WorldWideScience

Sample records for motorcyclists

  1. Motorcyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2015, 47 motorcyclists died in traffic in the Netherlands. After 2009, when their number was approximately 1,300, it has not been possible to reliably determine the number of serious road injuries due to poor registration. In the Netherlands 1,4 million people have a motorcycle licence, but as

  2. Older Motorcyclists in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, D

    2017-06-01

    Older motorcyclists are under-recognised as vulnerable road users. Using Irish data from the Central Statistics Office, the Road Safety Authority and the Healthcare Pricing Office, we explored the trend of ageing riders and factors in older motorcyclist collisions and injuries. In 2005, 17 motorcyclists ≥55 were injured compared to 31 in 2012. Motorcyclists aged between 30 and 49 years and ≥50 have longer lengths of stay compared to riders <30. The percentage of motorcycles with an engine capacity of ≥750cc increased from 39.6% in 2007 to 46.7% in 2015. Older motorcyclists are less likely to be fatally injured in single vehicle collisions. Older motorcyclists are generally safer than younger riders but the proportion of older motorcyclist injury is rising. Irish road safety strategies and trauma services need to incorporate these findings into planning and development of preventive and treatment approaches

  3. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the characteristics of commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city, Edo State. A total of 252 commercial motorcyclists were involved in the study. A cluster sampling method ...

  4. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Student motorcyclists' mobile phone use while driving in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Mayxay, Mayfong; Kimura, Akio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate mobile phone use while driving among student motorcyclists in Laos, we conducted a school-based questionnaire survey in central Vientiane in May 2014. Of the 883 high school students who reported to drive motorcycles at least once a week, 40% have ever used phones while driving motorcycles in both sexes. Those phone users had longer driving exposures than non-users, with about half engaging in phone use while driving at least 2 days a week and 70% engaging for 1 min or longer on an average day. They reported not just talking on the phone while driving but operating the phone such as dialling and text-messaging. In some instances, phone use was reportedly involved in their past crash experiences. To formulate a sound policy on this emerging distracting behaviour among motorcyclists, its contribution to the occurrence of overall crashes among motorcyclists should be investigated.

  6. DETECTION OF MOTORCYCLISTS WITHOUT HELMET AND FINEPAYMENT USING OPEN CV

    OpenAIRE

    Stemy Simon, Divya Kumaran A.K.

    2018-01-01

    The helmet is the main safety equipment of motorcyclists, but many drivers do not use it. The main aim of this project is to construct an automatic detection of the motorcyclist without helmet from video using OpenCV library tools. If they are not wearing the helmet, the license plate of the motorcycle is focused automatically. By using Computer Vision technique we can detect and recognize the license plate number. We make the training set of different characters of different sizes. Based on ...

  7. Is there difference between men and women motorcyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneri Borstlap

    2018-03-01

    Contribution: The study contributes to the motorcycle literature and provides a greater understanding of motorcyclists’ behaviour and what motivates them to attend a motorcycle festival. The research provides guidelines to event organisers to effectively market such an event. The research also identifies different segments to this event, which provides more indications on what the motorcyclist looks like.

  8. Causes of Accidents among Commercial Motorcyclists (Okada) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motor cycle accidents have become the most serious problem threatening the entire Nigerian population. It is against this background that this study attempted to investigate the causes of accidents among commercial motorcyclists in Borno State, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of all the commercial ...

  9. Eye Health Issues Among Commercial Motorcyclists In Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of motorcycles by a large number of individuals as a means of commercial transportation in both urban and the rural settings and the attendant risky riding habits of the riders in Nigeria is well documented. The purpose of this study is to determine eye health practices and ocular status of commercial motorcyclist in ...

  10. HIV/AIDS-related sexual behaviour among commercial motorcyclists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are predominantly young males with high risk behaviour for HIV/AIDS. They may have become a reservoir for the continued transmission of HIV but they are often neglected in efforts to control the disease. It is important to pay special attention to this group. Aim: To assess ...

  11. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    ABSTRACT. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a collaborative group of 10 countries. (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore,. Thailand, Vietnam) located in South-East Asia. In most ASEAN countries, the majority of road users are motorcyclists.

  12. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  13. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  14. Effect of health education on the riding habits of commercial motorcyclists in Uyo, southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, O E; Owoaje, E T

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of motorcyclists in Nigeria has led to a rise in poor road safety practices leading to increased rate of accidents. This study was conducted to implement and evaluate the effect of safety education on riding habits of motorcyclists in Uyo, Nigeria. The intervention study was conducted among commercial motorcyclists in Uyo with controls from another town in Akwa Ibom State. Baseline information was collected from both groups on their riding habits. Motorcyclists in Uyo were educated on appropriate road safety practices. Data was collected from both groups three months later and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 11. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study, 100 per group. At 3 months post-intervention, those riding when tired reduced in the intervention group from 69% at baseline to 42% (p Safety education improved many riding habits of motorcyclists in the intervention group. Road safety education is recommended for all motorcyclists to ensure safer road use.

  15. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  16. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  17. Pontomedullary lacerations in unhelmeted motorcyclists and bicyclists: a retrospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Djurić, Marija

    2012-12-01

    Pontomedullary lacerations (PMLs) have often been reported in car occupants and pedestrians, are less frequently described in motorcyclists, and are very rarely described in bicyclists. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem PMLs among fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists as well as the frequency of concomitant cranial, facial, and cervical spine injuries in such cases. A possible underlying mechanism of PML in fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists might thus be established. Of 443 cases of fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists, a sample of 381 cases of fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists with head injury of Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3 or greater was formed and further analyzed. This group was composed of 345 men and 36 women. The average age was 48.8 ± 20.8 years (range, 15-99 years). In the analyzed sample group, there were 158 motorcyclists and 223 bicyclists. Partial PMLs were present in 44 cases (12%) within the sample of 381 head injuries, which breaks down to 40 men and 4 women. In our study, the impact area on the head and the specific skull base fracture type were good predictors of either PML occurrence or absence (B = -2.036, Wald = 161.312, P shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish energy transfer toward the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury.

  18. The prevalence of mobile phone use among motorcyclists in three Mexican cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Vera-López, Juan Daniel; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Chandran, Aruna; Híjar, Martha; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the prevalence of mobile phone use among motorcyclists in 3 Mexican cities and to identify associated factors. Two rounds of roadside observations were conducted in Guadalajara-Zapopan, León, and Cuernavaca from December 2011 to May 2012. Observation sites were selected randomly and all motorcyclists circulating at those sites were recorded. Motorcyclists observed talking into a phone (either handheld or hands-free) or texting were recorded as using a mobile phone while driving. A total of 4244 motorcyclists were observed. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use was 0.64 percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92); it was highest in Guadalajara-Zapopan (1.03%; 95% CI: 0.61-1.63) and among motorcyclists not using a helmet (1.45% versus 0.4%; P = .000) and those riding on 1-lane roads (1.6% versus 0.8% on 2-lane roads and 0.5% in 3- to 5-lane roads; P = .046). To our knowledge this is the first study that reports the prevalence of mobile phone use while driving among motorcyclists. The observed prevalence is higher than the prevalence stated in a previous report from China on electric bicycle riders. This risk factor should be monitored in the future given the growing popularity of motorcycles and the availability of mobile devices. Current legislation should be enforced to avoid potential injuries and deaths attributable to this risk factor.

  19. Who's calling? Social networks and mobile phone use among motorcyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gruyter, Chris; Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T

    2017-06-01

    Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle poses a key safety risk, particularly among younger people who have been found to be more susceptible to distracted driving. While previous research has examined the influence of social networks on mobile phone use while driving a car, no research has explored this association in the context of motorcycle use. Using a survey of university students in Vietnam, this research explores the association between social networks and mobile phone use among motorcyclists and the links this has to reported crashes/falls. Results show that the majority of students are most likely to use a mobile phone to communicate with a friend while riding, either through talking (56.5%) or text messaging (62.0%). However, respondents who frequently talk to a girlfriend/boyfriend or spouse while riding were more likely to experience a crash/fall than those who frequently talk with others while riding (e.g. parent, brother/sister). In addition, those who frequently text message a friend while riding were more likely to experience a crash/fall than those who frequently text message others while riding. The results highlight a clear association between social networks and mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle. Developing a culture of societal norms, where mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is considered socially unacceptable, will help to reduce the prevalence and ultimate crash risk associated with mobile phone use while riding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of the reasons for not using helmet among motorcyclists in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Aliasghar; Boostani, Dariush; Rafeiee, Manoochehr

    2018-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate reasoning and interpretation of motorcyclists for not using helmet utilizing qualitative methodology of 'grounded theory'. The field of the study was Kerman, a cultural-historical city at the south-east of Iran. Participants were 21 young male motorcyclists. Two sampling strategies were used: maximum variation and snowball sampling. To collect data, in-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted. Data analysis yielded seven categories: fatalism; a barrier to social relationships; peer group pressure and negative labelling; messing up the appearance; disturbance in hearing and vision; barrier to normal breathing; and heaviness and superfluity of helmet. Based on the findings of the current study, it could be concluded that socio-cultural contexts, motorcyclists' worldview and partly helmet-related problems are of the main factors which affect motorcycling. Therefore, the studies, policy-makings, and intervening programmes to control injury and to promote safety among motorcyclists should be focused on socio-cultural barriers to helmet use in general and changing the motorcyclists' standpoints toward fatalism in particular. Helmet-related problems should be considered, too.

  1. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  2. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  3. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  4. Cost Estimation of Road Traffic Injuries Among Iranian Motorcyclists Using the Willingness to Pay Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Basirat, Behzad; Haddadi, Mashyaneh

    2016-06-01

    Motorcycle riders are amongst some of the most vulnerable road users. The burden of motorcycles injuries from low and middle income countries is under-reported. In this study, the cost of traffic injuries among motorcyclists was calculated using the willingness to pay (WTP) method in Iran in 2013. In a cross-sectional study, 143 motorcyclists were randomly selected. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard WTP method [stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV) and revealed preference (RP) models] taking into consideration perceived risks, especially those in Iran. Data were collected by a scenario for motorcyclists. The criteria for inclusion in the study consisted of having at least a high school education and being in the age range of 18 - 65 years. The final analysis of the WTP data was performed using the Weibull model. The mean WTP was 888,110 IRR (Iranian Rial) among motorcyclists. The statistical value of life was estimated according to 4694 death cases as 3,146,225,350,943 IRR, which was equivalent to USD 104,874,178 based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchasing power parity). The cost of injury was 6,903,839,551,000 IRR, equivalent to USD 230,127,985 (based upon 73,325 injured motorcyclists in 2013, a daily traffic volume of 311, and a daily payment of 12,110 IRR for 250 working days). In total, injury and death cases came to 10,050,094,901,943 IRR, equivalent to USD 335,003,163. Willingness to pay had a significant relationship with having experienced an accident, the length of the daily trip (in km), and helmet use (P < 0.001). Willingness to pay can be affected by experiencing an accident, the distance of the daily trip, and helmet use. The cost of traffic injuries among motorcyclists shows that this rate is much higher than the global average. Thus, expenditure should be made on effective initiatives such as the safety of motorcyclists.

  5. Determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substance among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance related disorder. Riding commercial motorcycle entails lot of risk, compounded by abuse of drugs, the scenario can only be worse. This study aimed to assess the determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis. Methods The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sokoto metropolis, among Commercial motorcyclist, 253 respondents were recruited using multi stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer administered structured questionnaire containing 47‐item structured questions. Data was analysed using IBM statistical software package version 21, 5% was set as level of significance Result Majority of respondent believed that use of alcohol 214 (84.6, cannabis 147 (58.1 and codeine 171 (67.6 can lead to mental problems. Thirty percent of the respondents reported ever use of psychoactive substances. Most of the respondents (49.3% initiated use of Psychoactive substances between 16‐20 years of age. Respondents who had some formal education had less odds of ever using psychoactive substances (p=0.001, OR= 0.337. Respondents who had ever encouraged fellow commercial motorcyclist to use psychoactive substances had 22 times odds of ever having used psychoactive substances (p=0.000 Conclusion Substance abuse is prevalent among commercial motorcyclist. Despite good knowledge of psychoactive substances and the consequences associated with it, the use was still relatively high. The main predictor of ever use of psychoactive substances was willingness to be friends with someone who use psychoactive substance. There is need for continuous counselling and education of commercial motorcyclist, by road safety workers, on the dangers associated

  6. Correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists in single-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve motorcycle safety, this article examines the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists, under multiple precrash conditions. Ten-year crash data for single-vehicle motorcycle crashes from the General Estimates Systems (GES) were analyzed, using partial proportional odds models (i.e., generalized ordered logit models). The modeling results show that "braking (no lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of increased severity, whereas "braking (lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of decreased severity, under all precrash conditions. "Steering" is associated with a higher probability of reduced injury severity when other vehicles are encroaching, whereas it is correlated with high injury severity under other conditions. "Braking and steering" is significantly associated with a higher probability of low severity under "animal encounter and object presence," whereas it is surprisingly correlated with high injury severity when motorcycles are traveling off the edge of the road. The results also show that a large number of motorcyclists did not perform any crash avoidance maneuvers or conducted crash avoidance maneuvers that are significantly associated with high injury severity. In general, this study suggests that precrash maneuvers are an important factor associated with motorcyclists' injury severity. To improve motorcycle safety, training/educational programs should be considered to improve safety awareness and adjust driving habits of motorcyclists. Antilock brakes and such systems are also promising, because they could effectively prevent brake lock-up and assist motorcyclists in maneuvering during critical conditions. This study also provides valuable information for the design of motorcycle training curriculum.

  7. Comparative analyses of bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions focusing on head impact responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Peng, Yong; Yi, Shengen

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the differences of the head impact responses between bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions. A series of vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-motorcycle lateral impact simulations on four vehicle types at seven vehicle speeds (30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 km/h) and three two-wheeler moving speeds (5, 7.5 and 10 km/h for bicycle, 10, 12.5 and 15 km/h for motorcycle) were established based on PC-Crash software. To further comprehensively explore the differences, additional impact scenes with other initial conditions, such as impact angle (0, π/3, 2π/3 and π) and impact position (left, middle and right part of vehicle front-end), also were supplemented. And then, extensive comparisons were accomplished with regard to average head peak linear acceleration, average head impact speed, average head peak angular acceleration, average head peak angular speed and head injury severity. The results showed there were prominent differences of kinematics and body postures for bicyclists and motorcyclists even under same impact conditions. The variations of bicyclist head impact responses with the changing of impact conditions were a far cry from that of motorcyclists. The average head peak linear acceleration, average head impact speed and average head peak angular acceleration values were higher for motorcyclists than for bicyclists in most cases, while the bicyclists received greater average head peak angular speed values. And the head injuries of motorcyclists worsened faster with increased vehicle speed. The results may provide even deeper understanding of two-wheeler safety and contribute to improve the public health affected by road traffic accidents.

  8. Factors affecting trip generation of motorcyclist for the purpose of non-mandatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Renni; Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Pramanda, Heru

    2017-11-01

    The inadequate facilities and limited access to public transport reflect many people using private vehicles, in particular, motorcycle. The motorcycle is most widely used in Indonesia, recently, including Aceh Province. As a result, the number of motorcycle ownership is increasing significantly. The increasing number of motorcycles leads to complex traffic problems. Several factors tend to affect the trip generation of the motorcyclist, i.e., the social demographics of individuals and families, accessibility, etc. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of motorcyclists for non-mandatory activities, i.e. activities other than to work and school. It also aims to determine the dominant factors that affect their trips through trip generation models. The required data consist of primary data and secondary data. Primary data consists of a home interview survey that collects individual's daily trips. It is conducted by distributing the questionnaires to 400 families residing in Lhokseumawe City. Modeling the trip generation of the motorcyclist is done by multiple linear regression analysis. Parameters calibration uses OLS (Ordinary Least Square) method. The results showed that the dominant variables that affect the trip generation of motorcyclist for non-mandatory activities are license ownership, housewife, school-age children, middle-income household, and lower education level. It can be concluded that some factors affecting trip generation to non-work activities were female motorcyclists from the middle-income household with lower education level. As their status is mostly as the housewife, escorting children to non-school activities seems to the mother's task, instead of the father. It is clear that, most female ride motorcycle for doing household tasks. However, it should be noted that the use of the motorcycle in long-term does not suit for sustainable transportation.

  9. The Association Between Risk-taking Behavior and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi

    2018-04-01

    The central aim of the research was to examine speeding behavior without helmet wearing among motorcycle riders in Ho Chi Minh City. The research model expanded the Theory of Planned Behavior by both psychological flow theory and sensation-seeking. 268 motorcyclists were involved in the research. A Confirmatory factor analysis and a Structural equation modeling were employed for model specification. The findings indicated a significant effect between predictors and the intention of speeding without helmet wearing. In addition, there was direct relation between intention and actual behavior. Also, sensation-seeking proved to be important in moderating predictors between the low-sensation-seeking motorcyclists and high-sensation-seeking ones. A deeper understanding of why motorcycle riders exceed the speed limit without wearing helmet played key role in changing their behavior.

  10. The changing epidemiology of open fractures in vehicle occupants, pedestrians, motorcyclists and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Dennis; Goudie, Stuart T; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the changing epidemiology of open fractures in vehicle occupants, pedestrians, motorcyclists and cyclists. Data on all non-spinal open fractures admitted to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh after a road traffic accident between 1988 and 2010 were collected and analysed to provide information about the changing epidemiology in different patient groups. Demographic information was collected on all patients with the severity of injury being analysed with the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Musculoskeletal Index (MSI) and the number of open fractures. The severity of the open fractures was analysed using the Gustilo classification. The 23-year study period was divided into four shorter periods and the results were compared. There were 696 patients treated in 23 years. Analysis showed that the incidence of RTA open fractures initially fell in both males and females and continued to fall in females during the 23 years. In males it levelled off about 2000. The age of the female patients also fell during the study period but it did not change in males. The only patient group to show an increased incidence of open fractures were cyclists. In vehicle occupants the incidence fell throughout the study period but it levelled off in pedestrians and motorcyclists. There was no difference in the severity of injury in any group during the study period. The most severe open fractures were those of the distal femur and femoral diaphysis although open tibial diaphyseal fractures were the most common fracture in all patient groups. Improved car design and road safety legislation has resulted in a reduction in the incidence of open fractures in vehicle occupants, pedestrians and motorcyclists. The most obvious group to have benefitted from this are older female pedestrians. The only group to show an increase in age during the study period were male motorcyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; plegislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motorcycles Health and Traffic Safety: Evidence from Commercial Motorcyclists in Gombe State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiru Inuwa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial motorcyclists are gaining acceptance by all and sundry as a means of public transport which are adapted to the contemporary Nigerian society. However, expose to all hazards including accidents are further worsened by the lack of proper knowledge on road safety measures of the commercial motorcycle riders. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of a commercial motorcycle on health and traffic safety in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Gombe Metropolis with using the random sampling technique to select 500 motorcyclists sample size. The data generated were analyzed using simple percentages. The study finds that most of the motorcycles accidents were caused by reckless riding, drug abuse and disregard to traffic rules. Similarly, the study finds that Tricycles are the most important factor causing motorcycle accidents in Gombe metropolis. Furthermore, the study finds that most of the respondents suffer from at least one health challenge as a result of their continuous use of the motorcycle. The study therefore recommends that government and other relevant agencies should be equipped with materials and human resources to embark on regular and massive breath testing of motorcyclists to detect riders who ride under the influence of drugs. This can be achieved through identifying the Drunken riders and make them face the wrath of the law.

