WorldWideScience

Sample records for motor-vehicle crash fatalities

  1. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  2. Bicycle fatalities : trends in crashes with and without motor vehicles in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Stipdonk, H.L. Methorst, R. & Olivier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Boufous and Olivier (2015) recently found an increasing trend of police-reported cyclist deaths in single-vehicle crashes while a decreasing trend was found for fatal bicycle-motor vehicle crashes. This study sets out to conduct the same trend analyses for the Netherlands using causes of death stati

  3. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Methods Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994–2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥ 0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994–June 2009 while July 2009–2011 represented the post-commercialization period. Results In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p < 0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. Conclusions Prevention efforts and policy changes in Colorado are needed to address this concerning trend in marijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. PMID:24831752

  4. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994-2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994-June 2009 while July 2009-2011 represented the post-commercialization period. In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p<0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. Prevention efforts and policy changes in Colorado are needed to address this concerning trend in marijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor vehicle fatal crash profiles of 13-15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F; Tison, Julie

    2012-04-01

    The goal was to provide a description of fatal crashes involving 13-15-year-old drivers and passengers. Information was obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2005-2009. The 1,994 passenger deaths during the 2005-2009 period far exceeded the number of driver deaths (299) or the number of drivers in fatal crashes (744). Passenger deaths occurring with teenage drivers, particularly 16-17-year-olds, increased with passenger age. Most 13-15-year-old drivers in crashes were driving either with no license or permit (63%), or with a permit but without required adult presence (10 percent). Fatal crashes involving illegal driving were most likely to involve high-risk actions such as speeding and nonuse of belts. Supervised learners were few in number (about 12 per year) and had the lowest rates of high-risk actions. The main issues for 13-15-year-olds' motor vehicle deaths are passenger deaths and driving without a license or adult supervision. Parents, pediatricians, and others need to recognize the increase in motor vehicle occupant deaths that occurs in the early teen years. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Restraint use in motor vehicle crash fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lois K; Farrell, Caitlin A; Mannix, Rebekah

    2015-09-01

    Despite improvements in child passenger safety legislation and equipment, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) continue to be the leading cause of death in children younger than 10 years. The objective of this study was to describe factors associated with restraint use in fatal MVC in children 0 year to 9 years old. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System, maintained by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, was used to obtain data on MVC fatalities from 2001 to 2010 in children 0 year to 9 years old. The main outcome was restraint use. Demographic information (age, sex, and race) and crash characteristics including vehicle type (sedan, van, truck, sports utility vehicle) and seat position in the vehicle were analyzed with the χ statistic to evaluate these factors for any restraint use compared with no restraint use in MVC fatalities. There were 7,625 MVC fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old from 2001 to 2010.Among these fatalities, 4,041 (53%) had any restraint use. Front seat passengers accounted for 20.9% (1,595 of 7,625) of the fatalities. Children 0 year to 3 years old had a higher proportion of restraint use than children 4 years to 9 years old (p passenger safety to improve proper restraint use and to decrease MVC fatalities in children. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level II.

  7. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine B

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared.......74-1.91) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and relevant comorbidities and pharmacotherapy. Men had a relatively higher rate of motor vehicle crashes (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.79-2.03) than women (RR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.63-1.87). The excess risk of motor vehicle crashes persisted throughout...... identified 41 039 individuals with a first-time diagnosis of syncope from emergency department or hospital. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rate of motor vehicle crashes (including nonfatal and fatal crashes), based on multivariate Poisson regression models, using the total Danish population as reference...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government is Tracking the nation’s progress in reducing crash injuries and deaths. www.cdc.gov/psr/national-summary/ ... Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety CDC: Child Passenger ...

  9. Onset of a declining trend in fatal motor vehicle crashes involving drunk-driving in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or drunk-driving behavior.

  10. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  11. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  12. Postmortem computed tomography as an adjunct to autopsy for analyzing fatal motor vehicle crash injuries: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochor, Mark R; Trowbridge, Matthew J; Boscak, Alexis; Maino, John C; Maio, Ronald F

    2008-09-01

    Detailed fatal injury data after fatal motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are necessary to improve occupant safety and promote injury prevention. Autopsy remains the principle source of detailed fatal injury data. However, procedure rates are declining because of a range of technical, ethical, and religious concerns. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is a potential alternative or adjunct to autopsy which is increasingly used by forensic researchers. However, there are only limited data regarding the utility of PMCT for analysis of fatal MVC injuries. We performed whole body PMCT and autopsy on six subjects fatally injured in MVC in a single county in Michigan. All injuries detected by either method were coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Severe injuries, defined as AIS 3 or higher (AIS 3+), were tallied for each forensic procedure to allow a comparison of relative diagnostic performance. A total of 46 AIS 3+ injuries were identified by autopsy and PMCT for these cases. The addition of PMCT to autopsy increased overall detection of AIS 3+ injuries (all types) by 28%. PMCT detected 27% more AIS 3+ skeletal injuries than autopsy but 25% less soft tissue injuries. Use of PMCT improves the detection of AIS 3+ injuries after fatal MVC compared with isolated use of autopsy and also produces a highly detailed permanent objective record. PMCT appears to improve detection of skeletal injury compared with autopsy but is less sensitive than autopsy for the detection of AIS 3+ soft tissue injuries. Neither autopsy nor PMCT identified all AIS 3+ injuries revealed by the combination of the two methodologies. This suggests that PMCT should be used as an adjunct to autopsy rather than a replacement whenever feasible.

  13. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    , and psychoactive medicinal drugs were detected less frequently than in younger age groups. In 75% of single vehicle crashes, the driver was under 50 years. Thus, the majority of accidents where the drivers must be considered responsible, occurred with drivers who had recently used alcohol, or drugs, alone...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three...... countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) blood samples were available for more than 70% of the drivers, allowing representative prevalence data to be collected. 60% of the drivers in single vehicle crashes had alcohol and/or drug in their blood samples, compared with 30% of drivers killed in collisions...

  14. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only – 40%; drugs only – 12%; alcohol and drugs – 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  15. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  16. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  17. The effects of mandatory seatbelt laws on seatbelt use, motor vehicle fatalities, and crash-related injuries among youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher S; Stehr, Mark

    2008-05-01

    We provide the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of mandatory seatbelt laws on self-reported seatbelt use, highway fatalities, and crash-related injuries among high school age youths using data from the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) national, state, and local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) from 1991 to 2005, a period spanning over 20 changes in state seatbelt laws. Our quasi-experimental approaches isolate the independent effects of seatbelt laws net of demographic characteristics, area and year fixed effects, and smooth area-specific trends. Across all data sources, we find consistent evidence that state mandatory seatbelt laws - particularly those permitting primary enforcement - significantly increased seatbelt use among high school age youths by 45-80%, primarily at the extensive margin. Unlike previous research for adults, however, we find evidence against the selective recruitment hypothesis: seatbelt laws had consistently larger effects on those most likely to be involved in traffic accidents (drinkers, alcohol-involved drivers). We also find that mandatory seatbelt laws significantly reduced traffic fatalities and serious injuries resulting from fatal crashes by 8 and 9%, respectively. Our results suggest that if all states had primary enforcement seatbelt laws then regular youth seatbelt use would be nearly universal and youth fatalities would fall by about 120 per year.

  18. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  19. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  20. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crashes, and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in the US—harmful and expensive. What works to prevent crash injuries? Using primary enforcement seat belt laws that cover everyone in the car. A primary enforcement law means a police officer ...

  2. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight.This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estimated by evaluating the prevailing weather at the time and place of the crash compared with the weather at the same hour and location on control days a week earlier and a week later.The majority of patients (n = 6962) were injured during daylight hours and bright sunlight was the most common weather condition at the time and place of the crash. The risk of a life-threatening crash was 16% higher during bright sunlight than normal weather (95% confidence interval: 9-24, P vehicle crash. An awareness of this risk might inform driver education, trauma staffing, and safety warnings to prevent a life-threatening motor vehicle crash.

  3. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estimated by evaluating the prevailing weather at the time and place of the crash compared with the weather at the same hour and location on control days a week earlier and a week later. The majority of patients (n = 6962) were injured during daylight hours and bright sunlight was the most common weather condition at the time and place of the crash. The risk of a life-threatening crash was 16% higher during bright sunlight than normal weather (95% confidence interval: 9–24, P < 0.001). The increased risk was accentuated in the early afternoon, disappeared at night, extended to patients with different characteristics, involved crashes with diverse features, not apparent with cloudy weather, and contributed to about 5000 additional patient-days in hospital. The increased risk extended to patients with high crash severity as indicated by ambulance involvement, surgical procedures, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, and patient mortality. The increased risk was not easily attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, driving distances, or anomalies of adverse weather. Bright sunlight is associated with an increased risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash. An awareness of this risk might inform driver education, trauma staffing, and safety warnings to prevent a life-threatening motor vehicle crash. Level of evidence: Epidemiologic Study, level III. PMID:28072708

  4. Motor vehicle crash fatalities at 30 days in Spain Fallecidos a 30 días por lesiones producidas en accidente de tráfico en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess level of fulfilment and utility of the hospital discharge register (HDR as a complementary source of information for estimating the number of deaths at 30 days due to motor vehicle crashes in Spain. Methods: It is a cros-sectional study were we compared the number of people injured due to motor vehicle crashes hospitalised in a public hospital (HDR, in Spain during 2001, with the number of people severely injured or killed due to motor vehicle crashes reported by the police database (Dirección General de Tráfico, DGT for the same year. A descriptive analysis was carried out by age, sex and region (Autonomous Community, as well as an estimation of the percentage of under-reporting of deaths by the DGT based on two assumptions. Results: Police reported 27,272 severe injuries and 4,811 deaths during first 24 hours after the crash and after applying a fatality adjustment factor estimated 706 more deaths up to 30 days after the crash. The HDR reported 40,174 urgent hospitalisations. Of these, 1,099 died during the day of hospitalisation or within the following 30 days. The police only notified 68% of all cases that required hospitalisation. According to the number of deaths reported by police and contrasted with hospital register, estimations of the number of deaths at 30 days made by police could represent a level of under-reporting of between 3% and 6.6%, depending on the assumption considered. Conclusions: This study showed that the HDR is an information source that complements police statistics and is useful to estimate the number of deaths and non-fatal injuries due to motor vehicle crashes in Spain.Objetivos: Valorar el grado de cumplimiento y la utilidad del conjunto mínimo y básico de las altas hospitalarias (CMBDAH para estimar el número de fallecidos a 30 días por accidente de tráfico (AT. Método: Las poblaciones del estudio fueron los heridos graves y fallecidos por AT registrados en la base de accidentes de

  5. Safety restraint injuries in fatal motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, J; Donaldson, L; Duflou, J; Gorrie, C

    2007-12-01

    The presence of an apparent seat belt mark (SBM) on a car crash occupant is often used as evidence for use of a seat belt at the time of the crash and, conversely, the lack of a SBM is used as an indication that no seat belt was used. This study examined whether there are clear indications of seat belt use to be found at autopsy and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of apparent SBM and whether the use of a seat belt and seating location affects the type and severity of injuries sustained. Information on the type of injuries sustained and seatbelt use was retrieved from autopsy reports and police reports, respectively, for cases of fatal motor vehicle collisions occurring in Sydney, Australia over a 5-year period. In this study, a SBM was only found on restrained occupants. The proportion of restrained occupants with evidence of a SBM was 36% (sensitivity), whilst unrestrained occupants showed no evidence of a SBM (100% specificity). A SBM was also found to reliably reflect the seating position of the occupant. We conclude that restrained occupants can be expected to show evidence of the seat belt in just over one third of cases and that the absence of a SBM is not necessarily an indication that no seat belt was used. Spurious SBM is very unlikely to be present if the occupant was unrestrained.

  6. Brainstem injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2017-10-03

    This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk for brainstem injury by crash type, belt use, and crash severity (delta-V). NASS-CDS electronic cases were reviewed to see whether the transition from vehicles without advanced airbags and seat belts and side airbags and curtains to vehicles with the safety technologies has influenced the risk for brainstem injury. 1994-2013 NASS-CDS was analyzed to determine the number of brainstem injuries in nonejected adults (15+ years old) in vehicle crashes. Crashes were grouped by front, side, rear, and rollover. The effect of belt use was investigated. Light vehicles were included with model year (MY) 1994+. Occupants with severe head injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 4+) and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4+F injury were also determined. The risk for injury with standard errors was determined using the MAIS 0+F exposure by belt use and crash type. NASS-CDS electronic cases were studied with brainstem injury in 2001-2013 MY vehicles. NASS-CDS indicates there are 872 ± 133 cases of brainstem injury per year. About 16.0% of AIS 4+ head injury involves the brainstem. For belted occupants, the highest risk for brainstem injury was in side impacts at 0.065 ± 0.010%. In contrast, the highest risk for brainstem injury was 0.310 ± 0.291% in rear impacts and 0.310 ± 0.170% in rollovers for unbelted occupants. The risk for brainstem injury increased with crash severity. The highest risk for brainstem injury was 3.54 ± 1.45% in crashes with >72 km/h (>45 mph) delta-V. Exponential functions fit the change in risk with delta-V. Eighteen NASS-CDS electronic cases showed that brainstem injury occurred in very severe collisions where the occupant experienced multiple injuries from intrusion or impact on vehicle structures stiffened by deformation. The risk for brainstem injury in belted occupants has remained essentially constant over 20 years, whereas the risk for MAIS 4+F injury has declined 38.3%. The prevention

  7. Cardiac injuries in car occupants in fatal motor vehicle collisions--an autopsy-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Elisabeth E; Tsang, Yee-Wah; Champaneri, Anisha; Pueschel, Klaus; Byard, Roger W

    2010-08-01

    Motor vehicle accidents contribute widely to population morbidity and mortality around the world, and cardiac injuries are a major factor determining outcome. Autopsy reports from 380 motor vehicle occupants who died in motor vehicle crashes in Adelaide, Australia, and Hamburg, Germany, over a 6-year period were reviewed, analysing the presence and type of cardiac injuries and their correlation with factors such as crash type, presence of seatbelt/airbag and vehicle speed as well as with the presence of other injuries which might predict the presence of cardiac injuries in a clinical setting. 21.1% had cardiac injuries identified macroscopically autopsy or histology. Cardiac injuries were the only cause of death or contributed to a fatal outcome in 76% of these cases. Sternal fractures and left-sided serial rib fractures were predictive of cardiac injury.

  8. Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162675.html Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline It's possible that these state ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Marijuana Motor Vehicle Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  9. Disparity surveillance of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The lack of race information for nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries in the United States has limited the understanding of racial disparities in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). In this article, we describe a pilot surveillance project in Nebraska that linked crash reports and driver's license records to investigate racial disparity among nonfatal MVC injuries. The project linked 43,157 severely and nonseverely injured drivers from crash reports between 2006 and 2010 to the corresponding state driver's license database so that drivers' race information from each MVC could be retrieved. A log rate model was used to examine the likelihood of MVC injuries by drivers' race along the dimensions of age, sex, and place of residence. Black drivers had 31.6 and 87 percent more severe and nonsevere injuries, respectively, than white drivers. Rural residents were more likely than urban residents to have severe MVC injuries. Controlling for residence status, age, and sex did not alter the basic pattern that black drivers had higher rates of nonfatal MVC injuries. The linkage approach provides an effective way to obtain additional information for MVC injury disparity surveillance. To reduce racial disparities in severe and nonsevere MVC injuries, race-sex-, race-age-, and race-location-specific interventions should be considered based on their significant contributions to disparity.

  10. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003–2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. PMID:26967529

  11. The Effect of State Regulations on Motor Vehicle Fatalities for Younger and Older Drivers: A Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, David C; Morrisey, Michael A

    2001-01-01

    Policymakers have had a long-standing interest in improving the motor vehicle safety of both younger and older drivers. Although younger and older drivers share the distinction of having more crashes and fatalities per mile driven than other age groups, the problems posed by these two groups stem from different origins and manifest in different ways. A number of state-level policies and regulations may affect the number of motor vehicle crashes and fatalities in these two high-risk groups. A ...

  12. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK56 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Action Plan, NHTSA is issuing this NPRM to propose to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard... crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic way customarily open to the public, and...

  13. Rhabdomyolysis and unilateral renal infarction after a motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Toru; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Murata, Akinari; Ukon, Kei; Fuchigami, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    A 46-year-old man with no previous history of abnormal urinalysis findings or renal dysfunction was admitted to a local hospital because of a motor vehicle crash. An open laparotomy was performed to treat a perforation of the small intestine. After operation, oliguria and renal dysfunction developed, and he was admitted to our hospital because of acute renal failure after trauma. Acute renal failure was assumed to be due to rhabdomyolysis with elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatine kinase levels and myoglobinemia. Left flank pain occurred several days after admission, and the serum alkaline phosphatase level increased between days 5 and 12 following admission. Although hemodialysis was performed 9 times and the urine output was satisfactory, the creatinine clearance levels increased only to about 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.84 mL/s/m2) at 6 weeks following admission. As a result, a diagnosis of renal infarction due to acute renal artery occlusion was considered. The left kidney was atrophic on an abdominal computed tomographic scan and was nonfunctioning on a renogram. This case shows the importance of not overlooking the possibility of a renal infarction associated with rhabdomyolysis after a motor vehicle crash. In particular, the changes in the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were important in making a correct diagnosis in this case.

  14. Road traffic fatalities among pedestrians, bicyclists and mo-tor vehicle occupants in Sirjan, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the crash and injury data in forensic medicine for years of 2004-2007. Methods: A sample of over 567 accident cases (9 pedestrians, 116 bicyclists, and 442 motor vehicle occupants) was considered from the Department of Foren-sic Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, in-volving drivers of all ages and covering a four-year period.Results: The male fatality rates were significantly higher than female ones. The groups at 15-30 years old and at 30-55 years old had the first and second highest numbers of deaths (40% and 34%, respectively). There were sub-stantial differences in distribution of injuries in motor ve-hicle occupants and pedestrians and bicyclists. Among motor vehicle occupants, there were more head injuries, such as skull fracture, brain contusion, subdural haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage. Nearly 77% of fatalities occurred during 08:00-22:00 in Sirjan. Internal bleeding was also higher in motor vehicle occupants. Pedestrians and bicyclists also had head injuries frequently.Conclusions: In spite of reduction of road traffic fatali-ties in Sirjan in 2007, it is still one of the cities with high road traffic fatality in the world. These results underline the im-portance of preventive strategies in transportation, sug-gesting that different methods are necessary to reduce fa-talities of various traffic participants.

  15. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  16. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, compactness/sprawl indices were developed for metropolitan areas and counties which have been widely used in health and other research. In this study, we first update the original county index to 2010, then develop a refined index that accounts for more relevant factors, and finally seek to test the relationship between sprawl and traffic crash rates using structural equation modelling. Controlling for covariates, we find that sprawl is associated with significantly higher direct and indirect effects on fatal crash rates. The direct effect is likely due to the higher traffic speeds in sprawling areas, and the indirect effect is due to greater vehicle miles driven in such areas. Conversely, sprawl has negative direct relationships with total crashes and non-fatal injury crashes, and these offset (and sometimes overwhelm) the positive indirect effects of sprawl on both types of crashes through the mediating effect of increased vehicle miles driven. The most likely explanation is the greater prevalence of fender benders and other minor accidents in the low speed, high conflict traffic environments of compact areas, negating the lower vehicle miles travelled per capita in such areas.

  17. Asphyxia: a rare cause of death for motor vehicle crash occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Carol; Stanley, Christina; Eastman, A Brent; Vaughan, Teresa; Vilke, Gary M; Hoyt, David B; Pacyna, Sharon; Smith, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicle related trauma is one of the leading causes of traumatic death. Although most of these deaths are because of severe blunt force trauma, there are people without severe injury who die of asphyxia related to the motor vehicle collision. There were 37 deaths because of motor vehicle related asphyxia in San Diego County during 1995-2004. Almost half (48.6%) of these deaths were because of compression asphyxia, 29.7% were positional asphyxia deaths, and 16.2% died of a combination of compression and positional asphyxia. We were unable to classify the mechanism of asphyxia for the remaining 5.4% of asphyxia deaths. Almost all occupants dying from asphyxia were involved in rollover crashes and may have been incapacitated by obesity, drug or alcohol intoxication, or blunt force trauma. Compression asphyxia deaths occurred both from vehicle crush with intrusion into the passenger compartment and from ejection of the occupant and subsequent crushing by the vehicle. Positional asphyxia occurred in positions interfering with normal respiration, including inversion. None of the occupants had injury severe enough to result in death at the scene if they had not first died of asphyxia. This study suggests classifying the mechanism of asphyxia for these fatalities may be a challenge to forensic pathologists who seldom see these rare deaths.

  18. Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy and cerebral palsy during infancy: a longitudinal cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Naqib, Faisal; Thiruchelvam, Deva; R Barrett, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incidence of cerebral palsy among children born to mothers who had their pregnancy complicated by a motor vehicle crash. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of children born from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2012 in Ontario, Canada. Participants Cases defined as pregnancies complicated by a motor vehicle crash and controls as remaining pregnancies with no crash. Main outcome Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy by age 3 years. Results A total of 1 325 660 newborns were analysed, of whom 7933 were involved in a motor vehicle crash during pregnancy. A total of 2328 were subsequently diagnosed with cerebral palsy, equal to an absolute risk of 1.8 per 1000 newborns. For the entire cohort, motor vehicle crashes correlated with a 29% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy that was not statistically significant (95% CI −16 to +110, p=0.274). The increased risk was only significant for those with preterm birth who showed an 89% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +7 to +266, p=0.037). No significant increase was apparent for those with a term delivery (95% CI −62 to +79, p=0.510). A propensity score-matched analysis of preterm births (n=4384) yielded a 138% increased relative risk of cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +27 to +349, p=0.007), equal to an absolute increase of about 10.9 additional cases per 1000 newborns (18.2 vs 7.3, p=0.010). Conclusions Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy among the subgroup of cases with preterm birth. The increase highlights a specific role for traffic safety advice in prenatal care. PMID:27650764

  19. Disability risk in pediatric motor vehicle crash occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Petty, John K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates among children in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are typically low; however, nonfatal injuries can vary in severity by imposing differing levels of short- and long-term disability. To better discriminate the severity of nonfatal MVC injuries, a pediatric-specific disability risk (DR) metric was created. The National Automotive Sampling System 2000 to 2011 was used to define the top 95% most common Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ injuries among pediatric MVC occupants. Functional Independence Measure scores were abstracted from the National Trauma Data Bank 2002 to 2006. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. The DR and coinjury-adjusted DR (DRMAIS) of the most common AIS 2+ MVC-induced injuries were calculated for 7-year-old to 18-year-old children by determining the proportion of those disabled after an injury to those sustaining the injury. DR and DRMAIS values ranged from 0 to 1, representing 0% to 100% DR. The mean DR and DRMAIS of all injuries were 0.290 and 0.191, respectively. DR and DRMAIS were greatest for injuries to the head (DR, 0.340; DRMAIS, 0.279), thorax (DR, 0.320; DRMAIS, 0.233), and spine (DR, 0.315; DRMAIS, 0.200). The mean DR and DRMAIS increased with increasing AIS severity but there was significant variation and overlapping values across AIS severity levels. Comparison of DRMAIS to coinjury-adjusted mortality risk (MRMAIS) revealed that among 118 injuries with MRMAIS of 0.000, DRMAIS ranged from 0.000 to 0.429. Incorporation of DR metrics into injury severity metrics may improve the ability to distinguish between the severity of different nonfatal injuries. This is especially crucial in the pediatric population where permanent disability can result in a high number of years lost due to disability. The accuracy of such severity metrics is crucial to the success of pediatric triage algorithms such as Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithms. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  20. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers : findings from the DRIVE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data

  1. 76 FR 51120 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Denial of motor... System (FARS) tracks all fatal crashes involving motor vehicles in the United States. An analysis...

  2. Motor vehicle road crashes during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, D J; Langley, J D; Chalmers, D

    1992-04-22

    From a sample of 848 teenagers, 50 individuals reported a total of 52 motor vehicle road crash events: 42 involved a car, six a motorcycle, and four a bus, over a two year period. Males and females were equally represented in each type of crash. Twenty-one of the car crashes, four of the motorcycle crashes and three of the bus crashes involved injury. The injuries sustained in the motorcycle crashes were predominantly to the extremities and in the other crashes they were mainly to the head or face. On average drivers less than 25 years of age had more passengers in their cars and were involved in more nighttime crashes. A seat belt was worn in only 18 (44%) of the car crashes. A motorcycle helmet was worn in four of the six motorcycle crashes. Six (15%) crashes were reported to have involved alcohol. The main areas of risk associated with motor vehicle road crashes involving teenagers and young adults have been addressed by legislation or the graduated drivers' licensing system. An evaluation of these measures is required to establish whether they are effective.

  3. Motor Vehicle Crash-Associated Eye Injuries Presenting to U. S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson W. Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs are a leading cause of injury in the United States (U.S.. Detailed knowledge of MVC eye injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments (ED will aid clinicians in diagnosis and management. The objective of the study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of non-fatal motor vehicle crash-associated eye injuries presenting to U.S. EDs from 2001 to 2008. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP from 2001 to 2008 to assess the risk of presenting to an ED with a MVC-associated eye injury in relation to specific occupant characteristics, including age, gender, race/ethnicity, disposition, and occupant (driver/passenger status. Results: From 2001 to 2008, an estimated 75,028 MVC-associated eye injuries presented to U.S. EDs. The annual rate of ED-treated eye injuries resulting from MVCs declined during this study period. Males accounted for 59.6% of eye injuries (95% confidence interval [CI] 56.2%-63.0%. Rates of eye injury were highest among 15-19 year olds (5.8/10,000 people; CI 4.3-6.0/10,000 and among African Americans (4.5/10,000 people; CI 2.0-7.1/10,000. Drivers of motor vehicles accounted for 62.2% (CI 58.3%-66.1% of ED-treated MVC eye injuries when occupant status was known. Contusion/Abrasion was the most common diagnosis (61.5%; CI 56.5%-66.4%. Among licensed U.S. drivers, 16-24 year olds had the highest risk (3.7/10,000 licensed drivers; CI 2.6-4.8/10,000. Conclusion: This study reports a decline in the annual incidence of ED-treated MVC-associated eye injuries. The risk of MVC eye injury is greatest among males, 15 to 19 year olds and African Americans. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:693-700

  4. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk.

  5. Cross-classified multilevel models for severity of commercial motor vehicle crashes considering heterogeneity among companies and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Chul; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kho, Seung-Young; Park, Peter Y

    2017-09-01

    This study analyzes 86,622 commercial motor vehicle (CMV) crashes (large truck, bus and taxi crashes) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. The analysis recognizes the hierarchical structure of the factors affecting CMV crashes by examining eight factors related to individual crashes and six additional upper level factors organized in two non-nested groups (company level and regional level factors). The study considers four different crash severities (fatal, major, minor, and no injury). The company level factors reflect selected characteristics of 1,875 CMV companies, and the regional level factors reflect selected characteristics of 230 municipalities. The study develops a single-level ordinary ordered logit model, two conventional multilevel ordered logit models, and a cross-classified multilevel ordered logit model (CCMM). As the study develops each of these four models for large trucks, buses and taxis, 12 different statistical models are analyzed. The CCMM outperforms the other models in two important ways: 1) the CCMM avoids the type I statistical errors that tend to occur when analyzing hierarchical data with single-level models; and 2) the CCMM can analyze two non-nested groups simultaneously. Statistically significant factors include taxi company's type of vehicle ownership and municipality's level of transportation infrastructure budget. An improved understanding of CMV related crashes should contribute to the development of safety countermeasures to reduce the number and severity of CMV related crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms to report a domestic fleet crash. The forms should be carried in any domestic fleet motor vehicle....

