine and nursing knowledge to assist nurse generating the customized health education document suitable for different patients. This system was evaluated by clinical nurses in usability and feasibility. This system is helpful for nurse to carry out the clinical health education to patients and further to encourage patient to pay attention to self-health.

  10. Optimization of waste management in the EG with the aid of systems analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.W.M.; Ditterich, K.; Schneider, J.

    1974-01-01

    The problems of waste management range from their production when they must be collected to transport, conditioning etc., and, finally, to safe disposal. Until recently, the subsystems in waste management had for the most part been treated empirically and separately. In this paper, all subsystems are considered and related to each other with systems analysis methods. In this way the complex problem including the initial and end values can be optimized with regard to a maximum of security and reliability and a minimum of cost and environmental load. The annex contains a simplified example for the treatment of waste mangement by methods of systems analysis. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Iterative Pilot-Layer Aided Channel Estimation with Emphasis on Interleave-Division Multiple Access Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeneich Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation schemes suitable for interleave-division multiple access (IDMA systems are presented. Training and data are superimposed. Training-based and semiblind linear channel estimators are derived and their performance is discussed and compared. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented showing that the derived channel estimators in conjunction with a superimposed pilot sequence and chip-by-chip processing are able to track fast-fading frequency-selective channels. As opposed to conventional channel estimation techniques, the BER performance even improves with increasing Doppler spread for typical system parameters. An error performance close to the case of perfect channel knowledge can be achieved with high power efficiency.

  12. Kinesthetic Role in Motorist Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhlisin, Mukhlisin; Rahmawati, Lilis

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the role of kinesthetic in motor learning. It starts with a definition that kinesthetic is Generally regarded as "a feeling or awareness" of body position and body movement. But there are four factors are seemingly quite common in definitions of kinesthetic: positioning of body segments, precision of movement, balance, and spatial orientation. Any Appropriate reference explaining the reception and transmission of kinesthetic information during movement has not yet been ...

  13. Computer-aided mathematical analysis of probability of intercept for ground-based communication intercept system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Chul

    1989-09-01

    We develop a mathematical analysis model to calculate the probability of intercept (POI) for the ground-based communication intercept (COMINT) system. The POI is a measure of the effectiveness of the intercept system. We define the POI as the product of the probability of detection and the probability of coincidence. The probability of detection is a measure of the receiver's capability to detect a signal in the presence of noise. The probability of coincidence is the probability that an intercept system is available, actively listening in the proper frequency band, in the right direction and at the same time that the signal is received. We investigate the behavior of the POI with respect to the observation time, the separation distance, antenna elevations, the frequency of the signal, and the receiver bandwidths. We observe that the coincidence characteristic between the receiver scanning parameters and the signal parameters is the key factor to determine the time to obtain a given POI. This model can be used to find the optimal parameter combination to maximize the POI in a given scenario. We expand this model to a multiple system. This analysis is conducted on a personal computer to provide the portability. The model is also flexible and can be easily implemented under different situations.

  14. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  15. Computer-Aided Authoring System (AUTHOR) User's Guide. Volume I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Charles R.

    This user's guide for AUTHOR, an automatic authoring system which produces programmed texts for teaching symbol recognition, provides detailed instructions to help the user construct and enter the information needed to create the programmed text, run the AUTHOR program, and edit the automatically composed paper. Major sections describe steps in…

  16. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  17. The Nicaraguan farmers’ association PAC: from providing international aid to reorganizing the local production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe benefits of the inclusion of small farmers in the South and their associations in global production networks are still contested. The rules governing the behaviour of actors, decision-making and the distribution of benefits form a system of governance that actors build in relation to

  18. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Masahi

    2004-01-01

    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  19. Frequency Domain Training-Aided Channel Estimation and Equalization in Time-Varying Optical Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittalà, Fabio; Msallem, Majdi; Hauske, Fabian N.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a non-weighted feed-forward equalization method with filter update by averaging channel estimations based on short CAZAC sequences. Three averaging methods are presented and tested by simulations in a time-varying 2×2 MIMO optical system....