  14. Road safety practices among commercial motorcyclists in a rural town in Nigeria: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, O E; Eme, Owoaje; Giwa, O A; Gbolahan, O B

    This cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Igboora. All the commercial motor parks in Igboora were visited and all the commercial motorcyclists who consented to participate in the study were interviewed. Information on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, and the practice of road safety measures was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 299 motorcyclists were interviewed. All (100%) of them were males. The mean age of the respondents was 27.4 +/- 7.4 years. One hundred eighty-two (60.7%) of the motorcyclists had the correct knowledge of the purpose of Highway Code. Only 70 (23.3%) could recognize more than half of the currently used road safety codes and 47 (15.7%) obey these road safety codes more than half of the time they see it. Only 183 (61.2%) of them had a driving license and 72 (24.1%) were able to produce these licenses on demand. All (100%) of the respondents did not use any protective helmet. Those who have longer years of working experience, higher level of education and higher knowledge of the safety codes practice it more regularly (r = 0.198, p = 0.001, chi2= 9.31, p = 0.025, and r = 0.28, p = 0.001 respectively). One hundred thirty-six (45.5%) have been involved in at least one accident in the preceding year. The overall incidence of road traffic accident was 2.16 per 1,000. There was however on statistically significant association between the practice of road safety codes and the occurrence of road traffic accidents (chi2= 0.176, p = 0.916). The study shows that the practice of road safety measures was low in this rural Nigerian community and was not associated with the incidence of road traffic accidents. Introducing road safety education particularly targeted at educating the motorcyclists on the importance and practice of road safety measures would lead to an increase in the practice of the safety measures and hopefully a reduction in the incidence

  15. Effect of safety education on knowledge of and compliance with road safety signs among commercial motorcyclists in Uyo, Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, O E; Adebayo, A M

    2011-09-01

    Compliance with road safety signs is important in the reduction of motorcycle accidents. The aim of this study was to implement health education intervention and assess its impact on the knowledge of and compliance with road safety signs among commercial motorcyclists in Uyo, Southern Nigeria. This was an intervention study among motorcyclists in Uyo, Southern Nigeria, with a control group from a similar town. The instrument of data collection was a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Subjects were selected through multistage sampling method. Baseline data on compliance to road safety signs was collected from both groups. Motorcyclists in the intervention group were given education on the importance of compliance to road safety signs. Data was subsequently collected from both groups 3 months post intervention and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study, 100 from each group. Following intervention, respondents with good knowledge score increased from 21% at baseline to 82% at 3 months post intervention in the intervention group (proad safety signs was recorded among motorcyclists in the intervention group after safety education. All motorcyclists should therefore be given education on road safety signs as this will improve compliance and lead to safer road use among them.

  16. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in road traffic accidents attended at public urgent and emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Souto, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima, Cheila Marina de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva

    2016-12-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level. Motorcyclist-related attendances (n = 9,673) reported a prevalence of men (gender ratio = 3.2), young people aged 20-39 years (65.7%), black / brown (73.6%), paid work (76.4%). Helmet use was reported by 79.1% of the victims, 13.3% had consumed alcohol in the six hours prior to the accident, 41.4% of the events were related to the victim's work. Accidents were more frequent on weekends, in the morning and late afternoon. These characteristics can support the development of public accident prevention policies and health promotion.

  17. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  18. Evaluation of motorcyclist's discomfort during prolonged riding process with and without lumbar support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmegam Karuppiah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to examine the effects of a backrest: using a prototype of a lumbar support presented in author's earlier study on the discomfort rating of the body parts of motorcyclist. METHODS: One hundred motorcyclists participated in this study, all in good physical condition and with no immediate complaint of musculoskeletal disorders. Each participant was asked to sit for 2 hours on a motorcycle in two different sessions (with and without the lumbar support in a controlled room environment. At every 15 minutes interval the participants were required to rate their discomfort level on the Borg's CR-10 questionnaire. RESULTS: The rate of discomfort level (in all body parts decreased over time during the testing period with the prototype. In terms of the discomfort 'break point', participants identified low back and upper back as the most affected body parts prior to comfort changes during the testing period with the use of the prototype. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this prototype provides a protective mechanism for the motorcyclist's musculoskeletal system, particularly the spinal column. Therefore, this prototype is capable of providing ideal posture while simultaneously enhancing the comfortability of the motorcyclist during the riding process (by reducing discomfort.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo é analisar os efeitos de um encosto, usando um protótipo de um apoio lombar apresentado em estudo anterior do autor sobre a avaliação de desconforto das partes do corpo do motociclista. MÉTODOS: Cem motociclistas participaram neste estudo, todos em boas condições físicas e sem queixa imediata de lesões músculo-esqueléticas. Cada participante foi convidado a se sentar por 2 horas em uma moto em duas sessões diferentes (com e sem o apoio lombar em uma sala com ambiente controlado. A cada intervalo de 15 minutos, os participantes foram solicitados a classificar o seu nível de desconforto no question

  19. Risky driving and the perception of motorcycle accident causes among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K

    2012-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles and perceived causes of motorcycle accidents, as well as their contribution to active involvement in traffic accidents among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong. Active involvement means the riders was likely at fault for the crash. A total of 774 motorcyclists were recruited, of whom 292 had been involved in active motorcycle accident in the previous 3 years. All were asked to fill in a questionnaire, which was developed to assess their risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle and perception of motorcycle accident causes. The results of the study revealed 3 dimensions of accident causes, namely, driving-related, environment-related, and belief-related causes. These motorcycle accident causes were correlated with risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.036, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.020-1.052), perception of driving-related cause (adjusted OR: 0.941, 95% CI: 0.916-0.967), and belief-related cause (adjusted OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.088-1.182) were significant factors contributing to involvement in active traffic accidents by motorcycle riders after controlling for concurrent demographic variables. The study highlights that perceived causes of motorcycle accidents are multidimensional, including those areas related to driving, the environment, and beliefs. It substantiates previous studies that a higher degree of driving-related risk perception is related to a lower degree of risk-taking acts while driving. Further research is needed to understand why belief-related causes, sometimes called superstitions, lead riders to believe that it is beyond their ability to affect accident causation and prevention.

  20. A systematic review on the effectiveness of back protectors for motorcyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmejian, Rafael; Sarrami, Pooria; Naylor, Justine M; Harris, Ian A

    2016-10-04

    Motorcyclists are a vulnerable road-user population who are overrepresented in traffic injuries. Utilisation of back protectors may be an effective preventive measure for spine injuries in motorcyclists. Since use of back protectors is increasing it is important that clinical evidence supports their use. The study aimed to investigate the current evidence on the ability of back protectors to reduce the rate of back injuries and patient mortality in motorcycle crashes. A systematic literature search was conducted using various electronic databases. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, case series and case reports were included Opinion pieces and laboratory or biomechanical studies were excluded. Back protectors and spine protectors were included as the intervention; neck braces and speed humps were excluded. The target outcomes were any injuries to the back or death. Only English language studies were included. The search strategy yielded 185 studies. After excluding 183 papers by title and abstract and full-text evaluation, only two small cross-sectional studies were included. Foam inserts in motorcycle jackets and non-standard clothing may possibly be associated with higher risk of injuries, while hard shell and standard back protectors may possibly be associated with a reduced rate of back and spinal injury. This systematic review highlighted lack of appropriate evidence on efficacy of back protectors. Based on limited information, we are uncertain about the effects of back protectors on spinal injuries. Further research is required to substantiate the effects of back protectors on mortality and other injuries to the back.

  1. Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Olesen, Morten N.; Hels, Tove

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years many European countries have experienced an increase in the number of fatal traffic accidents with motorcycles. Bos et al. (2008) reports an increase from 17.4% to 21.1% of the total number of fatalities on powered two-wheelers in the European traffic. Several reasons...... for this have been suggested, among the most common is the hypothesis that during the last decade or so, the typical motorcyclist has become older, and as a result of the increase in age, the loss of physical ability in driving and orientation has resulted in the increase in the number of accidents (Værø 2008....... In this analysis we establish relationships between social and demographic characteristics and the probability of being in an accident and being injured in an accident. Logistic regression was applied to both motorcyclists and car drivers with the purpose of calculating the odds ratio with the car drivers...

  2. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  4. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarius M Tumwesigye

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city.The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45, lower engine capacity (<100 cc (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70, riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52, riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18 and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9. Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late.More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all

  5. Validation of the Chinese-language brief sensation seeking scale: implications for risky riding behaviors of parental motorcyclists and their child passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Ping; Lin, Mau-Roung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Ping-Wen; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2014-12-01

    Motorcycles are the leading cause of road traffic deaths in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia, where Mandarin Chinese is the most commonly used language. Sensation seeking (SS) is reported to correlate with many risky motor vehicle behaviors, and therefore a culture-adapted Chinese instrument is needed to assess this personality trait in Chinese-speaking motorcycling populations. The standard front and blinded-backward process was carried out to formulate the Chinese-language Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (C-BSSS). 193 parental motorcyclists who rode with their young children were interviewed concerning their SS levels, demographics, riding behaviors, and the driving/riding experiences. A random sample of 30 subjects was re-interviewed 1-2 weeks later to examine the test-retest reliability. Psychometric analyses revealed satisfactory item characteristics, internal consistency, intraobserver reliability, and interobserver reliability. Additionally, parental motorcyclists who had the following characteristics were more likely to be the high sensation seekers (SSers), including male, younger age, presenting risky motor vehicle behaviors of themselves (e.g., higher riding speeds, operating after drinking, using a mobile phone while operating, and receiving a traffic ticket), and carrying child passengers who demonstrated dangerous motorcycling behaviors (e.g., a younger age, non-helmeted, and overloaded). We conclude that the C-BSSS is a useful and reliable measure of SS for ethnic Chinese populations. This instrument may be helpful to develop the future prevention strategy of motorcycle injuries in Chinese parental motorcyclists and their young child passengers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  7. Efectos de las intervenciones diseñadas para prevenir las muertes de motociclistas en Cali, Colombia (1993-2001 Impact of interventions directed toward motorcyclist death prevention in Cali, Colombia: 1993-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Espitia-Hardeman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudio se ideó para describir el efecto de las intervenciones dirigidas a disminuir las muertes de los motociclistas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron las variaciones en la mortalidad de motociclistas en Cali, al momento de aplicarse las intervenciones, y el significado estadístico de dichos cambios, entre 1993 y 2001. RESULTADOS: La tasa de muerte de motociclistas por cada 100 000 habitantes se redujo de 9.7 en 1995 a 3.6 en 2001. La mayor reducción se observó después de la introducción del uso del casco protector en 1996 (12.3%. Otras medidas como la obligatoriedad del casco para los pasajeros, el uso del chaleco reflectivo, la prohibición de usar motocicletas en días de diciembre y la exigencia de cursos para infractores redujeron en su conjunto aún más la mortalidad, mientras que el debilitamiento de la vigilancia la incrementó. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación y ejecución de medidas combinadas de prevención resultan más efectivas que las medidas individuales o desarticuladas.OBJECTIVE: Describe the impact of interventions focused on decreasing deaths by motorcycle crash. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed variations in deaths by motorcycle crash in Cali when the interventions were implemented and the statistical significance of changes between 1993 and 2001. RESULTS: The rate of motorcyclist deaths per 100 000 inhabitants decreased from 9.7 in 1995 to 3.6 in 2001. The greatest reduction was observed after the introduction of the helmet law for motorcycle drivers in 1996 (12.3%. Other interventions-such as a helmet law for passengers, a reflective safety vest, a circulation ban for motorcyclists in December, and compulsory courses for all motorcyclists-produced a greater decrease in mortality; meanwhile, a lack of law enforcement increased it. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment and implementation of a combination of prevention strategies was more effective than a single or non-articulated strategy.

  8. Improving car drivers' perception of motorcyclists through innovative headlight configurations

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; RANCHET, Maud; PINTO, Maria; ESPIE, Stéphane; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2013-01-01

    The most frequent cause of motorcycle accidents involves another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. In addition to detection errors, the misperception of the approaching motorcycle's speed and time-to-arrival is another driver error that may account for these accidents (e.g., Horswill et al., 2005). This misperception has been shown to be related to the small size of the motorcycle and the small angular velocity when it is approaching. In two experiments we te...

  9. HIV/AIDS-related sexual behaviour among commercial motorcyclists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    psychoactive drugs, alcohol, cigarette and unsafe sexual behaviors. ... active is important in eradicating HIV. According to Kaiser ... Knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS and the practice or ..... Banjo T, Nwaze E, Aja GND. Perceptions.

  10. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter .... in line with the global findings that the introduction and enforcement of legislation on helmet .... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students.

  11. The roles of motorcyclists and car drivers in conspicuity-related motorcycle crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M. Bos, N. & Norden, Y. van

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the available research on the different factors of influence on the perception of motorcycles. It also presents analyses of Dutch motorcycle crashes which provide a description of the relative occurrence of car-motorcycle crashes in the Netherlands. Finally, this

  12. Trend and Seasonal Patterns of Injuries and Mortality Due to Motorcyclists Traffic Accidents; A Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Marjan; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Esmaeilpour Aghdam, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Maleki, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    To investigate trend and seasonal pattern of occurrence and mortality of motorcycle accidents in patients referred to hospitals of Isfahan. This cross-sectional study was carried out using traffic accidents data of Isfahan province, extracted from Ministry of Health (MOH) database from 2006 to 2010. During the study period, 83648 people injured due to motorcycle traffic accidents were referred to hospitals, all of them entered in the study. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the hospital mortality odds ratio, and Cochrane-Armitage test was used for assessment of linear trend. During the study period, the hospital admission for motorcycle accident was 83,648 and 89.3% (74743) of them were men. Mean age in accidents time was 26.41±14.3 years. The injuries and death sex ratio were 8.4 and 16.9, respectively. Lowest admission rate was during autumn and highest during summer. The injury mortality odds ratio was 1.01 (CI 95% 0.73-1.39) in the Spring, 1.34 (CI95% 1.01-1.79) in summer and 1.17 (CI95% 0.83-1.63). It was also calculated to be 2.51 (CI95% 1.36-4.64) in age group 40-49, 2.39 (CI95% 1.51-5.68) in 50-59 and 4.79 (CI95% 2.49-9.22) in 60-69 years. The mortality odds ratio was 3.53 (CI95% 2.77-4.5) in rural place, 1.33 (CI95% 1.15-1.54) in men, and 2.44 (CI95% 2.09-2.85) in the road out of town and village. In addition, trend of motorcycle accidents mortality was increasing ( p accidents injuries are more common in men, summer, young age and rural roads. These high risk groups need more attention, care and higher training.

  13. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Health Education on the Riding Habits of Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: The intervention study was conducted among commercial motorcyclists in Uyo with controls from another town in Akwa Ibom State. Baseline information was collected from both groups on their riding habits. Motorcyclists in Uyo were educated on appropriate road safety practices. Data was collected from both ...

  15. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Motorcyclists are at high risk of road traffic accidents and the attendant injuries, but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal injury among commercial motorcyclists ...

  16. De effecten van een eendaagse voortgezette rijopleiding voor motorrijders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, M.J. Craen, S. de & Erens, A.L.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a one-day advanced rider training for motorcyclists. This report discusses an evaluation study of an advanced rider training for motorcyclists. The training aims to improve motorcyclists’ higher order skills. The study is the result of the Action plan road safety improvement

  17. THE EFFICACY OF MOTORCYCLE TRAINING TO REDUCE SELF-REPORTED NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE (CASE STUDY IN UK AND INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winna Justiana Sirait

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users because of their particular combination of physical vulnerability. Motorcyclists’ training and licensing system have already implemented in so many countries in the world particularly developed countries. In the other hand, there are countries, particularly developing countries, where motorcyclists are less regulated in term of licensing, enforcement, and insurance. Therefore the objective of this research are to analyses the behavior and attitude of motorcyclists in Yorkshire and Humber Region (UK and Jakarta (Indonesia, and to analyses the efficacy of motorcycle training in UK to influence the self-reported negative behavior and attitude of motorcyclists. Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ and Motorcyclists Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ are used to conduct this study. The Mann Whitney test is used to evaluate the significance different of the mean score, which obtained from the survey in each country (UK and Indonesia. Mean score computation showed that Yorkshire and Humber Region’s respondents have better mean score than Jakarta’s respondents. However Mann Whitney test showed that the mean score different is not significant for speed violation factor in MRBQ and drink driving and speeding factor in MAQ. Keywords: motorcyclist, motorcycle training, Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ, Motorcyclist Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ.

  18. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  19. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes: pilot study : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Congress directed the Secretary of Transport...

  20. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  1. Texas strategic action plan for motorcycles : 2013-2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycles: 2013-2018 provides an integrated : approach to identify implementable strategies and action steps to make the : road environment and infrastructure safer for motorcyclists and other powered : two- and ...

  2. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  3. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  4. Ekonomické důsledky zaviněných nehod motorkářů v ČR za rok 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Štika, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with economic impact of accidents caused by motorcyclists on public budgets in Czech Republic in 2008. The theoretical part discuss the determinants that may influence risky driving behavior of motorcyclist. Special attention is devoted to the endogenous variable -- the law on compulsory use of helmet. The practical section gives a presentation of some statistical data of motorcycle accidents on Czech roads during 2000 -- 2009. In analytical terms, focusing on 2008, are first ...

  5. Automatic helmet-wearing detection for law enforcement using CCTV cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonghabut, P.; Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Ung-arunyawee, R.; Leelapatra, W.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an application for enforcing helmet wearing using CCTV cameras. The developed application aims to help law enforcement by police, and eventually resulting in changing risk behaviours and consequently reducing the number of accidents and its severity. Conceptually, the application software implemented using C++ language and OpenCV library uses two different angle of view CCTV cameras. Video frames recorded by the wide-angle CCTV camera are used to detect motorcyclists. If any motorcyclist without helmet is found, then the zoomed (narrow-angle) CCTV is activated to capture image of the violating motorcyclist and the motorcycle license plate in real time. Captured images are managed by database implemented using MySQL for ticket issuing. The results show that the developed program is able to detect 81% of motorcyclists on various motorcycle types during daytime and night-time. The validation results reveal that the program achieves 74% accuracy in detecting the motorcyclist without helmet.

  6. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-08-07

    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  7. KEY COMPONENTS OF A MOTORCYCLE-TRAFFIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HUSSAIN

    2005-01-01

    The small- and medium-sized type motorcycles (150c.c. and below made up 99% of the motorcycles population in Malaysia. A static motorcyclist measured about 0.8m in width, 2.0m in length, and requires an operating width of 1.3m. At a lane width of 1.7m or below, motorcycle flow applies the lane or headway concept. Above this optimum value, motorcycle flow adopted the space concept. This implied that a motorcycle path should be more than 1.7m wide to allow two motorcyclists to pass each other.

  8. Motorcycle-related trauma in Alberta: a sad and expensive story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, John P.; Buckley, Richard; Dyer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma caused by motorcycle-related injuries is extensive, expensive and increasing. Recent American literature reported that in 2004 the chance of a motorcyclist dying was 34 times greater than that for someone using any other motor vehicle for every mile travelled. In the United Kingdom a motorcyclist is killed or seriously injured every 665 894 km, compared with 18 661 626 km for cars. If this pattern is repeated in Canada, then this information should be in the public domain to support initiatives for injury prevention. Methods We gathered and analyzed retrospective population data on the injury patterns of adult motorcyclists and other adult motor vehicle drivers and passengers across Alberta from Apr. 1, 1995, to Mar. 31, 2006. We collected data from 3 Alberta sources: the Alberta Trauma Registry, the Alberta Office of the Chief Medical Examiners and the Government of Alberta Department of Infrastructure and Transportation. We compared the numbers and causes of crashes, injuries and deaths, as well as the acute care costs on the roads, and specifically compared motorcycle-related injuries to all other motor vehicle–related injuries. Results There were 70 605 registered motorcycles and 2 748 204 other registered motor vehicles in Alberta during the study period. During these 11 years, there were 286 motorcyclists killed and 712 were severely injured, representing a total of 998 injuries and deaths. There was 5386 deaths related to other motor vehicles and 6239 severe injuries, for a total of 11 625 injuries and deaths. This represents a percentage of 1.4% of all registered motorcycles and 0.4% of all other registered motor vehicles (3.5 times more motorcyclist injuries). The impact on the health care system can be measured in several ways. During the period of this study, motorcyclists accounted for 10 760 bed days. Assuming the patient was not admitted to intensive care, each admission cost Can$9200 (average in 2008). Conclusion Analysis of the

  9. Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal motorcycle crashes and the interrelationships of endorsement status and motorcycle type with operator characteristics like riding impaired. Cases were drawn from a database tracking fatal crashes occurring within Cuyahoga County, Ohio, from 2005 to 2011. Analysis focused on 75 fatal motorcycle crashes in which the deceased motorcycle operators were male and coroner's reports, police crash reports, and license endorsement status were available. Analysis included comparison of means, chi square testing, and binary logistic regression. More than half of motorcyclists (53%) did not have motorcycle endorsements. Mean age of unendorsed riders was 36.8 years, compared to 44.2 years for endorsed riders. Motorcyclists were considered at fault in 69 percent of cases, most often due to reckless operation, failure to control, or speeding. Mean blood alcohol concentration for fatally injured motorcyclists was 0.06 percent. Marijuana was the most common drug identified in blood tests. Nonendorsement was associated with younger age, single-vehicle crash, and having a prior license suspension. Neither endorsement status nor bike type was associated with likelihood of testing positive for alcohol or drugs of abuse. Riders of sport motorcycles were more likely than cruiser/touring bike operators to be wearing helmets and less likely to be endorsed. The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals.