  7. Seat Belt Usage Interventions for Motor Vehicle Crash Prevention on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiotte, Joseph; Balanay, Jo Anne; Humphrey, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death from severe injuries on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (PRIR), averaging 16 MVC deaths per year from 2002 to 2011. The Sacred Cargo Coalition was established in PRIR in 2007 to implement intervention strategies to increase seat belt usage and reduce MVC fatalities, including seat belt law enforcement, creating a traffic court system, and educational campaigns on MVC prevention. The study described in this article examined the effectiveness of the interventions on increasing the seat belt usage rates and reducing MVC deaths. Secondary data were collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and other federal and local agencies. Seat belt usage rates increased an average of 6.8 percentage points from 2007 (10%) to 2012 (44%). MVC fatalities decreased by 46.7% from the preintervention to the intervention period. Maintenance and improvement of the intervention strategies may be achieved by seeking additional funding and including appropriate engineering activities in PRIR.

  8. The impact of Michigan's text messaging restriction on motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Bingham, C Raymond; Ionides, Edward; Childers, David

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Michigan's universal text messaging restriction (effective July 2010) across different age groups of drivers and crash severities. Changes in monthly crash rates and crash trends per 10,000 licensed drivers aged 16, 17, 18, 19, 20-24, and 25-50 years were estimated using time series analysis for three levels of crash severity: (1) fatal/disabling injury; (2) nondisabling injury; and (3) possible injury/property damage only (PDO) crashes for the period 2005-2012. Analyses were adjusted for crash rates of drivers' aged 65-99 years, Michigan's unemployment rate, and gasoline prices. After the introduction of the texting restriction, significant increases were observed in crash rates and monthly trends in fatal/disabling injury crashes and nondisabling injury crashes, and significant decreases in possible injury/PDO crashes. The magnitude of the effects where significant changes were observed was small. The introduction of the texting restriction was not associated with a reduction in crash rates or trends in severe crash types. On the contrary, small increases in the most severe crash types (fatal/disabling and nondisabling injury) and small decreases in the least severe crash types (possible injury/PDO) were observed. These findings extend the literature on the effects of cell phone restrictions by examining the effects of the restriction on newly licensed adolescent drivers and adult drivers separately by crash severity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  10. Ridesharing and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Four U.S. Cities: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher N; Jacoby, Sara F; Dong, Beidi; Delgado, M Kit; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2017-06-14

    Uber, the world's largest ridesharing company, has reportedly provided over two billion journeys globally since operations began in 2010; however, the impact on motor vehicle crashes is unclear. Theoretically, ridesharing could reduce alcohol-involved crashes in locations where other modes of transportation are less attractive than driving one's own vehicle while alcohol-affected. We conducted interrupted time series analyses using weekly counts of injury crashes and the proportion that were alcohol-involved in four US cities (Las Vegas, NV; Portland, OR; Reno, NV; San Antonio, TX). We considered that a resumption of Uber operations after a temporary break would produce a more substantial change in ridership than an initial launch, so we selected cities where Uber launched, ceased, and then resumed operations (2013-2016). We hypothesized that Uber's resumption would be associated with fewer alcohol-involved crashes. Results partially supported this hypothesis. For example, in Portland, Uber's resumption was associated with a 61.8% reduction (95% confidence interval = 38.7%, 86.4%) in the alcohol-involved crash rate (an absolute decrease of 3.1 [95% confidence interval = 1.7, 4.4] alcohol-involved crashes per week); however there was no concomitant change in all injury crashes. Relationships between ridesharing and motor vehicle crashes differ between cities over time, and may depend on specific local characteristics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Comparison of injury mortality risk in motor vehicle crash versus other etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgo, Patrick D; Weaver, Ashley A; Barnard, Ryan T; Love, Timothy P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-06-01

    The mortality risk ratio (MRR), a measure of the proportion of people who died that sustained a given injury, is reported to be among the most powerful discriminators of mortality following trauma. The primary aim was to determine whether mechanistic differences exist and are quantifiable when comparing MRR-based injury severity across two broadly defined etiologies (motor vehicle crash (MVC) versus non-MVC) for the clarification of important injury types that have some room for improvement by emergency treatment and vehicle design. All International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) coded injuries in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) database were stratified into MVC and non-MVC groups and the MRR for each injury was computed within each group. Injuries were classified as 11 different types for MRR comparison between etiologies. Overall, MRRs for specific injuries were 10-18% lower for MVC compared to non-MVC etiologies. MVCs however produced much higher mean MRRs for crushing injuries (0.184 versus 0.072) and internal injuries to the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (0.200 versus 0.169). Non-MVCs produced much higher MRRs for intracranial injuries (0.199 versus 0.250). Analysis of the top 95% most frequent MVC injuries revealed higher MVC MRR values for 78% of the injuries with MRR ratios indicating an average 50% increase in a given injury's MRR when MVC was the etiology. Addressing the large differences in MRR in between etiologies for identical injuries could provide a reduction in fatalities and may be important to patient triage and vehicle safety design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Passenger compartment intrusion as a predictor of significant injury for children in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan L; Nance, Michael L; Arbogast, Kristy B; Elliott, Michael R; Winston, Flaura K

    2009-02-01

    Passenger compartment intrusion, loss of integrity of the vehicle occupant compartment due to a motor vehicle crash, has frequently been used as a triage criterion. Data to support intrusion as a proxy for injury severity in child occupants are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intrusion and injury to children in motor vehicle crashes. Crash investigation data were reviewed from the partners for child passenger safety database, a large, child-focused crash surveillance system. Data included: intrusion (centimeters), direction of impact, age of occupant, and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score. Analyses examined the relationship between the amount of intrusion and the risk of any AIS > or = 2, or > or = 3 injury. Data were available on 880 children, age 0 year to 15 years. AIS > or = 2 and > or = 3 injuries occurred in 40.3% and 12.6% of child occupants, respectively. Intrusion was strongly and positively associated with the odds of both an AIS > or = 2 and > or = 3 injury (p or = 2, or > or = 3 injury increased on average by 2.9% (95% CI = 1.9-3.8%), or 4.0% (95% CI = 2.7-5.2%), respectively, for each additional centimeter of intrusion, adjusting for age, restraint use, seating row, and direction of impact. The association between passenger compartment intrusion and injury in children supports its application in triage, and usefulness in injury predictive models. Future studies should determine methods for providing valid field information on intrusion to the trauma team.

  13. Sedative Hypnotic Medication Use and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Boudreau, Denise M; Ebel, Beth E; Grossman, David C; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-08-01

    We sought to estimate the association between sedative hypnotic use and motor vehicle crash risk. We conducted a new user cohort study of 409 171 adults in an integrated health care system. Health plan data were linked to driver license and collision records. Participants were aged 21 years or older, licensed to drive in Washington State, had at least 1 year of continuous enrollment between 2003 and 2008, and were followed until death, disenrollment, or study end. We used proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk of crash associated with 3 sedatives. We found 5.8% of patients received new sedative prescriptions, with 11 197 person-years of exposure. New users of sedatives were associated with an increased risk of crash relative to nonuse: temazepam hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.91), trazodone HR = 1.91 (95% CI = 1.62, 2.25), and zolpidem HR = 2.20 (95% CI = 1.64, 2.95). These risk estimates are equivalent to blood alcohol concentration levels between 0.06% and 0.11%. New use of sedative hypnotics is associated with increased motor vehicle crash risk. Clinicians initiating sedative hypnotic treatment should consider length of treatment and counseling on driving risk.

  14. The use of generalized estimating equations in the analysis of motor vehicle crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Caroline B; Knight, Stacey; Reading, James C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if it is necessary to use generalized estimating equations (GEEs) in the analysis of seat belt effectiveness in preventing injuries in motor vehicle crashes. The 1992 Utah crash dataset was used, excluding crash participants where seat belt use was not appropriate (n=93,633). The model used in the 1996 Report to Congress [Report to congress on benefits of safety belts and motorcycle helmets, based on data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES). National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NHTSA, Washington, DC, February 1996] was analyzed for all occupants with logistic regression, one level of nesting (occupants within crashes), and two levels of nesting (occupants within vehicles within crashes) to compare the use of GEEs with logistic regression. When using one level of nesting compared to logistic regression, 13 of 16 variance estimates changed more than 10%, and eight of 16 parameter estimates changed more than 10%. In addition, three of the independent variables changed from significant to insignificant (alpha=0.05). With the use of two levels of nesting, two of 16 variance estimates and three of 16 parameter estimates changed more than 10% from the variance and parameter estimates in one level of nesting. One of the independent variables changed from insignificant to significant (alpha=0.05) in the two levels of nesting model; therefore, only two of the independent variables changed from significant to insignificant when the logistic regression model was compared to the two levels of nesting model. The odds ratio of seat belt effectiveness in preventing injuries was 12% lower when a one-level nested model was used. Based on these results, we stress the need to use a nested model and GEEs when analyzing motor vehicle crash data.

  15. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Mawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  16. Characterization of the occult nature of injury for frequently occurring motor vehicle crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Doud, Andrea N; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Winslow, James E; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-01-01

    Occult injuries are not easily detected and can be potentially life-threatening. The purpose of this study was to quantify the perceived occultness of the most frequent motor vehicle crash injuries according to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. An electronic survey was distributed to 1,125 EMS professionals who were asked to quantify the likelihood that first responders would miss symptoms related to a particular injury on a 5-point Likert scale. The Occult Score for each injury was computed from the average of all the survey responses and normalized to be a continuous metric ranging from 0 to 1 where 0 is a non-occult (highly apparent on initial presentation) injury and 1 is an occult (unapparent on initial presentation) injury. Overall, 110,671 survey responses were collected. The Occult Score ranged from 0 to 1 with a mean, median, and standard deviation of 0.443, 0.450, and 0.233, respectively. When comparing the Occult Score of an injury to its corresponding AIS severity, there was no relationship between the metrics. When stratifying by body region, injury type, and AIS severity, it was evident that AIS 2-4 abdominal injuries with lacerations, hemorrhage, or contusions were perceived as the most occult injuries. Timely triage is key to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with occult injuries. The Occult Score developed in this study to describe the predictability of an injury in a motor vehicle crash will be used as part of a larger effort, including incorporation into an advanced automatic crash notification (AACN) algorithm to detect crash conditions associated with a patient's need for prompt treatment at a trauma center. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the effect of compensation on recovery from severe motor vehicle crash injuries: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Darnel F; Cameron, Ian D; Harris, Ian A

    2011-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence recovery from serious injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes, particularly differences between those with compensable and non-compensable injuries. Qualitative study using grounded theory and focus group methods within the trauma service of a university teaching hospital. 34 subjects (27 male, 7 female), of whom 21 were participants with a compensation claim and 13 were not. Each had sustained injuries in motor vehicle crashes between two and seven years previously. Themes identified from transcripts of the focus groups. The themes identified from participants claiming compensation were a strong sense of entitlement and injustice, a difficult claims and settlement process, an inability to move on with life during the claims process, an extreme dislike of medico-legal assessments, the necessity of legal representation to assist with the claims process, and a perceived lack of trust about having to prove an injury or disability. The themes common to all participants were the significance of the trauma experience, the importance of family and social support, and, if self-employed, financial hardship and difficult experiences in returning to work. The injury recovery experience was difficult for all subjects, but it was particularly stressful for those claiming compensation. Based on this study, the claims process, particularly medico-legal examinations, and other factors that could impact on injury recovery, are targets for further research, possible policy review, or legislative change.

  18. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-01-01

    The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previou...

  19. Analysis of fatal road traffic crashes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackaah, Williams; Adonteng, David O

    2011-03-01

    The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005-2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed that pedestrians accounted for 42% of all road traffic fatalities and nearly one-third (33%) of these crashes occurred during the early night-time hours. Children alone constituted almost one-third of all pedestrian fatalities. The occupants of goods vehicles accounted for 12% of all road traffic fatalities although goods vehicles constitute just about 9% of the total motor vehicle population in Ghana. Pedestrians, especially children bear a disproportionately high share of road traffic fatalities in Ghana. The risk of being killed as a pedestrian in traffic is exacerbated during night time. Excessive vehicular speeds, inappropriate use of goods vehicles for passenger transport, excessive loading and inadequate trauma care are the key contributory risk factors to the high number of road traffic fatalities. Concerted efforts spanning education, engineering, enforcement and trauma care are needed to stem the rise in fatal crashes in Ghana.

  20. Children with special physical health care needs: restraint use and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kallan, Michael J; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Blum, Nathan J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    Physical disabilities may affect a child passenger's fit within a conventional motor vehicle restraint. The aim of this study is to describe and compare injury risk in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) among children with and without special physical health care needs (SPHCN). This analysis, conducted in 2007-2008, utilizes data collected between December 1998 and November 2002 in a cross-sectional study of children ≤15 years old involved in crashes of State-Farm insured vehicles in 15 states and the District of Columbia. Parent reports via telephone survey were used to define pre-crash SPHCN, restraint status, and occurrence of significant injuries using a validated survey. Complete data were collected for 18,852 children aged 0-15 years; 159 children were reported to have a SPHCN (0.8% and 0.7% of children aged 0-8 and 9-15 years, respectively). A greater proportion of children with SPHCN aged 0-8 years were appropriately restrained (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in restraint use among children with and without SPHCN aged 9-15 years. There was no significant association between the presence of a SPHCN and injury risk in either age group, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics (children aged 0-8 years: OR 1.27, 95% CI: 0.48-3.33; children aged 9-15 years: OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.38-6.11). Children with and without SPHCN have similar injury risk in MVC, despite increased age-appropriate restraint usage among children aged 0-8 years. When counseling families about vehicle safety, practitioners should consider the fit of a child with SPHCN in a restraint system.

  1. Development of a time sensitivity score for frequently occurring motor vehicle crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Doud, Andrea N; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Martin, R Shayn; Meredith, J Wayne; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-03-01

    Injury severity alone is a poor indicator of the time sensitivity of injuries. The purpose of the study was to quantify the urgency with which the most frequent motor vehicle crash injuries require treatment, according to expert physicians. The time sensitivity was quantified for the top 95% most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ injuries in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000-2011. A Time Sensitivity Score was developed using expert physician survey data in which physicians were asked to determine whether a particular injury should go to a Level I/II trauma center and the urgency with which that injury required treatment. When stratifying by AIS severity, the mean Time Sensitivity Score increased with increasing AIS severity. The mean Time Sensitivity Scores by AIS severity were as follows: 0.50 (AIS 2); 0.78 (AIS 3); 0.92 (AIS 4); 0.97 (AIS 5); and 0.97 (AIS 6). When stratifying by anatomical region, the head, thorax, and abdomen were the most time sensitive. Appropriate triage depends on multiple factors, including the severity of an injury, the urgency with which it requires treatment, and the propensity of a significant injury to be missed. The Time Sensitivity Score did not correlate highly with the widely used AIS severity scores, which highlights the inability of AIS scores to capture all aspects of injury severity. The Time Sensitivity Score can be useful in Advanced Automatic Crash Notification systems for identifying highly time sensitive injuries in motor vehicle crashes requiring prompt treatment at a trauma center. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of intersection and street design on severity of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh; Mekary, Rania A; Courtney, Theodore K; Christiani, David C

    2017-01-01

    Background Safety concerns are a major barrier to cycling. Intersection and street design variables such as intersection angles and street width might contribute to the severity of crashes and the safety concerns. In this study we examined whether these design variables were associated with bicycle-motor vehicle crashes (BMVC) severity. Methods Using the geographical information system and latitudes/longitudes recorded by the police using a global positioning device, we extracted intersection angles, street width, bicycle facilities, posted speed limits and annual average daily traffic from 3266 BMVC data from New York City police records. Additional variables about BMVC, including age and sex of the bicyclist, time of the day, road surface conditions, road character, vehicle type and injury severity, were obtained from police reports. Injury severity was classified as severe (incapacitating or killed) or non-severe (non-incapacitating, possible injury). The associations between injury severity and environment design variables were examined using multivariate log-binomial regression model. Findings Compared with crashes at orthogonal intersections, crashes at non-orthogonal intersections had 1.37 times (95% CI 1.05 to 1.80) and non-intersection street segments had 1.31 times (95% CI 1.01 to 1.70) higher risk of a severe injury. Crashes that involved a truck or a bus were twice as likely to result in a severe injury outcome; street width was not significantly associated with injury severity. Conclusion Crashes at non-orthogonal intersections and non-intersection segments are more likely to result in higher injury severity. The findings can be used to improve road design and develop effective safety interventions. PMID:27881469

  3. Driver sleepiness and risk of motor vehicle crash injuries: a population-based case control study in Fiji (TRIP 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Connor, Jennie; Jackson, Rod; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-03-01

    Published studies investigating the role of driver sleepiness in road crashes in low and middle-income countries have largely focused on heavy vehicles. We investigated the contribution of driver sleepiness to four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, a middle-income Pacific Island country. The population-based case control study included 131 motor vehicles involved in crashes where at least one person died or was hospitalised (cases) and 752 motor vehicles identified in roadside surveys (controls). An interviewer-administered questionnaire completed by drivers or proxies collected information on potential risks for crashes including sleepiness while driving, and factors that may influence the quantity or quality of sleep. Following adjustment for confounders, there was an almost six-fold increase in the odds of injury-involved crashes for vehicles driven by people who were not fully alert or sleepy (OR 5.7, 95%CI: 2.7, 12.3), or those who reported less than 6 h of sleep during the previous 24 h (OR 5.9, 95%CI: 1.7, 20.9). The population attributable risk for crashes associated with driving while not fully alert or sleepy was 34%, and driving after less than 6 h sleep in the previous 24 h was 9%. Driving by people reporting symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnoea was not significantly associated with crash risk. Driver sleepiness is an important contributor to injury-involved four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, highlighting the need for evidence-based strategies to address this poorly characterised risk factor for car crashes in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of self-reported motor-vehicle crash and related work leave in a multi-purpose prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Villanueva, Juan; Seguí-Gómez, María

    2010-12-01

    Validation studies about self-reported motor vehicle crashes and related work leave are scarce. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) is a multi-purpose cohort study undertaken in Spain. Motor vehicle crash risk factors are assessed within it. The objective of this study was to validate the incidents of self-reported motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and related work leave through mailing and clinical notes' review. The method included questions in the cohort's questionnaire regarding motor vehicle crash incident and work leave. We made both a re-test and a criterion validity study for self-reported answers. The results show a moderate κ Cohen's correlation coefficient for both events. Re-test reliability κ for MVC was 0.55, for MVC-related work leave it was 0.53. Criterion validity κ was 0.25 for MVC and 0.25 for MVC-related work leave. These results show a moderate agreement for re-test both for MVC and work MVC-related leave. For criterion validity, the results show a fair agreement. The magnitude of the agreement is similar to other similar studies and allows the use of these data in epidemiological studies.

  5. Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Peralta, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries.

  6. Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Peralta, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries. PMID:25810964

  7. Risk and severity of motor vehicle crashes in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, A T; Nasvadi, G; Butt, A; Cheema, R; Fox, N; Fleetham, J A; Ryan, C F; Cooper, P; Ayas, N T

    2008-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea (OSAH) appears to be associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). However, its impact on crash patterns, particularly the severity of crashes, has not been well described. A study was undertaken to determine whether OSAH severity influenced crash severity in patients referred for investigation of suspected sleep-disordered breathing. Objective crash data (including the nature of crashes) for 783 patients with suspected OSAH for the 3 years prior to polysomnography were obtained from provincial insurance records and compared with data for 783 age- and sex-matched controls. The patient group was 71% male with a mean age of 50 years, a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 22 events/h and a mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 10. There were 375 crashes in the 3-year period, 252 in patients and 123 in controls. Compared with controls, patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAH had an increased rate of MVCs with relative risks of 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), 1.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0), respectively. Patients with suspected OSAH and normal polysomnography (AHI 0-5) did not have an increased rate of MVC (relative risk 1.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.5), p = 0.21). When the impact of OSAH on MVC associated with personal injury was examined, patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAH had a substantially higher rate of MVCs than controls with relative risks of 4.8 (95% CI 1.8 to 12.4), 3.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 7.0) and 4.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 8.9), respectively, whereas patients without OSAH had similar crash rates to controls with a relative risk of 0.6 (95% CI 0.2 to 2.5). Very severe MVCs (head-on collisions or those involving pedestrians or cyclists) were rare, but 80% of these occurred in patients with OSAH (p = 0.06). Patients with OSAH have increased rates of MVCs, and disproportionately increased rates of MVCs are associated with personal injury.

  8. Occupant and crash characteristics for case occupants with cervical spine injuries sustained in motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Deborah M; Kufera, Joseph A; Ho, Shiu M; Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; O'Connor, James V; Scalea, Thomas M

    2011-02-01

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of spine and spinal cord injuries in the United States. Traumatic cervical spine injuries (CSIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to evaluate both the epidemiologic and biomechanical risk factors associated with CSI in MVCs by using a population-based database and to describe occupant and crashes characteristics for a subset of severe crashes in which a CSI was sustained as represented by the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database. Prospectively collected CIREN data from the eight centers were used to identify all case occupants between 1996 and November 2009. Case occupants older than 14 years and case vehicles of the four most common vehicle types were included. The National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System, a probability sample of all police-reported MVCs in the United States, was queried using the same inclusion criteria between 1997 and 2008. Cervical spinal cord and spinal column injuries were identified using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score codes. Data were abstracted on all case occupants, biomechanical crash characteristics, and injuries sustained. Univariate analysis was performed using a χ analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify significant risk factors in a multivariate analysis to control for confounding associations. CSIs were identified in 11.5% of CIREN case occupants. Case occupants aged 65 years or older and those occupants involved in rollover crashes were more likely to sustain a CSI. In univariate analysis of the subset of severe crashes represented by CIREN, the use of airbag and seat belt together (reference) were more protective than seat belt alone (odds ratio [OR]=1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.32-2.27) or the use of neither restraint system (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.07). The most frequent injury sources in CIREN crashes were roof and its components (24.8%) and noncontact sources (15

  9. A comparison of injuries, crashes, and outcomes for pediatric rear occupants in traffic motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyk Stewart, Tanya; McClafferty, Kevin; Shkrum, Michael; Comeau, Jean-Louis; Gilliland, Jason; Fraser, Douglas D

    2013-02-01

    This study was initiated was initiated to describe pediatric rear-occupant motor vehicle collision (MVC) injuries, including injury patterns and outcomes as well as characteristics associated with severe injury to the head and abdomen. A retrospective cohort of severely injured (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 12) pediatric (age crash and outcome data were obtained from the trauma registries. Data were statistically compared by two pediatric age groups: children (0-8 years; requiring a child or booster seat) versus adolescents (9-17 years; requiring a lap-shoulder belt). There were 36 children (34%) and 70 adolescents (66%) severely injured as rear occupants in MVCs. Despite similar ISS (p = 0.716) and mortality rates (p = 0.680) between age groups, there were significant differences in injury patterns and risk factors. Children were more likely to have severe head injuries (78% vs. 39%, p crashes (p = 0.007). Adolescents were more likely to have severe abdominal injuries (23% vs. 6%, p injuries, risk factors, and MVC impacts. Recommendations for improved protection of child occupants and preferred seating positions are required. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  10. Association between attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle crashes, depressive symptoms, and return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Stafford, Lesley; Nordfjaern, Trond; Berk, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Perceptions surrounding the underlying causes of accidents and injuries may be a key mechanism influencing postaccident health and functional outcomes among people injured in road crashes. In particular, attributions of responsibility may influence rates of postcrash depressive symptomatology and return-to-work. We studied a large sample of people injured in motor vehicle crashes who were working at their time of accident and needed to take time off as a result of their injuries. Interviews took place at 2 time points, 12 months apart (T1: n = 1,024, T2: n = 303). Comparisons were made between participants' levels of depressive symptoms and rates of return to work based on their assessment of responsibility for their accident. People who did not attribute responsibility to themselves for their accident were 3 times more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression at follow-up than those who attributed responsibility to themselves. People with depressive symptoms were 3.5 times less likely to have returned to work. The effect of attributions of responsibility for accidents on return to work was mediated by the presence of depressive symptoms. Functional and psychological recovery from road trauma is closely associated with the assessment of responsibility for accidents. Findings are discussed in light of established posttrauma cognitive theories, the potential explanatory power of broader, more socially oriented models, and the changing nature of road trauma populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle crash injuries in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ching-Cheng; Chen, Shou-Chien; Tan, Lia-Beng; Chu, Wen-Yang; Huang, Chen-Mao; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychoactive drug use and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries requiring hospitalization in southern Taiwan. A case-control study was conducted in southern Taiwan from January 2009 to December 2009. The cases included car or van drivers who were involved in MVCs and required hospitalization. Demographic and trauma-related data were collected from questionnaires and hospital and ambulance records. Urine and/or blood samples were collected on admission. The controls consisted of drivers who were randomly recruited while driving on public roads. Study subjects were interviewed and asked to provide urine samples. All blood and urine samples were tested for alcohol and a number of other legal and illegal drugs. Only those subjects who provided urine and/or blood specimens were included in the study. During the study period, 254 case patients and 254 control drivers were enrolled. The analysis showed an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 (95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 1.76-6.70; p < 0.001) for persons taking benzodiazepines, and an OR of 3.50 (95% CI, 1.81-6.85; p < 0.001) for those taking alcohol (blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ≥ 0.8 g/l) with regard to hospitalizations due to MVCs. For persons taking combinations of benzodiazepines and alcohol, the OR increased to 5.12 (95% CI: 1.77-15.91, p < 0.001). This study concluded that drug use among motor vehicle drivers increases the risk of MVCs that require hospitalization. From a public health perspective, the high risk ratios are concerning, and preventive measures are warranted.

  12. Psychological impact of injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yvonne; Guest, Rebecca; Gopinath, Bamini; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Bryant, Richard A; Collie, Alex; Tate, Robyn; Kenardy, Justin; Middleton, James W; Cameron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the psychological impact associated with motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related physical injuries. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Multiple search engines included MEDLINE (via OVID), PsycINFO and Embase, and studies were sourced from scientific journals, conference papers and doctoral theses. Study selection A high-yield search strategy was employed. Terms like ‘psychological distress’, ‘depression’, ‘PTSD’ and ‘motor vehicle accident’ were employed. These key words were run primarily and secondary searches were then conducted in association with the major injury types. Studies needed to compare psychological distress in people injured in an MVC with uninjured controls who had not recently experienced an MVC. Data extraction Searches resulted in the identification of 2537 articles, and after eliminating duplicates and studies not meeting inclusion criteria, 24 studies were selected involving 4502 injured participants. These studies were entered into separate meta-analyses for mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI), whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Results Elevated psychological distress was associated with MVC-related injuries with a large summary effect size in WAD (0.90), medium to large effect size in SCI (0.69) and small to medium effect size in mTBI (0.23). No studies meeting inclusion criteria were found for burns, fractures and low back injury. Increased psychological distress remains elevated in SCI, mTBI and WAD for at least 3 years post-MVC. Conclusions Rehabilitation strategies are needed to minimise distress subsequent to MVC-related physical injuries and the scientific robustness of studies requires improvement. PMID:27609849

  13. Motor vehicle crashes in diabetic patients with tight glycemic control: a population-based case control analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complications from diabetes mellitus can compromise a driver's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle, yet little is known about whether euglycemia predicts normal driving risks among adults with diabetes. We studied the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the risk of a motor vehicle crash using a population-based case control analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified consecutive drivers reported to vehicle licensing authorities between January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2007 who had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and a HbA1c documented. The risk of a crash was calculated taking into account potential confounders including blood glucose monitoring, complications, and treatments. A total of 57 patients were involved in a crash and 738 were not involved in a crash. The mean HbA1c was lower for those in a crash than controls (7.4% versus 7.9%, unpaired t-test, p = 0.019, equal to a 26% increase in the relative risk of a crash for each 1% reduction in HbA1c (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.54. The trend was evident across the range of HbA1c values and persisted after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.55. The two other significant risk factors for a crash were a history of severe hypoglycemia requiring outside assistance (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval 2.35-7.04 and later age at diabetes diagnosis (odds ratio per decade = 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.57. CONCLUSIONS: In this selected population, tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.

