WorldWideScience

Sample records for motor vehicle crash-important

  1. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  2. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  3. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government is Tracking the nation’s progress in reducing crash injuries and deaths. www.cdc.gov/psr/national-summary/ ... Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety CDC: Child Passenger ...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  9. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  10. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  11. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  12. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration..., and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to ensure that...

  13. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... NPRM proposes to amend FMVSS No. 116, Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, so that brake fluids would be tested... Date VII. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices VIII. Public Participation I. Background Federal...

  14. 49 CFR 574.9 - Requirements for motor vehicle dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. 574.9... RECORDKEEPING § 574.9 Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. (a) Each motor vehicle dealer who sells a used motor vehicle for purposes other than resale, who leases a motor vehicle for more than 60 days, that...

  15. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles....

  16. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  17. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  18. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  19. 32 CFR 935.140 - Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. 935.140... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.140 Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. (a) Each person who has custody of a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall present that vehicle...

  20. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  1. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air...

  2. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine B

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared.......74-1.91) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and relevant comorbidities and pharmacotherapy. Men had a relatively higher rate of motor vehicle crashes (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.79-2.03) than women (RR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.63-1.87). The excess risk of motor vehicle crashes persisted throughout...... identified 41 039 individuals with a first-time diagnosis of syncope from emergency department or hospital. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rate of motor vehicle crashes (including nonfatal and fatal crashes), based on multivariate Poisson regression models, using the total Danish population as reference...

  3. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  4. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting motor vehicle... Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations shall forward annually (on or before December 1) to the contracting officer their plan for acquisition of motor vehicles for...

  5. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6112 - Motor vehicle expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle expense. 32.6112 Section 32.6112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6112 Motor vehicle expense. (a... motor vehicles, such as chauffeurs and shuttle bus drivers. The costs of users of motor vehicles...

  7. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of motor vehicle... SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an... by this section do not relieve the operator and occupants of a motor vehicle involved in an...

  8. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining...

  9. 32 CFR 935.139 - Motor vehicle operator qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle operator qualifications. 935.139... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.139 Motor vehicle operator qualifications. (a) No person may operate a privately owned motor vehicle on Wake Island unless he has an...

  10. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kevin R [Albuquerque, NM; Forsythe, James C [Sandia Park, NM; Lippitt, Carl E [Albuquerque, NM; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  11. 41 CFR 109-38.5103 - Motor vehicle utilization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5103 Motor vehicle utilization standards. (a) The following average utilization...

  12. PROBLEMS OF SAFETY OF MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the up-to-date problem of motor vehicles safety. The author concludes that traffic safety in the transport system depends on the type and, accordingly, the measures taken in vehicles to protect objects from unauthorized access and, as a consequence, from the possibility of accident or disaster occurrence, while the safety of vehicles on a traffic route is determined by external natural impacts.

  13. 76 FR 51120 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Denial of motor... System (FARS) tracks all fatal crashes involving motor vehicles in the United States. An analysis...

  14. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  15. Management, Acquisition, and Use of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    issuing authority. e. Report suspension or revocation of their State motor vehicle operator license as required by the vehicle issuing authority. f...40,000 and Up All 25,000 Motorcycle 4/A All 3,000 Scooter , 3- or 4-Wheel N/A Gasoline 2,400 2-10 Figure 2-1. DD Form 1970, "Motor Equipment Utilization...adequately supported through the use of alternative transportation resources (such as scooters , bicycles, mopeds)? (4) Will the vehicle meet utilization

  16. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  17. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  18. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of motor....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with... Heads of Contracting Activities may arrange to sell, as exchange sales, used motor vehicles...

  19. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle use. 261.13... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest... have been identified on a motor vehicle use map, it is prohibited to possess or operate a motor...

  20. 48 CFR 945.570-7 - Disposition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of motor... Disposition of motor vehicles. (a) The contractor shall dispose of DOE-owned motor vehicles as directed by the contracting officer. (b) DOE-owned motor vehicles may be disposed of as exchange/sale items when directed...