  10. Pattern of injuries from motorcycle accidents in Abia State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are very common and cause major injuries. The Abia State government banned commercial motorcyclists from operating in the major cities of the state in July, 2009. Objectives: To determine the influence of this ban on the cause and pattern of injuries due to road traffic accidents. Design: ...

  11. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes : pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) P.L. 109-59, Congress directed the Secretary ...

  12. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M.J.A. & Norden, Y. van

    2013-01-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The

  13. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grivna

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC, use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. METHODS: All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37% followed by front impact collision (32%. 32 (13% of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170 vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23 motorcyclists a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  14. Voortgezette rijopleidingen in Nederland : een inventarisatie van voortgezette rijopleidingen voor automobilisten en motorrijders en van rijopleidingen voor bromfietsen, uitgevoerd in de zomer van 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    1995-01-01

    This study mainly explores the field of advanced driving courses in The Netherlands. An overview is given of the advanced courses currently offered for drivers and for motorcyclists. Most are one-day courses, with emphasis placed on vehicle control or on the accident prevention. Concerning training

  15. Prevalence and severity of pterygium among commercial motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pterygium is common among outdoor workers who are daily exposed to sunlight and dust due to repeated conjunctival /corneal drying and microtrauma especially in the tropics. Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are outdoor workers who spend the greater part of the day outdoors under the intense heat and ...

  16. 23 CFR 1350.4 - Qualification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....g., law, regulation, binding policy directive, letter from the Governor) identifying the designated... the presence of motorcyclists on or near roadways and safe driving practices that avoid injuries to... specific countermeasures to reduce impaired motorcycle operation with strategies designed to reach...

  17. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2013-01-01

    To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  18. Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

    2012-11-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Safety Education on Knowledge of and Compliance with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Compliance with road safety signs is important in the reduction of motorcycle accidents. The aim of this study was to implement health education intervention and assess its impact on the knowledge of and compliance with road safety signs among commercial motorcyclists in Uyo, Southern Nigeria. Method: This ...

  20. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  1. Risk Factors for Road Traffic Injuries among Different Road Users in the Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edrisa Sanyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified risk factors for road traffic injuries among road users who received treatment at two major trauma hospitals in urban Gambia. The study includes pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers/passengers of cars and trucks. We examined distributions of injury by age, gender, collision vehicle types and vehicle category, and driver and environment factors. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study. Two-thirds were male and one-third female. Two-thirds (67% of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists; and these were more common during weekdays (74% than weekends. Nearly half (47% of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians. One-third (34% of injured patients were students (mean age of students was less than 14 years, more than half (51% of whom were injured on the roadway as pedestrians. Head/skull injuries were common. Concussion/brain injuries were 3.5 times higher among pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists than vehicle occupants. Crashes involving pedestrians were more likely to involve young people (<25 years; aOR 6.36, 95% CI: 3.32–12.17 and involve being struck by a motor car (aOR 3.95, 95% CI: 2.09–7.47. Pedestrians contribute the largest proportion of hospitalizations in the Gambia. Young pedestrians are at particularly high risk. Prevention efforts should focus on not only vehicle and driver factors, but also protecting pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists.

  2. The challenges facing commercial motorcycle occupation in Etsako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the challenges facing commercial motorcycle occupation in Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Data were collected through questionnaires and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among selected motorcyclists, police officers and road safety officials in Etsako West Local Government ...

  3. 75 FR 28098 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... causes of motorcycle crashes. The first of these is the traditional in-depth crash investigation that... passenger-vehicle motorists than for motorcyclists. Other risk factors for crashes (i.e., age, gender..., F.R., Shumate, R.P., Ziel, W.B. & Zylman, R. (1974)). The Role of the Drinking Driver in Traffic...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladepo, D K. Vol 12 (2007) - Articles Sero-prevalence of HIV-1 among commercial motorcyclist (okada riders) in Abuja. Abstract PDF · Vol 12 (2007) - Articles Evaluation of the performance of HIV1 & 2 one-step selftest kit for detection of HIV infection in whole human blood, serum or plasma samples. Abstract PDF.

  5. Assessment and prediction of road accident injuries trend using time-series models in Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvareh, Maryam; Karimi, Asrin; Rezaei, Satar; Woldemichael, Abraha; Nili, Sairan; Nouri, Bijan; Nasab, Nader Esmail

    2018-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are commonly encountered incidents that can cause high-intensity injuries to the victims and have direct impacts on the members of the society. Iran has one of the highest incident rates of road traffic accidents. The objective of this study was to model the patterns of road traffic accidents leading to injury in Kurdistan province, Iran. A time-series analysis was conducted to characterize and predict the frequency of road traffic accidents that lead to injury in Kurdistan province. The injuries were categorized into three separate groups which were related to the car occupants, motorcyclists and pedestrian road traffic accident injuries. The Box-Jenkins time-series analysis was used to model the injury observations applying autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) from March 2009 to February 2015 and to predict the accidents up to 24 months later (February 2017). The analysis was carried out using R-3.4.2 statistical software package. A total of 5199 pedestrians, 9015 motorcyclists, and 28,906 car occupants' accidents were observed. The mean (SD) number of car occupant, motorcyclist and pedestrian accident injuries observed were 401.01 (SD 32.78), 123.70 (SD 30.18) and 71.19 (SD 17.92) per year, respectively. The best models for the pattern of car occupant, motorcyclist, and pedestrian injuries were the ARIMA (1, 0, 0), SARIMA (1, 0, 2) (1, 0, 0) 12 , and SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (0, 0, 1) 12 , respectively. The motorcyclist and pedestrian injuries showed a seasonal pattern and the peak was during summer (August). The minimum frequency for the motorcyclist and pedestrian injuries were observed during the late autumn and early winter (December and January). Our findings revealed that the observed motorcyclist and pedestrian injuries had a seasonal pattern that was explained by air temperature changes overtime. These findings call the need for close monitoring of the

  6. First motorcycle-exclusive lane (Motovia) in Colombia: perceptions of users in Cali, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel V; Pacichana-Quinayaz, Sara G; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2017-06-01

    This study's goal was to evaluate the pilot exclusive lane for motorcycles (Motovía) in Cali, Colombia, from the perception of its users in 2012-2013. A cross-sectional study using roadside surveys plus a qualitative component of individual semi-structured interviews was carried out. Road users' perceptions were investigated before and after implementation of lane dividers (LD) and were compared with other roads in the city. Perceptions were compared using chi-square tests. In the study, 293 motorcyclists, 111 cyclists, and 115 automobile drivers were interviewed. Following the installation of the LD, the majority of motorcyclists and cyclists reported that LD made easier the driving maneuvers and decreased travel time, in contrast to perceptions of automobile drivers (p motorcycles. Further research about vulnerable road users' infrastructure is required.

  7. Comparison between motorcyclist’ violation behavior and accidents in urban and rural area in Indonesia: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, N.; Widyanti, A.

    2017-12-01

    Some studies stated that the main factor related to the accident was driving behavior. This study aims to explore the differences between motorcyclist” behaviour and repetitive violation behaviour in two different area, urban and rural area in Indonesia. Respondents were selected based on convenience sampling method in Bandung as a representative of urban area and Kulon Progo as a representative of rural area. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire about driving behaviour, consists of 10 dimensions or 51 questions with Likert scales ranging from 1 (very often) to 6 (never). The results of this study shows that the motorcyclists’ behavior differ significantly between rural and urban area. Motorcyclists in the urban area (Bandung) are more committed to violations than in rural area (Kulon Progo). This result is not in line with previous studies in Australia and United States which stated that motorcyclists in rural area more frequently speeding than in urban area. Implications of the result are discussed.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MOBILE PHONE USE WHILE DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hugh WOO, Ph.D., P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the conclusions of this study, the Legislative Yuan of Taiwan passed a law to ban the use of handheld mobile phones while driving in January 2, 2001. For a compulsory three-month campaign, the regulation will be in force from September 1, with a violation fine of NT$3,000 (approximate to US$90 for drivers and NT$1,000 for motorcyclists.

  9. Innovative motorcycle headlight design as a short-term solution for improving motorcycle visibility

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; RANCHET, Maud; ESPIE, Stéphane; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent motorcycle accidents involve another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. In-depth accident studies have shown that perceptual errors made by other vehicle drivers are a very frequent cause of motorcyclists' accidents and fatalities. Two kinds of perceptual errors can be distinguished. The first one is no or late detection of the motorcycle, which is mainly due to its low visual conspicuity (especially because of their small size). The principa...

  10. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comprehensive Approach to Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Prevention: Experiences from the Field in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Greig; Van Bui, Truong; Sidik, Mirjam; Moore, Danielle; Ederer, David J; Parker, Erin M; Ballesteros, Michael F; Sleet, David A

    2017-11-30

    Motorcyclists account for 23% of global road traffic deaths and over half of fatalities in countries where motorcycles are the dominant means of transport. Wearing a helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by as much as 69% and death by 42%; however, both child and adult helmet use are low in many countries where motorcycles are a primary mode of transportation. In response to the need to increase helmet use by all drivers and their passengers, the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative (GHVI) was established to increase helmet use in three countries where a substantial portion of road users are motorcyclists and where helmet use is low. The GHVI approach includes five strategies to increase helmet use: targeted programs, helmet access, public awareness, institutional policies, and monitoring and evaluation. The application of GHVI to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda resulted in four key lessons learned. First, motorcyclists are more likely to wear helmets when helmet use is mandated and enforced. Second, programs targeted to at-risk motorcyclists, such as child passengers, combined with improved awareness among the broader population, can result in greater public support needed to encourage action by decision-makers. Third, for broad population-level change, using multiple strategies in tandem can be more effective than using a single strategy alone. Lastly, the successful expansion of GHVI into Cambodia and Uganda has been hindered by the lack of helmet accessibility and affordability, a core component contributing to its success in Vietnam. This paper will review the development of the GHVI five-pillar approach in Vietnam, subsequent efforts to implement the model in Cambodia and Uganda, and lessons learned from these applications to protect motorcycle drivers and their adult and child passengers from injury.

  12. The full moon and motorcycle related mortality: population based double control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-11

    To test whether a full moon contributes to motorcycle related deaths. Population based, individual level, double control, cross sectional analysis. Nighttime (4 pm to 8 am), United States. 13 029 motorcycle fatalities throughout the United States, 1975 to 2014 (40 years). Motorcycle fatalities during a full moon. 13 029 motorcyclists were in fatal crashes during 1482 relevant nights. The typical motorcyclist was a middle aged man (mean age 32 years) riding a street motorcycle with a large engine in a rural location who experienced a head-on frontal impact and was not wearing a helmet. 4494 fatal crashes occurred on the 494 nights with a full moon (9.10/night) and 8535 on the 988 control nights without a full moon (8.64/night). Comparisons yielded a relative risk of 1.05 associated with the full moon (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.09, P=0.005), a conditional odds ratio of 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.37, Pmotorcycle crashes, although potential confounders cannot be excluded. An awareness of the risk might encourage motorcyclists to ride with extra care during a full moon and, more generally, to appreciate the power of seemingly minor distractions at all times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Comparison of Injury Severity Between Moped and Motorcycle Crashes: A Finnish Two-Year Prospective Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, N; Nurmi-Lüthje, I; Lüthje, P

    2016-03-01

    The coverage of the official statistics is poor in motorcycle and moped accidents. The aim of this study was to analyze the severity of motorcycle and moped crashes, and to define the degree of under-reporting in official statistics. All first attendances due to an acute motorcyclist or moped driver injury registered in the emergency department between June 2004 and May 2006 were analyzed. The severity of the injuries was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale score and the New Injury Severity Score. The hospital injury data were compared to the traffic accident statistics reported by the police and compiled and maintained by Statistics Finland. A total of 49 motorcyclists and 61 moped drivers were involved in crashes, leading to a total of 94 and 109 injuries, respectively. There were slightly more vertebral and midfoot fractures among motorcyclists than among moped drivers (p = 0.038 and 0.016, respectively). No significant differences were found between the severity (maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and median New Injury Severity Scores) of the motorcycle and moped crashes. There was no in-hospital mortality. The degree of agreement (overlap) between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. The rate of under-reporting was 68%. According to the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and New Injury Severity Scores, the injury severity was equal for motorcycle and moped crashes. The degree of agreement between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  14. Structural Equation Modelling in Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Naida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle is one of private transportation which has been widely used in many countries including Malaysia. However, motorcycles are the most dangerous form of motorized transport. Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM statistics recorded that motorcycle is the highest vehicle (45.9% involved in traffic accident compared to other vehicles. The potential cause of the death to the motorcyclist was due to the head injury. One of strategy to mitigate this problem is through proper usage of safety helmet. Therefore, this paper was introduce a new approach on motorcyclist safety by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM with additional determinants that contribute to behavioral intention and to increase the proper usage of safety helmets among Malaysian motorcyclists. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was used to test the structural TAM proposed. The evaluation for structural model showed the goodness of fit indices are excellent fit. This study found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and social norm are significant towards behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR.

  15. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  16. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Min Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133 of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005 and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033, as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038 than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a

  17. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  18. Negotiating Left-Hand and Right-Hand Bends: A Motorcycle Simulator Study to Investigate Experiential and Behaviour Differences Across Rider Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Crundall, David; Stedmon, Alex W.

    2012-01-01

    Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding ‘bad habits’ gained through experience alone. PMID:22253845

  19. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motorcycle right-of-way accidents--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chih-Wei

    2011-05-01

    The most typical automobile-motorcycle collision take places when an automobile manoeuvres into the path of an approaching motorcycle by violating the motorcycle's right of way (ROW). The present paper provides a comprehensive review of past research that examined motorcycle ROW accidents. Articles and publications were selected for relevance and research strength through a comprehensive search of major databases such as Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS), Compendex, and Medline. Two major causes of such a crash scenario are the lack of motorcycle conspicuity and motorist's speed/distance judgment error, respectively. A substantial number of studies have manipulated physical characteristics of motorcycles and motorcyclists to enhance conspicuity, along with research addressing motorists' gap-acceptance behaviours and arrival time judgments when confronting motorcycles. Although various conspicuity aids have proven effective, some researchers reported that motorcyclist's/motorcycle's brightness per se may be less important as a determinant of conspicuity than brightness contrast between the motorcyclists and the surroundings. Larger vehicles tended to be judged to arrive sooner than motorcycles. Such a speed/distance judgment error is likely attributable to some psychological effects such that larger automobiles appear more threatening than motorcycles. Older motorists particularly have difficulties in accurately estimating the distance and the speed of an approaching motorcycle. Research examining the effects of conspicuity measures on motorists' speed/distance judgments when confronting motorcycles has been rather inconclusive. Past research offers valuable insight into the underlying motorcycle ROW crash mechanisms. However, with ageing society and a rapid change in traffic composition (e.g., more larger motorcycles) in recent years, prior research findings should be updated. The present study finally provides recommendations for future research

  1. Genitourinary injuries after traffic accidents: Analysis of a registry of 162,690 victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Paparel, Philippe; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Ruffion, Alain; Jenkins, Lawrence C; N'Diaye, Amina

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are the most frequent cause of genitourinary injuries (GUI). Kidney injuries after trauma have been well described. However, there exists a paucity of data on other traumatic GUI after traffic accidents. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and type of all GUI, by user category, after traffic accidents. Patient cases were extracted from the trauma registry of the French department of Rhone from 1996 to 2013. We assessed the urogenital injuries presented by each of road user's categories. Severity injuries were coded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale and the Injury Severity Score. Kidney trauma was mapped with the classification of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Multivariate prediction models were used for analysis of data. Of 162,690 victims, 963 presented with GUI (0.59%). 47% were motorcyclists, 22% were in a car, 18% on bicycles, and 9% were pedestrians. The most common organ injury was kidney (41%) followed by testicular (23%). Among the 208 motorists with a GUI, kidney (70%), bladder (10%), and adrenal gland (9%) were the most frequent lesions. Among the 453 motorcyclist victims with GUI, kidney (35%) and testicular (38%) traumas were the most frequent and 62% of injuries involved external genitalia. There were 175 cyclists with GUI, 70% of injuries involved external genitalia; penile traumas (23%) were the most frequent. In total, there were 395 kidney injuries, most being low grade. According to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma kidney injuries were grade I, 59%; grade II, 11%; grade III, 16%; grade IV, 9%; grade V, 3%; and indeterminate, 2%. GUI is an infrequent trauma after traffic accidents, with kidneys being the most commonly injured. Physicians must maintain a high awareness for external genitalia injuries in motorcyclists and cyclists. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  2. Prevalence of alcohol among nonfatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centers in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2018-02-17

    Alcohol use is pervasive among motorists on the road in Ghana; however, we do not know the extent to which this behavior is implicated in road accidents in this country. The main objective of this research was to establish the prevalence of alcohol in the blood of nonfatally injured casualties in the emergency departments (EDs) in northern Ghana. Participants were injured road traffic crash victims, namely, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers seeking treatment at an ED. The study sites were 2 level III trauma centers located in Wa and Bolgatanga. Participants were screened for alcohol followed by breath tests for positive participants using breathalyzers. Two hundred and sixty-two accident victims visited EDs, 58% of whom were in Wa. Among the victims, 41% were hospitalized and 57% experienced slight injuries. The vast majority (76%) of the casualties were motorcyclists, 13% were pedestrians, 8% were cyclists, and 2% were drivers. Casualties who had detectable alcohol in their blood were predominantly vulnerable road users. In all, 34% of participants had detectable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and the mean BAC for all casualties who tested positive and could give definitive BACs was 0.2265 (226 mg/dl). The prevalence of alcohol use was 53% among cyclists, 34% among motorcyclists, 21% among pedestrians, and 17% among drivers. Male casualties were more likely to test positive for alcohol than females. In addition, the prevalence of alcohol was significantly higher among injured casualties in Bolgatanga compared to Wa. There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among nonfatally injured casualties in northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended.

  3. Motorcycle fuel tanks and pelvic fractures: A motorcycle fuel tank syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lauren; Baldock, Matthew; Fitzharris, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Dal Nevo, Ross; Griffiths, Michael; Brown, Julie

    2016-08-17

    Pelvic injuries are a serious and commonly occurring injury to motorcycle riders involved in crashes, yet there has been limited research investigating the mechanisms involved in these injuries. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in pelvic injuries to crashed motorcyclists. This study involved in-depth crash investigation and 2 convenience-based data sets were used. These data sets investigated motorcycle crashes in the Sydney, Newcastle, and Adelaide regions. Participants included motorcycle riders who had crashed either on a public road or private property within the study areas. The mechanism of injury and the type of injuries were investigated. The most frequent cause of pelvic injuries in crashed motorcyclists was due to contact with the motorcycle fuel tank during the crash (85%). For riders who had come into contact with the fuel tank, the injury types were able to be grouped into 3 categories based on the complexity of the injury. The complexity of the injury appeared to increase with impact speed but this was a nonsignificant trend. The pelvic injuries that did not occur from contact with the fuel tank in this sample differed in asymmetry of loading and did not commonly involve injury to the bladder. They were commonly one-sided injuries but this differed based on the point of loading; however, a larger sample of these injuries needs to be investigated. Overall improvements in road safety have not been replicated in the amelioration of pelvic injuries in motorcyclists and improvements in the design of crashworthy motorcycle fuel tanks appear to be required.