  20. Southwell's Relaxation Search in Computer Aided Advising: An Intelligent Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueshu

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a microcomputer software system that enhances undergraduate students' interests in becoming engineering graduate students. The development of a database with information on engineering graduate programs is discussed, and a model that matches individual and institutional needs using Southwell's Relaxation…

  1. Virtualized endoscope system. An application of virtual reality technology to diagnostic aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Urano, Akihiro; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new medical image processing system called 'Virtualized Endoscope System (VES)', which can examine the inside of a virtualized human body. The virtualized human body is a 3-D digital image which is taken by such as X-ray CT scanner or MRI scanner. VES consists of three modules; (1) imaging, (2) segmentation and reconstruction and (3) interactive operation. The interactive operation module has following three major functions; (a) display of, (b) measurement from, and (c) manipulation to the virtualized human body. The user of the system can observe freely both the inside and the outside of a target organ from any point and any direction freely, and can perform necessary measurement interactively concerning angle and length at any time during observation. VES enables to observe repeatedly an area where the real endoscope can not enter without pain from any direction which the real endoscope can not. We applied this system to real 3-D X-ray CT images and obtained good result. (author)

  2. AIDS wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.

  3. Engineering constraints and computer-aided optimization of electrostatic lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, H.W.G. van der; Barth, J.E.; Adriaanse, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    An optimization tool for the design of electrostatic lens systems with axial symmetry is presented. This tool is based on the second-order electrode method combined with a multivariable numerical optimization procedure. The second-order electrode method makes a cubic spline approximation to the axial potential for a given electrode shape. With the help of this approximation, a numerical optimization can be done. To demonstrate this optimization tool, a lens system for Auger analyses is optimized. It is shown that variations in the practical constraints imposed on the design, like maximum electrode potential or maximum lens diameter, have strong effects on the obtainable lens quality. It is concluded that a numerical optimization does not take over the lens designer's job, but allows him to thoroughly examine the optical consequences of engineering choices by finding the optimum design for each set of constraints. (orig.)

  4. A computer-aided control system for automatic performance measurements on the LHC series dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskaya, E.; Samojlov, V.; Raimondo, A.; Rijllart, A.

    2003-01-01

    The control system software (Test Master) for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) magnet series measurements is presented. This system was developed at CERN to automate as many tests on the LHC magnets as possible. The Test Master software is the middle layer of the main software architecture developed by the LHC/IAS group for central supervision of all types of LHC dipole tests in the SM18 hall. It serves as a manager and scheduler for applications, controlling all measurements that are performed in a cluster of two test benches. The software was implemented in the LabVIEW environment. The information about the interactive user interface, the software architecture, communication protocols, file-configuration different types of commands and status files of the Test Master are described

  5. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... government departments and agencies, emergency services, radiation protection experts, the agriculture and food production sectors, industry and others who may be affected. The handbooks include management options for application in the different phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered...

  6. Iterative Pilot-Layer Aided Channel Estimation with Emphasis on Interleave-Division Multiple Access Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeneich Hendrik; Hoeher Peter Adam

    2006-01-01

    Channel estimation schemes suitable for interleave-division multiple access (IDMA) systems are presented. Training and data are superimposed. Training-based and semiblind linear channel estimators are derived and their performance is discussed and compared. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented showing that the derived channel estimators in conjunction with a superimposed pilot sequence and chip-by-chip processing are able to track fast-fading frequency-selective channels. As opposed ...