  1. 78 FR 4193 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the... the MY 2014 S60 vehicle line is effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft. Volvo...

  2. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... full General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for an exemption of the Cadillac SRX vehicle line...

  3. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  4. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  5. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization.

  6. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  7. Dynamics of Motorized Vehicle Flow under Mixed Traffic Circumstance*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO nong-Wei; GAO Zi-You; ZHAO Xiao-Mei; XIE Dong-Fan

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of mixed traffic flow consisting of motorized and non-motorized vehicles, a carfollowing model based on the principle of collision free and cautious driving is proposed.Lateral friction and overlapping driving are introduced to describe the interactions between motorized vehicles and non-motorized vehicles.By numerical simulations, the flux-density relation, the temporal-spatial dynamics, and the velocity evolution are investigated in detail.The results indicate non-motorized vehicles have a significant impact on the motorized vehicle flow and cause the maximum flux to decline by about 13%.Non-motorized vehicles can decrease the motorized vehicle velocity and cause velocity oscillation when the motorized vehicle density is low.Moreover, non-motorized vehicles show a significant damping effect on the oscillating velocity when the density is medium and high, and such an effect weakens as motorized vehicle densityincreases.The results also stress the necessity for separating motorized vehicles from non-motorized vehicles.

  8. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  9. 28 CFR 29.9 - Motor vehicles for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles for hire. 29.9 Section 29.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.9 Motor vehicles for hire. (a) Any person who is in the business of renting or leasing...

  10. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  11. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  12. 76 FR 24402 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 RIN 2127-AK81 Federal Motor Vehicle Theft... areas on high theft major parts of motor vehicles. E-mail is now included as a means to submit the... motor vehicle lines subject to parts marking, and manufacturers of replacement parts designed for...

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.402 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motor vehicles. 101-25.402 Section 101-25.402 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Standards § 101-25.402 Motor vehicles. Replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with...

  14. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL03 Federal Motor Vehicle.... The changes proposed in this NPRM to the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on glazing...

  15. 32 CFR 935.51 - Motor vehicle violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle violations. 935.51 Section 935.51... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Penalties § 935.51 Motor vehicle violations. Whoever is found guilty of a... than 30 days, or suspension or revocation of his motor vehicle operator's permit, or any combination...

  16. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011)....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in...

  19. 77 FR 73912 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... review of its Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule'') as part of the FTC...; and (3) a list of fourteen major systems of a used motor vehicle and the major defects that may...

  20. 77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... December 17, 2012 Part II Federal Trade Commission 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule'') as part of the FTC's...

  1. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  2. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  3. 76 FR 12221 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the Corolla vehicle line... equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with...

  4. 77 FR 29752 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard, 49 CFR part...

  5. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  7. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  8. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy... 571 RIN 2127-AK97 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for... a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 136 to require electronic stability control (ESC...

  9. ATVs: motorized toys or vehicles for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, N L; Kennedy, R; Russell, C

    2006-02-01

    To compare the nature of injuries from all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) to those from bicycling, dirtbikes/motocross, and motor vehicle crashes. Data on injuries from the mechanisms outlined above were obtained through CHIRPP (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) and hospital records. A Canadian tertiary pediatric center. Cases presenting to the emergency department over a 10 year period. Comparison between demographics, mechanisms and natures of injuries sustained, disposition from the emergency department, and lengths of hospital stay. Contrary to bicycling, ATV related injuries occurred among older ages and appeared to result less often from loss of control. Severe injuries resulting in deep soft tissue trauma and fracture/dislocations were 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, more frequent among ATV trauma than bicycling (p<0.01). In addition, ATV related injuries were located more frequently in the trunkal, hip, lower extremity, and spinal regions. Conversely, ATV related trauma bore significant similarities regarding body part and nature of the injury to both motor vehicle crash (MVC) and dirtbike related injuries. Akin to dirtbike and MVC related trauma, ATV related injuries more frequently required admission to the ward or intensive care unit compared to bicycling injuries (30.8% v 9.6%, p<0.0001), and used a proportionally larger amount of hospital resources with respect to overall in-hospital and intensive care unit days. Although ATVs may be considered recreational for children, their associated injury patterns, severity, and costs to the healthcare system more closely resemble those from motorized vehicles and are more significant than bicycling. Strict policy to reflect this must be developed and acknowledged by the public, industry, and legislative bodies.