  4. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  5. A comparative injury severity analysis of motorcycle at-fault crashes on rural and urban roadways in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Samantha; Brown, Joshua

    2017-11-01

    The research described in this paper explored the factors contributing to the injury severity resulting from the motorcycle at-fault accidents in rural and urban areas in Alabama. Given the occurrence of a motorcycle at-fault crash, random parameter logit models of injury severity (with possible outcomes of fatal, major, minor, and possible or no injury) were estimated. The estimated models identified a variety of statistically significant factors influencing the injury severities resulting from motorcycle at-fault crashes. According to these models, some variables were found to be significant only in one model (rural or urban) but not in the other one. For example, variables such as clear weather, young motorcyclists, and roadway without light were found significant only in the rural model. On the other hand, variables such as older female motorcyclists, horizontal curve and at intersection were found significant only in the urban model. In addition, some variables (such as, motorcyclists under influence of alcohol, non-usage of helmet, high speed roadways, etc.) were found significant in both models. Also, estimation findings showed that two parameters (clear weather and roadway without light) in the rural model and one parameter (on weekend) in the urban model could be modeled as random parameters indicating their varying influences on the injury severity due to unobserved effects. Based on the results obtained, this paper discusses the effects of different variables on injury severities resulting from rural and urban motorcycle at-fault crashes and their possible explanations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  7. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  8. Trends in local newspaper reporting of London cyclist fatalities 1992-2012: the role of the media in shaping the systems dynamics of cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alex; Roberts, Alex; Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel; Goodman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Successfully increasing cycling across a broad range of the population would confer important health benefits, but many potential cyclists are deterred by fears about traffic danger. Media coverage of road traffic crashes may reinforce this perception. As part of a wider effort to model the system dynamics of urban cycling, in this paper we examined how media coverage of cyclist fatalities in London changed across a period when the prevalence of cycling doubled. We compared this with changes in the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities as a control group. Methods Police records of traffic crashes (STATS19) were used to identify all cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities in London between 1992 and 2012. We searched electronic archives of London's largest local newspaper to identify relevant articles (January 1992–April 2014), and sought to identify which police-reported fatalities received any media coverage. We repeated this in three smaller English cities. Results Across the period when cycling trips doubled in London, the proportion of fatalities covered in the local media increased from 6% in 1992–1994 to 75% in 2010–2012. By contrast, the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities remained low (4% in 1992–1994 versus 5% in 2010–2012; p = 0.007 for interaction between mode and time period). Comparisons with other English cities suggested that the changes observed in London might not occur in smaller cities with lower absolute numbers of crashes, as in these settings fatalities are almost always covered regardless of mode share (79–100% coverage for both cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities). Conclusion In large cities, an increase in the popularity (and therefore ‘newsworthiness’) of cycling may increase the propensity of the media to cover cyclist fatalities. This has the potential to give the public the impression that cycling has become more dangerous, and thereby initiate a negative feedback loop that dampens down further increases in cycling

  9. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad traffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-02-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  11. Role of Motorcycle Running Lights in Reducing Motorcycle Crashes during Daytime; A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Seyed Rasoul; Hossayni, Seyed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to other transportation modes, riding motorcycle is prone to accidents. Motorcyclists are more exposed to physical injury than the car drivers. Many multi-vehicle motorcycles crashes occur, there is right-of- way violation takes place in which another vehicle turns in fronts of a motorcycle, or a sudden cross of path of an on-coming motorcycle. One main factor which leads to high rate of motorcycle crashes is lack of conspicuity of motorcycles by other road users especially during day time traffic. This paper highlights previous studies on the implementation of motorcycle DRLs, focusing on the efficacy of the DRLs to improve motorcycle conspicuity. This paper reviews the impacts of DRL by motorcyclists on multi-vehicle motorcycle crash. The three categories of effects of motorcycle DRLs were reviewed. All literature, supporting that operating headlights during daytime appears to be an influential and effective approach to reduce rate of collision by improving motorcycle’s conspicuity in traffic. The motorcycle DRLs managed to reduce about 4 to 20% of motorcycle crash risk. This paper also recommends that motorcycle DRLs must be used globally, especially in countries with high motorcycle accidents to improve the safety of the riders as well as their pillion riders. PMID:27162907

  12. Motorcycle detection and counting using stereo camera, IR camera, and microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Gibson, David R. P.; Middleton, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Detection, classification, and characterization are the key to enhancing motorcycle safety, motorcycle operations and motorcycle travel estimation. Average motorcycle fatalities per Vehicle Mile Traveled (VMT) are currently estimated at 30 times those of auto fatalities. Although it has been an active research area for many years, motorcycle detection still remains a challenging task. Working with FHWA, we have developed a hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system using a suite of sensors including stereo camera, thermal IR camera and unidirectional microphone array. The IR thermal camera can capture the unique thermal signatures associated with the motorcycle's exhaust pipes that often show bright elongated blobs in IR images. The stereo camera in the system is used to detect the motorcyclist who can be easily windowed out in the stereo disparity map. If the motorcyclist is detected through his or her 3D body recognition, motorcycle is detected. Microphones are used to detect motorcycles that often produce low frequency acoustic signals. All three microphones in the microphone array are placed in strategic locations on the sensor platform to minimize the interferences of background noises from sources such as rain and wind. Field test results show that this hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system has an excellent performance.

  13. Development of Continuous Speed Profile Using GPS at Johor Federal Roads F0050

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    Prasetijo Joewono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the most relevant issues in today’s society. It causes hundreds of accidents every year from over the world. Every year 1.2 million of people are killed and between 20 and 50 million people are offended due to the road accidents. Three main types of accidents in Malaysia is collision with passenger cars, collisions with other motorcycles and single-motorcycle accidents. F0050 is ranked the district with the highest road fatalities in Johor for five consecutive years. Motorcyclists and their pillion riders were the highest contributors – 60% or 648 fatalities, followed by car drivers and passengers numbering 266 fatalities. One reason of accident occurrence can be lack of road design consistency which most drivers make fewer errors in the vicinity of geometric features. Geometric design consistency is emerging as an important component in highway design relate to the safety performance. The result shows the continuous speed profiles along F0050. Since motorcyclist have a higher fatality per distance traveled, this study will develop the potential relationship between design consistency which is represented by continuous speed profiles by using Global Positioning System (GPS.

  14. [Epidemiological profile of traffic accidents in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffe, Carina Rejane Fernandes; Harada, Airi; Bacco, Alexander Bocchi; Coelho, Carine Silveira; Baccarelli, João Lucas Ferrareto; Silva, Karoline Lopes; Braccialli, Luzmarina Aparecida Doretto; Beloni, Margarete; Bernardes, Maria Luiza Guidinho; Lacerda, Stephanie Ribeiro; Silva, Thainá Inoue

    2017-01-01

    to describe the profile of victims of traffic accidents and traffic-related deaths in Marília-SP, Brazil. this is a descriptive study, based on data from police reports (PR) and Death Certificates (DC), in 2012. 1,537 PR were gathered; among the 3,257 individuals involved in traffic accidents, 67.3% were men, and 53.3% were between 20-39 years of age; most accidents occurred on road intersections (35.2%), at 8 a.m. (6.8%), 1 p.m. (7.2%) and 7 p.m. (8.1%); motorcycle was the most involved vehicle in the accidents (47.6%); among the 78 deaths reported, 61 were men, 31 were over 50 years old, and 23 were motorcyclists; 32 fatal accidents occurred on highways. the main victims and fatal victims of traffic accidents were male motorcyclists; fatal accidents occurred mainly on highways, and the main victims were over 50 years old.

  15. Using the event analysis of systemic teamwork (EAST) to explore conflicts between different road user groups when making right hand turns at urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different types of road users at intersections form a substantial component of the road toll. This paper presents an analysis of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour at intersections that involved the application of an integrated suite of ergonomics methods, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) framework, to on-road study data. EAST was used to analyse behaviour at three intersections using data derived from an on-road study of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour. The analysis shows the differences in behaviour and cognition across the different road user groups and pinpoints instances where this may be creating conflicts between different road users. The role of intersection design in creating these differences in behaviour and resulting conflicts is discussed. It is concluded that currently intersections are not designed in a way that supports behaviour across the four forms of road user studied. Interventions designed to improve intersection safety are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Intersection safety currently represents a key road safety issue worldwide. This paper presents a novel application of a framework of ergonomics methods for studying differences in road user behaviour at intersections. The findings support development of interventions that consider all road users as opposed to one group in isolation.

  16. Potential Safety Benefit of the Blind Spot Detection System for Large Trucks on the Vulnerable Road Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.

  17. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  18. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVCair pollution on city transit workers globally. The role of other confounders acting synergistically to cause a more deleterious effect is obvious. In all, the effect depends on the mode and duration of exposure.

  19. Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Ghanbari, Mahshid; Hamid, Hussain; Abdul-Halin, Alfian; Ng, Choy Peng

    2016-11-01

    Motorcyclists are particularly vulnerable to injury in crashes with heavy vehicles due to substantial differences in vehicle mass, the degree of protection and speed. There is a considerable difference in height between motorcycles and trucks; motorcycles are viewed by truck drivers from downward angles, and shorter distances between them mean steeper downward angles. Hence, we anticipated that the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments would be different for truck drivers. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments on the identification and detection of motorcycles by truck drivers. Two complementary experiments were performed; the first experiment assessed the impact of motorcycle sensory conspicuity on the ability of un-alerted truck drivers to detect motorcycles, and the second experiment assessed the motorcycle cognitive conspicuity to alerted truck drivers. The sensory conspicuity was measured in terms of motorcycle detection rates by un-alerted truck drivers when they were not anticipating a motorcycle within a realistic driving scene, while the cognitive conspicuity was determined by the time taken by alerted truck drivers to actively search for a motorcycle. In the first experiment, the participants were presented with 10 pictures and were instructed to report the kinds of vehicles that were presented in the pictures. Each picture was shown to the participants for 600ms. In the second experiment, the participants were presented with the same set of pictures and were instructed to respond by clicking the right button on a mouse as soon as they detected a motorcycle in the picture. The results indicate that the motorcycle detection rate increases, and the response time to search for a motorcycle decreases, as the distance between the targeted motorcycle and the viewer decreases. This is true regardless of the type of conspicuity treatment used. The use of daytime running headlights (DRH) was found to

  20. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  1. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. European Academy of Paediatrics Statement: Vision zero for child deaths in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Stiris, Tom; Del Torso, Stefano; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Valiulis, Arunas; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2017-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and disability in children throughout Europe. They remain the leading cause of death among children 5--19 years old in Europe. Children may be injured as pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists or passengers in cars. The European Academy of Pediatrics (EAP) strives to prevent morbidity and death in children. We urge policy-makers to actively work for a "vision zero", where no child is killed in traffic. EAP suggests simple measures such as, secure transport for children between home and school, speed limits, road bumps, wearing bike helmets and seat belts, using child-restraints for small children and enforcement of legislation on road safety.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  4. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (164). Morel-Lavallée lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sook Chuei Wendy; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old male motorcyclist presented with prepatellar swelling of the left knee after a collision with a car. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee showed no bony or ligamentous injury to the knee. Instead, a well-defined, thin-walled, T2-weighted hyperintense fluid collection with internal septations was identified in a prefascial location overlying the left patella and patellar tendon. The findings were in keeping with those of a Morel-Lavallée lesion, a closed internal degloving injury. Morel-Lavallée lesions are occasionally encountered after a blunt soft-tissue trauma. The presentation and imaging features are discussed. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. A Qualitative Comparison of Susceptibility and Behavior in Recreational and Occupational Risk Environments: Implications for Promoting Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily Joy; Mattson, Marifran

    2016-06-01

    Although internal factors that influence risk are frequently studied to understand human behavior, external factors, including social, cultural, and institutional factors, should be better utilized to inform ways to efficiently target, tailor, and promote safety messaging to at-risk populations. Semi-structured interviews obtained data from 37 motorcyclists and 18 mineworkers about their risk perceptions and behaviors within their respective dynamic environments. A comparative thematic analysis revealed information about external factors that influence risk perceptions and behaviors. Results support the importance of qualitative approaches for assessing and targeting individuals' risk perceptions and behaviors. In addition, segmenting at-risk subgroups within target populations and tailoring messages for these at-risk groups is critical for safety behavior modification. Practitioners should utilize strategic, culture-centric risk communication that takes into account external factors when determining when, who, and what to communicate via health promotion activities to more accurately disseminate valid, empathetic, and engaging communication with a higher level of fidelity.

  6. Motorcycle That See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications.

  7. Motorcycles that See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications. PMID:29351267

  8. Motorcycle That See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco

    2018-01-19

    Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications.

  9. Case studies in contact burns caused by exhaust pipes of motorcycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lee, Su-Shin; Tu, Chao-Hung; Chen, I-Heng; Chang, Kao-Ping C; Tsai, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2002-06-01

    Contact burns caused by the exhaust pipe of motorcycles are rarely reported. We performed retrospective studies of such cases in 78 patients with complete records. The majority of victims were unmarried (75.7%), young (exhaust pipe and its outside cover on moving motorcycles showed that the temperature reached 170-250 and 40-60 degrees C, respectively. For the prevention of these injuries, our suggestions include well-designed external shield with adequate separation from the exhaust pipe, motorcycle parking lots of adequate width (>120cm), the wearing of trousers by motorcyclists, decrease of the density of motorcycle traffic, and development of the electric assisted cycle in place of the fuel-driven motorcycle.

  10. 35-GHz radar sensor for automotive collision avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a radar sensor system used for automotive collision avoidance. Because the heavy truck may have great larger radar cross section than a motorcyclist has, the radar receiver may have a large dynamic range. And multi-targets at different speed may confuse the echo spectrum causing the ambiguity between range and speed of target. To get more information about target and background and to adapt to the large dynamic range and multi-targets, a frequency modulated and pseudo- random binary sequences phase modulated continuous wave radar system is described. The analysis of this double- modulation system is given. A high-speed signal processing and data processing component are used to process and combine the data and information from echo at different direction and at every moment.

  11. The prevalence of drugs and alcohol found in road traffic fatalities: a comparative study of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon; Woolacott, Helen; Braithwaite, Robin

    2009-03-01

    Researchers have studied the involvement of drugs and alcohol in fatal road traffic incidents, but with particular emphasis on the possible impairment of the driver. This paper describes a comparative study of drug and alcohol findings in various victim groups (drivers of cars, vans or lorries, car passengers, motorcyclists, motorcycle passengers, cyclists and pedestrians) between 2000 and 2006. Post-mortem blood and urine specimens submitted were analysed by immunoassay, GC-NPD, GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. The results of 1047 cases indicated 54% of all victims were positive for drugs and/or alcohol, with the highest percentage of positive findings occurring in pedestrians (63%). Males between the ages of 17-24 were most likely to be involved in a road traffic accident, whether being in control of a vehicle (driver) or involved indirectly (car passenger, pedestrian, motorcycle passenger). A wide range of drugs were detected (e.g., drugs of abuse, anti-convulsants, anti-histamines, anti-inflammatories, anti-psychotics, cardiac drugs and over-the-counter products), but alcohol and cannabinoids were the most frequent substances across the victim groups. When detected, alcohol was commonly above the legal driving limit in blood and urine (>63% in those in control and >60% not in control). Overall, the presence of drugs and/or alcohol was of similar frequency in those victims in control (55% of driver, 48% of motorcyclists, 33% of cyclists) and not in control of a vehicle (52% of car passengers, 63% of pedestrians). This degree of frequency strongly implicates the involvement of drugs and alcohol in road traffic incidents and infers an effect on driving ability and individual impairment.

  12. Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Ederer, David; Vo, Van Anh Ha; Pham, An Van; Mounts, Anthony; Nolen, Leisha D; Sugerman, David

    2018-01-02

    Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.

  13. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05. From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4% reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%, males (73.7%, and motorcyclists (51.3%. More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3% located in the head (20.7% and face (21.6%. Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870 and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061, while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954. Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions.

  14. Road Traffic Injury Trends in the City of Valledupar, Colombia. A Time Series Study from 2008 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martín Rodríguez

    Full Text Available To analyze the behavior temporal of road-traffic injuries (RTI in Valledupar, Colombia from January 2008 to December 2012.An observational study was conducted based on records from the Colombian National Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences Institute regional office in Valledupar. Different variables were analyzed, such as the injured person's sex, age, education level, and type of road user; the timeframe, place and circumstances of crashes and the vehicles associated with the occurrence. Furthermore, a time series analysis was conducted using an auto-regressive integrated moving average.There were 105 events per month on an average, 64.9% of RTI involved men; 82.3% of the persons injured were from 18 to 59 years of age; the average age was 35.4 years of age; the road users most involved in RTI were motorcyclists (69%, followed by pedestrians (12%. 70% had up to upper-secondary education. Sunday was the day with the most RTI occurrences; 93% of the RTI occurred in the urban area. The time series showed a seasonal pattern and a significant trend effect. The modeling process verified the existence of both memory and extrinsic variables related.An RTI occurrence pattern was identified, which showed an upward trend during the period analyzed. Motorcyclists were the main road users involved in RTI, which suggests the need to design and implement specific measures for that type of road user, from regulations for graduated licensing for young drivers to monitoring road user behavior for the promotion of road safety.

  15. The social context of motorcycle riding and the key determinants influencing rider behavior: a qualitative investigation.

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    Tunnicliff, Deborah; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Lewis, Ioni; Wishart, Darren

    2011-08-01

    Given the increasing popularity of motorcycle riding and heightened risk of injury or death associated with being a rider, this study explored rider behavior as a determinant of rider safety and, in particular, key beliefs and motivations that influence such behavior. To enhance the effectiveness of future education and training interventions, it is important to understand riders' own views about what influences how they ride. Specifically, this study sought to identify key determinants of riders' behaviors in relation to the social context of riding, including social and identity-related influences relating to the group (group norms and group identity) as well as the self (moral/personal norm and self-identity). Qualitative research was undertaken via group discussions with motorcycle riders (n = 41). The findings revealed that those in the group with which one rides represent an important source of social influence. Also, the motorcyclist (group) identity was associated with a range of beliefs, expectations, and behaviors considered to be normative. Exploration of the construct of personal norm revealed that riders were most cognizant of the "wrong things to do" when riding; among those issues raised was the importance of protective clothing (albeit for the protection of others and, in particular, pillion passengers). Finally, self-identity as a motorcyclist appeared to be important to a rider's self-concept and was likely to influence on-road behavior. Overall, the insight provided by the current study may facilitate the development of interventions including rider training as well as public education and mass media messages. The findings suggest that these interventions should incorporate factors associated with the social nature of riding in order to best align it with some of the key beliefs and motivations underpinning riders' on-road behaviors.

  16. Epidemiological Profile of Extremity Fractures and Dislocations in Road Traffic Accidents in Kashan, Iran:a Glance at the Related Disabilities

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    Mehrdad Mahdian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apart from the mortality, road traffic injuries are associated with significant morbidities. This study has aimed to examine the pattern of traffic accident-related extremity fractures/dislocations and their related disabilities. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted to assess the characteristics of limb fractures/dislocations among road traffic accident victims registered in Trauma Research Center registry of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran, during 2012-2013. Age and sex distribution, cause of injury, and site of fractures/dislocations were recorded. Years lived with disability (YLD was calculated as a scale to measure the disability. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 962 subjects, 812 (84.4% were males (the male/female sex ratio: 5.4:1. The mean age of victims was 32.7±17.9. Leg (37% and forearm (19% fractures were the most frequent fractures. Shoulder dislocations were among the most affected joints accounting for 36.6% of the cases. The total calculated YLD was 135.6 (34.4 for temporal and 101.2 for lifelong disabilities, and totally 117.3 and 18.3 for males and females, respectively. The highest YLD was for motorcyclists (104 and while the most YLD was for 15-29 years (68.2. Conclusion: Young men motorcyclist accidents are a major problem in Kashan region. Generally, they have been accounted for the highest YLD due to fractures/dislocations, especially in lower extremity. Although the calculated YLD will be decreased with increasing age, the elder people also had the high rate of traffic-related limb injuries.

  17. Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan

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    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  18. Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.

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    Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Injury epidemiology in Iran: a systematic review

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    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, Pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD age among these cases was 30 (17.4 years. Males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%, followed by falls (22.3%. In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%. Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%. The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%. The mean (SD Injury Severity Score (ISS was 8.1(8.6%. The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes.

  20. [An intercept survey on the status of driving after alcohol drinking among motor vehicle drivers in 6 counties of Zhejiang, China].