  7. Design, development and commercialization of ISOCAD (Integrated System of Computer Aided Dosimetry) for gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Amit; Srivastava, Navneet; Kohli, A.K.; Mishra, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Ramnik; Sinha, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    ISOMED facility is the indomitable architect of radiation sterilization era in the country providing the contract radiation processing services for the terminal sterilization of the healthcare products from the healthcare sector. ISOMED has acquired the international standards viz.ISO 9001, ISO 22000, ISO 13485, ISO 11137, OHSAS 18001, ISO 14001 that supplemented by European Union - GMP certification from MHRA - UK. One of the core focuses of these standards is the control of measuring and monitoring instruments with impeccable traceability features with respect to the quality critical processing data. The gamma radiation sterilisation process involves delivery of minimum 25 kGy of radiation dose to the healthcare products which is measured by internationally acclaimed Cerric Cerric Potentiometric Dose Measurement Systems (CCPDMs). As the current variant of this system had extensive involvement of manual interventions, a novel, bar code based computerized application package called ISOCAD, incorporating portable risk free snapping tool for the dosimeter ampules has been synergistically developed by BRIT/BARC for the Cerric Cerrous Potentiometric Dose Measurement System for Gamma Irradiators. ISOCAD has been successfully operating in ISOMED and the techno commercial viability has been convincingly demonstrated to the operators of the gamma irradiators from the country as well as abroad. ISOCAD is now available as one of the commercial product packages from BRIT. (author)

  8. TCM grammar systems: an approach to aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Yun; Luo, Si-Jun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2011-09-01

    Interpreting the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine will help to understand the molecular mechanisms of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. Yet, we still lack a method which could integrate the concerned pieces of parsed knowledge about TCM. To solve the problem, a new method named TCM grammar systems was proposed in the present article. The possibility to study the interactions of TCM at the molecular level using TCM grammar systems was explored using Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) as an example. A platform was established based on the formalism of TCM grammar systems. The related molecular network of Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) can be extracted automatically. The molecular network indicates that Beta2 adrenergic receptor, Glucocorticoid receptor and Interleukin12 are the relatively important targets for the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED. Moreover, the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED is also related with suppressing inflammation process. The results show the feasibility using TCM grammar systems to interpret the molecular mechanism of TCM. Although the results obtained depend on the database absolutely, recombination of existing knowledge in this method provides new insight for interpreting the molecular mechanism of TCM. TCM grammar systems could aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in TCM to some extent. Moreover, it might be useful to predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. The method is an in silico technology. In association with the experimental techniques, this method will play an important role in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TCM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans: a retrospective analysis in 406 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Osamu; Harada, Yuko; Ohishi, Yona; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of a completely automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to detect metastases in bone scans by two patterns: one was per region, and the other was per patient. This study included 406 patients with suspected metastatic bone tumors who underwent whole-body bone scans that were analyzed by the automated CAD system. The patients were divided into four groups: a group with prostatic cancer (N = 71), breast cancer (N = 109), males with other cancers (N = 153), and females with other cancers (N = 73). We investigated the bone scan index and artificial neural network (ANN), which are parameters that can be used to classify bone scans to determine whether there are metastases. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracies for the four groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of region-based ANN were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of the automated CAD system. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, or NPV between the four groups. The PPVs of the group with prostatic cancer (51.0 %) were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of the group with prostatic cancer (81.5 %) was significantly higher than that of the group with breast cancer (68.6 %) and the females with other cancers (65.9 %) (P < 0.01). For the evaluation of the ROC analysis of region-based ANN, the highest Az values for the groups with prostatic cancer, breast cancer, males with other cancers, and females with other cancers were 0.82 (ANN = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8), 0.83 (ANN = 0.7), 0.81 (ANN = 0.5), and 0.81 (ANN = 0.6), respectively. The special CAD system "BONENAVI" trained with a Japanese database appears to have significant potential in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. However, an improved CAD system depending on the primary lesion