  10. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle antitampering. 52.2311... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle... Emissions from Motor Vehicles” and 114.5 “Exclusions and Exceptions” on February 24, 1989, and September...

  11. 48 CFR 945.570-2 - Acquisition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of motor... Acquisition of motor vehicles. (a) The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (GSA-IFMS) is the first source of supply for providing motor vehicles to contractors; however, contracting officer approval...

  12. 78 FR 3081 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full Toyota Motor... to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the...

  13. 76 FR 12220 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... on the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor... deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with ] the parts-marking requirements of the Theft...

  14. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR... first issued in 1973 until it was inadvertently omitted in 2003. The breaking energy requirement...

  15. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  16. Contributions to motor vehicle emissions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal Sharma

    While motor vehicles are a major source of atmospheric pollutants, their in-use emissions remain inadequately characterized. Remote sensing devices (RSD) have been shown to be efficient tools for measuring CO, HC and NO in on-road vehicle exhaust. This work utilizes RSD data to illuminate new phenomena related to automobile emissions. Model year averaged RSD data are shown to correlate extremely well with IM240 measurements. IM240 is a loaded-mode dynamometer test used by several states as part of their emissions reduction strategy. The high degree of correlation helps to validate remote sensing as an instrument for IM240 evaluation. Such evaluations of programs in Chicago and Denver indicate an Inspection and Maintenance benefit of less than 10%. Fleet average on-road emissions have continually decreased over several years of measurement at the same locations in four U.S. cities: Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles and Phoenix. Together with the decrease in overall emissions, the distribution has become even more skewed. Fewer automobiles are responsible for a larger fraction of the decreasing total pollutant emissions. Analysis of the newest model year vehicles year after year at the four locations indicates that successive model years have become lower emitting. It is believed that more stringent government mandated emission standards and continuous improvement in the ability of automobile manufacturers to meet these standards is responsible for the emissions reductions. Comparison of emissions among the four cities, adjusted for load and model year, indicates that older vehicles in the Los Angeles area have higher CO and lower NO emissions. The fact that California had more stringent NO emission standards and more lenient CO ones compared to the rest of the states suggests, once again, the significant benefits of emission standards and new vehicle emission control technology.

  17. Mortality among hourly motor vehicle manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Elizabeth; Brown, David A; Matthews, Robert

    2003-08-01

    We evaluated mortality among 198,245 motor vehicle industry workers during the period of 1973 to 1995. Workers' mortality rates were lower than expected overall (40,131 observed/43,859 expected deaths, standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 92, CI = 91-92) and for all major cause of death categories except cancer (SMR = 100, CI = 98-102). Mortality rates were higher than expected for lung cancer overall (SMR = 110, CI = 107-113) and among employees in transmission/gear manufacturing (SMR = 121, CI = 112-130), casting operations (SMR = 122, CI = 110-135), engine manufacturing (SMR = 111, CI = 101-123), and vehicle assembly (SMR = 111, CI = 105-117); for stomach cancer in engine manufacturing (SMR = 147, CI = 110-192); and for prostate cancer in casting operations (SMR = 128, CI = 102-158). Excesses of lung cancer in transmission, vehicle assembly, and casting operations and of stomach cancer in engine manufacturing have been observed in other investigations. Further information on employees' occupational exposures and personal attributes is required to clarify the interpretation of these results.

  18. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For...

  19. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines...

  20. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request... control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state... crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle...