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    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xin-wei; Song, Xiao-chun; Bao, Ping; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Yun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the status of driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers and to provide evidence for the development of specific interventions. A 7-day intercept survey on driving after alcohol drinking, having drinking habit or driving after getting drunk, among motor vehicle drivers, was conducted in 6 counties of Zhejiang province, 2010. 16 467 motor vehicle drivers were included in the survey. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol [blood alcohol concentration (BAC) > 0 mg/100 ml], having habit of drinking alcohol (20 mg/100 ml ≤ BAC driving after being drunk (BAC ≥ 80 mg/100 ml), were 1.82%, 1.03% and 0.27% respectively. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol, having habit of drink alcohol and driving and drunk-driving among the drivers from urban areas were significantly higher than those of drivers from rural areas, and those rates of male drivers were significantly higher than female drivers as well. 60.20% of drivers after drinking alcohol, were 35 to 49 year-olds, and the three above said rates all increased along with age. The highest above said three rates were observed at 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Compared with other motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists possessed the highest rates of the three items, as 9.27%, 5.01% and 1.57% respectively. Driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers still prevailed in Zhejiang, especially between 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Drivers from the cities, being male or motorcyclists were among the high-risk populations that called for special attention to be paid in the future, including law enforcement and health promotion to fight against the problem.

  1. Trends in traumatic brain injury mortality in China, 2006-2013: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peixia; Yin, Peng; Ning, Peishan; Wang, Lijun; Cheng, Xunjie; Liu, Yunning; Schwebel, David C; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural), and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China. Mortality data came from the national DSPs system of China, which has coded deaths using the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) since 2004. Crude and age-standardized mortality with 95% CIs were estimated using the census population in 2010 as a reference population. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to examine the significance of trends in mortality from 2006 to 2013. Negative binomial models were used to examine the associations of TBI mortality with location, sex, and age group. Subgroup analysis was performed by external cause of TBI. We found the following: (1) Age-adjusted TBI mortality increased from 13.23 per 100,000 population in 2006 to 17.06 per 100,000 population in 2008 and then began to fall slightly. In 2013, age-adjusted TBI mortality was 12.99 per 100,000 population (SE = 0.13). (2) Compared to females and urban residents, males and rural residents had higher TBI mortality risk, with adjusted mortality rate ratios of 2.57 and 1.71, respectively. TBI mortality increased substantially with older age. (3) Motor vehicle crashes and falls were the 2 leading causes of TBI mortality between 2006 and 2013. TBI deaths from motor vehicle crashes in children aged 0-14 years and adults aged 65 years and older were most often in pedestrians, and motorcyclists were the first or second leading category of road user for the other

  2. Morbidade por acidentes de transporte entre jovens de Goiânia, Goiás Traffic injuries among youth in Goiânia, Goiás State

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    Carlos Roberto Caixeta

    2010-07-01

    frequently mode of transport. Accidents usually occurred around 6pm, on Fridays and Sundays. The victims were generally traveling/walking to/from exercise, sports, school, recreational or entertainment activities. Suspicion of alcohol use was reported by 15.16% of the cases. More motorcyclists believed that there was imprudence/ negligence than the cyclists. Security equipment was not used by 8.58% of motorcyclists, 95.45% of cyclists. Educational measures for motorcyclists and law enforcement highlighting the nights and weekends are needed.

  3. Trends in traumatic brain injury mortality in China, 2006-2013: A population-based longitudinal study.

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    Peixia Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural, and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China.Mortality data came from the national DSPs system of China, which has coded deaths using the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10 since 2004. Crude and age-standardized mortality with 95% CIs were estimated using the census population in 2010 as a reference population. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to examine the significance of trends in mortality from 2006 to 2013. Negative binomial models were used to examine the associations of TBI mortality with location, sex, and age group. Subgroup analysis was performed by external cause of TBI. We found the following: (1 Age-adjusted TBI mortality increased from 13.23 per 100,000 population in 2006 to 17.06 per 100,000 population in 2008 and then began to fall slightly. In 2013, age-adjusted TBI mortality was 12.99 per 100,000 population (SE = 0.13. (2 Compared to females and urban residents, males and rural residents had higher TBI mortality risk, with adjusted mortality rate ratios of 2.57 and 1.71, respectively. TBI mortality increased substantially with older age. (3 Motor vehicle crashes and falls were the 2 leading causes of TBI mortality between 2006 and 2013. TBI deaths from motor vehicle crashes in children aged 0-14 years and adults aged 65 years and older were most often in pedestrians, and motorcyclists were the first or second leading category of road user for

  4. Morbidade por acidentes de transporte entre jovens de Goiânia, Goiás Traffic injuries among youth in Goiânia, Goiás State

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    Carlos Roberto Caixeta

    2009-12-01

    frequent transportation. Accidents usually occurred around 6pm, on Fridays and Sundays. The victims were generally traveling/walking to/from exercise, sports, school, recreational or entertainment activities. Suspicion of alcohol use was reported in 15.16% of the cases. More motorcyclists believed that there was imprudence/ negligence in the accident than the cyclists. Security equipment was not used by 8.58% of motorcyclists and 95.45% of cyclists. Educational measures for motorcyclists and surveillance highlighting the night time and weekends are needed.

  5. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  6. Predictors of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma patients

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    José Gustavo Parreira

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess predictors of intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma patients admitted without abdominal pain or abnormalities on the abdomen physical examination. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of trauma registry data, including adult blunt trauma patients admitted from 2008 to 2010 who sustained no abdominal pain or abnormalities on physical examination of the abdomen at admission and were submitted to computed tomography of the abdomen and/or exploratory laparotomy. Patients were assigned into: Group 1 (with intra-abdominal injuries or Group 2 (without intra-abdominal injuries. Variables were compared between groups to identify those significantly associated with the presence of intra-abdominal injuries, adopting p<0.05 as significant. Subsequently, the variables with p<0.20 on bivariate analysis were selected to create a logistic regression model using the forward stepwise method. Results: A total of 268 cases met the inclusion criteria. Patients in Group I were characterized as having significantly (p<0.05 lower mean AIS score for the head segment (1.0±1.4 vs. 1.8±1.9, as well as higher mean AIS thorax score (1.6±1.7 vs. 0.9±1.5 and ISS (25.7±14.5 vs. 17,1±13,1. The rate of abdominal injuries was significantly higher in run-over pedestrians (37.3% and in motorcyclists (36.0% (p<0.001. The resultant logistic regression model provided 73.5% accuracy for identifying abdominal injuries. The variables included were: motorcyclist accident as trauma mechanism (p<0.001 - OR 5.51; 95%CI 2.40-12.64, presence of rib fractures (p<0.003 - OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.47-6.14, run-over pedestrian as trauma mechanism (p=0.008 - OR 2.85; 95%CI 1.13-6.22 and abnormal neurological physical exam at admission (p=0.015 - OR 0.44; 95%CI 0.22-0.85. Conclusion Intra-abdominal injuries were predominantly associated with trauma mechanism and presence of chest injuries.

  7. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  8. Prevenção de acidentes: o reconhecimento das estratégias operatórias dos motociclistas profissionais como base para a negociação de acordo coletivo Accident prevention: recognition of motorcycle couriers’ work strategies as the basis for collective bargaining

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    Eugênio Paceli Hatem Diniz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar como o estudo das estratégias operatórias contribui para elaborar medidas de prevenção dos acidentes sofridos pelos motociclistas profissionais, conhecidos popularmente como "motoboys". Os autores apresentam uma crítica à concepção do erro humano, hegemônica dentre os especialistas em segurança do trabalho. Os resultados apresentados foram obtidos de um estudo ergonômico iniciado por demanda do sindicato dos motociclistas profissionais de Minas Gerais. No total, 85 motociclistas profissionais foram observados e entrevistados. Os procedimentos adotados foram: registro da atividade por meio de filmagens nas ruas e avenidas da cidade; autoconfrontação das cenas do filme e das rotas elaboradas em mapas, e de certos aspectos das atividades de trabalho observadas na expedição das duas empresas selecionadas. Ao final, os autores discutem os limites das normas de segurança prescritas que não consideram o saber desenvolvido pelos próprios trabalhadores. As medidas de transformação das situações geradoras de acidentes elaboradas com apoio no estudo detalhado das estratégias implementadas pelos sujeitos estudados serviram para a elaboração da convenção coletiva de trabalho.The aim of this study is to present, as operational strategies, the contribuition to elaborate some prevention measures to protect the professional motorcyclists, popularly known as "motoboys", against accidents. The authors present a critic to the human error conception that is hegemonic to the experts at work security. The results come from an Ergonomics study that started over an Union demand of the professional motorcyclists in Minas Gerais. The total come to 85 professional motorciclists who were interviewed and observed. The procedures were: report the activity filmed in the city streets and avenues; selfconfrontation of the scenes and of the map rutes, and of some aspects obeserved in the two selected companies

  9. Impact of the effect of economic crisis and the targeted motorcycle safety programme on motorcycle-related accidents, injuries and fatalities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, T H; Umar, R S Radin; Zulkaurnain, S; Kulanthayan, S

    2005-03-01

    In 1997, a Motorcycle Safety Programme (MSP) was introduced to address the motorcycle-related accident problem. The MSP was specifically targeted at motorcyclists. In addition to the MSP, the recent economic recession has significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic-related incidents. This paper examines the effects of the recent economic crisis and the MSP on motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia. The autocorrelation integrated moving average model with transfer function was used to evaluate the overall effects of the interventions. The variables used in developing the model were gross domestic product and MSPs. The analysis found a 25% reduction in the number of motorcycle-related accidents, a 27% reduction in motorcycle casualties and a 38% reduction in motorcycle fatalities after the implementation of MSP. Findings indicate that the MSP has been one of the effective measures in reducing motorcycle safety problems in Malaysia. Apart from that, the performance of the country's economy was also found to be significant in explaining the number of motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia.

  10. Motorcycle On-Road Driving Parameters Influencing Fuel Consumption and Emissions on Congested Signalized Urban Corridor

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    Atthapol Seedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the on-road driving parameters influencing fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor. A motorcycle onboard measurement system was developed to measure instantaneously and continuously record on-road driving data, including speed-time profile, emissions, and fuel consumption, by the second. The test motorcycles were driven by 30 sample motorcyclists on a signalized urban corridor in Khon Kaen City, Thailand, to collect their on-road driving behavior during the morning peak period. Cluster analysis was applied to analyze collected driving data and to categorize the drivers by level of fuel consumption and on-road driver behavior. The on-road driving parameter influencing fuel consumption and emissions was then determined. Results revealed that proportion of idle time significantly influenced fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor, though aggressive driving behavior, hard acceleration and deceleration, did not have the same kind of influence.

  11. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  12. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

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    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A mixed logit analysis of two-vehicle crash severities involving a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, Mohammad Saad B; Gkritza, Konstantina; Zhang, Wei; Hans, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Using motorcycle crash data for Iowa from 2001 to 2008, this paper estimates a mixed logit model to investigate the factors that affect crash severity outcomes in a collision between a motorcycle and another vehicle. These include crash-specific factors (such as manner of collision, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle actions), roadway and environmental conditions, location and time, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle attributes. The methodological approach allows the parameters to vary across observations as opposed to a single parameter representing all observations. Our results showed non-uniform effects of rear-end collisions on minor injury crashes, as well as of the roadway speed limit greater or equal to 55mph, the type of area (urban), the riding season (summer) and motorcyclist's gender on low severity crashes. We also found significant effects of the roadway surface condition, clear vision (not obscured by moving vehicles, trees, buildings, or other), light conditions, speed limit, and helmet use on severe injury outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  16. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai‘i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai‘i between 2007–2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured. PMID:27980882

  17. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-09-28

    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  19. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motorcycle crash-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations for traumatic brain injury in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Katherine J; Marshall, Stephen W; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Naumann, Rebecca B; Waller, Anna E

    2015-01-01

    To examine statewide emergency department (ED) visit data for motorcycle crash morbidity and healthcare utilization due to traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and non-TBIs. North Carolina ED data (2010-2012) and hospital discharge data (2009-2011). Statewide ED visits and hospitalizations due to injuries from traffic-related motorcycle crashes stratified by TBI status. Descriptive study. Descriptive statistics include age, sex, mode of transport, disposition, expected source of payment, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges. Over the study period, there were 18 780 ED visits and 3737 hospitalizations due to motorcycle crashes. Twelve percent of ED visits for motorcycle crashes and 26% of hospitalizations for motorcycle crashes had a diagnosis of TBI. Motorcycle crash-related hospitalizations with a TBI diagnosis had median hospital charges that were nearly $9000 greater than hospitalizations without a TBI diagnosis. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations due to motorcycle crashes with a TBI diagnosis consumed more healthcare resources than motorcycle crash-related ED visits and hospitalizations without a TBI diagnosis. Increased awareness of motorcyclists by other road users and increased use of motorcycle helmets are 2 strategies to mitigate the incidence and severity of motorcycle crash injuries, including TBIs.

  1. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  2. Effectiveness of Interventions for Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran and Some Methodological Issues: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazarghani, Homayoun; Heydari, Mahdiyeh; Rezapour, Ramin; Derakhshani, Naser

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To review the effectiveness of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) interventions implemented for prevention of RTIs in Iran and to introduce some methodological issues. Methods: Required data in this systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: "Road Traffic Injuries", "Road Traffic accidents", "Road Traffic crashes", “prevention”, and Iran in PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, Scopus, MagIran, SID and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites searched manually. Reference lists of the selected articles were also checked. Gray literature search and expert contact was also conducted. Results: Out of 569 retrieved articles, finally 8 articles included. Among the included studies the effectiveness of 10 interventions were assessed containing: seat belt, enforcements of laws and legislations, educational program, wearing helmet, Antilock Braking System (ABS), motorcyclists' penalty enforcement, pupil liaisons’ education, provisional driver licensing, Road bumps and traffic improvement's plans. In 7 studies (9 interventions) reduction of RTIs rate were reported. Decreased rate of mortality from RTIs were reported in three studies. Only one study had mentioned financial issue (Anti-lock Brake System intervention). Inadequate data sources, inappropriate selection of statistical index and not mention about the control of Confounding Variables (CV), the most common methodological issues were. Conclusion: The results of most interventional studies conducted in Iran supported the effect of the interventions on reduction of RTIs. However due to some methodological or reporting shortcoming the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:29719838

  3. Years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Cavalcante Valença Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents represent a serious public health problem, because they kill approximately 1.24 million persons annually, and leave another 20 to 50 million with non-fatal lesions and traumatisms worldwide. In Brazil, in the year 2011, motorcyclists alone were responsible for one third of these deaths. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents, according to sex and age group, and analyze the trend of the indicator for the state of Pernambuco in the period from 2005 to 2014. Methods and Results an ecological study based on data from the System of Information about Mortality was used. The indicator and rate were calculated by using the age limit of 70 years. The linear regression model and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used, at the level of significance of 5% and confidence of 95%. The most affected sex and age-range were men between 20-29 years of age. The rates followed a trend of growth in both sexes, in the young population with the exception of those from 10 to 19 years of age. Conclusions: This context points out the magnitude and precociousness of motorcycle accidents in both sexes and the young population.

  4. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petri Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. Method: cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004 and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017. Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. Conclusion: it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  5. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Consiglio, Angélica Rosat; Pai, Daiane Dal

    2017-04-20

    to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004) and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017). Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE) and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  6. Improving motorcycle conspicuity through innovative headlight configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchet, Maud; Cavallo, Viola; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Vienne, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents: motorcycle-detection failures and motion-perception errors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different headlight configurations on motorcycle detectability when the motorcycle is in visual competition with cars. Three innovative headlight configurations were tested: (1) standard yellow (central yellow headlight), (2) vertical white (one white light on the motorcyclist's helmet and two white lights on the fork in addition to the central white headlight), and (3) vertical yellow (same configuration as (2) with yellow lights instead of white). These three headlight configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (central white headlight) in three environments containing visual distractors formed by car lights: (1) daytime running lights (DRLs), (2) low beams, or (3) DRLs and low beams. Video clips of computer-generated traffic situations were displayed briefly (250ms) to 57 drivers. The results revealed a beneficial effect of standard yellow configuration and the vertical yellow configuration on motorcycle detectability. However, this effect was modulated by the car-DRL environment. Findings and practical recommendations are discussed with regard to possible applications for motorcycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of front light configuration on the visual conspicuity of motorcycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Cavallo, Viola; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A recent study (Cavallo and Pinto, 2012) showed that daytime running lights (DRLs) on cars create "visual noise" that interferes with the lighting of motorcycles and affects their visual conspicuity. In the present experiment, we tested three conspicuity enhancements designed to improve motorcycle detectability in a car-DRL environment: a triangle configuration (a central headlight plus two lights located on the rearview mirrors), a helmet configuration (a light located on the motorcyclist's helmet in addition to the central headlight), and a single central yellow headlight. These three front-light configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (a single central white headlight). Photographs representing complex urban traffic scenes were presented briefly (for 250ms). The results revealed better motorcycle-detection performance for both the yellow headlight and the helmet configuration than for the standard configuration. The findings suggest some avenues for defining a new visual signature for motorcycles in car-DRL environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Sakrani, Taha; Dasu, Mohan; Zhou, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  10. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data.

  11. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-03-01

    The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data with 1,104 state/year observations from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine not only total fatality rates but also rates decomposed by crash type, day, time, and the level of the motorcycle operator's blood alcohol content. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of Interventions for Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran and Some Methodological Issues: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazarghani, Homayoun; Heydari, Mahdiyeh; Rezapour, Ramin; Derakhshani, Naser

    2018-04-01

    To review the effectiveness of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) interventions implemented for prevention of RTIs in Iran and to introduce some methodological issues. Required data in this systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: "Road Traffic Injuries", "Road Traffic accidents", "Road Traffic crashes", "prevention", and Iran in PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, Scopus, MagIran, SID and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites searched manually. Reference lists of the selected articles were also checked. Gray literature search and expert contact was also conducted. Out of 569 retrieved articles, finally 8 articles included. Among the included studies the effectiveness of 10 interventions were assessed containing: seat belt, enforcements of laws and legislations, educational program, wearing helmet, Antilock Braking System (ABS), motorcyclists' penalty enforcement, pupil liaisons' education, provisional driver licensing, Road bumps and traffic improvement's plans. In 7 studies (9 interventions) reduction of RTIs rate were reported. Decreased rate of mortality from RTIs were reported in three studies. Only one study had mentioned financial issue (Anti-lock Brake System intervention). Inadequate data sources, inappropriate selection of statistical index and not mention about the control of Confounding Variables (CV), the most common methodological issues were. The results of most interventional studies conducted in Iran supported the effect of the interventions on reduction of RTIs. However due to some methodological or reporting shortcoming the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously.

  13. Analysis of personality traits as a risk factor in crash related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Goyal, Rahul; Singh, Ajai; Sharma, Vineet; Srivastava, Rajeshwer Nath; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    Due to increasing stress, individual personality traits are becoming a significant contributor to CRT (Crash Related Trauma). In the present study, we hypothesized that there will be no difference in personality characteristics of CRT patients and control subjects and there will be no association between trauma and personality characteristics of CRT patients. A total of 119 cases and 112 controls of age >18 years were selected as per criteria decided. After obtaining ethical clearance, patients presenting to the emergency orthopedic unit were included in the study. After primary management all enrolled subjects were assessed by ICD 10 module screening questionnaire and analyzed for nine personality traits, subject to written informed consent. Of all the cases enrolled 82.35% were males. Impulsive personality trait is found in 84.78% (39/46) cases. There were 46 motorcyclists out of 119 cases enrolled. Most of the personality traits showed a statistical significant association (p personality characteristics which accounted for 84.78% and 82.61% cases respectively. These traits showed a statistical significant association with CRT.

  14. Survival in fatal road crashes: body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Schoettle, Brandon; Rupp, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for an 11-year period. If involved in a crash with one or more fatalities, the odds of female drivers being among the fatalities are 1.28 times higher than those of male drivers, and the odds of unbelted drivers being among the fatalities are 5.43 times higher than those of belted drivers. The relationship of survivability to BMI depends on the gender and safety belt use of the driver. For male drivers, increased BMI appears beneficial when safety belts are used but detrimental when not used. For belted female drivers, normal BMI is associated with the lowest odds of being killed, and both increased and decreased BMIs increase the odds. For unbelted female drivers, no reliable trends were present among the BMI categories.