  10. Investigation of computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans. A retrospective analysis in 406 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Osamu; Harada, Yuko; Ohishi, Yona; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Edenbrandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of a completely automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to detect metastases in bone scans by two patterns: one was per region, and the other was per patient. This study included 406 patients with suspected metastatic bone tumors who underwent whole-body bone scans that were analyzed by the automated CAD system. The patients were divided into four groups: a group with prostatic cancer (N=71), breast cancer (N=109), males with other cancers (N=153), and females with other cancers (N=73). We investigated the bone scan index and artificial neural network (ANN), which are parameters that can be used to classify bone scans to determine whether there are metastases. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracies for the four groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of region-based ANN were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of the automated CAD system. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, or NPV between the four groups. The Pps of the group with prostatic cancer (51.0%) were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of the group with prostatic cancer (81.5%) was significantly higher than that of the group with breast cancer (68.6%) and the females with other cancers (65.9%) (P < 0.01). For the evaluation of the Roc analysis of region-based Ann, the highest Az values for the groups with prostatic cancer, breast cancer, males with other cancers, and females with other cancers were 0.82 (Ann=0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8), 0.83 (Ann=0.7), 0.81 (Ann=0.5), and 0.81 (Ann=0.6), respectively. The special CAD system 'Bovine' trained with a Japanese database appears to have significant potential in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. However, an improved CAD system depending on the primary lesion of the cancer is

  11. Method of modelization assistance with bond graphs and application to qualitative diagnosis of physical systems; Methode d'aide a la modelisation par graphes de liaison et utilisation pour le diagnostic qualitatif de systemes physiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, B.

    1994-05-15

    After having recalled the usual diagnosis techniques (failure index, decision tree) and those based on an artificial intelligence approach, the author reports a research aimed at exploring the knowledge and model generation technique. He focuses on the design of an aid to model generation tool and aid-to-diagnosis tool. The bond graph technique is shown to be adapted to the aid to model generation, and is then adapted to the aid to diagnosis. The developed tool is applied to three projects: DIADEME (a diagnosis system based on physical model), the improvement of the SEXTANT diagnosis system (an expert system for transient analysis), and the investigation on an Ariane 5 launcher component. Notably, the author uses the Reiter and Greiner algorithm

  12. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barache, J.M.; Beltranda, G.; Blanc, P.

    1987-01-01

    In order to ensure that the data transmitted to the managment system is of the required quality and consistent with the general control command protocols, computer aided design (CAD) was employed for level N4. One describes the use of CAD for the control system of N4 [fr

  13. Summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding method for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.

    1996-12-01

    In March 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project with respect to applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements in 40 CFR 191.13(a) (radionuclide containment requirements) and 40 CFR 268.6 (hazardous constituent concentration requirements). This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities (activity sets) in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. The results of the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2) were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for programmatic prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned

  14. Summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding method for the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R. [and others

    1996-12-01

    In March 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project with respect to applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements in 40 CFR 191.13(a) (radionuclide containment requirements) and 40 CFR 268.6 (hazardous constituent concentration requirements). This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities (activity sets) in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. The results of the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2) were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for programmatic prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned.

  15. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  16. An expert system prototype for aiding in the development of software functional requirements for NASA Goddard's command management system: A case study and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Jay

    1986-01-01

    At NASA Goddard, the role of the command management system (CMS) is to transform general requests for spacecraft opeerations into detailed operational plans to be uplinked to the spacecraft. The CMS is part of the NASA Data System which entails the downlink of science and engineering data from NASA near-earth satellites to the user, and the uplink of command and control data to the spacecraft. Presently, it takes one to three years, with meetings once or twice a week, to determine functional requirements for CMS software design. As an alternative approach to the present technique of developing CMS software functional requirements, an expert system prototype was developed to aid in this function. Specifically, the knowledge base was formulated through interactions with domain experts, and was then linked to an existing expert system application generator called 'Knowledge Engineering System (Version 1.3).' Knowledge base development focused on four major steps: (1) develop the problem-oriented attribute hierachy; (2) determine the knowledge management approach; (3) encode the knowledge base; and (4) validate, test, certify, and evaluate the knowledge base and the expert system prototype as a whole. Backcasting was accomplished for validating and testing the expert system prototype. Knowledge refinement, evaluation, and implementation procedures of the expert system prototype were then transacted.

  17. Microbial Activity and Depositional System Dynamics: Linking Scales With The Aid of New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defew, E. C.; Hagerthey, S. E.; Honeywill, C.; Perkins, R. G.; Black, K. S.; Paterson, D. M.