  1. 41 CFR 109-38.5105 - Motor vehicle local use objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle local use..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5105 Motor vehicle local use objectives. (a) Individual motor vehicle utilization cannot always...

  2. 78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL40 Federal Motor Vehicle... document responds to petitions for reconsideration of a 2011 final rule that established Federal...

  3. 78 FR 10573 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule''). The notice stated...

  4. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR...; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds)...

  5. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  6. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  7. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  8. 49 CFR 383.91 - Commercial motor vehicle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial motor vehicle groups. 383.91 Section 383.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  9. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF...

  10. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-22

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  11. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  12. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the... the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor...

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.301-1.53 - Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle operators. 109-38.301-1.53 Section 109-38.301-1.53 Public Contracts and Property... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.3-Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 109-38.301-1.53 Responsibilities of motor vehicle...

  14. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles... manufacturers of motor vehicles. (a) Each manufacturer of motor vehicles (except vehicles manufactured in two or... applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect on the date...

  15. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  16. Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFA, V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.

  17. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  18. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  19. New Energy Vehicles Standardjzation Practice of DONGFENG MOTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Introduction Ministry of Finance (MOF) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) have jointly issued several policies concerning new energy vehicles since 2009,such as "Circular on Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle Model operation and Promotion","Circular on the Promotion of Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle in Public service Areas ","Circular on the Subsidy for IndividualsPurchasing New Energy Vehicles ","Circular on Releasing 'Regulations of Promotion of Energy Saving Vehicles (Passenger Vehicles under 1.6 L) in the Energy Saving Products People-Benefit Project' ",etc.,to encourage the development and production of new energy vehicle enterprises by means of fiscal and tax measures.Currently,DONGFENG MOTOR's new energy vehicles such as S30,EQ6420PFN1,DFL160MAK,etc.,have entered the energy saving vehicle promotion list of national "Energy Saving Products People-Benefit Project".

  20. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  1. 75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK38 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 114 that certain motor vehicles with an automatic transmission..., or ``Act'') was signed into law.\\1\\ This Act relates to several aspects of motor vehicle...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.204 - Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.204 Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment. Motor vehicles...

  3. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this... standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or...

  4. 75 FR 11878 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  5. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  6. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  7. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.903-50 - Reporting DOE motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting DOE motor... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.9-Federal Motor Vehicle Fleet Report § 109-38.903-50 Reporting DOE motor vehicle data. (a) DOE offices and designated...

  9. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  10. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  11. Fuel cell vehicles at general motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmolt, R. von [GM Fuel Cell Activities, Adam Opel AG, IPC 81-90, D-65423 Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    An overview of GM/Opel's hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is presented. Three vehicle generations have been put into operation within the past four years, and valuable practical experience has been gained. GM/Opel's development targets are today shifting from pure performance optimisation to more varied aims, including reliability and durability considerations. Increased attention is also being paid to the fuel storage factor, which is a major issue for hydrogen cars. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. 41 CFR 109-38.204-50 - Records of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 109-38.204-50 Section 109-38.204-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-50 Records of exempted motor vehicles. The Director, Office...

  13. 76 FR 34693 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for... or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or... any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  14. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle...) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor engines prior to March 30, 1966,\\9...

  15. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... for reconsideration of a final rule published December 4, 2007 which amended the Federal motor vehicle... problem of light vehicle, motor home and recreation vehicle trailer overloading by requiring...

  16. 76 FR 21035 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services and Voith Industrial Services, Inc., Formerly...

  17. 77 FR 6587 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services and Voith Industrial Services, Inc., Formerly...

  18. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  19. Possibilities of Using Hydrogen as Motor Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20 whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

  20. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  1. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV) and the......This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV...