  15. Factors Associated with Road Accidents among Brazilian Motorcycle Couriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents—personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)—reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists. PMID:22629158

  16. Accidents involving Brazilian indigenous treated at urgent and emergency services of the Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Njaine, Kathie; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Oliveira, Maria Conceição de

    2016-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the accidents with Brazilian indigenous treated at urgent and emergency services of the Unified Health System (SUS). Data were obtained from the 2014 Viva Survey, which included 86 services from 24 capitals and the Federal District. The demographic profile of the indigenous, the event and the attendance were characterized. Most of the attended people were male in the 20-39 years age group. Falls and traffic accidents were the main reasons for attendance. Alcohol use was informed by 5.6% of the attended people, a figure that increases to 19.1% in traffic accidents, 26.1% among drivers and 22.8% among motorcyclists. There was a statistical difference between genders in relation to age, disability, place of occurrence of the event, work-related event and victim's condition in the traffic accident. We emphasize the importance of providing visibility to accidents with indigenous and engage them in the prevention of such events. Data reliability depends on the adequate completion in indigenous health information systems.

  17. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  18. Initial results of Pakistan's first road traffic injury surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shahzad; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid; Khan, Uzma

    2011-09-01

    Our aim is to report the findings of the initial three years of road traffic injuries (RTI) surveillance at Karachi and to compare it with previously published RTI-related data from Pakistan and other low-and middle-income countries. Data were collected through the RTI surveillance programme at Karachi (RTIRP) from the five biggest emergency departments of the city, which receive almost all the major emergencies of the city for the period September 2006 till September 2009. A total of 99,272 victims were enlisted by the RTIRP during the study period. Annual incidence of RTI is calculated to be 184.3 per 100,000 populations and mortality is 5.7 per 100,000 populations. Eighty nine per cent of victims are male and 73% are between 15 and 44 years of age. Commonest road user to be affected is riders of two wheelers (45%). Only 7% of affected motorcyclists were found to be wearing helmets at the time of the accident. Trends of injuries remained uniform over the years. Most frequent injuries were external wounds, followed by orthopaedic injuries. On the basis of our surveillance system, we have presented the largest RTI-related data from a metropolitan city of Pakistan to date.

  19. Muscular Activities Measurements of Forward Lean and Upright Sitting Motorcycling Postures via Surface Electromyography (sEMG

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    Ma’arof Muhammad Izzat Nor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycling postures are generically speculated to be physical and physiologically demanding – which in-turn may lead to motorcycling fatigue, and then becoming a possible factor to road accident. The objective of this study was to measure the muscular activities of various motorcycling postures. High muscular activity reading will signifies that motorcycling is indeed physically and physiologically demanding to the motorcyclist. For this particular study, the following postures were tested: i forward lean, ii upright sitting, and iii neutral sitting (as control. Surface electromyography (sEMG measurement was conducted on the following muscles: i extensor carpi radialis, ii upper trapezius iii latissimus dorsi, and iv erector spinae. The results showed that for all test subjects, the muscular activities readings for the forward lean posture was actually close to neutral sitting’s. Whilst, the upright sitting had showed much higher muscular activities measurement instead. Conclusively, this study had proven that any types of discomforts associated with the forward lean posture is not originated from muscular activities. Whereas, confirming that any discomforts in regards to the upright sitting is indeed related to muscular activities. Further studies are warranted to discover the actual risk factors that causes physical and physiological discomforts for the forward lean motorcycling posture.

  20. Circular (ou não em São Paulo

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    Carlos Zarattini

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os conflitos existentes na questão da circulação na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, mais exatamente no município de São Paulo. As contradições entre os diversos atores (empresários de ônibus, transportadores autônomos, transportadores de carga, motociclistas, pedestres e usuários são analisadas, assim como as medidas necessárias para garantir a viabilidade da circulação na metrópole. Também são relatadas medidas e dificuldades encontradas pela Prefeitura de São Paulo para reorganizar o transporte público.This article examines the conflicts involved in circulating in the São Paulo metropolitan region, more precisely in the city of São Paulo. The contradictions between the various players (bus company operators, independent van drivers, freighters, motorcyclists, pedestrians and users are here analyzed, as well as the measures required to assure the feasibility of moving around in the metropolis. Also included is an account of the actions and problems of the municipal government in attempting to reorganize public transportation

  1. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  2. Acidentes de trânsito: caracterização das vitimas segundo o "Revised Trauma Score" medido no período pré-hospitalar Accidentes de transito: caracterización de las víctimas según el "Revised Trauma Score" medido en el periodo pre-hospitalario Motor vehicle crash: victims' characterization throughout prehospital "Revised Trauma Score"

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    Marisa Amaro Malvestio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve idade, sexo, aspectos do mecanismo e procedimentos realizados em. 643 acidentados de trânsito atendidos nas Marginais Tietê e Pinheiros, considerando os valores do Revised Trauma Score (RTS do período pré-hospitalar. As vítimas com RTS=12 somaram 90,8%, com RTS=11, 4,0% e RTSEste estudio tiene como obje tivo describer, considerando el Revised Trauma Score (RTS obtenido en el periodo pré hospitalario, edad, sexo, aspectos del mecanismo e procedimientos realizados en 643 víctimas de accidente de tránsito. Las víctimas con RTS=12 sumaron 90,8%, con RTS=11, 4,0% y RTSThis report describes age, gender, trauma mechanics aspects and procedures from 643 motor vehicle crashes, MVC, victims in Tietê and Pinheiros expressways, by considering the prehospital Revised Trauma Score (RTS. The RTS=12 victims' were 90,8%, with RTS=11 added 4,0% and in group with RTS<10, 5,2%. Among the RTS<10 victims, the pedestrians stand out (36,4%, the frontal impacts (24,2% and the projected (36,4% or trapped victims (15,1%, and those that received advanced life support procedures.The motorcyclists and the male victims with 21 with 30 years of age were predominant. This study is expected to contribute to a better assistance to MVC victims.

  3. 'Stay friends...and keep your distance!'

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The third part of CERN's road safety campaign focuses on road users on two wheels.   Cyclists are just like pedestrians, only they travel somewhat faster and have to venture out among the cars. This makes them highly vulnerable. In the third part of CERN's road safety campaign we speak to a cyclist and motor-cyclist who is particularly aware of the dangers of the road. Daniel Valero walked away unscathed from an accident for which he was responsible. A few months on, he analyses the problems associated with two-wheeled transport. What criticisms do you have of car drivers? When riding a bike you always seem to take car drivers by surprise, as if they're not aware of your presence. The problem is that they sit inside a shell, their car, in conditions of ever-increasing comfort. Sound-proofing, car stereos and car-phones are leading to a general decline in car drivers' attention levels and they end up forgetting that other people use the road as well themselves, in particular cyclists. Cyclists also...

  4. Factors associated with road accidents among Brazilian motorcycle couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥ 25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents-personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)-reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists.

  5. Taking alcohol by deception: an analysis of ethanol concentration of "paraga" an alcoholic herbal mixture in Nigeria

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    Kehinde Oluwadiya S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol related road traffic injuries are on the rise in Nigeria. A sizable proportion of the alcohol intake is disguised as herbal medicines which are commonly available at motor parks in most urban centres. This study aims to determine the ethanol concentration of the herbal preparations and the vendors' knowledge about their preparation and use. Twenty-eight samples of the paraga mixtures were obtained for analysis from 22 paraga vendors. The vendors were interviewed in the motor parks using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results All the paraga outlets were located in or near motor parks. Commercial motor drivers and motorcyclists accounted for most customers. There were no formal recipes, production involved no calibrations or weighing and thus the components and concentration of different batches varied. The alcohol by volume (ABV of the samples ranged between 1.20% and 20.84%. Nine samples were weaker than beers (Alcohol By Volume (ABV of 1-3.1%. Ten were equivalent to beer (ABV:3-8% and the rest were equivalent to wine (ABV:8-12% or stronger (ABV: 18-20%. Conclusions Paraga should be classified as alcoholic beverages, and its sale restricted as such. The production should come under scrutiny, because the haphazard ways they are prepared may pose other health risks apart from those due to their alcoholic contents.

  6. Development of a continuous motorcycle protection barrier system using computer simulation and full-scale crash testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atahan, Ali O; Hiekmann, J Marten; Himpe, Jeffrey; Marra, Joseph

    2018-07-01

    Road restraint systems are designed to minimize the undesirable effects of roadside accidents and improve safety of road users. These systems are utilized at either side or median section of roads to contain and redirect errant vehicles. Although restraint systems are mainly designed against car, truck and bus impacts there is an increasing pressure by the motorcycle industry to incorporate motorcycle protection systems into these systems. In this paper development details of a new and versatile motorcycle barrier, CMPS, coupled with an existing vehicle barrier is presented. CMPS is intended to safely contain and redirect motorcyclists during a collision event. First, crash performance of CMPS design is evaluated by means of a three dimensional computer simulation program LS-DYNA. Then full-scale crash tests are used to verify the acceptability of CMPS design. Crash tests were performed at CSI proving ground facility using a motorcycle dummy in accordance with prEN 1317-8 specification. Full-scale crash test results show that CMPS is able to successfully contain and redirect dummy with minimal injury risk on the dummy. Damage on the barrier is also minimal proving the robustness of the CMPS design. Based on the test findings and further review by the authorities the implementation of CMPS was recommended at highway system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency mobile care service: trauma epidemiology in prehospital care

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    Mateus Kist Ibiapino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to characterize trauma victims assisted by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU 192 in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. Method: this is a descriptive and retrospective study in which 1,588 records of traumatic events were analyzed from the following variables: sex, age, day of the week, period of the day, trauma mechanism, topography and type of injuries, revised trauma score, type of mobile unit used, professional responsible for care, time to hospital care, procedures performed and deaths. Results: there was a predominance of male victims (69.5% and age between 18 and 37 (46.5%. Occurrences were concentrated at weekends (37.8% and in the evening (52.0%. It revealed traffic accidents (41.3% as the main mechanism of trauma, among which prevailed the involvement of motorcycles (73.0%. Regarding the topographic distribution of lesions, the majority affected the limbs (58.2%. The most adopted conducts in prehospital care were immobilization (26.3% and compression dressing (25.9%. The deaths accounted for 2.7% of the total sample. Conclusion: The population most affected by traumatic events in Ilhéus shown to be composed of young men involved in traffic accidents, mainly motorcyclists, during the weekends.

  8. Perfil dos atendimentos a acidentes de transporte terrestre por serviços de emergência em São Paulo, 2005 Perfil de las atenciones a accidentes de transporte terrestre por servicios de emergencia en São Paulo, 2005 Land transport injuries among emergency department visits in the state of São Paulo, in 2005

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    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2009-04-01

    : Entre las prioridades para la reducción de las lesiones relacionadas al transporte terrestre deben figurar medidas dirigidas para la protección de los usuarios vulnerables del sistema.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of visits resulting from land transport injuries. METHODS: A total of 5,934 visits in four hospital emergency departments (ED were analyzed, in the state of São Paulo, in 2005. A questionnaire based on the following three models was used to collect data: World Health Organization (WHO, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. Variables analyzed were as follows: type of road user (vehicle occupant, pedestrian, motorcyclist, and cyclist, sex, age group, and type of injury suffered. Logistic regression analysis was employed to test associations between variables. Odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: The majority of victims were males (74.2% in the 20-to-29-year age group (35.0%. Vulnerable road users totaled 72.4% of all cases (29.8% were motorcyclists, 24.1% pedestrians, and 18.5% cyclists. Victims aged between zero and 14 years who had suffered injuries were mostly pedestrians and cyclists; motorcyclists predominated among those aged between 15 and 39 years; and pedestrians among those aged over 50 years. About half of the cases suffered minor injuries (strains, dislocations, contusions and cuts, while the other half was comprised by fractures, traumatic brain injuries and internal injuries. Extremities were the most affected body parts, particularly among motorcyclists. The majority of victims were discharged at triage (87.6%. Compared to women, men were 1.5 times more likely to be admitted or transferred, or to die. Pedestrians, vehicle occupants and motorcyclists were, respectively, 2.7, 2.4 and 1.9 times more likely to be admitted or transferred, or to die than cyclists. CONCLUSIONS: Measures aimed to protect vulnerable road users should be

  9. Motorcycle accident is the main cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hasnah; Iqbal, Syed

    2011-02-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are among the commonest forms of body injuries. There are three divisions, namely, facial bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, and dentoalveolar injuries. Etiologies include motor vehicle accidents, assaults, falls, and sporting injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles including the causes of maxillofacial injuries seen in an urban government hospital in the mainland of Penang State, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited cases reported within a period of 1 year. The source population was maxillofacial injury patients presenting to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of an urban hospital in the Penang Mainland, North Malaysia between May 2007 and May 2008. Cases of patients involved in accidents that occurred outside the reference vicinity were excluded. A case report form was developed and completed by the attending clinicians. Data were analyzed using spss version 12.0. A total of 194 cases were studied, with the mean patient age being 27.8 (SD 15.20) years. The majority of patients were Malay men between 20 and 29 years of age. The main cause of injury was motorcycle accident (53.6%). The commonest injury (in isolation/combination with other injuries) involved the soft tissues (87.2%), dentoalveolar region (33.4%), and facial bones (23.9%). Laceration was the commonest soft tissue injury, and crown fracture was the most frequent dentoalveolar injury. The facial bone that was most highly involved in the injury was the zygoma. Subjects involved in motorcycle accidents had a significantly higher incidence of sustaining facial bone fractures. Motorcycle accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia. Most patients were young men. Hence, it is prudent to reinforce appropriate road safety and awareness interventions particularly focusing young male motorcyclists so as to reduce the risk of accidents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The relationship between gasoline price and patterns of motorcycle fatalities and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P

    2015-06-01

    Economic factors such as rising gasoline prices may contribute to the crash trends by shaping individuals' choices of transportation modalities. This study examines the relationship of gasoline prices with fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries. Data on fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries come from California's Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System for 2002-2011. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions were used to estimate the impact of inflation-adjusted gasoline price per gallon on trends of motorcycle injuries. Motorcycle fatalities and severe and minor injuries in California were highly correlated with increasing gasoline prices from 2002 to 2011 (r=0.76, 0.88 and 0.85, respectively). In 2008, the number of fatalities and injuries reached 13,457--a 34% increase since 2002, a time period in which inflation-adjusted gasoline prices increased about $0.30 per gallon every year. The majority of motorcycle riders involved in crashes were male (92.5%), middle-aged (46.2%) and non-Hispanic white (67.9%). Using ARIMA modelling, we estimated that rising gasoline prices resulted in an additional 800 fatalities and 10,290 injuries from 2002 to 2011 in California. Our findings suggest that increasing gasoline prices led to more motorcycle riders on the roads and, consequently, more injuries. Aside from mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement, other strategies may include raising risk awareness of motorcyclists and investment in public transportation as an alternative transportation modality to motorcycling. In addition, universally mandated training courses and strict licensing tests of riding skills should be emphasised to help reduce the motorcycle fatal and non-fatal injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  13. Issues in motorcycle sensory and cognitive conspicuity: the impact of motorcycle low-beam headlights and riding experience on drivers' decisions to turn across the path of a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Lenné, Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Crashes involving a passenger car and a motorcycle, where the car is turning across the path of the motorcycle, are a major crash type of motorcycle riders. It has been proposed that the incidence of such crashes could be reduced through improvements in motorcycle conspicuity. Operation of low-beam headlights on motorcycles has been discussed as one approach for improving the "sensory conspicuity" of motorcycles during daylight hours, whilst previous experience as a rider may serve to heighten "cognitive conspicuity" through raised awareness of motorcyclists on our roads. Twenty-three experienced car drivers with no riding experience ("drivers") and 20 experienced car drivers who were also motorcycle riders ("driver-riders") completed a series of trials in a driving simulator where their task in each trial was to turn ahead of an oncoming vehicle if they felt that they had sufficient room to do so safely. A key manipulation across trials was whether the oncoming vehicle was a motorcycle with headlights on, or a motorcycle with headlights off. Time gap (short, medium, long) was also manipulated. Results indicate that, at time gaps defined in the current study as short, low-beam headlights may confer some benefit in gap acceptance by encouraging drivers to accept fewer gaps ahead of a motorcycle with headlights on than ahead of a motorcycle with headlights off. No statistically significant differences in gap acceptance between the headlight conditions were found at either the medium or long time gaps. Irrespective of time gap, driver-riders were found to adopt a more efficient turn strategy than drivers with no direct riding experience. Overall, the present research provides support for the use of low-beam headlights and riding experience as tools through which to augment the sensory and cognitive conspicuity of motorcycles, respectively. It is proposed that further research aim to explore directly the precise mechanisms underlying the observed effects. Copyright

  14. Can cyclist safety be improved with intelligent transport systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Anne; Leden, Lars; Rämä, Pirkko; Scholliers, Johan; Van Noort, Martijn; Bell, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have assisted in the decrease of road traffic fatalities, particularly amongst passenger car occupants. Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) such as pedestrians, cyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists, however, have not been that much in focus when developing ITS. Therefore, there is a clear need for ITS which specifically address VRUs as an integrated element of the traffic system. This paper presents the results of a quantitative safety impact assessment of five systems that were estimated to have high potential to improve the safety of cyclists, namely: Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Bicycle to Vehicle communication (B2V), Intersection safety (INS), Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection System+Emergency Braking (PCDS+EBR) and VRU Beacon System (VBS). An ex-ante assessment method proposed by Kulmala (2010) targeted to assess the effects of ITS for cars was applied and further developed in this study to assess the safety impacts of ITS specifically designed for VRUs. The main results of the assessment showed that all investigated systems affect cyclist safety in a positive way by preventing fatalities and injuries. The estimates considering 2012 accident data and full penetration showed that the highest effects could be obtained by the implementation of PCDS+EBR and B2V, whereas VBS had the lowest effect. The estimated yearly reduction in cyclist fatalities in the EU-28 varied between 77 and 286 per system. A forecast for 2030, taking into accounts the estimated accident trends and penetration rates, showed the highest effects for PCDS+EBR and BSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training, more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both

  16. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant head and neck injuries: their underlying mechanism. A prospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Djurić, Marija

    2012-09-01

    It is a well-documented fact that pontomedullary lacerations (PML) occur as a result of severe craniocervical injury, but their underlying mechanism has yet to be fully clarified. The aim of this prospective study has been to give greater insight into the underlying mechanism of PML through determining the site of blunt head-impact, as well as the presence of concomitant head and neck injuries in cases of brainstem PML. A total of 56 cases with partial PML have been analysed for this study. The case group was composed of 40 men and 16 women, averaging in age 44.2 ± 19.2 years and consisting of 7 motorcyclists, 4 bicyclists, 18 car occupants, 16 pedestrians, and 10 victims of falls from a height, as well as 1 victim of a fall from standing height. The presented study has shown that there are several possible mechanisms of PML. Impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, most often leads to this fatal injury, due to the impact force transmission either through the jawbone or vertebral column; most likely in combination with a fronto-posterior hyperextension of the head. Additionally, lateral head-impacts with subsequent hinge fractures and PML may also be a possible mechanism. The jawbone and other facial bones are able to act as shock absorbers, and their fracture may diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. The upper cervical spine can act as damper and energy absorber as well, and may prevent any occurrence of fracture to the base of the skull.

  17. Multiple logistic regression model of signalling practices of drivers on urban highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puan, Othman Che; Ibrahim, Muttaka Na'iya; Zakaria, Rozana

    2015-05-01

    Giving signal is a way of informing other road users, especially to the conflicting drivers, the intention of a driver to change his/her movement course. Other users are exposed to hazard situation and risks of accident if the driver who changes his/her course failed to give signal as required. This paper describes the application of logistic regression model for the analysis of driver's signalling practices on multilane highways based on possible factors affecting driver's decision such as driver's gender, vehicle's type, vehicle's speed and traffic flow intensity. Data pertaining to the analysis of such factors were collected manually. More than 2000 drivers who have performed a lane changing manoeuvre while driving on two sections of multilane highways were observed. Finding from the study shows that relatively a large proportion of drivers failed to give any signals when changing lane. The result of the analysis indicates that although the proportion of the drivers who failed to provide signal prior to lane changing manoeuvre is high, the degree of compliances of the female drivers is better than the male drivers. A binary logistic model was developed to represent the probability of a driver to provide signal indication prior to lane changing manoeuvre. The model indicates that driver's gender, type of vehicle's driven, speed of vehicle and traffic volume influence the driver's decision to provide a signal indication prior to a lane changing manoeuvre on a multilane urban highway. In terms of types of vehicles driven, about 97% of motorcyclists failed to comply with the signal indication requirement. The proportion of non-compliance drivers under stable traffic flow conditions is much higher than when the flow is relatively heavy. This is consistent with the data which indicates a high degree of non-compliances when the average speed of the traffic stream is relatively high.