  14. Estimated injury risk for specific injuries and body regions in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Swett, Katrina R; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Injury risk curves estimate motor vehicle crash (MVC) occupant injury risk from vehicle, crash, and/or occupant factors. Many vehicles are equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) that collect data including the crash speed and restraint status during a MVC. This study's goal was to use regulation-required data elements for EDRs to compute occupant injury risk for (1) specific injuries and (2) specific body regions in frontal MVCs from weighted NASS-CDS data. Logistic regression analysis of NASS-CDS single-impact frontal MVCs involving front seat occupants with frontal airbag deployment was used to produce 23 risk curves for specific injuries and 17 risk curves for Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ to 5+ body region injuries. Risk curves were produced for the following body regions: head and thorax (AIS 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+), face (AIS 2+), abdomen, spine, upper extremity, and lower extremity (AIS 2+, 3+). Injury risk with 95% confidence intervals was estimated for 15-105 km/h longitudinal delta-Vs and belt status was adjusted for as a covariate. Overall, belted occupants had lower estimated risks compared to unbelted occupants and the risk of injury increased as longitudinal delta-V increased. Belt status was a significant predictor for 13 specific injuries and all body region injuries with the exception of AIS 2+ and 3+ spine injuries. Specific injuries and body region injuries that occurred more frequently in NASS-CDS also tended to carry higher risks when evaluated at a 56 km/h longitudinal delta-V. In the belted population, injury risks that ranked in the top 33% included 4 upper extremity fractures (ulna, radius, clavicle, carpus/metacarpus), 2 lower extremity fractures (fibula, metatarsal/tarsal), and a knee sprain (2.4-4.6% risk). Unbelted injury risks ranked in the top 33% included 4 lower extremity fractures (femur, fibula, metatarsal/tarsal, patella), 2 head injuries with less than one hour or unspecified prior unconsciousness, and a lung contusion (4

  15. Seatbelt use to save money: Impact on hospital costs of occupants who are involved in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Seatbelt use is the single most effective way to save lives in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). However, although safety belt laws have been enacted in many countries, seatbelt usage throughout the world remains below optimal levels, and educational interventions may be needed to further increase seatbelt use. In addition to reducing crash-related injuries and deaths, reduced medical expenditures resulting from seatbelt use are an additional benefit that could make such interventions cost-effective. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between seatbelt use and hospital costs of injuries involved in MVC. The data used in this study were from the Nebraska CODES database for motor vehicle crashes that occurred between 2004 and 2013. The hospital cost information and information about other factors were obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data. A multivariable regression model was performed for the association between seatbelt use and hospital costs. Mean hospital costs were significantly lower among motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt ($2909), lap-only seatbelt ($2289), children's seatbelt ($1132), or booster ($1473) when compared with those not using any type of seatbelt ($7099). After adjusting for relevant factors, there were still significantly decreased hospital costs for motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt (84.7%), lap-only seatbelt (74.1%), shoulder-only seatbelt (40.6%), children's seatbelt (95.9%), or booster (82.8%) compared to those not using a seatbelt. Seatbelt use is significantly associated with reduced hospital costs among injured MVC occupants. The findings in this study will provide important educational information for emergency department nurses who can encourage safety belt use for vehicle occupants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Necessity of fire department response to the scene of motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Deborah L; Politis, Jonathan F; McErlean, Mara; Dickinson, Edward T

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how often fire department (FD) response to the scene of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is necessary for rescue and fire suppression. A retrospective review of MVCs between January 1, 1997 and December 13, 2000 occurring in a suburban municipality (population 79,000, 13 FDs) was conducted. Data abstracted included the total number of reported MVCs, MVCs with personal injury (PIAC), MVCs to which the FD responded, MVCs requiring any extrication, MVCs requiring extensive extrication, and MVCs requiring fire suppression. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 14,450 MVCs occurred during the study period. Two thousand ninety-five (14.5%) resulted in personal injury. The FD responded to 198 MVCs (9.5% of PIAC). Twenty-four (1.1% of PIAC) required simple door release. Fourteen (0.7% of PIAC) required more extensive extrication. No MVC required fire suppression. During this study period, specialized equipment and personnel were rarely needed for patient extrication from MVCs in this municipality. At no time was fire suppression required. Routine FD response to MVCs for purposes of extrication or fire suppression is not warranted in this emergency response system. A prospective study, including a cost analysis, should be undertaken to further clarify the role of FD response to MVCs.

  17. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  18. Analyzing the Relationship Between Car Generation and Severity of Motor-Vehicle Crashes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Hels, Tove

    2013-01-01

    .e., car’s first registration year) and injury severity sustained by car drivers involved in accidents in Denmark between 2004 and 2010. A generalized ordered logit model was estimated while controlling for several characteristics of the crash, the vehicle and the persons involved, and a sensitivity...... car market with remarkably high registration tax that causes potential buyers to hold longer onto old cars, the relationship between technological enhancements of vehicles and severity of crashes requires particular attention. The current study investigated the relationship between car generation (i...... analysis was performed to assess the effect of car generation on drivers’ injury severity. Results illustrate that newer car generations are associated to significantly lower probability of injury and fatality, and that replacing older cars with newer ones introduces significant and not to be overlooked...

  19. Analyzing the Relationship Between Car Generation and Severity of Motor-Vehicle Crashes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Hels, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    car market with remarkably high registration tax that causes potential buyers to hold longer onto old cars, the relationship between technological enhancements of vehicles and severity of crashes requires particular attention. The current study investigated the relationship between car generation (i.......e., car’s first registration year) and injury severity sustained by car drivers involved in accidents in Denmark between 2004 and 2010. A generalized ordered logit model was estimated while controlling for several characteristics of the crash, the vehicle and the persons involved, and a sensitivity...... analysis was performed to assess the effect of car generation on drivers’ injury severity. Results illustrate that newer car generations are associated to significantly lower probability of injury and fatality, and that replacing older cars with newer ones introduces significant and not to be overlooked...

  20. Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical Activity: 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Noreen C

    2017-05-01

    Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20-59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (pmillennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Restraints and peripheral nerve injuries in adult victims of motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Missios, Symeon; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-06-15

    The pattern of injuries in restrained victims of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remains an issue of debate. We investigated the association of peripheral nerve injuries with the use of protective devices (seat belt and air bag) during MVCs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 384,539 adult MVC victims who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) between 2009 and 2011. Regression techniques were used to investigate the association of restraint use with the risk of peripheral nerve injury in patients hospitalized after an MVC. Of the study patients, 271,099 were using restraints and 113,440 were not. Overall, there were a total of 3086 peripheral nerve injuries. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of protective device use with decreased risk of peripheral nerve injury (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.96; absolute risk reduction, 10.68%). This corresponds to 16 patients who needed to be restrained to prevent one nerve injury. The location of the patient in the vehicle did not seem to affect the risk of peripheral nerve injury, with drivers demonstrating no association with nerve injuries (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87-1.02) in comparison with non-drivers. On the contrary, alcohol consumption was associated with increased incidence of peripheral nerve injuries (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20). In summary, restraint use was associated with decreased risk of peripheral nerve injury in MVC victims, after controlling for confounders.

  2. The direct and indirect effects of corruption on motor vehicle crash deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Law Teik; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Recent empirical research has found that there is an inverted U-shaped or Kuznets relationship between income and motor vehicle crash (MVC) deaths, such that MVC deaths increase as national income increases and decrease after reaching a critical level. Corruption has been identified as one of the underlying factors that could affect this relationship, primarily by undermining institutional development and effective enforcement schemes. The total effect of corruption can be decomposed into two components, a direct and an indirect effect. The direct effect measures the immediate impact of corruption on MVC deaths by undermining effective enforcement and regulations, while the indirect effect captures the impact of corruption on hindering increases in per capita income and the consequent impact of reduced income on MVC deaths. By influencing economic growth, corruption can lead to an increase or decrease in MVC deaths depending on the income level. Using data from 60 countries between 1982 and 2003, these effects are estimated using linear panel and fixed effects negative binomial models. The estimation results suggest that corruption has different direct effects for less developed and highly developed countries. It has a negative (decreasing) effect on MVC deaths for less developed countries and a positive (increasing) effect on MVC deaths for highly developed countries. For highly developed countries, the total effect is positive at lower per capita income levels, but decreases with per capita income and becomes negative at per capita income levels of about US$ 38,248. For less developed countries, the total effect is negative within the sample range and decreases with increased per capita income. In summary, the results of this study suggest that reduction of corruption is likely a necessary condition to effectively tackle road safety problems. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyzing the relationship between car generation and severity of motor-vehicle crashes in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Jeppe; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2013-05-01

    While the number of fatalities on Danish roads has decreased in the last 40 years, research has not investigated the contribution of legislation changes, enforcement measures, technological enhancements, infrastructural improvements and human factors to this reduction. In the context of a Danish car market with remarkably high registration tax that causes potential buyers to hold longer onto old cars, the relationship between technological enhancements of vehicles and severity of crashes requires particular attention. The current study investigated the relationship between car generation (i.e., car's first registration year) and injury severity sustained by car drivers involved in accidents in Denmark between 2004 and 2010. A generalized ordered logit model was estimated while controlling for several characteristics of the crash, the vehicle and the persons involved, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effect of car generation on drivers' injury severity. Results illustrate that newer car generations are associated to significantly lower probability of injury and fatality, and that replacing older cars with newer ones introduces significant and not to be overlooked benefits for both population and society.

  4. Prevention of the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley

    2016-07-16

    It is estimated that up to 50 % of motor vehicle crash survivors develop significant psychological distress, such as depressive mood and anxiety, within 6 months of the crash. Associated impacts include loss of employment, delayed return to work, financial and familial stress, and increased medical and compensation costs. The major aim of this research is to investigate the efficacy of interventions for preventing the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash. The efficacy of two brief interventions will be examined: a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programme, targeting mood and anxiety, and a lifestyle programme, targeting sleep, diet and physical activity. This is a randomized, controlled multisite study. Participants include at least 180 adults injured in a motor vehicle crash who have entered a compensation process. Research will compare outcomes in three groups randomly assigned to: one group of 60 adults, who receive a brief email-delivered CBT programme, with one session every 2 weeks for 10 weeks and telephone contact every 2 weeks; a second group of 60 adults, who receive a brief email-delivered lifestyle intervention involving one session every 2 weeks for 10 weeks with telephone contact; and an active waiting-list control group of 60 adults who are provided claims processing-related reading material along with telephone contact every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Participants will be recruited within 12 weeks of the motor vehicle crash, and will be comprehensively assessed before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-injury. Assuming an α probability level of 0.05 and a power of 80 %, at least 180 participants will be recruited. The primary outcome measure is the presence and severity of psychological distress or disorder. Secondary outcome measures include assessment of self-efficacy, resilience employment status, social activity and support, lifestyle and physical health factors, along with process outcome

  5. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  6. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  7. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  8. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  9. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  10. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, HHS Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  11. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  12. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  13. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  14. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  15. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  16. A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Retting, Richard A; Ferguson, Susan A; McCartt, Anne T

    2003-01-01

    ... with adequate methodological designs, showed that modification of the built environment can substantially reduce the risk of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1456-1463) DESPITE DECLINING RATES OF pedestrian fatalities (most notably declines among children and older adults), pedestrian crash injuries remain a serious ...

  17. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... final rule that amended the child restraint systems (CRSs) prescribed in Appendix A of Federal Motor... Manufacturers (Alliance),\\5\\ Ford Motor Company (Ford), Evenflo Company, Incorporated (Evenflo), IEE S.A....

  18. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Programs B. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Europe C. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Japan D. Seat Belt... the negative consumer reaction, Congress adopted a provision, as part of the Motor Vehicle and School... seats. C. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Japan Japan's National Agency for Automobile Safety and Victim's...

  19. The elderly and motor vehicle crashes%老年人与交通事故的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WOOLF Cameron; HENG Kenneth; PAN Shuming; LAYDE M Peter; ZHU Shankuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective China is experiencing rapid growth both in the number of senior citizens and in automobiles. As the population ages,the number of elderly automobile drivers can be expected to grow. International experience on the safety of elderly drivers may be useful in anticipating the effects of the growth in the number of elderly drivers in China.Methods This study reviewed the literatures and summarized the research on elderly driver motor vehicle crash prevention both from China and some developed countries such as USA.Results Despite elderly drivers driving less as a whole and having higher seat belt compliance, their mileage-adjusted motor vehicle crash (MVC) and fatality rate is higher than any other age group. Visual and cognitive impairment among elderly drivers raises the risk of a MVC, and these conditions cause unique collision patterns. Physical fragility and co-morbidities confer a poorer outcome post MVC compared to younger drivers with equivalent injury severity. Although few elderly drivers in China, data has shown higher rate of traffic injury among elderly, higher fatality of elderly pedestrian, and higher rate of elderly victims in rural area.Conclusion International experience on the safety of elderly drivers such as better road safety design, highly visible and seatbelt law enforcement, public education in regards to seatbelt use, and adjustment for license renewal period may be helpful to the traffic safety designers and policy makers in China. These issues may also have important implications for injury prevention researchers in identifying elderly driver MVC risk factors, and engineers optimizing the driving environment and vehicle.%目的中国目前正在经历老年人口与交通车辆的同时快速增长.随着人口的老龄化加剧以及社会的发展,老年驾驶者人数将预期明显增加.国际上对老年人交通安全的经验可能对中国即将增加的老年驾驶者有借鉴作用.方法检索并分析了中国以及

  20. Mechanisms of motor vehicle crashes related to burns--an analysis of the German In depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, S; Otte, D; Stübig, T; Petri, M; Ettinger, M; Mueller, C W; Krettek, C; Haasper, C; Probst, C

    2013-12-01

    Patients of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) suffering burns are challenging for the rescue team and the admitting hospital. These patients often face worse outcomes than crash patients with trauma only. Our analysis of the German In-depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database researches the detailed crash mechanisms to identify potential prevention measures. We analyzed the 2011 GIDAS database comprising 14,072 MVC patients and compared individuals with (Burns) and without (NoBurns) burns. Only complete data sets were included. Patients with burns obviously resulting of air bag deployment only were not included in the Burns group. Data acquisition by an on call team of medical and technical researchers starts at the crash scene immediately after the crash and comprises technical data as well as medical information until discharge from the hospital. Statistical analysis was done by Mann-Whitney-U-test. Level of significance was p burns (0.7%; group "Burns"). Demographic data and injury severity showed no statistical significant difference between the two groups of Burns and NoBurns. Injury severity was measured using the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Direct frontal impact (Burns: 48.5% vs. NoBurns: 33%; p Burns: 33.5 ± 21.4 vs. NoBurns: 25.2 ± 15.9; p Burns: 12.5% vs. NoBurns: 2.1%; p burns. This may serve automobile construction companies to improve the burn safety to prevent flames spreading from the motor compartment to the passenger compartment. Communities may impose speed limits in local crash hot spots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G

    2013-06-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density's association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999-2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units

  2. Can the blood alcohol concentration be a predictor for increased hospital complications in trauma patients involved in motor vehicle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) 200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0-20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4-27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5-49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification.

  3. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  4. Demographics, Velocity Distributions, and Impact Type as Predictors of AIS 4+ Head Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Fitzharris, Michael; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Rinaldi, James; Maiman, Dennis J.; Fildes, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine differences between the United States-based NASS and CIREN and Australia-based ANCIS databases in occupant-, crash-, and vehicle-related parameters for AIS 4+ head injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine roles of the change in velocity (DV), crash type (frontal, far-side, nearside, rear impact), seatbelt use, and occupant position, gender, age, stature, and body mass in cranial traumas. Belted and unbelted non-ejected occupant (age >16 years) data from 1997–2006 were used for the NASS and CIREN datasets, and 2000–2010 for ANCIS. Vehicle model year, and occupant position and demographics including body mass index (BMI) data were obtained. Injuries were coded using AIS 1990–1998 update. Similarities were apparent across all databases: mean demographics were close to the mid-size anthropometry, mean BMI was in the normal to overweight range, and representations of extreme variations were uncommon. Side impacts contributed to over one-half of the ensemble, implying susceptibility to head trauma in this mode. Odds of sustaining head injury increased by 4% per unit increase in DV (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03–1.04, pcrash- and occupant-related outcomes from the two continents indicate a worldwide need to revise the translation acceleration-based head injury criterion to include the angular component in an appropriate format for improved injury assessment and mitigation. PMID:22105402

  5. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... rigid barrier crash tests at speeds up to 48 km/h (30 mph), with the 50th percentile adult male dummies wearing seat belts, and in separate barrier crashes at those speeds with dummies being protected by... barrier test was performed with the dummies unbelted if the means of passive protection was an air bag.\\11...

  6. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ponicki, William R.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2013-01-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density’s association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury cra...

  7. Effects of BMI on the risk and frequency of AIS 3+ injuries in motor-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Jonathan D; Flannagan, Carol A C; Leslie, Andrew J; Hoff, Carrie N; Reed, Matthew P; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    Determine the effects of BMI on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 3 or AIS 3+) to different body regions for adults in frontal, nearside, farside, and rollover crashes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to a probability sample of adult occupants involved in crashes generated by combining the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) with a pseudoweighted version of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network database. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted data to estimate the change in the number of occupants with AIS 3+ injuries if no occupants were obese. Increasing BMI increased risk of lower-extremity injury in frontal crashes, decreased risk of lower-extremity injury in nearside impacts, increased risk of upper-extremity injury in frontal and nearside crashes, and increased risk of spine injury in frontal crashes. Several of these findings were affected by interactions with gender and vehicle type. If no occupants in frontal crashes were obese, 7% fewer occupants would sustain AIS 3+ upper-extremity injuries, 8% fewer occupants would sustain AIS 3+ lower-extremity injuries, and 28% fewer occupants would sustain AIS 3+ spine injuries. Results of this study have implications on the design and evaluation of vehicle safety systems. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. The impact of texting bans on motor vehicle crash-related hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Alva O; Menachemi, Nir; Blackburn, Justin L; Sen, Bisakha; Nelson, Leonard; Morrisey, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We used a panel design and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 19 states between 2003 and 2010 to examine the impact of texting bans on crash-related hospitalizations. We conducted conditional negative binomial regressions with state, year, and month fixed effects to examine changes in crash-related hospitalizations in states after the enactment of a texting ban relative to those in states without such bans. Results indicate that texting bans were associated with a 7% reduction in crash-related hospitalizations among all age groups. Texting bans were significantly associated with reductions in hospitalizations among those aged 22 to 64 years and those aged 65 years or older. Marginal reductions were seen among adolescents. States that have not passed strict texting bans should consider doing so.

  9. Unique drowning in an atypical medium: paraffin wax in the setting of a motor vehicle crash--case report and literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Theresa M; Vey, Eric Lee

    2011-06-01

    Among the various modes of death due to asphyxiation, drowning is unique. Unlike other types of suffocation associated with occluding airway obstructions (i.e. choking and smothering); with drowning, there is typically filling and involvement of the majority of the tracheobronchial tree and aerodigstive tract. Although the usual drowning medium is water, it can also occur in other media. Moreover, although drowning sometimes occurs in the setting of a motor vehicle accident, an element of vehicular submersion or immersion is usually operative in such instances. The case presented here is that of a motor vehicle crash which resulted in drowning where no immersion of the vehicle occurred. Moreover, the drowning medium was paraffin wax, rather than water. Other cases in the literature of drowning in atypical media and also those which are reported in the concomitant presence of a motor vehicle accident are presented.

  10. Impact of an opioid risk reduction initiative on motor vehicle crash risk among chronic opioid therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Walker, Rod L; Shortreed, Susan M; Dublin, Sascha; Saunders, Kathleen; Ludman, Evette J; Von Korff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Although prescription opioids have been associated with higher motor vehicle crash (MVC) risk, it is unknown whether health system initiatives to better manage chronic opioid therapy (COT) can reduce MVC risk at the population level. We conducted an interrupted time series population-level cohort study at Group Health (GH), between January 2006 and September 2014, comparing MVC risk among COT patients who were GH members receiving care in either group practice or contracted care settings. Group practice COT risk reduction initiatives were implemented in two phases: (1) altered prescribing expectations and (2) multifaceted initiatives. These initiatives did not exist in the contracted care network. We compared the adjusted quarterly rate of MVC between group practice and contracted care patients over time using a modified Poisson regression model for a binary outcome. A total of 32 691 COT patients (27.4% from contracted care) met eligibility criteria and experienced a total of 1956 MVCs during study follow-up (mean, 8.1 quarters per person), of which 810 were serious injury crashes. Crash rates were not significantly different between the patient groups within any of the time periods. Analyses stratified by concurrent prescription of a sedative hypnotic or benzodiazepine found no significant difference between the group practice and contracted care patients. There was a modest elevation of MVC risk for high-dose patients relative to former COT patients who stopped receiving opioids. The risk of MVC was not mitigated in a large cohort of COT patients exposed to a health plan policy initiative that substantially lowered mean opioid dose. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Is Blood Alcohol Level a Good Predictor for Injury Severity Outcomes in Motor Vehicle Crash Victims?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikaramjit Mann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies in animals suggest that alcohol may influence pathophysiologic response to injury mechanisms. However, biological evidence for the alcohol-injury severity relationship provides conflicting results. The purpose of our retrospective cross-sectional study in 2,323 people was to assess whether blood alcohol level (BAC adversely influences injury severity in victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs. We found no difference in mortality OR 1.09 (0.73–1.62, or length of hospital stay, and a trend for lower ISS score was found in the high-alcohol group (P=0.052. Furthermore, the high-alcohol group demonstrated a lower adjusted rate of severe head injury OR 0.65 (0.48–0.87, chest injury OR 0.58 (0.42–0.80, and serious extremity injury OR 0.10 (0.01–0.76. The findings of our study do not demonstrate a dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and injury severity in MVCs. This study implies that higher BAC may lead to less severe injuries, without impacting mortality or length of hospital stay, however, further research is required to elucidate the nature of this relationship.

  12. Civil liability, criminal law, and other policies and alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities in the United States: 1984-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten-Goldstein, K; Sloan, F A; Stout, E; Liang, L

    2000-11-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol policies and motor vehicle fatality rates from 1984 to 1995 in the United States. State policies and state characteristics variables were merged with motor vehicle fatality rates over an 11 year period and analyzed using minimum logit chi-square method and fixed effects to create a quasi time-series analysis. Laws allowing individuals to sue bars for the drunken behavior of their patrons were the policies most strongly associated with lower minor and adult fatality rates. The mandatory first offense fine was associated with lower minor fatality rates but not adult fatality rates, while minor and adult rates fell after administrative per se license suspension and anti-consumption laws for all vehicle occupants. Many other public policies evaluated were not associated with lower fatality rates.

  13. Estimating Rates of Motor Vehicle Crashes Using Medical Encounter Data: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    accidental fatalities are an important military concern, they are only the tip of the iceberg . Nonfatal accidental injuries are much more common. Among...significance testing, estimation of effect size, and modeling techniques, all of which would bear on the strength and robustness of observed patterns and...used to develop more detailed predictive risk models as well as strategies for preventing specific types of MVCs. Systematic Review of Evidence

  14. Applying the Generalized Waring model for investigating sources of variance in motor vehicle crash analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yichuan; Lord, Dominique; Zou, Yajie

    2014-12-01

    As one of the major analysis methods, statistical models play an important role in traffic safety analysis. They can be used for a wide variety of purposes, including establishing relationships between variables and understanding the characteristics of a system. The purpose of this paper is to document a new type of model that can help with the latter. This model is based on the Generalized Waring (GW) distribution. The GW model yields more information about the sources of the variance observed in datasets than other traditional models, such as the negative binomial (NB) model. In this regards, the GW model can separate the observed variability into three parts: (1) the randomness, which explains the model's uncertainty; (2) the proneness, which refers to the internal differences between entities or observations; and (3) the liability, which is defined as the variance caused by other external factors that are difficult to be identified and have not been included as explanatory variables in the model. The study analyses were accomplished using two observed datasets to explore potential sources of variation. The results show that the GW model can provide meaningful information about sources of variance in crash data and also performs better than the NB model.

  15. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  16. Motor vehicle crashes: the association of alcohol consumption with the type and severity of injuries and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plurad, David; Demetriades, Demetrios; Gruzinski, Ginger; Preston, Christy; Chan, Linda; Gaspard, Donald; Margulies, Daniel; Cryer, Gill

    2010-01-01

    The effect of alcohol ingestion on short-term outcomes for trauma patients is indeterminate. Experimental and clinical reports often conflict. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive alcohol screens, the effect of alcohol ingestion on injury patterns, severity, and outcomes in patients who were involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). MVC patients aged > 10 years treated in any of the 13 trauma centers in Los Angeles County during the calendar year 2003 were studied. All patients underwent routine alcohol screening on admission. The alcohol negative group ("no ETOH") had a blood alcohol level (BAL) of 0.005 g/dL to or = 0.08 g/dL, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to compare injury severity, complications, survival, and length of hospital stay among the three groups. Of the 3025 patients studied, 2013 (67%) were in the no ETOH group, 216 (7%) were in the low ETOH group, and 796 (26%) were in the high ETOH group. Levels were not associated with injury severity, Emergency Department hypotension, or Intensive Care Unit length of stay. Patients with an injury severity score > 15 and a high BAL had a higher incidence of severe head trauma (head abbreviated injury score > 3) and increased incidence of sepsis. However, in this group of severely injured, the high ETOH group had a significantly better survival rate than patients in the no ETOH group (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.94, p = 0.05). Severely injured MVC victims with a high BAL have a higher incidence of severe head trauma and septic complications than no ETOH patients. However, the high ETOH group had superior adjusted survival rates.

  17. Car Crash Fatalities Associated With Fire in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. Methods: The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. Results: In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and mi...

  18. Children with special health care needs: patterns of safety restraint use, seating position, and risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kallan, Michael J; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Blum, Nathan J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2009-02-01

    Special health care needs associated with behavioral conditions may influence a child's safety in motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to describe and compare variation in restraint use, seating position, and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes among children with and without special health care needs likely to affect behavior. This study uses data collected between December 1, 1998, and November 30, 2002, in a cross-sectional study of children vehicles in 15 states. Parent reports via a validated telephone survey were used to define precrash special health care needs, restraint status, seating position, and the occurrence of clinically significant injuries by using a previously validated survey instrument. Complete data were collected for 14654 children aged 4 to 15 years, representing 171633 children in crashes. Of these, 152 children were reported to have a special need likely to affect behavior, representing 1883 children. A greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were appropriately restrained, particularly among children aged 4 to 8 years. Drivers of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were more often restrained and more often were the child passenger's parent. There were no differences in the rates of front-row seating. There was no significant association between the presence of a special need likely to affect behavior and risk of injury, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics and crash severity. Despite a greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior using proper vehicle restraint, their injury risk was similar to that of children without these special needs. Primary care pediatricians providing best practices for vehicle safety should consider the unique riding experience and risk of injury among children with special health care needs likely to affect behavior.