    The dynamics of estuarine depositional systems are influenced by sediment-dwelling microphytobenthic assemblages. These assemblages produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are known to be important in the process of sediment biosta- bilisation. However, these communities are generally studied on very small spatial scales making the prediction of primary productivity and their importance in terms of sediment stability over large areas uncertain. Recent advances in our knowledge of the biostabilisation process have allowed the establishment of links between EPS produc- tion, spatial distribution of algal biomass and their primary productivity over much larger spatial scales. For example, during the multidisciplinary BIOPTIS project, re- mote sensing (RS) was combined with ground-truthing measurements of physical and biological parameters to produce synoptic maps leading to a better understanding of system dynamics and the potential effects of environmental perturbations such as cli- mate change. Recent work using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT- SEM) and in-line laser holography has measured the influence of EPS on the erosional behaviour of sediment flocs and particles and has shown that an increase in the con- centration of EPS determines the nature of the eroded floc material and the critical threshold for sediment erosion. This provides the mechanistic link required between EPS concentration and sediment stability. Whilst it is not yet possible to discern EPS concentration directly by RS studies, we know that EPS concentrations in sediments co-vary with chlorophyll a content, and are closely related to algal productivity. There- fore, RS studies which provide large-scale spatial information of chlorophyll a distri- bution may be used to model the stability and productivity of intertidal depositional systems. This paper introduces the basis of these linkages from the cellular level (in situ chlorophyll fluorescence), the ground

  18. Extractive text summarization system to aid data extraction from full text in systematic review development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hurdle, John F; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    Extracting data from publication reports is a standard process in systematic review (SR) development. However, the data extraction process still relies too much on manual effort which is slow, costly, and subject to human error. In this study, we developed a text summarization system aimed at enhancing productivity and reducing errors in the traditional data extraction process. We developed a computer system that used machine learning and natural language processing approaches to automatically generate summaries of full-text scientific publications. The summaries at the sentence and fragment levels were evaluated in finding common clinical SR data elements such as sample size, group size, and PICO values. We compared the computer-generated summaries with human written summaries (title and abstract) in terms of the presence of necessary information for the data extraction as presented in the Cochrane review's study characteristics tables. At the sentence level, the computer-generated summaries covered more information than humans do for systematic reviews (recall 91.2% vs. 83.8%, p<0.001). They also had a better density of relevant sentences (precision 59% vs. 39%, p<0.001). At the fragment level, the ensemble approach combining rule-based, concept mapping, and dictionary-based methods performed better than individual methods alone, achieving an 84.7% F-measure. Computer-generated summaries are potential alternative information sources for data extraction in systematic review development. Machine learning and natural language processing are promising approaches to the development of such an extractive summarization system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Open Source Rapid Computer Aided Control System Design Toolchain Using Scilab, Scicos and RTAI Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchpan-Lerust-Juéry, L.

    2007-08-01

    Current and next generation on-board computer systems tend to implement real-time embedded control applications (e.g. Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS), Packet Utililization Standard (PUS), spacecraft autonomy . . . ) which must meet high standards of Reliability and Predictability as well as Safety. All these requirements require a considerable amount of effort and cost for Space Sofware Industry. This paper, in a first part, presents a free Open Source integrated solution to develop RTAI applications from analysis, design, simulation and direct implementation using code generation based on Open Source and in its second part summarises this suggested approach, its results and the conclusion for further work.

  20. Analysis of Beamformer Directed Single-Channel Noise Reduction System for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2015-01-01

    We study multi-microphone noise reduction systems consisting of a beamformer and a single-channel (SC) noise reduction stage. In particular, we present and analyse a maximum likelihood (ML) method for jointly estimating the target and noise power spectral densities (psd's) entering the SC filter....... We show that the estimators are minimum variance and unbiased, and provide closed-form expressions for their mean-square error (MSE). Furthermore, we show that the MSE of the noise psd estimator is particularly simple: it is independent of target signal characteristics, frequency, and microphone...