  18. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A COMBINATION OF GEOSPATIAL AND CLINICAL ANALYSIS IN PREDICTING DISABILITY OUTCOME AFTER ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY (RTI IN A DISTRICT IN MALAYSIA

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    R. Nik Hisamuddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This was a Prospective Cohort Study commencing from July 2011 until June 2013 involving all injuries related to motor vehicle crashes (MVC attended Emergency Departments (ED of two tertiary centers in a district in Malaysia. Selected attributes were geospatially analyzed by using ARCGIS (by ESRI software version 10.1 licensed to the institution and Google Map free software and multiple logistic regression was performed by using SPSS version 22.0. A total of 439 cases were recruited. The mean age (SD of the MVC victims was 26.04 years (s.d 15.26. Male comprised of 302 (71.7% of the cases. Motorcyclists were the commonest type of victims involved [351(80.0%]. Hotspot MVC locations occurred at certain intersections and on roads within borough of Kenali and Binjai. The number of severely injured and polytrauma are mostly on the road network within speed limit of 60 km/hour. A person with an increase in ISS of one score had a 37 % higher odd to have disability at hospital discharge (95% CI: 1.253, 1.499, p-value < 0.001. Pediatric age group (less than 19 years of age had 52.1% lesser odds to have disability at discharge from hospital (95% CI: 0.258, 0.889, p-value < 0.001 and patients who underwent operation for definitive management had 4.14 times odds to have disability at discharge from hospital (95% CI: 1.681, 10.218, p-value = 0.002. Overall this study has proven that GIS with a combination of traditional statistical analysis is still a powerful tool in road traffic injury (RTI related research.

  1. Equine road user safety: public attitudes, understandings and beliefs from a qualitative study in the United Kingdom.

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    Chapman, Catherine; Musselwhite, Charles B A

    2011-11-01

    Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46 participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traumatic brain injuries caused by traffic accidents in five European countries: outcome and public health consequences.

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    Majdan, Marek; Mauritz, Walter; Wilbacher, Ingrid; Janciak, Ivan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rusnak, Martin; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have been identified by public health organizations as being of major global concern. Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are among the most severe injuries and are in a large part caused by RTA. The objective of this article is to analyse the severity and outcome of TBI caused by RTA in different types of road users in five European countries. The demographic, severity and outcome measures of 683 individuals with RTA-related TBI from Austria, Slovakia, Bosnia, Croatia and Macedonia were analysed. Five types of road users (car drivers, car passengers, motorcyclists, bicyclists and pedestrians) were compared using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Short-term outcome [intensive care unit (ICU) survival] and last available long-term outcome of patients were analysed. In our data set, 44% of TBI were traffic related. The median age of patients was 32.5 years, being the lowest (25 years) in car passengers. The most severe and extensive injuries were reported in pedestrians. Pedestrians had the lowest rate of ICU survival (60%) and favourable long-term outcome (46%). Drivers had the highest ICU survival (73%) and car passengers had the best long-term outcome (59% favourable). No differences in the outcome were found between countries with different economy levels. TBI are significantly associated with RTA and thus, tackling them together could be more effective. The population at highest risk of RTA-related TBI are young males (in our sample median age: 32.5 years). Pedestrians have the most severe TBI with the worst outcome. Both groups should be a priority for public health action.

  3. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP method.

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    Elaheh Ainy

    Full Text Available We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR. Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014. Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days. The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit.

  4. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Le, Henry; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP) method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR). Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014). Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days). The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit.

  5. Infectious complications after vehicular trauma in the United States.

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    Fraser, Douglas R; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y; Vogel, Todd R

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate and define the rates of infectious complications (IC) after vehicular trauma. Secondary goals were to identify the injuries associated with the greatest risk of nosocomial infection and to measure the utilization of hospital resources associated with IC and vehicular trauma. A secondary analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2003-2007) was performed to classify major vehicular trauma injuries utilizing International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) Emergency (E) codes. The post-traumatic IC evaluated were pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), sepsis, and surgical site infection (SSI). All data were analyzed by χ(2) analysis, multivariable logistic regression, and the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. A total of 784,037 vehicular trauma patients were identified (462,543 [59.0%] motor vehicle drivers, 142,283 [18.2%] motor vehicle passengers, 98,767 [12.6%] motorcyclists; 6,568 [colon injuries. After adjustment by age, sex, and co-morbidities, patients with SCI were 4.4 times as likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.20-4.63) and those with cranial injuries were 2.1 times as likely (95% CI 2.06-2.19) to develop IC as patients without these injuries. Secondary infection increased significantly the length of stay and hospital charges in all groups. Patients sustaining vehicular trauma in combination with SCI had the highest rate of IC. Infectious complications increased hospital resource utilization significantly after vehicular trauma. Future root-cause analysis of high-risk groups may decrease complications and hospital utilization.

  6. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study.

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    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Mohammadi, Reza; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Laflamme, Lucie; Bikmoradi, Ali; Haglund, Bo J A

    2009-12-23

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training), more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both an integrated system to coordinate RTI activities and prevention

  7. Factors associated with prehospital death among traffic accident patients in Osaka City, Japan: A population-based study.

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    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2018-01-02

    Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified. Using a large-scale data set of ambulance records in Osaka City, Japan, we retrospectively analyzed all traffic accident patients transported to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel from 2013 to 2014. In this study, prehospital death was defined as that occurring at the scene or in the emergency department immediately after hospital arrival. We assessed prehospital factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents by logistic regression models. This study enrolled 28,903 emergency patients involved in traffic accidents, of whom 68 died prehospital. In a multivariate model, elderly patients aged ≥75 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-8.23), nighttime (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.65-4.70), and type of injured person compared to bicyclists such as pedestrians (AOR = 9.58; 95% CI, 5.07-17.99), motorcyclists (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.21-6.24), and car occupants (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.39-6.40) were significantly associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents. In addition, the AOR for automobile versus nonautomobile as the collision opponent was 4.76 (95% CI, 2.30-9.88). In this population, the factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents were elderly people, nighttime, and pedestrian as the type of patient. The proportion of prehospital deaths due to traffic accidents was also high when the collision component was an automobile.

  8. Vehicle Mode and Driving Activity Detection Based on Analyzing Sensor Data of Smartphones

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    Dang-Nhac Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a flexible combined system, namely the Vehicle mode-driving Activity Detection System (VADS, that is capable of detecting either the current vehicle mode or the current driving activity of travelers. Our proposed system is designed to be lightweight in computation and very fast in response to the changes of travelers’ vehicle modes or driving events. The vehicle mode detection module is responsible for recognizing both motorized vehicles, such as cars, buses, and motorbikes, and non-motorized ones, for instance, walking, and bikes. It relies only on accelerometer data in order to minimize the energy consumption of smartphones. By contrast, the driving activity detection module uses the data collected from the accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer of a smartphone to detect various driving activities, i.e., stopping, going straight, turning left, and turning right. Furthermore, we propose a method to compute the optimized data window size and the optimized overlapping ratio for each vehicle mode and each driving event from the training datasets. The experimental results show that this strategy significantly increases the overall prediction accuracy. Additionally, numerous experiments are carried out to compare the impact of different feature sets (time domain features, frequency domain features, Hjorth features as well as the impact of various classification algorithms (Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Decision tree J48, K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine contributing to the prediction accuracy. Our system achieves an average accuracy of 98.33% in detecting the vehicle modes and an average accuracy of 98.95% in recognizing the driving events of motorcyclists when using the Random Forest classifier and a feature set containing time domain features, frequency domain features, and Hjorth features. Moreover, on a public dataset of HTC company in New Taipei, Taiwan, our framework obtains the overall accuracy of 97

  9. Vehicle Mode and Driving Activity Detection Based on Analyzing Sensor Data of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dang-Nhac; Nguyen, Duc-Nhan; Nguyen, Thi-Hau; Nguyen, Ha-Nam

    2018-03-29

    In this paper, we present a flexible combined system, namely the Vehicle mode-driving Activity Detection System (VADS), that is capable of detecting either the current vehicle mode or the current driving activity of travelers. Our proposed system is designed to be lightweight in computation and very fast in response to the changes of travelers' vehicle modes or driving events. The vehicle mode detection module is responsible for recognizing both motorized vehicles, such as cars, buses, and motorbikes, and non-motorized ones, for instance, walking, and bikes. It relies only on accelerometer data in order to minimize the energy consumption of smartphones. By contrast, the driving activity detection module uses the data collected from the accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer of a smartphone to detect various driving activities, i.e., stopping, going straight, turning left, and turning right. Furthermore, we propose a method to compute the optimized data window size and the optimized overlapping ratio for each vehicle mode and each driving event from the training datasets. The experimental results show that this strategy significantly increases the overall prediction accuracy. Additionally, numerous experiments are carried out to compare the impact of different feature sets (time domain features, frequency domain features, Hjorth features) as well as the impact of various classification algorithms (Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Decision tree J48, K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine) contributing to the prediction accuracy. Our system achieves an average accuracy of 98.33% in detecting the vehicle modes and an average accuracy of 98.95% in recognizing the driving events of motorcyclists when using the Random Forest classifier and a feature set containing time domain features, frequency domain features, and Hjorth features. Moreover, on a public dataset of HTC company in New Taipei, Taiwan, our framework obtains the overall accuracy of 97.33% that is

  10. Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-09-18

    To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P road traffic injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.

  11. Increasing access to institutional deliveries using demand and supply side incentives: early results from a quasi-experimental study

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    Serwadda David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services related to unmotivated health workers and inadequate supplies. Most public health interventions in Uganda have addressed only selected supply side issues, and universities have focused their efforts on providing maternal services at tertiary hospitals. To demonstrate how reforms at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS can lead to making systemic changes that can improve maternal health services, a demand and supply side strategy was developed by working with local communities and national stakeholders. Methods This quasi-experimental trial is conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda. The supply side component includes health worker refresher training and additions of minimal drugs and supplies, whereas the demand side component involves vouchers given to pregnant women for motorcycle transport and the payment to service providers for antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. The trial is ongoing, but early analysis from routine health information systems on the number of services used is presented. Results Motorcyclists in the community organized themselves to accept vouchers in exchange for transport for antenatal care, deliveries and postnatal care, and have become actively involved in ensuring that women obtain care. Increases in antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care were demonstrated, with the number of safe deliveries in the intervention area immediately jumping from Conclusions Transport and service vouchers appear to be a viable strategy for rapidly increasing maternal care. MakCHS can design strategies together with stakeholders using a learning-by-doing approach to take advantage of community resources.

  12. Increasing access to institutional deliveries using demand and supply side incentives: early results from a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Waiswa, Peter; Rahman, M Hafizur; Makumbi, Fred; Kiwanuka, Noah; Okui, Olico; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Bua, John; Mutebi, Aloysius; Nalwadda, Gorette; Serwadda, David; Pariyo, George W; Peters, David H

    2011-03-09

    Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services related to unmotivated health workers and inadequate supplies. Most public health interventions in Uganda have addressed only selected supply side issues, and universities have focused their efforts on providing maternal services at tertiary hospitals. To demonstrate how reforms at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) can lead to making systemic changes that can improve maternal health services, a demand and supply side strategy was developed by working with local communities and national stakeholders. This quasi-experimental trial is conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda. The supply side component includes health worker refresher training and additions of minimal drugs and supplies, whereas the demand side component involves vouchers given to pregnant women for motorcycle transport and the payment to service providers for antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. The trial is ongoing, but early analysis from routine health information systems on the number of services used is presented. Motorcyclists in the community organized themselves to accept vouchers in exchange for transport for antenatal care, deliveries and postnatal care, and have become actively involved in ensuring that women obtain care. Increases in antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care were demonstrated, with the number of safe deliveries in the intervention area immediately jumping from Voucher revenues have been used to obtain needed supplies to improve quality and to pay health workers, ensuring their availability at a time when workloads are increasing. Transport and service vouchers appear to be a viable strategy for rapidly increasing maternal care. MakCHS can design strategies together with stakeholders using a learning-by-doing approach to take advantage of

  13. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

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    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  14. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

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    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  15. A comprehensive overview of the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants and subsequent implications in terms of injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010's by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: -58 % fatalities and -64 % hospitalized (compared to -39% and -55% for pedestrians, and -21% and -44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars.

  16. Lives saved by laws and regulations that resulted from the Bloomberg road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Swedler, David I

    2018-04-01

    To estimate lives saved during 2008-2023 by traffic safety laws passed in six developing countries while participating in the Bloomberg Road Safety Program (BRSP). BRSP-funded local staff identified relevant laws and described enforcement to the study team. We analyzed road crash death estimates for 2004-2013 from the Global Burden of Disease and projected estimates absent intervention forward to 2023. We amalgamated developing country and US literature to estimate crash death reductions by country resulting from laws governing drink driving, motorcycle helmets, safety belt use, and traffic fines. BRSP helped win approval of traffic safety laws in Brazil, China, Kenya, Mexico, Turkey, and Vietnam. In 2008-2013, those laws saved an estimated 19,000 lives. Many laws only took effect in 2014. The laws will save an estimated 90,000 lives in 2014-2023. Of the 109,000 lives saved, drink driving laws will account for 84%, increased motorcyclist protection for 13%, increased fines and penalty points for 2%, and safety belt usage mandates for 1%. Drink driving reductions in China will account for 56% of the savings and reduced drink driving and motorcycling deaths in Vietnam for 35%. The savings in China will result from a narrow intervention with just 4% estimated effectiveness against drink driving deaths. As a percentage of deaths anticipated without BRSP effort, the largest reductions will be 11% in Vietnam and 5% in Kenya. Viewed as a public health measure, improving traffic safety provided large health gains in developing nations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grouping of body areas affected in traffic accidents. A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alba Luz; Ascuntar-Tello, Johana; Valderrama-Molina, Carlos Oliver; Giraldo, Nelson Darío; Constaín, Alfredo; Puerta, Andrés; Restrepo, Camilo; Jaimes, Fabián

    2018-03-01

    Traffic accidents are considered a public health problem and, according to the World Health Organization, currently is the eighth cause of death in the world. Specifically, pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists contribute half of the fatalities. Adequate clinical management in accordance with aggregation patterns of the body areas involved, as well as the characteristics of the accident, will help to reduce mortality and disability in this population. Secondary data analysis of a cohort of patients involved in traffic accidents and admitted to the emergency room (ER) of a high complexity hospital in Medellín, Colombia. They were over 15 years of age, had two or more injuries in different areas of the body and had a hospital stay of more than 24 h after admission. A cluster analysis was performed, using Ward's method and the linfinity similarity measure, to obtain clusters of body areas most commonly affected depending on the type of vehicle and the type of victim. Among 2445 patients with traffic accidents, 34% (n = 836) were admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the overall hospital mortality rate was 8% (n = 201). More than 50% of the patients were motorcycle riders but mortality was higher in pedestrian-car accidents (16%, n = 34). The clusters show efficient performance to separate the population depending on the severity of their injuries. Pedestrians had the highest mortality after having accidents with cars and they also had the highest number of body parts clustered, mainly on head and abdomen areas. Exploring the cluster patterns of injuries and body areas affected in traffic accidents allow to establish anatomical groups defined by the type of accident and the type of vehicle. This classification system will accelerate and prioritize ER-care for these population groups, helping to provide better health care services and to rationalize available resources.

  18. Unintentional injuries in the rural population of Twiserkan, Iran: A cross-sectional study on their incidence, characteristics and preventability

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    Naghavi Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge is sparse concerning injuries affecting rural populations in low and middle-income countries in general and in Iran in particular. This study documents the incidence and characteristics of severe injuries affecting rural people in the Iranian district of Twiserkan and it investigates these people's suggestions for injury prevention and control. Methods An interview-based investigation was undertaken that comprised all unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization (more than 6 hours or death that had occurred within a twelve month period and that were identified in the files of the 62 "health houses" of the Twiserkan district. For each case, semi-structured interviews were conducted at the households of the injured people (134 injuries affecting 117 households were identified. Results The incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries were respectively 4.1 and 17.2 per 10 000 person-years and, as expected, men were more affected than women (77.6% of all injury cases. Traffic injuries (in particular among motorcyclists were as common as home-related injuries but they were far more fatal. Among common suggestions for prevention, people mentioned that the authorities could work on the design and engineering of the infrastructure in and around the village, that the rural health workers could contribute more with local information and education and that the people themselves could consider behaving in a safer manner. Conclusion Not only domestic injuries but also those in traffic are an important cause of severe and fatal injury among rural people. Health workers may play an important role in injury surveillance and in identifying context-relevant means of prevention that they or other actors may then implement.

  19. Outcomes of road traffic injuries before and after the implementation of a camera ticketing system: a retrospective study from a large trauma center in Saudi Arabia.

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    Alghnam, Suliman; Alkelya, Muhamad; Alfraidy, Moath; Al-Bedah, Khalid; Albabtain, Ibrahim Tawfiq; Alshenqeety, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the third leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia. Because speed is a major risk factor for severe crash-related injuries, a camera ticketing system was implemented countrywide in mid-2010 by the traffic police in an effort to improve traffic safety. There are no published studies on the effects of the system in Saudi Arabia. To examine injury severity and associated mortality at a large trauma center before and after the implementation of the ticketing system. Retrospective, analytical. Trauma center of a tertiary care center in Riyadh. The study included all trauma registry patients seen in the emergency department for a crash-related injury (automobile occupants, pedestrians, or motorcyclists) between January 2005 and December 2014. Associations with outcome measures were assessed by univariate and multivariate methods. Injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and mortality. The study included all trauma registry patients seen in the emergency department for a crash-related injury. All health outcomes improved in the period following implementation of the ticketing system. Following implementation, ISS scores decreased (-3.1, 95% CI -4.6, -1.6) and GCS increased (0.47, 95% CI 0.08, 0.87) after adjusting for other covariates. The odds of death were 46% lower following implementation than before implementation. When the data were log-transformed to account for skewed data distributions, the results remained statistically significant. This study suggests positive health implications following the implementation of the camera ticketing system. Further investment in public health interventions is warranted to reduce preventable RTIs. The study findings represent a trauma center at a single hospital in Riyadh, which may not generalize to the Saudi population.

  20. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

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    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  1. Modeling self-consistent multi-class dynamic traffic flow

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    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lo, Shih-Ching

    2002-09-01

    In this study, we present a systematic self-consistent multiclass multilane traffic model derived from the vehicular Boltzmann equation and the traffic dispersion model. The multilane domain is considered as a two-dimensional space and the interaction among vehicles in the domain is described by a dispersion model. The reason we consider a multilane domain as a two-dimensional space is that the driving behavior of road users may not be restricted by lanes, especially motorcyclists. The dispersion model, which is a nonlinear Poisson equation, is derived from the car-following theory and the equilibrium assumption. Under the concept that all kinds of users share the finite section, the density is distributed on a road by the dispersion model. In addition, the dynamic evolution of the traffic flow is determined by the systematic gas-kinetic model derived from the Boltzmann equation. Multiplying Boltzmann equation by the zeroth, first- and second-order moment functions, integrating both side of the equation and using chain rules, we can derive continuity, motion and variance equation, respectively. However, the second-order moment function, which is the square of the individual velocity, is employed by previous researches does not have physical meaning in traffic flow. Although the second-order expansion results in the velocity variance equation, additional terms may be generated. The velocity variance equation we propose is derived from multiplying Boltzmann equation by the individual velocity variance. It modifies the previous model and presents a new gas-kinetic traffic flow model. By coupling the gas-kinetic model and the dispersion model, a self-consistent system is presented.