  19. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  20. Mortality Risk in Pediatric Motor Vehicle Crash Occupants: Accounting for Developmental Stage and Challenging Abbreviated Injury Scale Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Petty, John K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Survival risk ratios (SRRs) and their probabilistic counterpart, mortality risk ratios (MRRs), have been shown to be at odds with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severity scores for particular injuries in adults. SRRs have been validated for pediatrics but have not been studied within the context of pediatric age stratifications. We hypothesized that children with similar motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries may have different mortality risks (MR) based upon developmental stage and that these MRs may not correlate with AIS severity. The NASS-CDS 2000-2011 was used to define the top 95% most common AIS 2+ injuries among MVC occupants in 4 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years. Next, the National Trauma Databank 2002-2011 was used to calculate the MR (proportion of those dying with an injury to those sustaining the injury) and the co-injury-adjusted MR (MRMAIS) for each injury within 6 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18, 0-18, and 19+ years. MR differences were evaluated between age groups aggregately, between age groups based upon anatomic injury patterns and between age groups on an individual injury level using nonparametric Wilcoxon tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. Correlation between AIS and MR within each age group was also evaluated. MR and MRMAIS distributions of the most common AIS 2+ injuries were right skewed. Aggregate MR of these most common injuries varied between the age groups, with 5- to 9-year-old and 10- to 14-year-old children having the lowest MRs and 0- to 4-year-old and 15- to 18-year-old children and adults having the highest MRs (all P injuries imparted the greatest mortality risk in all age groups with median MRMAIS ranging from 0 to 6% and 0 to 4.5%, respectively. Injuries to particular body regions also varied with respect to MR based upon age. For example, thoracic injuries in adults had significantly higher MRMAIS than such injuries among 5- to 9-year-olds and 10- to 14-year-olds (P =.04; P injuries

  1. Declines in fatal crashes of older drivers: changes in crash risk and survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ivan; McCartt, Anne T

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has found that older driver fatal crash involvement rates per licensed driver declined substantially in the United States during 1997-2006 and declined much faster than the rate for middle-age drivers. The current study examined whether the larger-than-expected decline for older drivers extended to nonfatal crashes and whether the decline in fatal crash risk reflects lower likelihood of crashing or an improvement in survivability of the crashes that occur. Trends in the rates of passenger vehicle crash involvements per 100,000 licensed drivers for drivers 70 and older (older drivers) were compared with trends for drivers ages 35-54 (middle-age drivers). Fatal crash information was obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for years 1997-2008, and nonfatal crash information was obtained from 13 states with good reporting information for years 1997-2005. Analysis of covariance models compared trends in annual crash rates for older drivers relative to rates for middle-age drivers. Differences in crash survivability were measured in terms of the odds of fatality given a crash each year, and the historical trends for older versus middle-age drivers were compared. Fatal crash involvement rates declined for older and middle-age drivers during 1997-2008 (1997-2005 for the 13 state subsample), but the decline for drivers 70 and older far exceeded the decline for drivers ages 35-54 (37 versus 23 percent, nationally; 22 versus 1 percent, 13 states). Nonfatal injury crash involvement rates showed similarly larger-than-expected declines for older drivers in the 13 state subsample, but the differences were smaller and not statistically significant (27 percent reduction for older drivers versus 16 percent for middle-age drivers). Property-damage-only crash involvement rates declined for older drivers (10 percent) but increased for middle-age drivers (1 percent). In 1997, older drivers were 3.5 times more likely than middle-age drivers to die in police

  2. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY: NHTSA’s Ability to Detect and Recall Defective Replacement Crash Parts Is Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    recycled airbag systems. However, NHTSA’s defect identification and recall system has limitations. The key database used to identify unsafe parts...product safety recall . The two studies on the safety of recycled airbags that we identified concluded that they can be a potentially safe...GAO United States General Accounting OfficeReport to Congressional RequestersJanuary 2001 MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY NHTSA’s Ability to Detect and Recall

  3. Road traffic crash injuries and fatalities in the city of Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate road traffic crash injuries and fatalities. Cases of 3902 road traffic injuries (1709 drivers, 891 passengers, 376 pedestrians and 926 motorcyclists) and 1564 road traffic fatalities (RTFs; 1222 males and 342 females) were collected from 2005 to 2008 using the database of the police forces and Department of Forensic Medicine in Kerman, respectively. Results showed that 66% of the injuries were related to car occupants (drivers and passengers) and men/women ratio was 5:1. The highest men/women ratio was (12.2:1) for drivers, while the lowest ratio (1.8:1) was for pedestrians. Most of the injuries had taken place at 16:01-20:00 h followed by 08:01-12:00 h. Highest numbers of injuries were found in male with the age groups of 18-24 years. The highest fatality rate of 79 per 100,000 population occurred in 2007-2008. Fatality ratio indicated higher male ratio, four times higher than females. The victims were 39% male between 30 and 55 years of age. Head injuries were present in 69% of the cases. In our series of forensic autopsy cases, head injuries were more frequent in motor vehicle occupants, pedestrians and motorcyclists. On average, two people died per day in RTFs in Kerman.

  4. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  5. BMI and risk of serious upper body injury following motor vehicle crashes: concordance of real-world and computer-simulated observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankuan Zhu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation.Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05. A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI(2. In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex. The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study.Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  6. Child passenger injury risk in motor vehicle crashes: a comparison of nighttime and daytime driving by teenage and adult drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irene G; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Senserrick, Teresa; Winston, Flaura K

    2006-01-01

    To examine the association between child passenger injury risk, restraint use, and crash time (day vs. night) for children in crashes of vehicles driven by teenage versus adult drivers. Cross-sectional study involving telephone interviews with insured drivers in a probability sample of 6,184 crashes involving 10,028 children. Child passengers in teen nighttime crashes had an increased injury risk and an increased risk of restraint nonuse compared with those in teen daytime crashes. This increased injury risk can be explained by differences in the age of child passengers, collision type, and child passenger's restraint status associated with time of day. In order to limit the risk of injury to child passengers driven by teens, Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) laws should include provisions restricting nighttime driving, as well as mandates for age-appropriate restraint for child passengers. Consideration should also be given for education in child passenger safety for novice teen drivers as part of the licensing process. Results of this study can be used to support advocacy efforts by the automotive industry and others to promote nighttime driving restrictions on novice drivers. In addition, given that both driver groups were more likely to be involved in a single-vehicle collision during the night, technologies such as electronic stability control may offer opportunities for protection. Further reseach on specific circumstances of teen nighttime crashes is needed to inform industry efforts to improve visibility or vehicle operation under poor lighting conditions.

  7. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (≥ 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) pteens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly.

  9. Motor-vehicle crash history and licensing outcomes for older drivers reported as medically impaired in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuser, Thomas M; Carr, David B; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2009-03-01

    The identification and evaluation of medically impaired drivers is an important safety issue. Medical fitness to drive is applicable to all ages but is particularly salient for older adults. Voluntary procedures, whereby various professionals and family members may report medical fitness concerns to State driver license bureaus, are common in the United States. This paper examines traffic crashes of drivers reported during 2001-2005 under the State of Missouri's voluntary reporting law (House Bill HB-1536) and the resulting licensing outcomes. Missouri's law is non-specific as to age, but the mean age of reported drivers was 80. Reports were submitted by police officers (30%), license office staff (27%), physicians (20%), family members (16%), and others (7%). The most common medical condition was dementia/cognitive (45%). Crash history for reported drivers was higher than that of controls, dating back to 1993, reaching a peak in 2001 when the crash involvement of reported drivers was 9.3% vs. 2.2% for controls--a fourfold difference. The crash involvement of reported drivers decreased rapidly after, indicating the impact of HB-1536 reporting with subsequent license revocation and to a lesser degree, mortality. Of the 4,100 reported individuals, 144 (3.5%) retained a driver's license after the process.

  10. Driving and riding avoidance following motor vehicle crashes in a non-clinical sample: psychometric properties of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E; St Peter, Claire C

    2004-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of a measure that we developed using a non-clinical sample of university undergraduates, the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale (DRAS). Study 1 indicated that the scale was internally consistent (alpha=0.92) and that a four-factor model (general avoidance, avoidance of traffic and busy roads, avoidance of weather or darkness, and riding avoidance) provided the best fit to the data in a sample of 386 crash survivors. This study also revealed that survivors who received medical treatment for their crash-related injuries reported significantly greater avoidance than people who were uninjured or injured and not medically treated. Study 2 revealed that the DRAS possessed acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.83) over a 4-week interval in a sample of 67 crash survivors. Using a sample of 118 survivors, study 3 examined the instrument's convergent and divergent validity through correlations with the Accident Fear Questionnaire (AFQ), the Mobility Inventory (MI), the Fear Survey Schedule-II (FSS-II), and the Fear Questionnaire (FQ). The strongest relationships were observed between the DRAS and the AFQ and with a driving subscale created from the MI items. The DRAS exhibited significantly weaker relationships with the FQ subscales that assessed other kinds of phobic avoidance.

  11. Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers' relative risk of fatal crash involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Zador, Paul L; Lerner, Neil D; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D; Wang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15-20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger's age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System provided fatal motor vehicle crash data from 1999 to 2003 and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers' trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16-20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT=7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34-8.69; RR per 10 million VMT=9.94; 95% CI, 9.13-10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21-34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding crash risk

  12. Using emergency department-based inception cohorts to determine genetic characteristics associated with long term patient outcomes after motor vehicle collision: Methodology of the CRASH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peak David A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent musculoskeletal pain and psychological sequelae following minor motor vehicle collision (MVC are common problems with a large economic cost. Prospective studies of pain following MVC have demonstrated that demographic characteristics, including female gender and low education level, and psychological characteristics, including high pre-collision anxiety, are independent predictors of persistent pain. These results have contributed to the psychological and social components of a biopsychosocial model of post-MVC pain pathogenesis, but the biological contributors to the model remain poorly defined. Recent experimental studies indicate that genetic variations in adrenergic system function influence the vulnerability to post-traumatic pain, but no studies have examined the contribution of genetic factors to existing predictive models of vulnerability to persistent pain. Methods/Design The Project CRASH study is a federally supported, multicenter, prospective study designed to determine whether variations in genes affecting synaptic catecholamine levels and alpha and beta adrenergic receptor function augment social and psychological factors in a predictive model of persistent musculoskeletal pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following minor MVC. The Project CRASH study will assess pain, pain interference and PTSD symptoms at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year in approximately 1,000 patients enrolled from 8 Emergency Departments in four states with no-fault accident laws. Discussion The results from this study will provide insights into the pathophysiology of persistent pain and PTSD following MVC and may serve to improve the ability of clinicians and researchers to identify individuals at high risk for adverse outcomes following minor MVC.

  13. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Hui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes. Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motor-cycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010. The sampled information included medi-cal or autopsy reports, blood alcohol concentration (BAC level, helmet use, accident witness, field sketch as well as field photos. The motorcyclist injuries were scored accord-ing to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 2005. The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alco-hol use. Data were processed statistically with nonparamet-ric test via software SPSS 11.0. Results: A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed. The age of motorcy-clists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distri-bution and the middle-aged (30-39 years occupied the high-est percentage of fatalities. There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3% wearing helmets at the moment of collision. And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use. Impact injury was the main fatal cause, accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths, followed by tumbling injury (26% and run-over (2%. Respectively 84%, 22% and 19% of motorcyclists who sustained head, chest and abdominal trauma died. Extremity injury was the most frequently ob-served injury type. Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection de-vices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents. Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed. Key words: Motorcycles; Mortality; Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries

  14. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; HUANG Wei; YANG Guang-yu; CHEN Rong; LIU Sheng-xiong; YU Yong-min; YIN Zhi-yong; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes.Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motorcycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010.The sampled information included medical or autopsy reports,blood alcohol concentration (BAC)level,helmet use,accident witness,field sketch as well as field photos.The motorcyclist injuries were scored according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005.The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alcohol use.Data were processed statistically with nonparametric test via software SPSS 11.0.Results:A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed.The age of motorcyclists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distribution and the middle-aged (30-39 years) occupied the highest percentage of fatalities.There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3%) wearing helmets at the moment ofcollision.And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use.Impact injury was the main fatal cause,accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths,followed by tumbling injury (26%) and run-over (2%).Respectively 84%,22% and 19%of motorcyclists who sustained head,chest and abdominal trauma died.Extremity injury was the most frequently observed injury type.Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection devices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents.Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed.

  15. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  16. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tavakoli Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. RESULTS: The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. CONCLUSIONS: Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes

  17. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization.

  18. Census study of fatal car-to-car intersection crashes in Sweden involving modern vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Boström, Ola; Lie, Anders; Stigson, Helena

    2011-08-01

    Intersections are challenging for many road users. According to US, European, and global statistics, intersection-related crashes with fatal outcome represent approximately 20 percent of all traffic fatalities. The aim of this study was to use Swedish data to investigate and characterize fatal car-to-car intersection crashes for modern cars equipped with frontal and side air bags. The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) national database on fatal crashes was searched to find vehicle-to-vehicle intersection crashes involving modern cars that occurred between 2003 and 2009 that resulted in fatal injuries for at least one of the involved passengers. From all intersection crashes, the car-to-car crashes from the sample were analyzed at an occupant level. Occupant location in the target vehicle with respect to impact direction as well as AIS3+ injuries to body regions was examined for the total car-to-car sample. Crashes involving a target vehicle equipped with front and side air bags were then selected for an in-depth study. In the STA database, 39 vehicle-to-vehicle crashes matched the search criteria. Of 39 crashes, 17 involved a heavy goods vehicle (HGV) as the striking vehicle, and 17 were car-to-car crashes. All car-to-car crashes were side impacts, occurring at rural intersections, involving 20 (12 female and 8 male) fatally injured occupants, 15 of whom were 61 years or older and classified as senior occupants. A majority of fatally injured occupants sustained combined AIS3+ injuries to more than one body region. All modern car-to-car crashes with a fatal outcome occurring at Swedish intersections from 2003 to 2009 were side impacts. The crashes were characterized by a senior front seat driver, traveling with a front seat passenger, hit on the left side at approximately 70 km/h. In this study all fatal crashes occurred at severities beyond those currently evaluated in side impact rating procedures but were within survivable limits for a non-senior occupant in

  19. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2017-07-31

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  20. Related risk factors for injury severity of non-motor vehicle crashes in Hefei%合肥市非机动车交通事故伤情相关危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕东来; 方健; 朱捷; 刘萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the related risk factors of injuries caused by non-motor vehicle crashes in Hefei,Anhui Province. Methods From June 2009 to June 2011,the wounded from nonmotor vehicle crashes in Hefei were admitted to our hospital.The data of the wounded were collected to perform hypothesis test to screen out the related risk factors,which were then analyzed with multiple-factor non-conditional Logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 205 cases who were wounded in the non-motor vehicle crashes were admitted to our hospital from June 2009 to June 2011.Among all the cases,146 cases were wounded in electric bicycle crashes and 59 cases in bicycle crashes.There were 147cases (71.7%) of mild to moderate injuries ( ISS ≤ 15 ),and 58 cases (28.3%) of severe injuries (ISS > 15 ) including six deaths (2.9%).Single factor of different categories of the hypothesis test suggested that age,category,driving behavior,crash model,impact type,vehicle type were all related with the severity of injuries caused by non-motor vehicle crashes in Hefei.The multiple-factor non-conditional Logistic regression analysis showed four risk factors for the injury severity in non-motor vehicle crashes in Hefei,ie,vehicle type,crash model,violations of rules and regulations as well as age,according to the degree of correlation. Conclusion With the study of non-motor vehicle crashes in Hefei,primary identification of the risk factors for the traffic injuries is obtained,which provides scientific basis for the decrease of casualty and establishment of intervention measures.%目的 研究合肥市非机动车辆交通事故伤情的相关危险因素. 方法 对2009年6月-2011年6月收治的合肥市非机动车交通事故的伤员资料归纳整理,行假设检验筛选相关危险因素,并进行多因素非条件Logistic回归分析. 结果 (1)2009年6月- 2011年6月共收治涉及非机动车交通伤患者205例:电动自行车146例,自行车59例.轻中度损伤( ISS

  1. Fatal and serious road crashes involving young New Zealand drivers: a latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    a holistic overview of crash patterns useful for designing youth-targeted road safety programmes. We compiled a database of 8644 New Zealand crashes from 2002 to 2011 involving at least one 15–24-year-old driver and a fatal or serious injury for at least one road user. We considered crash location......The over-representation of young drivers in road crashes remains an important concern worldwide. Cluster analysis has been applied to young driver sub-groups, but its application by analysing crash occurrence is just emerging. We present a classification analysis that advances the field through......, infrastructure characteristics, environmental conditions, demographic characteristics, driving behaviour, and pre-crash manoeuvres. The analysis yielded 15 and 8 latent classes of, respectively, single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes, and average posterior probabilities measured the odds of correct...

  2. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  3. Spatiotemporal and random parameter panel data models of traffic crash fatalities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Kieu, Le-Minh; Vu, Tuan A

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates factors associated with traffic crash fatalities in 63 provinces of Vietnam during the period from 2012 to 2014. Random effect negative binomial (RENB) and random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) panel data models are adopted to consider spatial heterogeneity across provinces. In addition, a spatiotemporal model with conditional autoregressive priors (ST-CAR) is utilised to account for spatiotemporal autocorrelation in the data. The statistical comparison indicates the ST-CAR model outperforms the RENB and RPNB models. Estimation results provide several significant findings. For example, traffic crash fatalities tend to be higher in provinces with greater numbers of level crossings. Passenger distance travelled and road lengths are also positively associated with fatalities. However, hospital densities are negatively associated with fatalities. The safety impact of the national highway 1A, the main transport corridor of the country, is also highlighted.

  4. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations.

  5. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae.

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes fatais a veículo a motor na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Epidemiologic aspects of fatal motor vehicle traffic accidents in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pugliese

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de descrever certos aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes de trânsito de veículo a motor, na cidade do Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, o qual envolveu coleta de informações no Departamento de Trânsito (DETRAN e no Instituto de Medicina Legal. Ficou demonstrado que os acidentes de trânsito de veículo a motor são mais freqüentes ao fim da tarde e concentram-se, sobretudo, no fim de semana, isto é, sábado e domingo. Motoristas do sexo masculino foram muito mais freqüentemente envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito do que os do sexo feminino. Foi concluído que os acidentes fatais envolvendo pedestres constituem-se importante problema urbano necessitando cuidadosa atenção por parte de educadores e dos serviços públicos responsáveis pelo setor do trânsito. Foi sugerida a necessidade de melhorar e tornar mais uniforme o sistema de notificação e classificação dos acidentes de veículo a motor pelo DETRAN da cidade do Salvador.A study was made aiming at the description of epidemiologic aspects of fatal motor vehicle accidents in the City of Salvador, Brazil. The study involved the collecting of data in both the Traffic Department (DETRAN and the Legal Medicine Institute. The study showed a time relationship, i.e., the highest percentage of accidents due to motor vehicles was concentrated at noon and during weekends. Young male drivers were more frequently involved in accidents than females of the same age. The authors indicated that pedestrian fatal accidents are essencially an urban problem needing a great deal of concern by educators and providers of public services. They also suggested the necessity of improving and of homogenizing the notification and classification system of motor vehicle accidents by the DETRAN in Salvador.

  7. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  8. Survival in fatal road crashes: body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Schoettle, Brandon; Rupp, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for an 11-year period. If involved in a crash with one or more fatalities, the odds of female drivers being among the fatalities are 1.28 times higher than those of male drivers, and the odds of unbelted drivers being among the fatalities are 5.43 times higher than those of belted drivers. The relationship of survivability to BMI depends on the gender and safety belt use of the driver. For male drivers, increased BMI appears beneficial when safety belts are used but detrimental when not used. For belted female drivers, normal BMI is associated with the lowest odds of being killed, and both increased and decreased BMIs increase the odds. For unbelted female drivers, no reliable trends were present among the BMI categories.

  9. New Teen Drivers Face Triple the Risk of a Fatal Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Human Services. More Health News on Motor Vehicle Safety Teen Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Motor Vehicle Safety Teen Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  10. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  11. The association between opioid analgesics and unsafe driving actions preceding fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sacha; Bédard, Michel; Weaver, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Currently, most epidemiological research into the impact of opioid analgesics on road safety has focused on the association between opioid use and traffic crash occurrence. Yet, the role of opioid analgesics on crash responsibility is still not properly understood. Therefore, we examined the impact of opioid analgesics on drivers (all had a confirmed BAC=0) involved in fatal crashes (1993-2006) using a case-control design based on data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Cases had one or more crash-related unsafe driving actions (UDA) recorded; controls had none. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of any UDA by medication exposure after controlling for age, sex, other medications, and driving record. Compared to drivers who tested negative for opioid analgesics, female drivers who tested positive demonstrated increased odds of performing an UDA from ages 25 (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.74) to 55 (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.07; 1.58). For male drivers this was true from ages 25 (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.32; 2.09) to 65 (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.17; 1.67). The detection of opioid analgesics was not associated with greater risk of an UDA for older drivers. Research is necessary to examine why these age differences exist, and if possible, to ensure that opioid analgesics do not contribute to crashes.

  12. Work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities in Australia, 2000-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the nature and mechanisms of a case series of Australian work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities. The study used existing population-based mortality data on non-crash work-related heavy vehicle (gross vehicle mass >4.5 t) driver fatalities reported to Australian coroners between 2000 and 2009. There were 47 fatalities with a mean age of 46.5 years. Available toxicology detected that six of 16 drivers consumed illegal drugs or alcohol. The most frequent task was attending to cargo (n=22, 47%); 31 (66%) fatalities occurred when the driver was working alone. Brake issues (n=21, 45%) were the most frequent contributing factor, and crushing the most common mechanism (n=33, 70%), particularly between the vehicle and another object (n=22, 47%). Fatalities occurred in most jurisdictions averaging 4.7 per year overall. A large number of truck drivers die performing non-driving tasks. Crushing following vehicle rolling accounts for almost 50% of fatalities. Considering this pathway may provide prevention opportunities.

  13. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  14. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  15. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  16. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    Motor vehicle crashes are among the leading causes of injury in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of being sober and buckled up during ever automobile trip.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  17. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  18. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-12-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  19. The influence of road curvature on fatal crashes in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Robin; Lake, Iain R.; Kingham, Simon

    2008-01-01

    occurring between 1996 and 2005 in 73 territorial local authorities across New Zealand were modelled against possible predictors. The predictors were traffic flow, population counts and characteristics, car use, socio-economic deprivation, climate, altitude and road characteristics including four measures...... of average road curvature. The best predictors of the number of fatal crashes on urban roads, rural state highways and other rural roads were traffic flow, speed limitation and socio-economic deprivation. Holding significant factors constant, there was no evidence that TLAs with the most curved roads had...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  2. Opportunities for crash and injury reduction: A multiharm approach for crash data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ann; Kender, Allison; Moorhouse, Kevin

    2017-05-29

    A multiharm approach for analyzing crash and injury data was developed for the ultimate purpose of getting a richer picture of motor vehicle crash outcomes for identifying research opportunities in crash safety. Methods were illustrated using a retrospective analysis of 69,597 occupant cases from NASS CDS from 2005 to 2015. Occupant cases were analyzed by frequency and severity of outcome: fatality, injury by Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), number of cases, attributable fatality, disability, and injury costs. Comparative analysis variables included precrash scenario, impact type, and injured body region. Crash and injury prevention opportunities vary depending on the search parameters. For example, occupants in rear-end crash scenarios were more frequent than in any other precrash configuration, yet there were significantly more fatalities and serious injury cases in control loss, road departure, and opposite direction crashes. Fatality is most frequently associated with head and thorax injury, and disability is primarily associated with extremity injury. Costs attributed to specific body regions are more evenly distributed, dominated by injuries to the head, thorax, and extremities but with contributions from all body regions. Though AIS 3+ can be used as a single measure of harm, an analysis based on multiple measures of harm gives a much more detailed picture of the risk presented by a particular injury or set of crash conditions. The developed methods represent a new approach to crash data mining that is expected to be useful for the identification of research priorities and opportunities for reduction of crashes and injuries. As the pace of crash safety improvement accelerates with innovations in both active and passive safety, these techniques for combining outcome measures for insights beyond fatality and serious injury will be increasingly valuable.

  3. Association knowledge for fatal run-off-road crashes by Multiple Correspondence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2016-03-01

    Results of the MCA method can help researchers select the most effective crash countermeasures. Further work on the degree of association between the identified crash contributing factors can help safety management systems develop the most efficient crash reduction strategies.

  4. Sobrevivência após acidentes de trânsito: impacto das variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares Sobrevida después de accidentes de tránsito: impacto de las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias Survival after motor vehicle crash: impact of clinical and prehospital variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares associadas à sobrevivência de vítimas de acidente de trânsito. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no município de São Paulo, SP, de 1999 a 2003. Foram analisados dados de 175 pacientes, entre 12 e 65 anos, vitimados por acidente de trânsito. A Análise de Sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier foi utilizada na abordagem dos resultados na cena do acidente com as vítimas de escore OBJETIVO: Analizar las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias asociadas a la sobrevida de víctimas de accidentes del tránsito. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado en el municipio de São Paulo (Sudeste de Brasil, de 1999 a 2003. Fueron analizados datos de 175 pacientes, entre 12 y 65 años, victimas de accidentes de tránsito. El análisis de Sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier fue utilizado en el abordaje de los resultados en la escena del accidente con las víctimas de score OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and prehospital variables associated with survival of motor vehicle crash victims. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. Data from 175 patients, who were aged between 12 and 65 years and had been motor vehicle crash victims, were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis was used to approach the results at the accident scene with victims scoring <11, according to the Revised Trauma Score. Variables analyzed were: sex, age, injury mechanisms, basic and advanced support procedures, Revised Trauma Score parameters and fluctuations, time elapsed in the prehospital phase and trauma severity according to the Injury Severity Score and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that victims who were less likely to survive during the hospitalization period showed serious lesions in the abdomen, thorax, or lower limbs, with negative fluctuation of respiratory frequency and Revised Trauma Score in the prehospital phase. In addition, they needed specialized

  5. Road crash injuries and fatalities in Isfahan, Iran from March 2006 to March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents have continued to increase, and have become the primary public hazard to humans. The main goal of the present study was to investigate road traffic crash (RTC) fatalities and injuries in the city of Isfahan, Iran. A sample of 150,940 accident cases was considered from Isfahan Police Safety Driving Department, involving drivers and passengers of all ages, and covering a 3-year period. The record linkage identified 24,608 drivers and passengers injured or died as a result of RTC in the city of Isfahan over the 3-year period. The finding of this study shows that the highest rate of RTC fatality was 40% and 58%, which comprises the male drivers and female passengers within the age classes 25-34 and 35-44, respectively. On average, there were one death every 3 days and every hour, someone was injured and taken to an emergency department for RTCs in the city of Isfahan. The highest men to women death and injured ratios were 4:1 and 2:1, respectively. The use of seat belt devices in our population was worrisome. The article ends with a number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety.

  6. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  8. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  9. Law enforcement officers' risk perceptions toward on-duty motor-vehicle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Heick, Rebecca J; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott

    Motor-vehicle-related events (MVEs) are the leading cause of on-duty death for law enforcement officers, yet little is known about how officers view this significant job hazard. The purpose of this paper is to explore officers' motor-vehicle risk perception and examine how prior on-duty MVEs and the death or injury of a fellow officer influences this perception. A state-wide random sample of 136 law enforcement agencies was drawn using publically accessible databases, stratified on type and size of agency. In total, 60 agencies agreed to participate and a cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to 1,466 officers. Using six-point Likert scales, composite scores for motor-vehicle and intentional violence risk perception were derived. A linear regression multivariable model was used to examine factors affecting motor-vehicle risk perception. Motor-vehicle risk perception scores were significantly higher than intentional violence scores. A prior on-duty motor-vehicle crash, prior roadside incident, or knowledge of fellow officer's injury or death from a MVE significantly increased motor-vehicle risk perception scores. After controlling for potential confounders though, only prior on-duty crashes and roadside incidents impacted motor-vehicle risk perception. The study comprised primarily small, rural agencies and generalizability may be limited. Also, although the data were collected anonymously, reporting and response biases may affect these findings. This study involved a large and diverse cohort of officers and explored motor-vehicle risk perception. A better understanding of officers' risk perceptions will assist in the development and implementation of occupational injury prevention programs, training, and policy.

  10. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  11. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  12. Detailed examination of the lower cervical spine facet joints in a road traffic crash fatality - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Nielsen, Edith; Vesterby, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The lower cervical spine facet joints of a road traffic crash fatality were examined using diagnostic imaging and histological techniques. No injuries to the cervical spine facet joints could be identified with diagnostic imaging including conventional radiology, CT and MRI. Examination of stained...... histological sections visualised the morphology and integrity of the facet joints in detail. Occult injuries to and in close proximity of the cervical spine facet joints were identified only on histological examination....

  13. Detailed examination of the lower cervical spine facet joints in a road traffic crash fatality - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Nielsen, Edith; Vesterby, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The lower cervical spine facet joints of a road traffic crash fatality were examined using diagnostic imaging and histological techniques. No injuries to the cervical spine facet joints could be identified with diagnostic imaging including conventional radiology, CT and MRI. Examination of stained...... histological sections visualised the morphology and integrity of the facet joints in detail. Occult injuries to and in close proximity of the cervical spine facet joints were identified only on histological examination....

  14. The relationship of 16 underage drinking laws to reductions in underage drinking drivers in fatal crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, J C; Fisher, D A; Voas, R B; Blackman, K; Tippetts, A S

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification ( p underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction ( p underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths.

  15. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  16. The effects of studded tires on fatal crashes with passenger cars and the benefits of electronic stability control (ESC) in Swedish winter driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Olai, Maria; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2012-03-01

    This study set out to examine the effects of studded tires on fatal crashes on roads covered with ice or snow in Sweden and also to investigate the extra benefits of electronic stability control (ESC) during the winter months. Two different studies are presented in this paper. Both studies used an induced exposure approach. In the main study, 369 in-depth studies of fatal crashes with passenger cars were analyzed to determine whether loss-of-control (LOC) had been a major component or not. Only crashes involving cars without ESC and equipped with approved studded or non-studded winter tires were analyzed. The additional study used police-reported crashes that occurred during the winter seasons 2003-2010, involving passenger cars with and without ESC. While police records in Sweden do not include any tire information, it was assumed that most cars involved in crashes during the winter period would be equipped with studded tires. Findings in the main study showed that in 64% of the fatal crashes on roads covered with ice or snow LOC had been a major component. Furthermore, in 82% of LOC crashes, the passenger car over-steered prior to collision. Studded tires were found to have a statistically significant effect of 42% in terms of fatal crash reduction on roads covered with ice or snow, compared to non-studded winter tires. The effect on dry or wet roads in the winter was negative, although statistically non-significant. In the additional study, it was found that ESC further reduced crashes with injuries by 29%. The benefits on severe and fatal crashes were slightly greater (32%), although the lower 95% confidence limit was lower. Although studded tires were shown to reduce the risk of fatal crash involvement, compared to non-studded winter tires, the proportion of LOC and over-steering among cars with studded tires was large (59% and 49%, respectively). It was therefore concluded that studded tires do not prevent all LOC crashes, while ESC has benefits in those

  17. Comparison of crash rates and rear-end striking crashes among novice teens and experienced adults using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacrist, Thomas; Belwadi, Aditya; Prabahar, Abhiti; Chamberlain, Samuel; Megariotis, James; Loeb, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens. Previous teen and adult crash rates have been based upon fatal crashes, police-reported crashes, and estimated miles driven. Large-scale naturalistic driving studies offer the opportunity to compute crash rates using a reliable methodology to capture crashes and driving exposure. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study contains extensive real-world data on teen and adult driving. This article presents findings on the crash rates of novice teen and experienced adult drivers in naturalistic crashes. A subset from the SHRP2 database consisting of 539 crash events for novice teens (16-19 years, n = 549) and experienced adults (35-54 years, n = 591) was used. Onboard instrumentation such as scene cameras, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System logged time series data at 10 Hz. Scene videos were reviewed for all events to identify rear-end striking crashes. Dynamic variables such as acceleration and velocity were analyzed for rear-end striking events. Number of crashes, crash rates, rear-end striking crash severity, and rear-end striking impact velocity were compared between novice teens and experienced adults. Video review of the SHRP2 crashes identified significantly more crashes (P adult group. This yielded crash rates of 30.0 crashes per million miles driven for novice teens compared to 5.3 crashes per million miles driven for experienced adults. The crash rate ratio for teens vs. adults was 5.7. The rear-end striking crash rate was 13.5 and 1.8 per million miles driven for novice teens and experienced adults, respectively. The rear-end striking crash rate ratio for teens vs. adults was 7.5. The rear-end striking crash severity measured by the accelerometers was greater (P adult group (1.1 ± 0.4 g; median = 1.0 g), suggesting that teen crashes tend to be more serious than adult crashes. Increased rear-end striking impact velocity (P adults (3.3 ± 1.2

  18. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  19. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... rulemaking submitted by Mr. Michael R. Schramm, to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on seat... during normal vehicle operation and certain crash scenarios, resulting in increased risk to vehicle...

  20. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration..., and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to ensure that...

  1. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... NPRM proposes to amend FMVSS No. 116, Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, so that brake fluids would be tested... Date VII. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices VIII. Public Participation I. Background Federal...

  2. 49 CFR 574.9 - Requirements for motor vehicle dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. 574.9... RECORDKEEPING § 574.9 Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. (a) Each motor vehicle dealer who sells a used motor vehicle for purposes other than resale, who leases a motor vehicle for more than 60 days, that...

  3. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles....

  4. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000–2025, CRADA No. ORNL98-0500 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S. [ORNL; Jones, Donald W. [ORNL; Reuscher, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Schmoyer, Richard S. [ORNL; Truett, Lorena F. [ORNL

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the century – the 20th century that is – the median age in the United States was under 30 years; America was 60% rural in nature; and there were only 36 highway fatalities all year. As we leave the 20th century behind, the route into the 21st century is very different. “Intelligent” cars speed down multi-lane “smart” highways in a nation that is 75% urban. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics, there are 28,000 times more vehicles on the road in 2000 than there were in 1900, and these vehicles travel about 2.6 trillion miles each year. Annual fatalities resulting from highway crashes have also increased – by over 1100%. We see other changes as well. The face of America is changing. It is growing older. In 2025, persons 65 and over will make up 18.5% of the total population. The number of persons aged 85 and over is increasing more rapidly than any other age group. More importantly, the elderly are taking more trips, driving further, and continuing to drive much later in life. These conditions lead to concerns about traffic safety. Although the elderly are healthier and drive safer cars than they did just two decades ago, their frailty makes them more susceptible to injury than younger persons involved in traffic crashes of the same severity. In addition, visual, physical, and cognitive skills, all of which contribute to driving abilities, decrease with advancing age. The familiar “U”-shaped curve depicting the rate of fatalities per vehicle miles traveled, shows that the elderly experience a higher highway fatality rate than any other age group except teenagers. While the overall number of highway fatalities has decreased regularly since 1972, the number of fatalities of elderly travelers has continued to increase steadily. This increase is cause for concern for both the elderly driver and for other persons on the roads who migh tbe placed in danger through crashes involving elderly drivers.

  5. Wheelchair rider risk in motor vehicles: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk involved in riding different sizes and types of motor vehicles is required to make informed decisions regarding a reasonable level of protection for wheelchair riders. Wheelchair rider accident information that can be used to estimate risk is quite limited. This paper reviewed the resources available, including the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Motor vehicle accident data for the general public were analyzed in order to better characterize wheelchair rider risk. Using the National Safety Council annual transportation mode fatality rates and the (inverse) relationship of vehicle mass and occupant fatality rate, fatality rates for vehicles that transport wheelchair riders (minivans, vans, paratransit vans, and small and large buses) were estimated. Despite the large margins of error that must be assumed for accident data and the conclusions drawn from it, the available information suggests that 1) the majority of wheelchair rider injuries could be prevented by providing protection for abrupt vehicle maneuvers; 2) the type, size, and mass of the vehicle have a substantial effect on the fatality rate, although this effect decreases for heavier (<3,000 kg) vehicles; and 3) wheelchair riders who cannot properly use tiedown and occupant restraint systems or who are frail would face a lower risk of injury if transported in larger vehicles.

  6. Efecto de las circunstancias ambientales sobre el riesgo de defunción de los conductores de vehículos de dos ruedas de motor implicados en accidentes de tráfico Effect of environmental factors on the risk of death for drivers of two-wheeled motorized vehicles involved in road crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Donate-López

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar el efecto de las circunstancias ambientales sobre el riesgo de muerte de los conductores de vehículos de dos ruedas de motor (VDRM tras un accidente de tráfico. Métodos: Se ha estudiado la serie de casos formada por los 309.626 conductores de VDRM implicados en accidentes de tráfico con víctimas en España, entre 1993 y 2002, recogidos por la Dirección General de Tráfico. La variable dependiente ha sido la defunción del conductor. Como variables ambientales se han considerado factores temporales (año, mes, día y hora y espaciales (zona del accidente, iluminación, entre otros. También se han recogido potenciales factores de confusión dependientes del conductor (edad, sexo, uso de casco, del vehículo y el tipo de accidente. Se han obtenido, mediante modelos de regresión de Poisson, riesgos relativos crudos y ajustados para cada categoría ambiental. Resultados: Para la mayoría de las variables temporales, no hay asociación con el riesgo de defunción en el análisis ajustado, a excepción de un mayor riesgo para la conducción de madrugada. El riesgo aumenta fuertemente en carretera (especialmente autopistas y autovías con respecto a las zonas urbanas, para las que hay una clara relación dosis-respuesta entre un menor tamaño del municipio y una mayor letalidad. Conclusiones: Tras ajustar por los factores de riesgo dependientes del conductor, el efecto de los factores ambientales sobre el riesgo de muerte del conductor de un VDRM tras el accidente se circunscribe a la zona donde se produce el accidente y, en menor medida, a la hora en que ocurre.Objectives: To assess the effect of environmental factors on the risk of death for drivers of two-wheeled motorized vehicles (TWMV after a crash. Methods: We studied a case series comprising all 309,626 drivers of TWMV involved in road crashes with victims compiled by the Spanish Department of Transportation from 993 to 2002. The dependent variable was death of the

  7. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

    2015-02-01

    A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Overcrowded motor vehicle trauma from the smuggling of illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Mary F; Judkins, Dan; Porter, John M; Latifi, Rifat; Williams, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    Overcrowded motor vehicle crashes caused by the very active criminal enterprise of smuggling illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest is a recent and under-recognized trauma etiology. A computerized database search from 1990 through 2003 of local newspaper reports of overcrowded motor vehicle crashes along the 281 miles of Arizona's border with Mexico was conducted. This area was covered by two level I trauma centers, but since July 2003 is now served only by the University Medical Center. Each of these crashes involved a single motor vehicle in poor mechanical shape packed with illegal immigrants. Speeding out of control on bad tires, high-speed rollovers result in ejection of most passengers. Since 1999, there have been 38 crashes involving 663 passengers (an average of 17 per vehicle) with an injury rate of 49 per cent and a mortality rate of 9 per cent. This relatively recent phenomenon (no reports from before 1998) of trauma resulting from human smuggling is lethal and demonstrates the smugglers' wanton disregard for human life, particularly when facing apprehension. Even a few innocent bystanders have been killed. These crashes overwhelm a region's trauma resources and must be recognized when planning the distribution of trauma resources to border states.

  9. Modeling fault among motorcyclists involved in crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Mazharul; Chin, Hoong Chor; Huang, Helai

    2009-03-01

    Singapore crash statistics from 2001 to 2006 show that the motorcyclist fatality and injury rates per registered vehicle are higher than those of other motor vehicles by 13 and 7 times, respectively. The crash involvement rate of motorcyclists as victims of other road users is also about 43%. The objective of this study is to identify the factors that contribute to the fault of motorcyclists involved in crashes. This is done by using the binary logit model to differentiate between at-fault and not-at-fault cases and the analysis is further categorized by the location of the crashes, i.e., at intersections, on expressways and at non-intersections. A number of explanatory variables representing roadway characteristics, environmental factors, motorcycle descriptions, and rider demographics have been evaluated. Time trend effect shows that not-at-fault crash involvement of motorcyclists has increased with time. The likelihood of night time crashes has also increased for not-at-fault crashes at intersections and expressways. The presence of surveillance cameras is effective in reducing not-at-fault crashes at intersections. Wet-road surfaces increase at-fault crash involvement at non-intersections. At intersections, not-at-fault crash involvement is more likely on single-lane roads or on median lane of multi-lane roads, while on expressways at-fault crash involvement is more likely on the median lane. Roads with higher speed limit have higher at-fault crash involvement and this is also true on expressways. Motorcycles with pillion passengers or with higher engine capacity have higher likelihood of being at-fault in crashes on expressways. Motorcyclists are more likely to be at-fault in collisions involving pedestrians and this effect is higher at night. In multi-vehicle crashes, motorcyclists are more likely to be victims than at-fault. Young and older riders are more likely to be at-fault in crashes than middle-aged group of riders. The findings of this study will help

  10. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  11. Suporte avançado à vida: atendimento a vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Advanced life support: care provided to motor vehicle crash victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atuação de um modelo de Suporte Avançado à Vida (SAV, a acidentados de trânsito por meio de indicadores, considerando a pontuação do Revised Trauma Score (RTS na fase pré-hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Análise de 643 registros de atendimento de SAV a acidentados de trânsito, ocorridos em vias expressas da cidade de São Paulo, SP, no período de abril/1999 a abril/2000. Os intervalos de tempo avaliados foram: tempo resposta, de cena, de transporte e total. A análise da decisão de triagem considerou os registros de RTS£11 como corretos para encaminhamento a hospitais terciários. As flutuações no RTS e parâmetros foram observadas através da equação: (RTSfinal ¾ RTSinicial. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Das 643 vítimas, 90,8% alcançaram RTS=12 e 5,2% obtiveram RTS£10. O tempo resposta variou entre 8 e 9 min, sendo o tempo de cena e de transporte maior nos casos de RTS£10. Das vítimas com RTS£10, 45,5% foram corretamente encaminhadas para hospitais terciários. Identificaram-se incorreções na triagem de vítimas. A manutenção ou melhora nos valores de RTS ocorreu em 98,8% das vítimas. A freqüência respiratória foi o parâmetro que mais apresentou melhora, seguida da pressão arterial sistólica.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of Advanced Life Support care mode (ALS applied to car crash victims using indicators by means of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS in prehospital phase. METHODS: It were analyzed 643 reports of car crash victims cared by public ALS services that occurred in highways of the city of São Paulo, from April 1999 to April 2000. Time intervals assessed were: response time, on-scene time, transport time, and total time. Correct screening decision analysis considered RTS£11 for tertiary hospitals. Changes in RTS and its parameters were observed using the following equation: RTSfinal ¾ RTSinitial. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 643 victims, 90.8% were RTS=12 and 5.2% were RTS£10. The

  12. Identification methods of key contributing factors in crashes with high numbers of fatalities and injuries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yikai; Li, Yiming; King, Mark; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-11-16

    In China, serious road traffic crashes (SRTCs) are those in which there are 10-30 fatalities, 50-100 serious injuries, or a total cost of 50-100 million RMB (U.S.$8-16 M), and particularly serious road traffic crashes (PSRTCs) are those that are more severe or costly. Due to the large number of fatalities and injuries as well as the negative public reaction they elicit, SRTCs and PSRTCs have become of great concern to China during recent years. The aim of this study is to identify the main factors contributing to these road traffic crashes and to propose preventive measures to reduce their number. 49 contributing factors of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2013 were collected from the database "In-depth investigation and analysis system for major road traffic crashes" (IIASMRTC) and were analyzed through the integrated use of principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering to determine the primary and secondary groups of contributing factors. Speeding and overloading of passengers were the primary contributing factors, featuring in up to 66.3 and 32.6% of accidents, respectively. Two secondary contributing factors were road related: lack of or nonstandard roadside safety infrastructure and slippery roads due to rain, snow, or ice. The current approach to SRTCs and PSRTCs is focused on the attribution of responsibility and the enforcement of regulations considered relevant to particular SRTCs and PSRTCs. It would be more effective to investigate contributing factors and characteristics of SRTCs and PSRTCs as a whole to provide adequate information for safety interventions in regions where SRTCs and PSRTCs are more common. In addition to mandating a driver training program and publicization of the hazards associated with traffic violations, implementation of speed cameras, speed signs, markings, and vehicle-mounted Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are suggested to reduce speeding of passenger vehicles, while increasing regular checks by

  13. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting motor vehicle... Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations shall forward annually (on or before December 1) to the contracting officer their plan for acquisition of motor vehicles for...

  14. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  15. 32 CFR 935.140 - Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. 935.140... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.140 Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. (a) Each person who has custody of a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall present that vehicle...

  16. 47 CFR 32.6112 - Motor vehicle expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle expense. 32.6112 Section 32.6112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6112 Motor vehicle expense. (a... motor vehicles, such as chauffeurs and shuttle bus drivers. The costs of users of motor vehicles...

  17. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of motor vehicle... SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an... by this section do not relieve the operator and occupants of a motor vehicle involved in an...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining...

  19. 32 CFR 935.139 - Motor vehicle operator qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle operator qualifications. 935.139... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.139 Motor vehicle operator qualifications. (a) No person may operate a privately owned motor vehicle on Wake Island unless he has an...

  20. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air...

  1. Definition of the risk grounding fatalities due to unintentional airplane crashes by calculates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Л. Государська

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Estimates of the expected number of grounding fatalities, are given which probably will arise due to accident of air carriers, air taxi and general aviation. Measures regulation of the risk is considered.

  2. Fleet Fatality Risk and its Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass Change in Frontal Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes, Using a Combined Empirical and Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yibing; Nusholtz, Guy S

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function. Based on risk exponent and mass distribution from a recent fleet, the subject vehicle mean fatality risk is shown to increase, while at the same time that for the partner vehicles decreases, as the mass of the subject vehicle decreases. The societal mean fatality risk, the sum of these, incurs a penalty with respect to a fleet with complete mass equality. This penalty reaches its minimum (~8% for the example fleet) for crashes with a subject vehicle whose mass is close to the fleet mean mass. The sensitivity, i.e., the rate of change of the societal mean fatality risk with respect to the mass of the subject vehicle is assessed. Results from two sets of fully regression-based analyses, Kahane (2012) and Van Auken and Zellner (2013), are approximately compared with the current result. The general magnitudes of the results are comparable, but differences exist at a more detailed level. The subject vehicle-oriented societal mean fatality risk is averaged over all possible subject vehicle masses of a given fleet to obtain the overall mean fatality risk of the fleet. It is found to increase approximately linearly at a rate of about 0.8% for each 100 lb decrease in mass of all vehicles in the fleet.

  3. Crash Injury Prediction and Vehicle Damage Reporting by Paramedics: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The accuracy of pre-hospital crash scene details and crash victim assessment has important implications for initial trauma care assessment and management. Similarly, it is known to influence physician perception of crash victim injury severity. The goal of this feasibility study was to examine paramedic accuracy in predicting crash victim injury profile, disability outcome at hospital discharge, and reporting vehicle damage with other crash variables.METHODS: This prospective case series study was undertaken at a Southern California, Level I trauma center certified by the American College of Surgeons. Paramedics transporting crash injured motor vehicle occupants to our emergency department (ED/trauma center were surveyed. We abstracted ED and in-patient records of injured vehicle occupants. Vehicle and crash scene data were obtained from a professional crash reconstruction, which included the assessment of deformation, crash forces, change in velocity, and the source of each injury.RESULTS: We used survey, injury, and crash reconstruction data from 22 collision cases in the final analysis. The median Injury Severity Score (ISS was five (range 1-24. No enrolled patients died, and none were severely disabled at the time of discharge from the hospital. The paramedic crash injury severity predictions were sensitive for an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS of 2-4. Paramedics often agreed with the crash reconstruction on restraint use, ejection, and other fatalities at the scene, and had lower levels of agreement for front airbag deployment, steering wheel damage, and window/windshield impact. Paramedics had 80% accuracy in predicting any disability at the time of hospital discharge.CONCLUSION: Paramedic prediction of injury profile was sensitive, and prediction of disability outcome at discharge was accurate when compared to discharge diagnosis. Their reporting of vehicle specific crash variables was less accurate. Further study should be

  4. Mechanisms of cervical spine injuries for non-fatal motorcycle road crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, S S; Wong, S V; Radin Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Yeap, J S; Megat Ahmad, M M H

    2004-06-01

    Cervical spine injuries such as subluxation and fracture dislocation have long been known to result in severe consequences, as well as the trauma management itself. The injury to the region has been identified as one of the major causes of death in Malaysian motorcyclists involved in road crashes, besides head and chest injuries (Pang, 1999). Despite this, cervical spine injury in motorcyclists is not a well-studied injury, unlike the whiplash injury in motorcar accidents. The present study is a retrospective study on the mechanisms of injury in cervical spine sustained by Malaysian motorcyclists, who were involved in road crash using an established mechanistic classification system. This will serve as an initial step to look at the cervical injuries pattern. The information obtained gives engineer ideas to facilitate design and safety features to reduce injuries. All cervical spine injured motorcyclists admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2001 were included in the present study. Based on the medical notes and radiological investigations (X-rays, CT and MRI scans), the mechanisms of injuries were formulated using the injury mechanics classification. The result shows that flexion of the cervical vertebrae is the most common vertebral kinematics in causing injury to motorcyclists. This indicates that the cervical vertebrae sustained a high-energy loading at flexion movement in road crash, and exceeded its tolerance level. The high frequency of injury at the C5 vertebra, C6 vertebra and C5-C6 intervertebral space are recorded. Classification based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is made to give a view on injury severity, 9.1% of the study samples have been classified as AIS code 1, 51.5% with AIS 2 and 21.2% with AIS 3.

  5. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... passenger car occupant, a motorcycle rider is 37 times more likely to die in a crash and 9 times more likely... percent compared to 2008. Occupant fatalities fell by 11 percent in passenger cars, almost 5 percent in...,'' sellers of these labels can be readily found, for example, on eBay or via Google. Various Web sites...

  6. Fatal drowning as a result of an airplane crash--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeremeta, Michal; Janica, Jacek Robert; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepinski, Witold

    2013-03-10

    An ULM (Ultra Light Motorized) plane Aeroprakt 22-L with two men on board dived unexpectedly into the Dworackie lake near the town of Olecko in Warmia and Mazury district, Northeastern Poland. The pilot and the passenger had multiorgan blunt injuries, including subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage, fractured ribs, fractured thigh (in one of the deceased) and pulmonary contusions as a result of the impact with the lake. The multiorgan injuries and unconsciousness resulting from head trauma prevented the casualties from saving themselves. The underlying cause of the death was the crash into the lake, however drowning was assessed as the proximate cause of death. The accident was analyzed together with an account prepared by State Commission on Aircraft Accident Investigation and with the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System - HFACS (the standardized method of analysis of flight accidents, the tool originally developed and tested within the U.S. military). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kevin R [Albuquerque, NM; Forsythe, James C [Sandia Park, NM; Lippitt, Carl E [Albuquerque, NM; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  8. Coronary sinus and atrioventricular groove avulsion after motor vehicle crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous cardiac and pericardial rupture from blunt chest trauma is a highly lethal combination with rarely reported survival. We report of a case of young patient with a right atrioventricular groove injury, pericardial rupture and a unique description of a coronary sinus avulsion following blunt chest trauma. Rapid recognition of this injury is crucial to patient survival, but traditional diagnostic adjuncts such as ultrasound, echocardiography and computed tomography are often unhelpful. Successful repair of these injuries requires high suspicion of injury, early cardiac surgery involvement of and possible even placement of the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass.

  9. Factor analysis of fatal road traffic crashes with massive casualties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis refers to a collection of statistical methods for reducing correlational data into a smaller number of dimensions or factors. In this study, factor analysis theory was used to determine the main influential factors of road traffic crashes with massive casualties. Twenty variables related to personnel, vehicles, roads, and environment were collected, and the significance of their correlations was tested for validity. A correlation coefficient matrix R was calculated, and its latent root λ was obtained based on the characteristic equation. A number of common factors were determined according to the value of latent root λ . Factor loading was used to express the relationship of each variable to the underlying main influential factors. An index system of accident factors was developed based on the results of factor loading, and the weight of each factor was calculated to classify the factor influence. The main influential factors of accidents were determined to be fault behavior, driving experience, condition of vehicle safety, purpose of vehicle, road lighting, driver, road surface condition, roadside protection facilities, and road terrain.

  10. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  11. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  12. 28 CFR 29.9 - Motor vehicles for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles for hire. 29.9 Section 29.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.9 Motor vehicles for hire. (a) Any person who is in the business of renting or leasing...

  13. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of motor....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with... Heads of Contracting Activities may arrange to sell, as exchange sales, used motor vehicles...

  14. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  15. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle use. 261.13... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest... have been identified on a motor vehicle use map, it is prohibited to possess or operate a motor...

  16. 48 CFR 945.570-7 - Disposition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of motor... Disposition of motor vehicles. (a) The contractor shall dispose of DOE-owned motor vehicles as directed by the contracting officer. (b) DOE-owned motor vehicles may be disposed of as exchange/sale items when directed...

  17. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  18. 76 FR 24402 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 RIN 2127-AK81 Federal Motor Vehicle Theft... areas on high theft major parts of motor vehicles. E-mail is now included as a means to submit the... motor vehicle lines subject to parts marking, and manufacturers of replacement parts designed for...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.402 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motor vehicles. 101-25.402 Section 101-25.402 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Standards § 101-25.402 Motor vehicles. Replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with...

  20. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL03 Federal Motor Vehicle.... The changes proposed in this NPRM to the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on glazing...

  1. 32 CFR 935.51 - Motor vehicle violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle violations. 935.51 Section 935.51... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Penalties § 935.51 Motor vehicle violations. Whoever is found guilty of a... than 30 days, or suspension or revocation of his motor vehicle operator's permit, or any combination...

  2. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011)....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  4. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in...

  5. 77 FR 73912 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... review of its Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule'') as part of the FTC...; and (3) a list of fourteen major systems of a used motor vehicle and the major defects that may...

  6. 77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... December 17, 2012 Part II Federal Trade Commission 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule'') as part of the FTC's...

  7. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.5103 - Motor vehicle utilization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5103 Motor vehicle utilization standards. (a) The following average utilization...

  9. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  10. Dynamics of Motorized Vehicle Flow under Mixed Traffic Circumstance*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO nong-Wei; GAO Zi-You; ZHAO Xiao-Mei; XIE Dong-Fan

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of mixed traffic flow consisting of motorized and non-motorized vehicles, a carfollowing model based on the principle of collision free and cautious driving is proposed.Lateral friction and overlapping driving are introduced to describe the interactions between motorized vehicles and non-motorized vehicles.By numerical simulations, the flux-density relation, the temporal-spatial dynamics, and the velocity evolution are investigated in detail.The results indicate non-motorized vehicles have a significant impact on the motorized vehicle flow and cause the maximum flux to decline by about 13%.Non-motorized vehicles can decrease the motorized vehicle velocity and cause velocity oscillation when the motorized vehicle density is low.Moreover, non-motorized vehicles show a significant damping effect on the oscillating velocity when the density is medium and high, and such an effect weakens as motorized vehicle densityincreases.The results also stress the necessity for separating motorized vehicles from non-motorized vehicles.

  11. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  12. Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Gwen; Peterson, Cora; Ederer, David; Florence, Curtis; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Xu, Likang

    2014-10-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the current health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in the United States. CDC analyzed data on emergency department (ED) visits resulting from nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in 2012 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System – All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The number and rate of all ED visits for the treatment of crash injuries that resulted in the patient being released and the number and rate of hospitalizations for the treatment of crash injuries were estimated, as were the associated number of hospital days and lifetime medical and work loss costs. In 2012, an estimated 2,519,471 ED visits resulted from nonfatal crash injuries, with an estimated lifetime medical cost of $18.4 billion (2012 U.S. dollars). Approximately 7.5% of these visits resulted in hospitalizations that required an estimated 1,057,465 hospital days in 2012. Nonfatal crash injuries occur frequently and result in substantial costs to individuals, employers, and society. For each motor vehicle crash death in 2012, eight persons were hospitalized, and 100 were treated and released from the ED. Public health practices and laws, such as primary seat belt laws, child passenger restraint laws, ignition interlocks to prevent alcohol impaired driving, sobriety checkpoints, and graduated driver licensing systems have demonstrated effectiveness for reducing motor vehicle crashes and injuries. They might also substantially reduce associated ED visits, hospitalizations, and medical costs.

  13. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents....

  14. Why do three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren suffer very low fatal crashes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw carrying schoolchildren in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIR from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on the driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep the highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and three-wheelers without children respectively.

  15. PROBLEMS OF SAFETY OF MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the up-to-date problem of motor vehicles safety. The author concludes that traffic safety in the transport system depends on the type and, accordingly, the measures taken in vehicles to protect objects from unauthorized access and, as a consequence, from the possibility of accident or disaster occurrence, while the safety of vehicles on a traffic route is determined by external natural impacts.