  2. Motorcycle-related hospitalization of adolescents in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

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    Liang, Chi-Cheng; Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of adolescents and adults hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a Level I trauma center. Detailed data regarding patients aged 13-19 years (adolescents) and aged 30-50 years (adults) who had sustained trauma due to a motorcycle accident were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. The Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, or the independent Student's t-test were performed to compare the adolescent and adult motorcyclists and to compare the motorcycle drivers and motorcycle pillion. Analysis of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that the adolescent patients had sustained higher rates of facial, abdominal, and hepatic injury and of cranial, mandibular, and femoral fracture but lower rates of thorax and extremity injury; hemothorax; and rib, scapular, clavicle, and humeral fracture compared to the adults. No significant differences were found between the adolescents and adults regarding Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma-Injury Severity Score (TRISS), mortality, length of hospital stay, or intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate. A significantly greater percentage of adolescents compared to adults were found not to have worn a helmet. Motorcycle riders who had not worn a helmet were found to have a significantly lower first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and a significantly higher percentage was found to present with unconscious status, head and neck injury, and cranial fracture compared to those who had worn a helmet. Adolescent motorcycle riders comprise a major population of patients hospitalized for treatment of trauma. This population tends to present with a higher injury severity compared to other hospitalized trauma patients and a bodily injury pattern differing from that of adult motorcycle riders, indicating the

  3. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

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    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology and patterns of transport-related fatalities in Austria 1980-2012.

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    Majdan, Marek; Rusnak, Martin; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Brazinova, Alexandra; Leitgeb, Johannes; Mauritz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Transport-related accidents remain the largest single cause of death among people aged 15 to 29 in the European Union, and despite the decrease in number of fatalities from 1990 onwards they remain a significant public health problem. The aim of this article was to analyze the long-term trends and patterns of transport-related fatalities, identify the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries in different road users, and identify the primary populations at risk of transport-related death in Austria between 1980 and 2013. Data on transport-related fatalities based on death certificates were obtained from Statistics Austria for the analyzed period. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated and broken down by age, gender, and month of death, and the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries were identified. Potential years of life lost before age 75 (PYLL-75) were used as a measure of public health impact. A total of 39,709 transport-related fatalities were identified for the studied years; 74% were males and the mean age was 42.1 years (range 0-103). A decrease in the number of fatalities (from 2018 in 1980 to 554 in 2012), mortality rates (from 26 in 1980 to 7 in 2012), and PYLL-75 (from 68,960 in 1980 to 14,931 in 2012) was observed. Introduction of major prevention milestones (compulsory use of seat belts or child restraints) may have contributed to this decrease. Men 16-24 years old were at the highest risk of transport-related death. Pedestrian victims were more likely to be women and car drivers and motorcyclists were more often men. Most fatal transport accidents occurred between the months of May and October and prevailingly in towns of fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. Injuries to the head were the most significant injuries in all user groups (>50% of cases in all road user types). Reduced mortality rates could translate into higher prevalence of long-term disabilities in survivors of transport accidents. Despite

  5. Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia.

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    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Na; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. The cross-sectional survey involves data searching related to RTI in Malaysia from the relevant agencies such as the Ministry of Health Malaysia, Royal Police Force, and Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) through their official websites and PubMed search. The three agencies are well established and recognized by the Malaysian government in dealing with data collection for the injury nationwide. The primary aim is to determine the prevalence of motorcycle-related RTI, and secondary outcomes are the overall mortality and the contributing factors. Of the cause of trauma, 80 % is due to RTI, and the most vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and motorcyclists are affected the most. Of all RTI, 70 % is contributed by the motorcycle crash, and there are a significant number of deaths for both rider and pillion rider of the motorcycle than for other types of vehicles. Human error is the main reason to be blamed, specifically the attitude of the riders on the road. Trauma is one of the common reasons for death and hospitalization in Malaysia. Motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in Malaysia. The Malaysian government and non-government agencies have worked together seriously in implementing a preventive measure to reduce the incidence and aftermath of motorcycle-related RTI. However, data is still lacking, and every effort is made to increase the amount of research in the field. Strengths of the article are as follows:Latest alarming data on motorcycle

  6. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

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    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  7. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

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    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  8. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

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    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  9. Describing and comparing the characteristics of injured bicyclists and other injured road users: a prospective cohort study

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    Bamini Gopinath

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish the frequency and characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic, pre-injury, and crash-related parameters of injured bicyclists and other injured road users. Methods 748 participants aged ≥17 years who had sustained a minor or non-catastrophic injury in a land-transport crash, were interviewed after presenting to a metro hospital emergency department in New South Wales, Australia. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre-injury health, and crash-related characteristics. These factors were then compared between injured bicyclists and other road users (car driver/passengers, motorcyclists/pillion and pedestrians/skateboarders. Cycling injury severity was characterized by three metrics (sustaining multiple injuries; hospital admission for ≥12 h; and sustaining a head/neck and/or facial injury. Results In this cohort of people with injuries, 238 (32 % were bicyclists. Frequency of cycling injuries were significantly different between age-groups among men (p = 0.0002, and were more common in men aged 45–59. Bicyclists were more likely to be aged 45–59, married, have university/tertiary qualifications and have a professional occupation compared to other road users (all p <0.0001. Bicyclists compared to participants involved in other types of land transport crashes were more likely to self-report excellent general health (p = 0.01, and were less likely to report a great/overwhelming perceived danger of death or 15.0 % versus 23–41 %; p <0.0001. Frequency of upper extremity and lower extremity injuries in bicyclists were 81.9 % and 60.5 %, respectively. Explanatory variables significantly associated with injury severity metrics were age, education level, paid work status and perceived danger of death/disability in the crash. Conclusions Minor cycling injuries were a relatively common cause of mild-moderate injury presentations to metro emergency

  10. Using bayesian model to estimate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013.

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    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Bahadorimonfared, Ayad

    2017-01-01

    A significant social and economic burden inflicts by road traffic injuries (RTIs). We aimed to use Bayesian model, to present the precise method, and to estimate the cost of RTIs in Iran in 2013. In a cross-sectional study on costs resulting from traffic injuries, 846 people per road user were randomly selected and investigated during 3 months (1 st September-1 st December) in 2013. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method considering perceived risks, especially in Iran. Data were collected along with four scenarios for occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Inclusion criterion was having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18-65 years old; risk perception was an important factor to the study and measured by visual tool. Samples who did not have risk perception were excluded from the study. Main outcome measure was cost estimation of traffic injuries using WTP method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 internal rate of return (IRR) among these road users. Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 death cases 402,314,106,073,648 IRR, equivalent to 13,410,470,202$ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). In sum, injury and death cases came to 1,171,450,232,238,648 IRR equivalents to 39,048,341,074$. Moreover, in 2013, costs of traffic accident constituted 6.46% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with age, middle and high income, daily payment to injury reduction, more payment to time reduction, trip mileage, private cars drivers, bus, minibus vehicles, and occupants ( P < 0.01). Costs of traffic injuries included noticeable portion of gross national income. If policy-making and resource allocation are made based on the scientific pieces of evidence, an enormous amount of capital can be saved through reducing death and injury rates.

  11. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  12. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  13. Road traffic fatalities in selected governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: prospective surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, Eva; Maliniak, Maret; Sultan, Abdul-Salam Saleh; Hassan, Ahmed; Hussain, Syed Jaffar; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    The insurgency tactics that characterize modern warfare, such as suicide car bombs and roadside bombs, have the potential to significantly impact road traffic injuries in conflict affected-countries. As road traffic incidents are one of the top ten causes of death in Iraq, changes in incidence have important implications for the health system. We aimed to describe patterns of road traffic fatalities for all demographic groups and types of road users in Iraq during a period characterized by a resurgence in insurgency activity. Iraqi Ministry of Health routine prospective injury surveillance collects information on all fatal injuries in eight governorates of Iraq: Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya. From all injury fatalities documented at the coroner office, we analyzed only those attributed to road traffic that occurred between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Coroners ascertain information from physical examinations, police reports and family members. Analysis included 7,976 road traffic fatalities. Overall, 6,238 (78.2 %) fatalities were male and 2,272 (28.5 %) were children under 18 years of age. The highest numbers of road traffic fatalities were among males 15 to 34 years of age and children of both sexes under 5 years of age. 49.2 % of fatalities occurred among pedestrians. Among children and females, the majority of road traffic fatalities were pedestrians, 69.0 % and 56.6 %, respectively. Fatalities among motorcyclists (3.7 %) and bicyclists (0.4 %) were least common. Rates of road traffic fatalities ranged from 8.6 to 10.7 per 100,000 population. The injury surveillance system provides the first data from a conflict-affected country on road traffic fatalities disaggregated by type of road user. The highest numbers of fatalities were among children and young men. Nearly half of fatalities were pedestrians, a proportion nearly double that of any neighboring country. As insurgency activity increased in

  14. Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aurélie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Salmi, L Rachid

    2018-02-28

    Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels. We used freely available data sets (WHO, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group, the WB). Delays in implementation were calculated until 2013, from the year mandatory use of safety belts by motor vehicle front seat occupants was first introduced worldwide. We used life expectancy tables and age groups as social values in the DALY calculation model. From the estimated total burden, avoidable DALYs were calculated using estimates of the effectiveness of seat belt laws on fatal and nonfatal injuries combined, as extracted from published international reviews of evidence. From the reference year 1972, implementation delays varied from 27 years (Uzbekistan) to 41 years in Bolivia (no seat belt law as of 2013). During delays, total absolute numbers of DALYs lost due to road traffic injuries reached 8,462,099 in Nigeria, 7,203,570 in Morocco, 4,695,500 in Uzbekistan, 3,866,391 in Cambodia, 3,253,359 in Bolivia, and 3,128,721 in Sri Lanka. Using effectiveness estimates ranging from 3 to 20% reduction, the avoidable burden of road traffic injuries for car occupants was highest in Uzbekistan (avoidable part from 1.2 to 10.4%) and in Morocco (avoidable part from 1.5 to 12.3%). In countries where users of public transport and pedestrians were the most affected by the burden, the avoidable parts ranged from 0.5 to 4.4% (Nigeria) and from 0.5 to 3.4% (Bolivia). Burden of road traffic injuries mostly affected motorcyclists in Sri Lanka and Cambodia where the avoidable parts were

  15. Drinking & driving in Viet Nam: prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Jessani, Nasreen S; Pham, V Cuong; Quang, La Ngoc; Nguyen, Phuong N; Passmore, Jonathon; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    Viet Nam is experiencing a shift in its burden of disease profile with injuries becoming more prominent. A history of high alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes despite stringent laws led to increased enforcement by police, enhanced public education messaging and targeted social marketing campaigns in Ha Nam and Ninh Binh provinces in Viet Nam. This study aims to illustrate the changes in prevalence (November 2010 to December 2011) and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) around alcohol use and drink-driving for the year 2011. Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) was collected through police enforcement checkpoints in the two provinces. The proportion of drivers with BrAC above the legal limit was plotted over time for both provinces. The trend in prevalence of drink-driving over time was further assessed using Poisson regression models. Prevailing KAPs were determined through surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations at quarterly intervals. Cross tabulations of key variables as well Chi-Square statistic were used to assess associations. A total of 8,404 drivers were tested for BrAC levels of which less than 0.25% were female. Of 1,639 drivers displaying BrAC levels in excess of the legal limit, 87.3% were car drivers, 7.9% motorcyclists and 86% were between the ages of 25 and 44 years. KAP surveys captured 1,661 drivers over the study period. The prevalence of self-reported drink-driving increased 6 percentage points among respondents aged 27-36. Between 44% (January 2011) and 49% (December 2011) of respondents indicated awareness of a drinking and driving Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) or BrAC limit and only 25% of all study participants recalled being penalized for a traffic violation - none of which were for drink-driving. While there has been some reduction in drink-driving prevalence, inadequate or incorrect knowledge on drink-driving legislation appears to be an impediment to greater gains. Increased

  16. Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Vicentini, Laura; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling. In this context, the aim of this work was to examine the relative contribution of different transport modes to total daily exposure. We performed experimental measurements during both morning and evening traffic peak hours throughout the winter season (December 2013–March 2014), for a total of 98 trips. Our results suggest that the lowest UFP exposures are experienced by underground train commuters, with an average number concentration of 14 134 cm −3 , and are largely a reflection of the routes being at greater distance from vehicular traffic. Motorcyclists experienced significantly higher average concentrations (73 168 cm −3 ) than all other exposure classes, and this is most likely a result of the presence of high-concentration and short-duration peaks which do not occur when the same routes are traveled by car. UFP concentrations in subway train environments were found to be comparable to urban background levels. Still, in underground trains we found the highest values of PM 10 mass concentration with a maximum value of 422 μg/m 3 . PM 10 concentration in trains was found to be four and two times higher than what was measured in car and motorbike trips, respectively. Transport mode contribution to total integrated UFP daily exposure was found to be 16.3%–20.9% while travelling by car, 28.7% for motorbike trips, and 8.7% for subway trips. Due to lower exposure times

  17. Paciente vítima de violência no trânsito: análise do perfil socioeconômico, características do acidente e intervenção do Serviço Social na emergência A patient victim of car traffic violence: an analysis of socioeconomic profile, accident characteristics and Social Services intervention in the emergency room

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    Kátia Campos dos Anjos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar o perfil dos pacientes; o meio de transporte que causou o acidente; as normas do Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, se foram ou não seguidas; a rede de apoio e as intervenções do Serviço Social. MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada com 100% dos pacientes internados nesta Instituição no período de 15/08/04 a 19/11/04, que foram vítimas de acidente no trânsito. Entrevistamos: 37 condutores de motocicletas, 26 pedestres, 15 condutores de veículo a motor e 06 passageiros, totalizando 84 pacientes. Foram utilizados formulários com questões abertas e fechadas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Resultado: A maior demanda foi de motociclistas, sendo que 83% são do sexo masculino, jovens com escolaridade até o ensino médio e renda mensal de dois salários mínimos. 62% residem em São Paulo e somente 36,5% possuem vínculo formal de trabalho. A maior parte das fraturas ocorreu nos membros inferiores (54%. Todos os pacientes necessitaram de cuidados após alta hospitalar, sendo que 98% contaram com o apoio familiar. CONCLUSÃO: Os elevados números de acidentes nos indicam que a violência no trânsito pode ser considerada um problema de saúde pública e estudos devem ser realizados para subsidiar as políticas públicas nesta área.OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze patients' profile; the means of transportation that caused the accident; whether the rules of the Brazilian Traffic Code were respected or not; and the support network and actions of social services. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 100% of the patients admitted in this institution between August 15th and November 19th, 2004, who were victims of car accidents. We interviewed 37 motorcycle riders, 26 pedestrians, 15 drivers and 6 passengers, totaling 84 patients. Forms with open and closed questions, adopting both a quantitative and a qualitative approach were used. RESULTS: The greatest demand was from motorcyclists, of whom 83% were male

  18. Análise epidemiológica das causas externas em unidades de urgência e emergência em Cuiabá/Mato Grosso Epidemiological analysis of external causes at urgency and emergency services in Cuiabá/Mato Grosso

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    Ligia Regina de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    of Cuiabá/MT Health Department in the period from May 1 to June 30, 2005. RESULTS: Approximately 88% of cases involved victims of accidents, 9% were victims of assault, and 2% were victims of self-injury. Transportation accidents accounted for 22% of cases, whose main victims were motorcyclists (49%; falls were the most frequent causes in the group of other external causes of accidental injuries. The prevalence in men surpassed that of women. Most of the victims were younger than 40 years (79%. However, the analysis by type of external cause presents different results by gender and age. Nearly half of the events occurred at home, most of the victims were discharged after treatment, and the mortality rate was low (0.4%. CONCLUSION: The results show the importance of the systematic analysis of data on victims of accidents and violence seen at emergency services, to add information on hospital mortality and morbidity aimed at the surveillance of these causes.

  19. Características das vítimas por acidentes de transporte terrestre em município da Região Sul do Brasil Victims' characteristics by road accidents in a city of Southern Brazil

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    Selma Maffei de Andrade

    2000-04-01

    and mortality rates were 1,582.2 and 29.0 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. These rates, however, have demonstrated great variability in relation to several characteristics (place of residence, gender, age and the victim's mode of transport. The majority of victims were motorcyclists, followed by cyclists and pedestrians who, altogether, accounted for 76.9% of the total, and 81.5% of those who died. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that road accidents constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality and that specific preventive measures should be considered in order to reduce such accidents, especially those that involve the most vulnerable road passers.

  20. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  1. Análise das ocorrências das lesões no trânsito e fatores relacionados segundo resultados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD Brasil, 2008 Analysis of the occurrence of traffic injuries and related factors according to the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD Brazil, 2008

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2011-09-01

    .4-3.6, youths (4.4%; CI95%: 4.2-4.6 and residents in the Central-West region (3.3% CI95%3.0-3.6. Most of the events involved drivers or passengers of cars or vans (53.9%, followed by motorcyclists or pillion passengers (30.1%, cyclists (7.6% and pedestrians (5.25%. The front seat safety belt is used by 73.2% (CI95% 72.2-74.2 and the rear seat safety belt is only used by 37.4% (CI95% 36.6-38.2. Traffic accidents led to the abandonment of their habitual activities by 30.7% of those involved. The severity of injuries in traffic accidents demands further preventive and legislative measures to reduce such incidents.

  2. Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Thor, Craig P; Chen, Sheng-Yin

    2018-04-05

    included in this study, weighted to represent 338,655 motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes in three years (2011-2013)(NHTSA, 2013). The top five most frequent and severe types of crash sequences were identified, accounting for 23 percent of all the motorcycle crashes included in the study, and they are (1) run-off-road crashes on the right, and hitting roadside objects, (2) cross-median crashes, and rollover, (3) left-turn oncoming crashes, and head-on, (4) crossing over (passing through) or turning into opposite direction at intersections, and (5) side-impacted. In addition to crash sequences, several other factors were also identified to have effects on crash severity: use of helmet, presence of horizontal curves, alcohol consumption, road surface condition, roadway functional class, and nighttime condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Retorno à atividade produtiva de motociclistas vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Retorno a la actividad productiva de los motociclistas víctimas de acidentes de tránsito Motocyclists victims of traffic accidents return to normal productive activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    remunerado, en cuanto que el 29.5% desarrollaban actividades de recreación, y las demás, otras actividades. En cuanto a la actividad productiva de las víctimas antes del accidente, el predominio fue de aquellas que realizaban actividad remunerada (81.9%. En el período entre nueve y doce meses post-trauma, el 20.4% de las víctimas relataron actividad productiva alterada. CONCLUSIÓN: hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la situación de productividad después del accidente y las variables: Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score y la percepción del estado de salud por la víctima.OBJECTIVE: To characterize motorcyclists who have been victims of traffic accidents in Maringá, Paraná regarding their occupation, rehabilitation, or disability. METHODS: A sample of 61 subjects participated in the study. Data were collected in February and March, 1999 though interviews and review of medical records. RESULTS: Prior to the accident, the majority of subjects (45,9% were employed. A great number of them (45.9% were performing work-related activities in the moment of the accident. Among the remainder of victims, 29.5% were performing leisure activities. Nine to twelve months post accident, 20.4% of the victims had altered productive activities. CONCLUSION: There was a significant statistical association between productive activities and injury severity score, between productive activities and new injury severity score, and between productive activities and perception of health.

  4. Prevalencia del uso de teléfonos móviles durante la conducción de vehículos Prevalence of mobile phone use while driving vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Astrain

    2003-02-01

    the city of Lleida (Spain. Methods: A random sample of 1536 cars passing through six intersections regulated by traffic lights in Lleida were selected (three with urban traffic and three with interurban traffic. Cyclists, motorcyclists and driving school cars were excluded. The variables studied were mobile telephone use, age, (18-40; 41-60; >61, sex, the presence of passengers, type of intersection (urban traffic/interurban traffic, day of the week (working day/weekend or holiday and hour of the day (rush hour/non-rush hour. The prevalence of mobile telephone use was calculated in percentages with a 95% CI. The relationship among the dependent variable (mobile telephone use and the other independent variables was studied using odds radios (OR and 95% CI. Results: A total of 1536 direct observations were made and mobile telephone use was detected in 50 drivers. The prevalence was 3.3 (95% CI, 2.4-4.3. The prevalence was higher in men (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-5.7, in drivers aged more than 60 years old (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 0.5-8,4 and in those aged 18-40 years old (OR =1.5; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0, in unaccompanied drivers (OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-6.3, in urban intersections (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.9, on workdays (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9-4.4 and at the rush hour (OR =1.4; 95% CI, 0.8-2.4. Conclusions: The prevalence of mobile telephone use while driving vehicles can be considered high, because of the increase in car accidents. The profile of drivers using mobile telephones corresponds to men aged 18-40 years or more than 61 years, in urban intersections, without passengers, during workdays and at the rush hour. We recommend the implementation of measures to decrease the use of mobile telephones while driving