  16. Evaluating the Potential Benefits of Advanced Automatic Crash Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, Rebecca E; Kaufman, Robert; Fraade-Blanar, Laura; Bulger, Eileen M

    2017-04-01

    Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) services in passenger vehicles capture crash data during collisions that could be transferred to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. This study explored how EMS response times and other crash factors impacted the odds of fatality. The goal was to determine if information transmitted by AACN could help decrease mortality by allowing EMS providers to be better prepared upon arrival at the scene of a collision. The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database of the US Department of Transportation/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (USDOT/NHTSA; Washington DC, USA) was searched for all fatal crashes between 1996 and 2012. The CIREN database also was searched for illustrative cases. The NHTSA's Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS) databases were queried for all fatal crashes between 2000 and 2011 that involved a passenger vehicle. Detailed EMS time data were divided into prehospital time segments and analyzed descriptively as well as via multiple logistic regression models. The CIREN data showed that longer times from the collision to notification of EMS providers were associated with more frequent invasive interventions within the first three hours of hospital admission and more transfers from a regional hospital to a trauma center. The NASS CDS and FARS data showed that rural collisions with crash-notification times >30 minutes were more likely to be fatal than collisions with similar crash-notification times occurring in urban environments. The majority of a patient's prehospital time occurred between the arrival of EMS providers on-scene and arrival at a hospital. The need for extrication increased the on-scene time segment as well as total prehospital time. An AACN may help decrease mortality following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) by alerting EMS providers earlier and helping them discern when

  17. Acidentes de trânsito: caracterização das vitimas segundo o "Revised Trauma Score" medido no período pré-hospitalar Accidentes de transito: caracterización de las víctimas según el "Revised Trauma Score" medido en el periodo pre-hospitalario Motor vehicle crash: victims' characterization throughout prehospital "Revised Trauma Score"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Amaro Malvestio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve idade, sexo, aspectos do mecanismo e procedimentos realizados em. 643 acidentados de trânsito atendidos nas Marginais Tietê e Pinheiros, considerando os valores do Revised Trauma Score (RTS do período pré-hospitalar. As vítimas com RTS=12 somaram 90,8%, com RTS=11, 4,0% e RTSEste estudio tiene como obje tivo describer, considerando el Revised Trauma Score (RTS obtenido en el periodo pré hospitalario, edad, sexo, aspectos del mecanismo e procedimientos realizados en 643 víctimas de accidente de tránsito. Las víctimas con RTS=12 sumaron 90,8%, con RTS=11, 4,0% y RTSThis report describes age, gender, trauma mechanics aspects and procedures from 643 motor vehicle crashes, MVC, victims in Tietê and Pinheiros expressways, by considering the prehospital Revised Trauma Score (RTS. The RTS=12 victims' were 90,8%, with RTS=11 added 4,0% and in group with RTS<10, 5,2%. Among the RTS<10 victims, the pedestrians stand out (36,4%, the frontal impacts (24,2% and the projected (36,4% or trapped victims (15,1%, and those that received advanced life support procedures.The motorcyclists and the male victims with 21 with 30 years of age were predominant. This study is expected to contribute to a better assistance to MVC victims.

  18. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  19. Trends and projections of vehicle crash related fatalities and injuries in Northwest Gondar, Ethiopia: A time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The numbers of lives lost and disabilities due to vehicle crashes indicated an upward trend in the last decade showing future burden in terms of societal and economic costs threatening the lives of many individuals. Surveillance systems that could enable to monitor patterns of vehicle crashes with preventive strategies must be established.

  20. Pedestrian and bicycle plans and the incidence of crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Aytur, Semra A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the presence of pedestrian and bicycle plans to pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries from 1997 to 2009 among 553 North Carolina (NC) municipalities. We considered all municipal plans (n=92; 49 pedestrian; 34 bicycle; and 9 combined plans featuring pedestrian and bicyclist components) published through 2009. Counts of pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries came from the NC Department of Transportation crash database, and the estimated number of pedestrian and bicycle trips per municipality in one year were used to calculate pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injury rates. In the 13-year study period, pedestrian/combined municipality plans and bicycle/combined municipality plans were present for 189 (2.6%) and 238 (3.3%) municipality-years, respectively. There were 11,795 nonfatal injuries, 9237 possible nonfatal injuries, and 1075 fatal injuries sustained by pedestrians in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes. There were 4842 nonfatal injuries, 3666 possible nonfatal injuries, and 134 fatal injuries sustained by bicyclists in bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes. Although not statistically significant, unadjusted nonfatal and fatal injury rates among pedestrians and bicyclists were lower in those municipality-years in which plans had been published that year or in a year prior, compared to municipality-years lacking a plan. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) indicated that pedestrian nonfatal and fatal injury rates decreased in municipality-years with publication of pedestrian/combined plans (nonfatal injury RR: 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 0.82; fatal injury RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85). However, bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injury rates did not significantly change with publication of bicyclist/combined plans. Our research suggests that plan publication is associated with lower rates of nonfatal and fatal injury in pedestrians; this association was not observed for bicyclists. Further

  1. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  2. Management, Acquisition, and Use of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    issuing authority. e. Report suspension or revocation of their State motor vehicle operator license as required by the vehicle issuing authority. f...40,000 and Up All 25,000 Motorcycle 4/A All 3,000 Scooter , 3- or 4-Wheel N/A Gasoline 2,400 2-10 Figure 2-1. DD Form 1970, "Motor Equipment Utilization...adequately supported through the use of alternative transportation resources (such as scooters , bicycles, mopeds)? (4) Will the vehicle meet utilization

  3. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing.

  4. Effects of high-profile collisions on drink-driving penalties and alcohol-related crashes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2011-06-01

    Japanese road traffic law was amended in 2002 and 2007 to increase the penalties for drink-driving in response to media coverage, publicity campaigns, and debates following high-profile alcohol-related motor-vehicle crashes in 1999 and 2006. To test the hypothesis that the proportion of crashes involving drink-driving started to decline before the law amendments, because of changes in social norms and driver behaviour after the high-profile crashes. In order to assess the impact of the cases in 1999 and 2006, time-series analyses were used to examine the trends in the proportion of crashes involving drink-driving, and whether there were abrupt changes in the level or slope at the expected time points, using monthly police data for the period between January 1995 and December 2008. In 1999, the proportion of alcohol-related fatal crashes in which the driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.5 mg/ml started to decline with a slope change of -0.09 percentage points per month (95% CI -0.15 to -0.03) but no level change, whereas there were no changes for drivers with a BAC trends for drivers with a BAC ≥0.5 or Media coverage of high-profile crashes, and subsequent publicity campaigns and debates might have altered social norms and driver behaviour, reducing the proportion of alcohol-related crashes before the introduction of more severe penalties for drink-driving.

  5. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate.

  6. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For...

  7. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines...

  8. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request... control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state... crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle...

  9. 78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL40 Federal Motor Vehicle... document responds to petitions for reconsideration of a 2011 final rule that established Federal...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle antitampering. 52.2311... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle... Emissions from Motor Vehicles” and 114.5 “Exclusions and Exceptions” on February 24, 1989, and September...

  11. 78 FR 10573 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule''). The notice stated...

  12. 48 CFR 945.570-2 - Acquisition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of motor... Acquisition of motor vehicles. (a) The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (GSA-IFMS) is the first source of supply for providing motor vehicles to contractors; however, contracting officer approval...

  13. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR...; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds)...

  14. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  15. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  16. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  17. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  18. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR... first issued in 1973 until it was inadvertently omitted in 2003. The breaking energy requirement...

  19. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  20. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-22

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  1. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  2. Mortality among hourly motor vehicle manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Elizabeth; Brown, David A; Matthews, Robert

    2003-08-01

    We evaluated mortality among 198,245 motor vehicle industry workers during the period of 1973 to 1995. Workers' mortality rates were lower than expected overall (40,131 observed/43,859 expected deaths, standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 92, CI = 91-92) and for all major cause of death categories except cancer (SMR = 100, CI = 98-102). Mortality rates were higher than expected for lung cancer overall (SMR = 110, CI = 107-113) and among employees in transmission/gear manufacturing (SMR = 121, CI = 112-130), casting operations (SMR = 122, CI = 110-135), engine manufacturing (SMR = 111, CI = 101-123), and vehicle assembly (SMR = 111, CI = 105-117); for stomach cancer in engine manufacturing (SMR = 147, CI = 110-192); and for prostate cancer in casting operations (SMR = 128, CI = 102-158). Excesses of lung cancer in transmission, vehicle assembly, and casting operations and of stomach cancer in engine manufacturing have been observed in other investigations. Further information on employees' occupational exposures and personal attributes is required to clarify the interpretation of these results.

  3. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  4. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  5. Statewide tracking of crash victims' medical system utilization and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Nicholas; Garthe, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    For the study year, the state of Massachusetts had the lowest fatal motor vehicle crash rate in the nation. The state was interested in exploring new approaches to save additional lives. The study goal was to determine the potential for Massachusetts's medical system to reduce fatalities through alternative utilization of existing transport methods, treatment hospital types, and victim pathways. This was a 1-year retrospective statewide population-based study of all persons involved in a trafficway motor vehicle crash in which at least one person died within 30 days. Database linkage was used to track the pathway and outcome of every involved victim from the crash scene, including air medical and ground ambulance utilization, community or trauma center treatment, and interhospital transfers; air and trauma center (TC) scene triage levels were computed retrospectively. All crash and hospital locations were geomapped and confounding factors were included. Air and ground scene transports to TCs were underutilized by 7:1 and 4.5:1, respectively. No request was the major reason for air underutilization. Underutilization was associated with reduced lived-to-died ratio (L/D) by pathway of up to 10:1. Statewide, air transport to Level I trauma centers had both the highest (1.0, scene) and lowest L/Ds (0.6, interfacility). A 4.5:1 difference in L/D was associated with fulfilled versus unfulfilled air requests. By emergency medical service region, L/D varied by nearly 3:1 and utilization of scene air and TC transports by 5:1 and 4:1. Victim helicopter emergency medical services transport to a TC with an Injury Severity Score > or =19 was identified as critical and was associated with L/D differences of 3.7:1. The paradox of lower L/D for scene air transports to TCs occurring simultaneously with higher overall system L/D was observed and explained. System-based L/D differences of 1.8:1 were observed associated with increases in appropriate triage. Results that explain the

  6. Contributions to motor vehicle emissions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal Sharma

    While motor vehicles are a major source of atmospheric pollutants, their in-use emissions remain inadequately characterized. Remote sensing devices (RSD) have been shown to be efficient tools for measuring CO, HC and NO in on-road vehicle exhaust. This work utilizes RSD data to illuminate new phenomena related to automobile emissions. Model year averaged RSD data are shown to correlate extremely well with IM240 measurements. IM240 is a loaded-mode dynamometer test used by several states as part of their emissions reduction strategy. The high degree of correlation helps to validate remote sensing as an instrument for IM240 evaluation. Such evaluations of programs in Chicago and Denver indicate an Inspection and Maintenance benefit of less than 10%. Fleet average on-road emissions have continually decreased over several years of measurement at the same locations in four U.S. cities: Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles and Phoenix. Together with the decrease in overall emissions, the distribution has become even more skewed. Fewer automobiles are responsible for a larger fraction of the decreasing total pollutant emissions. Analysis of the newest model year vehicles year after year at the four locations indicates that successive model years have become lower emitting. It is believed that more stringent government mandated emission standards and continuous improvement in the ability of automobile manufacturers to meet these standards is responsible for the emissions reductions. Comparison of emissions among the four cities, adjusted for load and model year, indicates that older vehicles in the Los Angeles area have higher CO and lower NO emissions. The fact that California had more stringent NO emission standards and more lenient CO ones compared to the rest of the states suggests, once again, the significant benefits of emission standards and new vehicle emission control technology.

  7. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  8. 75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK38 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 114 that certain motor vehicles with an automatic transmission..., or ``Act'') was signed into law.\\1\\ This Act relates to several aspects of motor vehicle...

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.204 - Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.204 Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment. Motor vehicles...

  10. 41 CFR 109-38.5105 - Motor vehicle local use objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle local use..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5105 Motor vehicle local use objectives. (a) Individual motor vehicle utilization cannot always...

  11. 41 CFR 109-38.301-1.53 - Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle operators. 109-38.301-1.53 Section 109-38.301-1.53 Public Contracts and Property... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.3-Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 109-38.301-1.53 Responsibilities of motor vehicle...

  12. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles... manufacturers of motor vehicles. (a) Each manufacturer of motor vehicles (except vehicles manufactured in two or... applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect on the date...

  13. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this... standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or...

  14. 75 FR 11878 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  15. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  16. Surveillance of road crash injuries in Cambodia: an evaluation of the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Erin M; Ear, Chariya; Roehler, Douglas R; Sann, Socheata; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, 1.24 million deaths and 20-50 million road crash injuries occur annually, with a disproportionate burden on low- and middle-income countries. Facing continued growth in motorized vehicles, Cambodia has begun to address road safety, including the creation of a nationwide road crash surveillance system, the Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS). This study evaluates the RCVIS to understand whether road crash injuries are being monitored efficiently and effectively and to identify areas for improvement. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems" (CDC 2001) as an evaluation framework. To assess system attributes, we conducted in-person interviews with Cambodian road safety stakeholders, including representatives from the Ministries of Health and Interior, and reviewed RCVIS annual reports and system operation documents. Characteristics assessed include usefulness, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, representativeness, data quality, and timeliness. The Cambodian government uses RCVIS data extensively for road safety planning purposes. RCVIS participation varies by type of data source, with 100 percent of police districts and 65 percent of hospitals reporting in 2010. Representativeness over time is a limitation-between 2007 and 2008, the number of reporting hospitals decreased from 65 to 42. From 2007 to 2010, the number of nonfatal injuries reported to RCVIS decreased by 35 percent, despite rapid growth in vehicle registrations. The system is timely, with annual reports disseminated within 10 months to more than 250 stakeholders. The RCVIS provides a strong foundation for the surveillance of road crash injuries and fatalities in Cambodia. Differences in participation by data source and reduced hospital participation over time affect data representativeness and may indicate issues with acceptability. Recommendations include working with hospitals to standardize

  17. Beaver County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Beaver County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  18. Butler County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Butler County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  19. Burden of hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement: United States, 2002 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Lynch, Charles F; Ramirez, Marizen; Torner, James

    2013-11-01

    Bicycling and bicycling injuries have increased during the past decade in the United States, but research on the extent and outcomes of injuries has lagged behind. This study aimed to estimate the current burden of injury from bicycling injury hospitalizations by motor vehicle crash (MVC) and non-MVC in the United States. We included patients with primary or secondary diagnosis e-codes corresponding to MVC or non-MVC bicycle injury, drawn from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2009). Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and logistic regression were used to examine patient and hospital characteristics (length of stay, total charges, nonroutine discharges, and demographics) associated with hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement. On average, from 2002 to 2009, there were an annually estimated 6,877 MVC and 18,457 non-MVC bicycle injury hospitalizations nationwide. This translates to more than $1 billion of hospital charges overall, $425 million for MVC and $588 million for non-MVC per year. After controlling for covariates, MVC bicycling injury hospitalizations had an average length of stay that was 2 days longer (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.3) and an average hospitalization charge of $23,424 more (95% CI, $21,360-$25,538) than non-MVC. Those with MVC bicycling injuries were more than two times as likely to have a nonroutine hospital discharge than non-MVC (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.06-2.39). The burden of injury from bicycle crashes is large overall, and MVC-related bicycling injuries result in longer hospital stays, higher costs, and more nonroutine hospital discharges than non-MVC, despite the fact that non-MVC hospitalizations are more frequent and result in higher total charges, overall. To have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of injury from bicycle crashes, educational interventions, policy, and infrastructure changes should include all age groups and prioritize reducing bicycle-motor vehicle

  20. Effect of electronic stability control on automobile crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Per vehicle crash involvement rates were compared for otherwise identical vehicle models with and without electronic stability control (ESC) systems. ESC was found to affect single-vehicle crashes to a greater extent than multiple-vehicle crashes, and crashes with fatal injuries to a greater extent than less severe crashes. Based on all police-reported crashes in 7 states over 2 years, ESC reduced single-vehicle crash involvement risk by approximately 41 percent (95 percent confidence limits 3348) and single-vehicle injury crash involvement risk by 41 percent (2752). This translates to an estimated 7 percent reduction in overall crash involvement risk (310) and a 9 percent reduction in overall injury crash involvement risk (314). Based on all fatal crashes in the United States over 3 years, ESC was found to have reduced single-vehicle fatal crash involvement risk by 56 percent (3968). This translates to an estimated 34 percent reduction in overall fatal crash involvement risk (2145).

  1. Crash Under Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The cause of a fatal cargo plane accident in Shanghai is still unknown The flight data recorder of the Zimbabwean cargo plane that crashed on November 28 at Shanghai Pudong International Airport has been found near the crash scene,local aviation control authorities said.

  2. Comparison of road traffic fatalities and injuries in Iran with other countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad R Rasouli; Mohsen Nouri; Mohammad-Reza Zarei; Soheil Saadat; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare fatalities and injuries in road traffic crashes (RTC) in Iran with other countries. Methods: Data were obtained from national health sources of Iran. These data included population number, registered motor-vehicles number, number of RTCs and consequent fatalities and injuries from 1997 to 2006. Results: RTC fatality and injury rates increased from 1997 to 2005, but decreased in 2006. The overall men/women ratio in the RTC fatalities was 4.2:1. High RTC fatality rate of 39 per 100 000 population in Iran was almost the same as some other developing countries. In Iran, RTC fatalities in recent years were almost twice as much as the highest rate among the European countries. Conclusions: This investigation shows that in spite of reduction of RTC fatality in Iran in 2006, it is still one of the highest in the world. Moreover, this paper describes the state of RTC-related parameters in a developing country in comparIson with the developed countries.

  3. Run-off-road crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one-third of all fatalities and one-sixth of all seriously injured are the consequence of run-off-road crashes. The outcome of run-off-road crashes is relatively severe, one fatality in five seriously injured, which is twice the average in the Netherlands. Serious run-off-road cr

  4. Epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal injuries in the Avianca plane crash: Avianca Flight 052, January 25, 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Kahn, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Greensher, J.; Schechter, S. [Nassau County Dept. of Health, Mineola, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    On January 25, 1990 Avianca Flight 052 crashed without a conflagration after running out of fuel; 73 persons died, 85 survived. Epidemiological, biostatistical, and related analytical methods were used for the analysis of decedent and survivor injury patterns and for the purpose of examining selected EMS and hospital issues-relative to disaster planning and incident management and response. Medical examiner and hospital records for all decedents and survivors were identified, abstracted, and coded using the International Classification of Diseases with Clinical Modifications, 9th Edition (ICD 9-CM) to determine the nature of injuries and comorbid conditions. Injury severity values were determined using the 1985 Abbreviated Injury Scale with Epidemiologic Modifications (AIS 85-EM).

  5. Expanding Prevertebral Soft Tissue Swelling Subsequent to a Motor Vehicle Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical acceleration/deceleration or whiplash injuries are a common cause of cervical spine trauma. Cervical acceleration/deceleration can result in vertebral fractures, subluxations, and ligamentous and other soft tissue injuries. Severe injuries are often evidenced by increased prevertebral swelling on lateral X-ray. Assessment of the prevertebral space on lateral cervical spine films is an essential component for identifying potential traumatic neck injuries. We describe a case in which an 84-year-old man on coumadin presented to the emergency department after a low-impact motor vehicle crash. The patient initially complained of neck and shoulder pain which subsequently progressed to hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Imaging studies revealed significant prevertebral tissue swelling with anterior compression of his airway that required airway stabilization via awake fiber-optic intubation and reversal of his anticoagulation therapy.

  6. Impact of the 1970 legal BAC 0.05 mg% limit legislation on drunk-driver-involved traffic fatalities, accidents, and DWI in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshapriya, E B; Iwase, N

    1998-12-01

    Official statistics of motor vehicle fatality data have indicated that alcohol involvement in fatal crashes has declined substantially in Japan since 1970. The national campaign against drunken driving in Japan provides a natural experiment in which to test the predictions of deterrence theory. Utilizing official data over the 1960-1995 period, we report conclusive evidence that 1970s legislation is having a measurable and long-term effect on alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities. Enactment of the lower legal blood alcohol limit with a combination of other severe sanctions has been more desirable in the prevention of alcohol-related fatalities in the long term as shown in this study. Further extensive research is necessary to investigate performance at the lower legal limit in other societies in order to inspire a strong "international lobby" to support the reduced legal blood alcohol limit for drivers all over the world, as there is no doubt that a reduction in alcohol-impaired driving will result in a substantial savings of human lives and resource worldwide.

  7. Predicting Motor Vehicle Collisions in a Driving Simulator in Young Adults Using the Useful Field of View Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Benjamin; Cox, Molly K.; Vance, David E.; Stavrinos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being involved in motor vehicle collisions is the leading cause of death in 1 to 34 year olds, and risk is particularly high in young adults. The Useful Field of View (UFOV) task, a cognitive measure of processing speed, divided attention, and selective attention, has been shown to be predictive of motor vehicle collisions in older adults, but its use as a predictor of driving performance in a young adult population has not been investigated. The present study examined whether UFOV was a predictive measure of motor vehicle collisions in a driving simulator in a young adult population. Method The 3-subtest version of UFOV (lower scores measured in milliseconds indicate better performance) was administered to 60 college students. Participants also completed an 11-mile simulated drive to provide driving performance metrics. Results Findings suggested that subtests 1 and 2 suffered from a ceiling effect. UFOV subtest 3 significantly predicted collisions in the simulated drive. Each 30 milliseconds slower on the subtest was associated with nearly a 10% increase in the risk of a simulated collision. Post-hoc analyses revealed a small partially mediating effect of subtest 3 on the relationship between driving experience and collisions. Conclusion The selective attention component of UFOV subtest 3 may be a predictive measure of crash involvement in a young adult population. Improvements in selective attention may be the underlying mechanism in how driving experience improves driving performance. PMID:25794266

  8. The impacts of multiple rest-break periods on commercial truck driver's crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xie, Yuanchang

    2014-02-01

    Driver fatigue has been a major contributing factor to fatal commercial truck crashes, which accounted for about 10% of all fatal motor vehicle crashes that happened between 2009 and 2011. Commercial truck drivers' safety performance can deteriorate easily due to fatigue caused by long driving hours and irregular working schedules. To ensure safety, truck drivers often use off-duty time and short rest breaks during a trip to recover from fatigue. This study thoroughly investigates the impacts of off-duty time prior to a trip and short rest breaks on commercial truck safety by using Cox proportional hazards model and Andersen-Gill model. It is found that increasing total rest-break duration can consistently reduce fatigue-related crash risk. Similarly, taking more rest breaks can help to reduce crash risk. The results suggest that two rest breaks are generally considered enough for a 10-hour trip, as three or more rest breaks may not further reduce crash risk substantially. Also, the length of each rest break does not need to be very long and 30min is usually adequate. In addition, this study investigates the safety impacts of when to take rest breaks. It is found that taking rest breaks too soon after a trip starts will cause the rest breaks to be less effective. The findings of this research can help policy makers and trucking companies better understand the impacts of multiple rest-break periods and develop more effective rules to improve the safety of truck drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  9. Possibilities of Using Hydrogen as Motor Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20 whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.305 - What forms do we use to transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., farm machinery, and certain military-design motor vehicles and motor vehicles that are damaged beyond... transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle? 102-34.305 Section 102-34.305 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.305 What...

  11. Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle accidents: A questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Daniel; Jackowski, Christian; Pfäffli, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In Switzerland, the prevalence of an excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in drivers undergoing a driving capacity assessment is currently not known. In this study, private and professional drivers were evaluated by means of a paper-based questionnaire, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and additional questions to sleepiness-related accidents, near-miss accidents, health issues, and demographic data. Of the 435 distributed questionnaires, 128 completed were returned. The response rate was 29%. The mean age of the investigated drivers was 42.5 years (20-85 years). According to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 9% of the participants are likely to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. An equal percentage has a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome based on the Berlin Questionnaire. 16% admitted an involuntary nodding off while driving a motor vehicle. This subset of the participants scored statistically significant higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p = 0.036). 8% of the participants already suffered an accident because of being sleepy while driving. An equal number experienced a sleepiness-related near-miss accident on the road. The study shows that a medical workup of excessive daytime sleepiness is highly recommended in each driver undergoing a driving capacity assessment. Routine application of easily available and time-saving assessment tools such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire could prevent accidents in a simple way. The applicability of the Berlin Questionnaire to screen suspected fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents is discussed.

  12. From research to public policy: the prevention of motor vehicle injuries, childhood drownings, and firearm violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, G J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of the modern sciences of injury epidemiology and injury prevention and to illustrate the use of applied research in formulating effective public policy. MEDLINE searches were conducted from 1966 to 1990, and bibliographies of articles thus obtained were reviewed. Fugitive sources were identified by multiple means. Motor vehicle fatality rates on a per mile driven basis have been reduced by 50% over the past 25 years, largely through attention to the road environment and design of motor vehicles. Passive restraint systems such as air bags promise further reductions. Drowning has emerged as a leading cause of death among young children. Complete pool fencing is expected to prevent many of these events. Firearm violence, particularly among young people, is rapidly increasing. Firearms are hazardous consumer products but are not addressed as such by our current regulatory structure and intervention agenda. Epidemiologic and other applied research can make important contributions to the development of public policies designed to prevent injury. Such policies often address the design and performance of hazardous products and environments and consider individual behavior change as only a secondary objective.

  13. 49 CFR 383.91 - Commercial motor vehicle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial motor vehicle groups. 383.91 Section 383.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  14. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF...

  15. assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    theory and practice of motor vehicle mechanics should imbibe continuous .... society because they represent focal points where ... argued that the technology gap should not be defined narrowly as a ..... Journal of Library Archives and Information Science. Vol.17 (2) ... www.aaicar.com, making sense of engine sensors ...

  16. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movig, K.L.; Mathijssen, M.P.; Nagel, P.H.; van Egmond, T.; de Gier, J.J.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive d

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  18. Particulate Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: A Putative Proallergic Hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution generated from motor vehicle exhaust has become a major cause for scientific and public concern worldwide over recent years. The rapid and marked increase in the motor vehicle traffic and its associated emissions in urban areas have paralleled a sharp increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between people living in close proximity to roads with high traffic density and increased allergic symptoms, reduced lung function and increased sensitization to common aeroallergens. Several laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that pollutants emitted from motor vehicles can induce allergic inflammation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness, which may provide an underlying mechanism for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although the detrimental effects of air pollution on human health have been brought to public attention, it appears that less attention has been given to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of the allergic state. Legislators should consider pollutants emitted from motor vehicle exhausts as a potential pro-allergic hazard, before making important changes in environmental policy.

  19. 76 FR 76622 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Change 2011-03; FMR Case 2011-102-2; Docket 2011-0011; Sequence 2] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR)...

  20. 76 FR 31545 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-34 RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY...: The General Services Administration is proposing to amend the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by....C. 553(a)(2) because it applies to agency management. However, this proposed rule is being...

  1. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and pa

  2. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  3. 78 FR 38096 - Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Number NHTSA-2012-0168] Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection AGENCY: National... comments on the following proposed collections of information: (1) Title: Fatal Analysis Reporting System... damage associated with motor vehicle accidents. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) is a major...

  4. Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers.

  5. 41 CFR 109-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of new motor vehicles. 109-26.501 Section 109-26.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... motor vehicles....

  6. Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang

    2011-04-01

    Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual PAHs for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of PAHs (EF PAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EF PAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of PAHs from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EF PAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EF PAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EF PAH and subsequently PAH emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of PAHs is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.

  7. Pedal cyclists, crash helmets and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1991-07-01

    As a rate per million kilometres travelled, the 'risk' of cycling appears to be high in relation to other forms of transport. Yet, in absolute numbers, there are far fewer cyclist deaths than pedestrian or motor vehicle occupant deaths, and most deaths and serious injuries to pedal cyclists are caused by other road users--principally motor vehicles. The large majority of pedal cyclist deaths are due to head injuries after collision with a motor vehicle. It is therefore commonly proposed that cyclists should wear crash helmets for their own 'safety'. Helmets may protect against fall injuries, but current models are not designed to withstand the impact of collisions with motor vehicles. Evidence for the benefit of pedal cyclists wearing helmets is limited: the existing studies cannot exclude the possibility of different risk-taking behaviour, either by cyclists or by motor vehicle drivers, for helmet wearers compared with non-wearers. A public health policy towards reducing pedal cyclist deaths should seek prevention of accidents, rather than protection from their consequences. Cycling in greater safety would reduce the 'risk' per kilometre travelled, but more cycling might not reduce total cyclist deaths or injuries--because of greater exposure. The 'risk' of cycling--the risk of injury or death--is a complex mix of exposure, 'danger' of the environment, and the perceived risk affecting our precautionary preventive behaviour.

  8. Road traffi c crashes in rural setting: an experience of a middle-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoudi-Kiakalayeh Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To date, there has been little information published on the death of rural road accident deaths. This study uses burden of injury method to explore a more accurate estimate of years of life lost due to road traffic crashes occurring over a four-year period in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: Rural road accident deaths from 2009 to 2013 were extracted from Iran’s Forensic Medicine System, Death Registry System and Road Trauma Research center database. Results: During the study period, the average years of life lost due to motor vehicle crashes was 13.8 per 1 000 persons, ranging from 11.9 during March 2011- 2012 to 15.8 per 1 000 persons during March 012-2013. Conclusion: Road accident deaths in 2013 remained at the same high level as in 2009. The information obtained from this study provides a new perspective on fatal road traffi c crash victims in rural settings and show us that more attention is needed in this area. Key words: Accidents, traffi c; Iran; Mortality

  9. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  10. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  11. 22 CFR 151.8 - Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles. 151.8... LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.8 Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles... insurance throughout the period of registration on all motor vehicles owned or leased or otherwise...

  12. 41 CFR 109-38.204-50 - Records of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 109-38.204-50 Section 109-38.204-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-50 Records of exempted motor vehicles. The Director, Office...

  13. 78 FR 4193 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the... the MY 2014 S60 vehicle line is effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft. Volvo...

  14. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1159 - Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and... Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance. (a) Revisions submitted by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection on October 20, 2000, to the motor vehicle inspection and...

  16. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer... two revisions are appropriate and would not result in any degradation of motor vehicle safety....

  17. 49 CFR 565.14 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements § 565.14 Motor vehicles imported into the United States. (a) Importers shall utilize the VIN assigned by the original manufacturer of the motor vehicle. (b) All passenger...

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.903-50 - Reporting DOE motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting DOE motor... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.9-Federal Motor Vehicle Fleet Report § 109-38.903-50 Reporting DOE motor vehicle data. (a) DOE offices and designated...

  19. 77 FR 29752 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard, 49 CFR part...

  20. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  1. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  2. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  4. 19 CFR 10.310 - Election to average for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to average for motor vehicles. 10.310... Free Trade Agreement § 10.310 Election to average for motor vehicles. (a) Election. In determining whether a motor vehicle is originating for purposes of the preferences under the Agreement or a...

  5. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS Alternative VIN Requirements In Effect for Limited Period § 565.24 Motor vehicles imported into... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have...

  6. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using...

  7. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations....

  8. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006...

  9. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy... 571 RIN 2127-AK97 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for... a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 136 to require electronic stability control (ESC...

  10. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  11. 76 FR 34693 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for... or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or... any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  12. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle...) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor engines prior to March 30, 1966,\\9...

  13. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Controls and Prohibitions § 80.24 Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped with an...

  14. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including its required accident damage... specification cargo tank motor vehicles. 178.320 Section 178.320 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Transportation § 178.320 General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles....

  15. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... pertaining to motor vehicle sales and leasing, the FTC is hosting a series of public roundtables in 2011. The... interested parties to discuss consumer protection issues in connection with motor vehicle sales and...

  16. 14 CFR 1204.1600 - Issuance of motor vehicle for home-to-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Temporary Duty Travel-Issuance of Motor Vehicle for Home-to-Work... travel is authorized to travel by Government motor vehicle and the official authorizing the travel determines that there will be a significant savings in time, a Government motor vehicle may be issued at...

  17. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most imp

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain? (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What size motor vehicles may we obtain? 102-34.50 Section 102-34.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management... fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the replacement standards under subpart E of this part, you may dispose of a Government-owned domestic fleet motor vehicle. Detailed instructions for the transfer of...

  20. 76 FR 8736 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes; Connecticut; Notice of Withdrawal of Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets AGENCY... public that EPA has withdrawn its previous adequacy finding on the 2012 motor vehicle emission...

  1. 76 FR 7204 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... the 2010 particulate matter of ten microns or less (PM-10) motor vehicle emission budget (MVEB)...

  2. Update: fatal air bag-related injuries to children--United States, 1993-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-13

    Dual air bags will be required standard equipment in all new passenger cars sold in the United States beginning in 1997 and all light trucks sold in the United States in 1998 but are available now in many earlier-model vehicles. Air bags are designed to supplement the protection provided by safety belts in frontal crashes; when combined with lap and shoulder safety belts, air bags assist in preventing fatal and nonfatal injuries in motor-vehicle crashes. However, passenger-side air bags have been associated with injuries to children who, in almost all cases, were unrestrained or incorrectly restrained in the front seat. In 1993, approximately 1.4 million (0.8% of all vehicles registered) were equipped with passenger-side air bags, compared with an estimated 21.6 million vehicles (11.4% of all vehicles registered) in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). NHTSA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Air Bag Safety Campaign, the National Safety Council, the Brain Injury Association, the National Association of Governors Highway Safety Representatives, the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and the Health Resources and Services Administration to examine crashes from the Special Crash Investigation Data File maintained by NHTSA, in which fatal injuries in children (aged air bags. This report presents the findings of this review, which indicate that during January 1993-November 1996, annual increases occurred for both the number of fatal injuries to children resulting from air-bag deployments and the proportion of dual air bag-equipped vehicles (Table 1).

  3. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  4. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-01-01

    .... For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO), and unknown...

  5. Sonolência e acidentes automobilísticos Sleepiness and motor vehicle accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE FAGONDES CANANI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo tem por finalidade apresentar uma sucinta revisão sobre as repercussões da sonolência excessiva no desempenho dos motoristas no trânsito, enfatizando a necessidade da maior valorização do tema abordado. Métodos: Revisão bibliográfica da literatura nacional e internacional, abrangendo artigos originais e publicações oficiais da American Thoracic Society e da American Sleep Apnea Association. Resultados: As evidências de que a sonolência é um fator que pode contribuir de forma decisiva para a ocorrência de acidentes automobilísticos são crescentes. As dificuldades com relação à caracterização da sonolência precedendo o acidente são discutidas no texto. Muitas são as causas de sonolência excessiva; felizmente, sua maioria é passível de identificação e manejo adequado. Conclusões: É importante que haja maior entendimento do problema em nosso meio, para que possam ocorrer modificações na abordagem do paciente com sonolência excessiva e também discussões acerca das leis de trânsito vigentes e das obrigações legais do médico com relação a este problema.Objective: The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of the effects of excessive sleepiness on driving performance, and to emphasize the importance of the subject. Methods: Bibliographic review of national and international literature, including original articles and official publications from the American Thoracic Society and the American Sleep Apnea Association. Results: There is growing evidence that excessive sleepiness may be an important factor related to the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. Difficulties regarding the identification of sleepiness as a preceding factor related to motor vehicle crashes are discussed on the text. There are many causes for excessive sleepiness. Fortunately most of them are easy to recognize and have specific treatment. Conclusions: A better understanding of the problem is fundamental

  6. An Analysis of Children Left Unattended in Parked Motor Vehicles in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driely Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the incidence of children left unattended in parked motor vehicles in Brazil. These events have been widely explored in the United States but less so abroad, and never in Brazil. Over the period from 2006 to 2015, we collected data from news reports on 31 cases, including 21 fatalities. The circumstances mostly involved a caregiver, especially a parent, forgetting the child (71%, but cases also included the child being intentionally left in the vehicle (23% or gaining access to the vehicle (3%. Children tended to be forgotten more frequently in fatal cases (86%, particularly on the way to daycare, than non-fatal incidents where circumstances were more evenly distributed between forgetting (40% and being intentionally left behind (50%. Incidents occurred throughout the country but mostly in the southeastern region near the city of São Paulo. Additionally, the danger for children is present year-round as we observed cases in every season, albeit with a peak in the summer. This heat-related hazard is not well recognized across Brazil and we recommend increasing awareness through education. Further, given the high percentage of cases involving parents forgetting to leave their children at daycare, we recommend arrangements between daycare providers and parents to communicate when a child does not attend as expected.

  7. Motor vehicle insurance rating with pseudo emissions coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickson, Allister [University of Manitoba Transport Instititute, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2006-06-10

    There is general agreement amongst economists and ecologists that transportation is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Typical proposals to reduce the demand for transportation, and consequently emissions, focus on imposing a fuel tax or a direct fee on vehicles. This paper outlines the method and advantages of treating the environmental risk as additional pseudo coverage rated under existing property and liability motor vehicle insurance systems. (author)

  8. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour.

  9. A new tool for coding and interpreting injuries in fatal airplane crashes: the crash injury pattern assessment tool application to the Air France Flight AF447 disaster (Rio de Janeiro-Paris), 1st of June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuliar, Yves; Chapenoire, Stéphane; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    For investigation of air disasters, crash reconstruction is obtained using data from flight recorders, physical evidence from the site, and injuries patterns of the victims. This article describes a new software, Crash Injury Pattern Assessment Tool (CIPAT), to code and analyze injuries. The coding system was derived from the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Scores were created corresponding to the amount of energy required causing the trauma (ER), and the software was developed to compute summary variables related to the position (assigned seat) of victims. A dataset was built from the postmortem examination of 154/228 victims of the Air France disaster (June 2009), recovered from the Atlantic Ocean after a complex and difficult task at a depth of 12790 ft. The use of CIPAT allowed to precise cause and circumstances of deaths and confirmed major dynamics parameters of the crash event established by the French Civil Aviation Safety Investigation Authority. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  11. Development of an in vitro porcine aorta model to study the stability of stent grafts in motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Kurosh; Shafieian, Mehdi; Romanov, Vasily; Rotella, Vittorio; Salvatore, Michael D; Blebea, John

    2009-04-01

    Endovascular stent grafts for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms have become increasingly utilized and yet their locational stability in moderate chest trauma is unknown. A high speed impact system was developed to study the stability of aortic endovascular stent grafts in vitro. A straight segment of porcine descending aorta with stent graft was constrained in a custom-made transparent urethane casing. The specimen was tested in a novel impact system at an anterior inclination of 45 deg and an average deceleration of 55 G, which represented a frontal automobile crash. Due to the shock of the impact, which was shown to be below the threshold of aortic injury, the stent graft moved 0.6 mm longitudinally. This result was repeatable. The presented experimental model may be helpful in developing future grafts to withstand moderate shocks experienced in motor vehicle accidents or other dynamic loadings of the chest.

  12. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  13. Quinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Gas- and particle-phase emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers were collected using annular denuders, quartz filters, and PUF substrates. Quinone species were measured using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine quinones were observed, ranging from C6 to C16. New species identified in motor vehicle exhaust include methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQN), and aceanthrenequinone. Gas-phase motor vehicle emissions of quinones are also reported for the first time. Six gas-phase quinones were quantified with emission rates of 2-28 000 microg L(-1) fuel consumed. The most abundant gas-phase quinones were 1,4-benzoquinone (BON) and MNQN. The gas-phase fraction was > or = 69% of quinone mass for light-duty gasoline emissions, and > or = 84% for heavy-duty diesel emissions. Eight particle-phase quinones were observed between 2 and 1600 microg L(-1), with BQN the most abundant species followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone. Current particle-phase quinone measurements agree well with the few available previous results. Further research is needed concerning the gas-particle partitioning behavior of quinones in ambient and combustion source conditions.

  14. Emergency Department and Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfipour, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 33 million licensed drivers 65 years and older in the U.S. This represents a 23 percent increase from 1999, number that is predicted to double by 2030. Although, motor vehicle collisions (MVC-related to emergency department (ED visits for older adults are lower per capita than for younger adults, the older-adults MVCs require more resources, such as additional diagnostic imaging and increased odds of admission. Addressing the specific needs of older-adults could lead to better outcomes yet not enough research currently exists. It is important to continue training emergency physicians to treat the increasing older-patient population, but its also imperative we increase our injury prevention and screening methodology. We review research findings from the article: Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Five-year national study, with commentary on current recommendation and policies for the growing older-adult driving population. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:582–584.

  15. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  16. Fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers--United States, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-25

    Oil and gas extraction (i.e., removing oil and natural gas from the ground) is a growing industry in the United States, employing approximately 380,000 workers in 2006. In recent years, activity in this industry has increased substantially, from an average of 800 actively drilling rigs in the United States during the 1990s to approximately 1,300 during 2003-2006. In August 2005, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) asked CDC to investigate a 15% increase in fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers (from 85 fatalities in 2003 to 98 in 2004). CDC analyzed data from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the period 2003-2006. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that increases in oil and gas extraction activity were correlated with an increase in the rate of fatal occupational injuries in this industry, with an annual fatality rate of 30.5 per 100,000 workers (404 fatalities) during 2003-2006, approximately seven times the rate for all workers (4.0 per 100,000 workers). Nearly half of all fatal injuries among these workers were attributed to highway motor-vehicle crashes and workers being struck by machinery or equipment. Employers should work with existing industry groups and federal, state, and local government agencies to promote seatbelt use. In addition, researchers and public health officials should collaborate with industry groups to establish engineering and process controls that remove workers from potentially dangerous machinery while drilling and servicing oil and gas wells.

  17. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, among other risk factors we assessed including road conditions and ... right of way to other vehicles were the leading risk factors for road crashes in the city. Key Words: Road Crash; Fatalities; Serious Injuries; Minor Injuries; Safety ...

  18. Driving with pets and motor vehicle collision involvement among older drivers: a prospective population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisingh, Carrie; Levitan, Emily B.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is a major cause of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement. Pets have been identified as potential distraction to drivers, particularly in the front. This type of distraction could be worse for those with impairment in the cognitive aspects of visual processing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between driving with pets and rates of motor vehicle collision involvementin a cohort of older drivers. Methods A three-year prospective was conducted in a population-based sample of 2000 licensed drivers aged 70 years and older. At the baseline visit, a trained interviewer asked participants about pet ownership, whether they drive with pets, how frequently, and where the pet sits in the vehicle. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement during the three-year study period was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. At-fault status was determined by the police officer who arrived on the scene. Participants were followed until the earliest of death, driving cessation, or end of the study period. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR) examining the association between pet ownership, presence of a pet in a vehicle, frequency of driving with a pet, and location of the pet inside with vehicle with any and at-fault MVC involvement. We examined whether the associations differed by higher order visual processing impairment status, as measured by Useful Field Of View, Trails B, and Motor-free Visual Perception Test. Results Rates of crash involvement were similar for older adults who have ever driven with a pet compared to those who never drove with their pet (RR=1.15, 95% CI 0.76-1.75). Drivers who reported always or sometimes driving with their pet had higherMVC rates compared topet owners who never drive with a pet, but this association was not statistically significant (RR=1.39, 95% CI 0.86-2.24). In terms of location, those reporting having a pet frequently ride in the

  19. A critical analysis of the fatal injuries resulting from the Continental flight 1713 airline disaster: evidence in favor of improved passenger restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehei, K O; Robinson, M N

    1994-11-01

    To examine the mechanisms of injury and death in a commercial airline disaster and to propose preventative safety measures based on this analysis. Denver County Coroner's Office and the National Transportation Safety Board. Those patients suffering fatal injuries as a result of the Continental Flight 1713 Airline crash. Autopsy records from the Denver County Coroner's Office were reviewed with the causes of death determined. In many instances there was significant injury to more than one anatomic region in a single individual, each analyzed independently. There were 28 fatalities: nine died of mechanical asphyxiation, one of a penetrating cranial injury, and 18 of blunt trauma. The blunt injuries were remarkably similar to the deceleration injuries seen in high-speed motor vehicle crashes. Head trauma was the most common fatal blunt injury, followed by injuries to the chest and the abdomen. Thirty-six percent of the head injuries and 27% of the chest injuries had associated cervical and thoracic spine fractures, respectively. Analysis revealed a marked similarity in injury pattern sustained by seatmates, with a high incidence of fatal and serious injuries suffered by those passengers sitting in the front half of the airplane. Fatal blunt injury secondary to deceleration forces was the most common cause of death seen in this analysis. The use of a lap belt restraint system alone is not adequate to protect passengers against these forces as shown convincingly in the automotive industry literature. What impact a better passenger restraint system may have had on survival in this disaster is unknown, however, at a minimum, it would have significantly improved survival for 6 of 28 passengers dying of isolated blunt head trauma. Minor alterations in aircraft design (secure bolting of passenger seats to the airplane superstructure) and passenger restraints (3-point lap and shoulder harness system) is proposed to positively influence survival during an airplane crash at

  20. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  1. Traffic fatalities and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopits, Elizabeth; Cropper, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between traffic fatality risk and per capita income and uses it to forecast traffic fatalities by geographic region. Equations for the road death rate (fatalities/population) and its components--the rate of motorization (vehicles/population) and fatalities per vehicle (F/V)--are estimated using panel data from 1963 to 1999 for 88 countries. The natural logarithm of F/P, V/P, and F/V are expressed as spline (piecewise linear) functions of the logarithm of real per capita GDP (measured in 1985 international prices). Region-specific time trends during the period 1963-1999 are modeled in linear and log-linear form. These models are used to project traffic fatalities and the stock of motor vehicles to 2020. The per capita income at which traffic fatality risk (fatalities/population) begins to decline is 8600 US dollars (1985 international dollars) when separate time trends are used for each geographic region. This turning point is driven by the rate of decline in fatalities/vehicles as income rises since vehicles/population, while increasing with income at a decreasing rate, never declines with economic growth. Projections of future traffic fatalities suggest that the global road death toll will grow by approximately 66% over the next twenty years. This number, however, reflects divergent rates of change in different parts of the world: a decline in fatalities in high-income countries of approximately 28% versus an increase in fatalities of almost 92% in China and 147% in India. The road death rate is projected to rise to approximately 2 per 10,000 persons in developing countries by 2020, while it will fall to less than 1 per 10,000 in high-income countries.

  2. Deployment Experiences and Motor Vehicle Crashes Among U.S. Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ever told a participant they have hearing loss/ tinnitus . A positive screen for the aggregate physical health symptoms covariate was based on...including screening positive for major depression or panic or anxiety (using stand- ardized scoring algorithms on the PHQ21–23); medication use for anxiety...stress, or depression ; or screening positive for PTSD Table 1. Baseline characteristics of study participants by MVC status 6 months after returning

  3. CDC Signos Vitales: Mortalidad por choques automovilísticos (Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de julio de 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En los Estados Unidos, aproximadamente 90 personas mueren en choques automovilísticos cada día y miles sufren lesiones, lo cual resulta en cientos de millones de dólares en costos médicos directos cada año. Sepa qué puede hacer para mantenerse seguro.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  4. Las lesiones por choques automovilísticos (Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de octubre del 2014. Las lesiones por choques automovilísticos son costosas y prevenibles. Aprenda lo que puede hacer para ayudar a prevenirlas.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Cobtrol (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  5. 76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues, you may call Ms. Carla Rush, Office of Crashworthiness Standards... fasten together belt webbing (lap and shoulder portion) at a sliding latch plate, to prevent the...

  6. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... request for interpretation from Toyota Motor North America, Inc. (Toyota) concerning S4.5.1(e).\\5\\ Toyota... advanced air bag requirements on or after December 1, 2003. Toyota indicated its belief that it was not...-2005-20694-0002. We responded to Toyota's request for interpretation on March 14, 2005.\\6\\ We...

  7. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... travel, and occupant ejection in rollovers. NHTSA's safety research on seat belts in large buses (greater... traveled over 1.8 billion miles yearly. Approximately 3,100 of the carriers were chartered U.S. carriers... price for leisure and/or sightseeing) (8.2 percent of the miles driven), special operations...

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    and research do. Human Factors Over the past years a significant number of studies, articles , reports by experts have deduced that driver...and units as well as X-ray departments, rehabilitation and 57 physiotherapy services. (WHO, 2004: 48-49) Regrettably, the physical and emotional...Prevention Partners (Reproduced from Jones and others, 2000: 83 with the permission of the publisher) Finally, according to the Jone and others’ article

  9. 75 FR 72987 - Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 371, 375, 386, and 387 RIN 2126-AA84 Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... household goods brokers which ``shall provide for the protection of shippers by motor vehicle'' (49...

  10. 78 FR 57585 - Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 380, 383, and 384 RIN 2126-AB06 Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... applying for a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...

  11. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK13 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... rulemaking proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 219, ``Windshield zone... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz...

  12. 78 FR 3081 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full Toyota Motor... to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the...

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  14. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  15. 76 FR 12221 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the Corolla vehicle line... equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with...

  16. 76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 226 (Wednesday, November 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 72404] [FR Doc No: 2011-30305] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle... that the Agency has found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter...

  17. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.204-4 - Report of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of exempted motor..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-4 Report of exempted motor vehicles. DOE offices shall provide upon request...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase of new motor... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501 Purchase of new motor vehicles. (a) It shall be the policy to procure commercially available motor vehicles, unless other vehicles...

  20. 49 CFR 177.823 - Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations. 177.823 Section 177.823 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.823 Movement of motor vehicles...

  1. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... for reconsideration of a final rule published December 4, 2007 which amended the Federal motor vehicle... problem of light vehicle, motor home and recreation vehicle trailer overloading by requiring...

  2. 76 FR 12220 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... on the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor... deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with ] the parts-marking requirements of the Theft...

  3. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY: Environmental...

  4. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within-the... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  5. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas... shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  6. 76 FR 70128 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  7. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  9. 78 FR 8122 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes... transportation conformity purposes. The submittal includes MOVES2010 motor vehicle emissions budgets for 2017 and... submitted SIPs cannot be used for conformity determinations until EPA has affirmatively found them...

  10. 75 FR 23306 - Establishment of Advisory Committee on the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Information System AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of establishment of the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Advisory Board. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Final Rule, 74 FR 5740, 5774 (January 30, 2009)...

  11. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform lighting on public use lifts. Public use lifts... be equipped with a public use lift certified as meeting Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403... subject to paragraph S4.1.1, must be equipped with a platform lift certified as meeting either the public...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.40 - Who must comply with motor vehicle fuel efficiency requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.40 Who must comply... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must comply...

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.105 - Agency purchase and lease of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient Motor... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency purchase and lease of motor vehicles. 109-38.105 Section 109-38.105 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  14. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2307-2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle...

  15. 76 FR 10897 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Register on February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7204) announcing that EPA has withdrawn its May 30, 2008...

  16. 78 FR 57503 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets and Determination of Attainment for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particulate Standard; Tacoma... November 28, 2012, to establish motor vehicle emission budgets for the Tacoma-Pierce County...

  17. 41 CFR 109-38.5106 - Application of motor vehicle use goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of motor vehicle use goals. 109-38.5106 Section 109-38.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Equipment § 109-38.5106 Application of motor vehicle use goals. (a) At least annually, the motor...

  18. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Lead time. The final rule specified that manufacturers must... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK48 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., 2007, final rule that upgraded Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact...

  19. 76 FR 36486 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ....5216 156 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 16 31,310 0.5110 157 GENERAL MOTORS......... SATURN SKY 2 4,078 0.4904 158... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009...

  20. 76 FR 52880 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Rover, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz USA, Mitsubishi Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. III. Response to... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Manufacturers regarding a March 2010 final rule on the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for side impact...

  1. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 4 13,204 0.3029 160 GENERAL MOTORS...... GMC TERRAIN......... 13 48,605 0.2675 161 SUZUKI... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010. The...

  2. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL05 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...: This NPRM proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly..., MY 2000 Chevrolet S-10, MY 2002 Chevrolet TrailBlazer, MY 2003 Volkswagen Jetta, MY 1996 Ford F-350...

  3. 75 FR 11005 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... QUATTRO.. 8 6992 1.1442 111 VOLKSWAGEN..... GOLF/RABBIT/GTI..... 46 41314 1.1134 112 GENERAL MOTORS... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2007 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2007. The...

  4. 78 FR 41016 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... 100 181,785 0.5501 132 GENERAL MOTORS..... CADILLAC SRX...... 32 59,077 0.5417 133 VOLKSWAGEN... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2011...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.4902-1781 - GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order. 101-26.4902-1781 Section 101-26.4902-1781 Public Contracts and... GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition—Delivery Order. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  6. Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Murray V; Klems, Joseph P; Zordan, Christopher A; Pennington, M Ross; Smith, James N

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. These spikes have been linked to motor vehicle activity and have the potential to increase exposure dramatically. Characterizing both the contribution and composition of these spikes is critical in developing exposure models and abatement strategies. To determine the contribution of the particle spikes to the ambient number concentration, we implemented wavelet-based algorithms to isolate the particle spikes from measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware, adjacent to a roadway intersection that approximately 28,000 vehicles pass through daily. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC*; TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The high-frequency portion of the signal, consisting of a series of abrupt spikes in number concentration that varied in length from a few seconds to tens of seconds, accounted for 3% to 35% of the daily ambient number concentration, with spike contributions sometimes greater than 50% of hourly number concentrations. When the data were weighted by particle volume, this portion of the signal contributed an average of 10% to 20% to the daily concentration of particulate matter (PM) vehicles accelerated after a red traffic light turned green. As the distance or transit time from emission to sampling increased, the size distribution shifted to a larger particle size, which confirmed the source assignments. To determine the

  7. Assessment of the forest landscape along selected motor vehicle routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research that aims to analyse and evaluate the attractiveness of the forest landscape in the vicinity of selected motor vehicle routes that differ in terms of technical parameters, such as motorways, regional roads and local (municipal roads. The diversity of landscape units was used as the measure of landscape attractiveness. Landscape diversity analysis allows to establish the details related to specific parts of the road and the options for configuring the road environment. These options relate to the way the forest is managed and mainly involve aspects of infrastructure and cultivation. They include activities such as afforestation work and rebuilding the species composition of forest stands. According to the research, the lower the technical class of a road, the greater is the need to take action to adapt the structural-tree stand system to meet the safety requirements of road users.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnoea, motor vehicle accidents, and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows a very high prevalence in the middle-age work force population and, between all diseases and medical conditions, is the major risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). OSA can be diagnosed and treated, with resultant reduction in MVAs to those seen in the healthy population. It is increasing evidence that it is a major risk factor for occupational accidents also in fields different from the professional transport and for work disability. It is likely that the treatment of OSA results in the reduction of occupational accidents and work performance improvement with expected benefits in work processes and business in general. It is therefore advisable to develop strategies for screening and treatment of OSA in workers. The risk assessment of OSA in workers may also help to reduce the burden on national health care systems.

  9. Sleep disorders as a cause of motor vehicle collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea, excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others, as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored.

  10. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; Zongzhi Li; Jingxian Liu; Harshingar Patel

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, modera...

  11. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation.

  12. Public opinion on motor vehicle-related injury prevention policies: a systematic review of a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debinski, Beata; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Legislation is an effective strategy for reducing road-related fatalities and injuries. Public opinion can be an impetus for passing new laws and can affect the success of their implementation, but little is known about the current state of public opinion toward existing and proposed road-related policies in the United States. This review describes the scope and results of research on public support for state- and local-level evidence-based motor vehicle- and bicycle-related policies. We identify gaps in our understanding of public support for these policies. Published U.S. literature and all reports from the NHTSA from the past decade (2003-2012) were searched for data on opinions about existing or proposed policies related to motor vehicle or bicycle injury prevention. Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In all, studies reported public opinion about 7 injury prevention topic areas: all-terrain vehicles (n = 1), automated enforcement with red light and speed cameras (n = 5), distracted driving (n = 4), drinking and driving (n = 5), graduated driver licensing (n = 7), helmets (n = 7), and seat belts (n = 4). Twenty-three studies focused only on one topic, and 3 sought public opinion about multiple topic areas. The studies revealed generally high levels of support for injury prevention policies in all topic areas. Fifteen studies collected information from national samples, and only 7 studies reported data from the state (n = 5) or local (n = 2) level. There is a relatively small evidence base on public opinion related to motor vehicle- and bicycle-related evidence-based policies; even less is less known for state- or county-specific policies. The findings of this review suggest that the public's opinion toward injury prevention legislation is generally favorable. This information can be used to communicate with the media and policy makers to reinforce the need for effective policy solutions to continuing motor vehicle injury problems. More research

  13. The effect of geography and citizen behavior on motor vehicle deaths in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Abaid

    Full Text Available Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states' relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology.

  14. The effect of geography and citizen behavior on motor vehicle deaths in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaid, Nicole; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states' relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology.

  15. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies ... increase on fatal motor vehicle crashes. Am J Public Health 2015;105(9):1880-5. Wagenaar AC, ...

  16. Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators: Recommendations of the AASM Sleep and Transportation Safety Awareness Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Sullivan, Shannon; Meoli, Amy; Patil, Susheel; Olson, Ryan; Berneking, Michael; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2017-05-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Sleep and Transportation Safety Awareness Task Force responded to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and Federal Railroad Administration Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and request for public comments regarding the evaluation of safety-sensitive personnel for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The following document represents this response. The most salient points provided in our comments are that (1) moderate-to-severe OSA is common among commercial motor vehicle operators (CMVOs) and contributes to an increased risk of crashes; (2) objective screening methods are available and preferred for identifying at-risk drivers, with the most commonly used indicator being body mass index; (3) treatment in the form of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective and reduces crashes; (4) CPAP is economically viable; (5) guidelines are available to assist medical examiners in determining whether CMVOs with moderate-to-severe OSA should continue to work without restrictions, with conditional certification, or be disqualified from operating commercial motor vehicles.

  17. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle...

  18. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June......

  19. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel...

  20. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  1. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  2. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  3. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject...

  4. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act..., challenging the need for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and... Administrator shall waive preemption for California to enforce new motor vehicle emissions standards and...

  5. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

  6. Deceleration during 'real life' motor vehicle collisions – a sensitive predictor for the risk of sustaining a cervical spine injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Erich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predictive value of trauma impact for the severity of whiplash injuries has mainly been investigated in sled- and crash-test studies. However, very little data exist for real-life accidents. Therefore, the predictive value of the trauma impact as assessed by the change in velocity of the car due to the collision (ΔV for the resulting cervical spine injuries were investigated in 57 cases after real-life car accidents. Methods ΔV was determined for every car and clinical findings related to the cervical spine were assessed and classified according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF. Results In our study, 32 (56% subjects did not complain about symptoms and were therefore classified as QTF grade 0; 25 (44% patients complained of neck pain: 8 (14% were classified as QTF grade I, 6 (10% as QTF grade II, and 11 (19% as QTF grade IV. Only a slight correlation (r = 0.55 was found between the reported pain and ΔV. No relevant correlation was found between ΔV and the neck disability index (r = 0.46 and between ΔV and the QTF grade (r = 0.45 for any of the collision types. There was no ΔV threshold associated with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the prognosis of a cervical spine injury. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that ΔV is not a conclusive predictor for cervical spine injury in real-life motor vehicle accidents. This is of importance for surgeons involved in medicolegal expertise jobs as well as patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs after motor vehicle accidents. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission.

  7. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  8. Motor vehicle accidents: How should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Sata, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit, which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease. Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs, the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown. Recently, Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT), and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs. Besides the ICT and lactulose, there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE. In this commentary, we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE, including neuropsychological tests. We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE, such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee, and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids, on the MVA-related societal costs. PMID:22690067

  9. Motor vehicle accidents: How should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Kawaguchi; Eitaro Taniguchi; Michio Sata

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs.Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit,which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease.Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs,the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown.Recently,Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT),and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs,Besides the ICT and lactulose,there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE.In this commentary,we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE,including neuropsychological tests.We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE,such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee,and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids,on the MVA-related societal costs.

  10. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  11. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  12. Motorcycle fatalities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Marizwan Abdul Manan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (per 100,000 population among the ASEAN countries and more than 50% of the road accident fatalities involve motorcyclists. This study has collected and analysed data from the police, government authorities, and national and international research institutes. Only fatality data are used due to the severe underreporting of severe injuries (up to 600% and slight injuries (up to 1400%. The analysis reveals that the highest numbers of motorcycle fatalities occur in rural locations (61%, on primary roads (62% and on straight road sections (66%. The majority are riders (89%, 16 to 20 years old (22.5%, and 90% of the motorcycles are privately owned. Of those involved in fatal accidents, 75% of the motorcyclists wear helmets, and 35% do not have proper licences. The highest number of fatalities by type of collision is ‘angular or side’ (27.5%. Although fatal motorcyclist crashes mostly involve ‘passenger cars’ (28%, motorcyclists are responsible for 50% of the collisions either by crashing singly (25% or with other motorcyclists (25%. While male motorcyclists predominate (94% of fatalities, female motorcyclists aged 31 to 70, possessing ‘no licence’, not wearing helmets and travelling during the day, account for a higher percentage than male motorcyclists. Malaysia must acquire more motorcycle exposure data and establish an injury recording system and database based on hospital-records. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand why young male motorcyclists are prone to fatal crashes in the evenings and on weekends on rural primary roads, especially on straight road sections.

  13. The association between high-risk behavior and central nervous system injuries: analysis of traffic-related fatalities in a large coroner's series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Andrea; Shaker, Adel; Martin, Maureen; Skinner, Ruby

    2013-10-01

    High-risk behaviors leading to traffic fatalities are often a result of severe traumatic brain and spine injuries. The objective of the study was to analyze patterns of behavior in drivers and motorcyclists that are associated with central nervous system (CNS)-related prehospital deaths that may serve as a basis for future prevention initiatives. Our study group comprised 514 fatalities with severe CNS injuries documented at autopsy. The majority (n = 491) was the result of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). In this group, male drivers predominated and the majority, 80 per cent, wore seatbelts. Toxicology analysis revealed 53 per cent of drivers with a mean concentration of ethanol above the legal limit. Texting while driving comprised 45 per cent of the study group. Less than 5 per cent of the fatalities were the result of road or weather conditions. In the motorcycle group (n = 23), 100 per cent of the victims were unhelmeted. We report a large autopsy series of CNS-related deaths with analysis of behavioral factors associated with the fatalities. Substance abuse and distracted driving are dominant patterns of high-risk behavior in MVCs and not wearing a motorcycle helmet is deadly for victims of motorcycle crashes.

  14. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... full General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for an exemption of the Cadillac SRX vehicle line...

  15. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  16. 77 FR 40843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    .... 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108, Lamps, reflective devices, and... to vertical aim, luminance of signaling and marking lamps, masking of front turn signals,...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  18. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  19. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  20. THE STATUS OF MEASURES TO COMBAT MOTOR VEHICLE AIR POLLUTION AND OUTSTANDING ISSUES IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuji SUZUKI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quarter century since fiscal 1970, air pollution generated by motor vehicles has not improved sufficiently, and the state is severe, particularly in major cities. This is caused directly by the increasing volume of motor vehicle traffic that is, in turn, a result of the fact that contemporary socio-economic systems and lifestyles depend largely on the use of the motor vehicle. Social cost of air pollution must be internalized to solve the air pollution problem and the total volume of motor vehicle emission must be reduced and controlled to meet environmental quality standards, not just regulated on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis. This will require a review of the prevailing vehicle-dependent socio-economic systems and lifestyles, and necessitate that we look at a set of drastic measures which strike at the fundamentals of our vehicle usage.

  1. Emission Patterns under Alternative Congestion and Motor Vehicle Pollution Mitigation Policies in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Li Fen; Li Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    As a megacity with thriving economy, Shanghai is experiencing rapid motorisation and confronted with traffic congestion problems despite its low car ownership. It is of value to look into the policies on emission control of motor vehicle and congestion reduction in such a city to explore how to reconcile mobility enhancement with the environment. Results of a dynamic simulation displayed time paths of emissions from motor vehicles in Shanghai over the period from 2000 to 2020. The simulation results showed that early policies on emission control of motor vehicle could bring about far-reaching effects on emission reduction, and take advantage of available low-polluting technologies and technical innovation over time. Travel demand management would play an important role in curbing congestion and reducing motor vehicle pollution by calming down car ownership rise and deterring inefficient trips as well as reducing fuel waste caused by congestion.

  2. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  3. Historical review of the use of motorized vehicles on lands administered by Izembek Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review and describe the historical use of motorized vehicles within lands administered by the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, with...

  4. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails (With Labels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  5. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... 2060-AQ09; RIN 2127-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction AGENCY... final rule regarding labeling of cars and trucks with fuel economy and environmental information in the...

  6. On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Christmann

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and ε-support vector regression which both have good robustness properties. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies.

  7. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the vi...

  8. A study of the comparability of Naval activity motor vehicle costs

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Gregory Scott.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis reports on a study conducted to determine the feasibility of using a sampling technique within the Department of the Navy to compare in- house motor vehicle costs with the costs that would be incurred were the General Services Administration or a civilian fleet management contractor employed to meet the Navy's motor vehicle needs. Such cost comparison studies are required by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation A...

  9. Self-regulation of motor vehicle advertising: is it working in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J; Ouschan, Robyn; Ewing, Michael

    2011-05-01

    There is growing concern that certain content within motor vehicle advertising may have a negative influence on driving attitudes and behaviours of viewers, particularly young people, and hence a negative impact on road safety. In response, many developed countries have adopted a self-regulatory approach to motor vehicle advertising. However, it appears that many motor vehicle advertisements in Australia and elsewhere are not compliant with self-regulatory codes. Using standard commercial advertising methods, we exposed three motor vehicle ads that had been the subject of complaints to the Australian Advertising Standards Board (ASB) to, N = 463, 14-55 year olds to assess the extent to which their perceptions of the content of the ads communicated themes that were contrary to the Australian self-regulatory code. All three ads were found to communicate messages contrary to the code (such as the vehicle's speed and acceleration capabilities). However, the ASB had upheld complaints about only one of the ads. Where motor vehicle advertising regulatory frameworks exist to guide motor vehicle advertisers as to what is and what is not acceptable in their advertising, greater efforts are needed to ensure compliance with these codes. One way may be to make it mandatory for advertisers to report consumer pre-testing of their advertising to ensure that undesirable messages are not being communicated to viewers.

  10. A geography of moral hazard: sources and sinks of motor-vehicle commuting externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Bland, Widmer; Scott, Darren M

    2014-09-01

    Motor-vehicles are responsible for harms to health that are not directly experienced by individual drivers - such as air pollution and risk of injury to pedestrians. In addition to their direct effects on health, these harms also represent a moral hazard since drivers are not required to consider their effects as part of their decision to drive. We describe an approach for estimating sources of motor-vehicle commuter externalities as a means of understanding the geography of moral hazard, and in particular, the spatial displacement of negative health externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuting. This approach models motor-vehicle commuter traffic flow by trip origin for small geographic areas within the City of Toronto, Ontario. We find that most health-related externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuters are not locally generated, with a large share coming from outside Toronto. Low income is associated with externalities originating outside the municipal boundary, but not with locally sourced externalities. We discuss the impact of geographical moral hazard on the agency of citizens as well as policy options aimed at addressing motor-vehicle externalities.

  11. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  12. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle- and automobile-related motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Eddie; Griffin, Russell; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Motorcyclists have been reported to be more likely to die in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) than automobile occupants. With the recent increase in the pump price of gasoline, it has been reported that people are switching to motorcycles as main modes of transportation. This study evaluated the association between motor vehicle collision-related injury and mortality rates and increases in gasoline prices for occupants of automobiles and riders of motorcycles. There were an estimated 1,270,512 motorcycle MVC and 238,390,853 automobile MVC involved occupants in the U.S. from 1992 to 2007. Higher gasoline prices were associated with increased motorcycle-related injuries and deaths; however, this association no longer remained after accounting for changes in the number of registered vehicles. The current study observed that, while the number of injuries and fatalities in motorcycle-related MVCs increase with increasing gasoline price, rates remained largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed increase in motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities with increasing gasoline price is more a factor of the number of motorcycles on the road rather than operator characteristics.

  13. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  14. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  15. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive...... measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least...... fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers’ behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non...

  16. The Association of Gasoline Prices With Hospital Utilization and Costs for Motorcycle and Nonmotorcycle Motor Vehicle Injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Araz, Ozgur M; Kim, Jungyoon; Chen, Baojiang; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the association between gasoline prices and hospitalizations for motorcycle and nonmotorcycle motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries. Data on inpatient hospitalizations were obtained from the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Panel feasible generalized least squares models were used to estimate the effects of monthly inflation-adjusted gasoline prices on hospitalization rates for MVC injuries and to predict the impact of increasing gasoline taxes. On the basis of the available data, a $1.00 increase in the gasoline tax was associated with an estimated 8348 fewer annual hospitalizations for nonmotorcycle MVC injuries, and reduced hospital costs by $143 million. However, the increase in the gasoline tax was also associated with an estimated 3574 more annual hospitalizations for motorcycle crash injuries, and extended hospital costs by $73 million. This analysis of some existing data suggest that the increased utilization and costs of hospitalization from motorcycle crash injuries associated with an increase in the price of gasoline are likely to substantially offset reductions in nonmotorcycle MVC injuries. A policy decision to increase the gasoline tax could improve traffic safety if the increased tax is paired with public health interventions to improve motorcycle safety.

  17. Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Motor Vehicle Taxation in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the motor vehicle tax in relation with fiscal decentralization, particularly from 2005 with competence delegated to the self-governing regions in the area of motor vehicle tax. The result of this provision in the field of fiscal decentralization is increasing of differences in the motor vehicle tax burden in self-governing regions of Slovakia. The paper is the result of solving a series of impact studies solved by the authors in this field. Gradually over time from the transfer of competences in setting tax rates on motor vehicles to self-governing regions and usage of the incomes of this tax can realistically assess the development and impact of this element of fiscal decentralization in the Slovak Republic as well as propose a solution of resulting situation. The aim is to eliminate differences in motor vehicle tax burden at regional and interstate level while maintaining the current level of tax revenues of self-governing regions.

  18. Analysis on Beijing’s Policy of Restricting Motor Vehicle Usage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; ZUO Xiaoxuan

    2012-01-01

    Along with the increase of car ownership,the problem of traffic congestion has appeared more and more serious since the 1990s in Beijing.In order to deal with the problem of traffic congestion,the policy of restricting motor vehicle usage,as a measure of transportation demand management by decreasing the total number of on-road motor vehicles,was firstly implemented in 2006 in trial,which continued from 2008 during the period of Olympic Games up to day.Starting with an analysis on policy motivation,this paper describes the practices of restricting motor vehicle usage in Beijing since 2006,analyzes the effects on the performance of the city’s transportation,and concludes after a comparative analysis that,in spite of the positive effects on relieving the traffic congestion,the policy of restricting motor vehicle usage could only constitute a temporary measure of traffic demand management,rather than a fundamental one,because the comprehensive effects would decrease along with the continuous growth of motor vehicle possession.

  19. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Jody A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC in the United States (U.S..Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS. Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years and younger (18-64 years MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults.Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.3 visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0-18.8 visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46-9.36. Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86, have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77-3.14, or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42-2.23 as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8-19.2 of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8-7.5 of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71-4.43, and admission to the ICU if

  20. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  1. Automated processing of data on the use of motor vehicles in the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola S. Osmokrović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of introducing information technology into the armed forces is the automation of the management process. The management in movement and transport (M&T in our armed forces has been included in the process of automation from the beginning. For that reason, today we can speak about the automated processing of data on road traffic safety and on the use of motor vehicles. With regard to the overall development of the information system of the movement and transport service, the paper presents an information system of the M&T service for the processing of data on the use of motor vehicles. The main features, components and functions of the 'Vozila' application, which was specially developed for the automated processing of data on motor vehicle use, are explained in particular.

  2. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Building Technology and Urban Systems Division. Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  3. 77 FR 72296 - Public Meeting of the U.S.-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 30 and 31, 2012, the RCC and its bi-national working groups facilitated stakeholder meetings in Washington, DC. This notice announces a public meeting of the RCC Motor Vehicles Working Group. DATES:...

  4. 75 FR 38168 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard... to the requirements of the Federal motor vehicle theft prevention standard. The final rule also... INFORMATION section and Appendix A-I listing of the final rule. All previous information associated with the...

  5. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  6. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  7. 77 FR 13385 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City, Cook County, and New Jersey Tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City... reconsideration. SUMMARY: The FMCSA grants a petition for reconsideration submitted by the New York City... credential display requirement of New York City's Commercial Motor Vehicle Tax (CMV Tax) is preempted...

  8. 49 CFR 1572.201 - Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada or Mexico to and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada or Mexico to and within the United States. 1572.201 Section 1572.201... Land Modes § 1572.201 Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada...

  9. 40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel by truck or rail car? 80.583 Section 80.583 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel...

  10. 78 FR 41852 - Hours of Service for Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... commercial motor vehicle programs and safety regulation. Background On April 4, 1997 (62 FR 16370), the... FR 16422): Question 2: What conditions must be met for a Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) driver to... Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.60... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we calculate...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.80 - Where may we obtain help with our motor vehicle acquisition plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.80 Where may we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may we obtain...

  13. 77 FR 59986 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Kelly Services, Voith Industrial Services, Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, The Landing of GM, Filtration Services...

  14. 76 FR 21035 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services and Voith Industrial Services, Inc., Formerly...

  15. 77 FR 6587 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services and Voith Industrial Services, Inc., Formerly...

  16. 77 FR 62535 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services, Voith Industrial Services, Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, the Landing Of GM, Filtration Services...

  17. 77 FR 70914 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline, within 10 mm ( 0.4 in... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... vehicle safety standard for side impact protection. In today's document, we correct a minor error in...

  18. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... amendments to its emission standards for urban bus engines in a series of rulemakings. The rulemakings at... public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles; additionally,...

  19. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... for emission standards and related test procedures contained in its urban bus regulations as they affect the 2002 and later model years. Urban buses are conventionally powered by a heavy-duty...

  20. 22 CFR 151.4 - Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance. 151.4 Section 151.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.4 Minimum limits for motor...

  1. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the... the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor...

  2. Time trend of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission factors from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Motor vehicle is an important emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and this is particularly true in urban areas. Motor vehicle emission factors (EFs) for individual PAH compound reported in the literature varied for 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission estimation. In this study, the major factors affecting EFs were investigated and characterized by regression models. Based on the model developed, a motor vehicle PAH emission inventory at country level was developed. It was found that country and model year are the most important factors affecting EFs for PAHs. The influence of the two factors can be quantified by a single parameter of per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity), which was used as the independent variables of the regression models. The models developed using randomly selected 80% of measurements and tested with the remained data accounted for 28 to 48% of the variations in EFs for PAHs measured in 16 countries over 50 years. The regression coefficients of the EF prediction models were molecular weight dependent. Motor vehicle emission of PAHs from individual countries in the world in 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, and 2025 were calculated and the global emission of total PAHs were 470, 390, and 430 Gg in 1985, 1995, and 2005 and will be 290 and 130 Gg in 2015 and 2025, respectively. The emission is currently passing its peak and will decrease due to significant decrease in China and other developing countries.

  3. Brief, Early Treatment for ASD/PTSD Following Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Edward J.; Blanchard, Edward B.; Kuhn, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Early, brief interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) have historically been, with few exceptions, unsuccessful with single session or even very brief (3 to 6 sessions) interventions. In contrast, very intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) applied over the first 6 to 8 weeks…

  4. Identity and Apprenticeship: The Case of English Motor Vehicle Maintenance Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    The paper arises from my PhD thesis on the learner biographies of retail and motor vehicle maintenance apprentices in Germany and England which explores the interrelationship of social structures and individual agency in identity formation over time and in particular learning environments. The paper reports initial findings, focusing largely on…

  5. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs... Technical Report on its existing Safety Standard 126, Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's...

  6. Impact of motor vehicle accidents on neck pain and disability in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Vos (Kees); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); J. Passchier (Jan); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High levels of continuous neck pain after a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are reported in cross-sectional studies. Knowledge of this association in general practice is limited. Aim: To compare the differences in perceived pain and disability in patients with acute neck pain du

  7. 76 FR 5248 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2005...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... passenger cars. The Act also addressed several other actions to reduce motor vehicle theft, such as... taken by insurers to assist in deterring thefts. Rental and leasing companies also are required to... leasing company to which this regulation applies must submit a report annually not later than October...

  8. 77 FR 23320 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... cars. The Act also addressed several other actions to reduce motor vehicle theft, such as increased... assist in deterring thefts. Rental and leasing companies also are required to provide annual theft reports to the agency. In accordance with 49 CFR 544.5, each insurer, rental and leasing company to...

  9. Validity of three accelerometers during treadmill walking and motor vehicle travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Matthew; Petrou, Andrea; Skipper, Lindsay; Wilcock, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    To determine the relative accuracy during treadmill walking and motor vehicle travel of the ActivPAL, PALlite and Digi-Walker accelerometers. Forty healthy volunteers wearing all accelerometers undertook either five treadmill walks (n=20) at speeds ranging between 0.6 and 1.4 m/s or a 15 min motor vehicle journey (n=20). Step counts recorded by each accelerometer were compared with the actual step count determined by video analysis (treadmill walking) or with an actual step count of zero (motor vehicle). Mean percentage measurement error was calculated and compared between devices by one-way ANOVA and Student t test. For treadmill walking, the measurement error was lowest for the ActivPAL, with no significant differences between the ActivPAL and the PALlite monitors. The measurement error was significantly higher for the Digi-Walker at speeds of Digi-Walker (25 steps), but not the ActivPAL monitor (0 steps). The ActivPAL accelerometer accurately measures step count over a range of walking speeds and, unlike the other accelerometers tested, is not falsely triggered by motor vehicle travel.

  10. 49 CFR 325.13 - Inspection and examination of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and examination of motor vehicles. 325... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Administrative Provisions § 325.13 Inspection...

  11. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  12. 77 FR 17105 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: City of Chicago, IL Registration Emblem Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... through the International Fuel Tax Agreement; (3) Under a State law regarding motor vehicle license plates... section 31704; (2) Under the International Fuel Tax Agreement under section 31705 or under an applicable... vehicle inspection standards under section 31136. FMCSA interprets Sec. 14506(b)(3) to establish...

  13. 78 FR 73188 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget in Submitted State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget in Submitted State Implementation Plan; Maricopa... vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) for particulate matter less than ten microns (PM-10) for the year 2012 in... Environmental Quality (ADEQ) as a revision to the Arizona State Implementation Plan (SIP). As a result of...

  14. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 75 FR 47720 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... QUATTRO... 8 6992 1.1442 111 VOLKSWAGEN GOLF/RABBIT/GTI...... 46 41314 1.1134 112 GENERAL MOTORS... GENERAL MOTORS........ BUICK RENDEZVOUS..... 14 29187 0.4797 176 VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE 13 27249 0.4771 177... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft...

  16. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  17. 77 FR 71717 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    .... 30, 2005). ] SABIC Innovative Plastics US LLC (SABIC-IP) sent a letter to NHTSA on August 11, 2008... expected to affect the cost of manufacturing motor vehicle lighting equipment. D. Executive Order 13132... expenditure by State, local or tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of more than...

  18. Severity of urban cycling injuries and the relationship with personal, trip, route and crash characteristics: analyses using four severity metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripton, Peter A; Shen, Hui; Brubacher, Jeff R; Chipman, Mary; Friedman, Steven M; Harris, M Anne; Winters, Meghan; Reynolds, Conor C O; Cusimano, Michael D; Babul, Shelina; Teschke, Kay

    2015-01-05

    To examine the relationship between cycling injury severity and personal, trip, route and crash characteristics. Data from a previous study of injury risk, conducted in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, were used to classify injury severity using four metrics: (1) did not continue trip by bike; (2) transported to hospital by ambulance; (3) admitted to hospital; and (4) Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS). Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations with personal, trip, route and crash characteristics. Of 683 adults injured while cycling, 528 did not continue their trip by bike, 251 were transported by ambulance and 60 were admitted to hospital for further treatment. Treatment urgencies included 75 as CTAS=1 or 2 (most medically urgent), 284 as CTAS=3, and 320 as CTAS=4 or 5 (least medically urgent). Older age and collision with a motor vehicle were consistently associated with increased severity in all four metrics and statistically significant in three each (both variables with ambulance transport and CTAS; age with hospital admission; and motor vehicle collision with did not continue by bike). Other factors were consistently associated with more severe injuries, but statistically significant in one metric each: downhill grades; higher motor vehicle speeds; sidewalks (these significant for ambulance transport); multiuse paths and local streets (both significant for hospital admission). In two of Canada's largest cities, about one-third of the bicycle crashes were collisions with motor vehicles and the resulting injuries were more severe than in other crash circumstances, underscoring the importance of separating cyclists from motor vehicle traffic. Our results also suggest that bicycling injury severity and injury risk would be reduced on facilities that minimise slopes, have lower vehicle speeds, and that are designed for bicycling rather than shared with pedestrians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  19. The Impact of Built Environment on Pedestrian Crashes and the Identification of Crash Clusters on an Urban University Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser, Sheryl

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Motor vehicle-pedestrian crash is a significant public health concern. The urban campus of Georgia State University poses unique challenges due to a large number of students and university employees. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1 to examine the correlation between specific features of the built environment on and around the University campus and pedestrian crashes; and (2 to identify crash clusters in the study area using network-based geospatial techniques.Methods: We obtained pedestrian crash data (n=119 from 2003 to 2007 from Georgia Department of Transportation and evaluated environmental features pertaining to the road infrastructure, pedestrian infrastructure and streetscape for each road segment and intersection. Prevalence rate of each feature with pedestrian crashes present was calculated. We used network-based Kernel Density Estimation to identify the high density road segments and intersections, then used network-based K-function to examine the clustering of pedestrian crashes.Results: Over 50% of the crosswalk signs, pedestrian signals, public transit, and location branding signs (more than three at intersections involved pedestrian crashes. More than half of wider streets (greater than 29 feet, two-way streets, and streets in good condition had pedestrian crashes present. Crashes occurred more frequently in road segments with strong street compactness and mixed land use present and were significantly (p<0.05 clustered in these high-density zones.Conclusions: Findings can be used to understand the correlation between built environment and pedestrian safety, to prioritize the high-density zones for intervention efforts, and to formulate research hypotheses for investigating pedestrian crashes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 295-302.

  20. Linkage of traffic crash and hospitalization records with limited identifiers for enhanced public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderino, Sarah; Fung, Lawrence; Sedlar, Slavenka; Norton, Jennifer M

    2017-04-01

    Motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crashes kill or seriously injure approximately 4250 people in New York City (NYC) each year. Traditionally, NYC surveillance practices use hospitalization and crash data separately to monitor trends in MVT-related injuries, but key information linking crash circumstances to health outcomes is lost when analyzing these data sources in isolation. Our objective was to match crash reports to hospitalization records to create a traffic injury surveillance dataset that can be used to describe crash circumstances and related injury outcomes. The linkage of the two systems presents a unique challenge since the system tracking crashes and the system tracking hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits lack key identifying data such as names and dates of birth. NYC Department of Transportation provided electronic records based on reports of motor vehicle crashes submitted to the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles for all crashes occurring in NYC from 2009 to 2013. New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) ED and hospitalization administrative data from NYC hospitals were used to identify unintentional MVT-related injuries using external cause of injury codes. Since the two systems do not share unique individual identifiers, probabilistic record linkage was conducted using LinkSolv9.0. Sensitivity/specificity calculations and chi-square analyses of linkage rates were conducted to assess linkage results. From 2009-2013, there were 1,054,344 individuals involved in MVT crashes in NYC and 280,340 ED visits and hospitalizations from MVT-related injuries. There were 145,003 linked pairs, giving a linkage rate of 52% of the total MVT-related hospital records. This linkage had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 93%. Linkage rates were comparable by age, sex, crash role, collision type, hospital county, injury location, hospital type, and hospital status, indicating no apparent biases in the match by