  2. Wheelchair rider risk in motor vehicles: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk involved in riding different sizes and types of motor vehicles is required to make informed decisions regarding a reasonable level of protection for wheelchair riders. Wheelchair rider accident information that can be used to estimate risk is quite limited. This paper reviewed the resources available, including the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Motor vehicle accident data for the general public were analyzed in order to better characterize wheelchair rider risk. Using the National Safety Council annual transportation mode fatality rates and the (inverse) relationship of vehicle mass and occupant fatality rate, fatality rates for vehicles that transport wheelchair riders (minivans, vans, paratransit vans, and small and large buses) were estimated. Despite the large margins of error that must be assumed for accident data and the conclusions drawn from it, the available information suggests that 1) the majority of wheelchair rider injuries could be prevented by providing protection for abrupt vehicle maneuvers; 2) the type, size, and mass of the vehicle have a substantial effect on the fatality rate, although this effect decreases for heavier (<3,000 kg) vehicles; and 3) wheelchair riders who cannot properly use tiedown and occupant restraint systems or who are frail would face a lower risk of injury if transported in larger vehicles.

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.305 - What forms do we use to transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., farm machinery, and certain military-design motor vehicles and motor vehicles that are damaged beyond... transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle? 102-34.305 Section 102-34.305 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.305 What...

  4. Motor vehicle insurance rating with pseudo emissions coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickson, Allister [University of Manitoba Transport Instititute, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2006-06-10

    There is general agreement amongst economists and ecologists that transportation is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Typical proposals to reduce the demand for transportation, and consequently emissions, focus on imposing a fuel tax or a direct fee on vehicles. This paper outlines the method and advantages of treating the environmental risk as additional pseudo coverage rated under existing property and liability motor vehicle insurance systems. (author)

  5. Brainstem injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2017-10-03

    This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk for brainstem injury by crash type, belt use, and crash severity (delta-V). NASS-CDS electronic cases were reviewed to see whether the transition from vehicles without advanced airbags and seat belts and side airbags and curtains to vehicles with the safety technologies has influenced the risk for brainstem injury. 1994-2013 NASS-CDS was analyzed to determine the number of brainstem injuries in nonejected adults (15+ years old) in vehicle crashes. Crashes were grouped by front, side, rear, and rollover. The effect of belt use was investigated. Light vehicles were included with model year (MY) 1994+. Occupants with severe head injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 4+) and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4+F injury were also determined. The risk for injury with standard errors was determined using the MAIS 0+F exposure by belt use and crash type. NASS-CDS electronic cases were studied with brainstem injury in 2001-2013 MY vehicles. NASS-CDS indicates there are 872 ± 133 cases of brainstem injury per year. About 16.0% of AIS 4+ head injury involves the brainstem. For belted occupants, the highest risk for brainstem injury was in side impacts at 0.065 ± 0.010%. In contrast, the highest risk for brainstem injury was 0.310 ± 0.291% in rear impacts and 0.310 ± 0.170% in rollovers for unbelted occupants. The risk for brainstem injury increased with crash severity. The highest risk for brainstem injury was 3.54 ± 1.45% in crashes with >72 km/h (>45 mph) delta-V. Exponential functions fit the change in risk with delta-V. Eighteen NASS-CDS electronic cases showed that brainstem injury occurred in very severe collisions where the occupant experienced multiple injuries from intrusion or impact on vehicle structures stiffened by deformation. The risk for brainstem injury in belted occupants has remained essentially constant over 20 years, whereas the risk for MAIS 4+F injury has declined 38.3%. The prevention

  6. Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang

    2011-04-01

    Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual PAHs for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of PAHs (EF PAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EF PAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of PAHs from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EF PAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EF PAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EF PAH and subsequently PAH emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of PAHs is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.

  7. Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

    The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

  8. assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    theory and practice of motor vehicle mechanics should imbibe continuous .... society because they represent focal points where ... argued that the technology gap should not be defined narrowly as a ..... Journal of Library Archives and Information Science. Vol.17 (2) ... www.aaicar.com, making sense of engine sensors ...

  9. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  10. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movig, K.L.; Mathijssen, M.P.; Nagel, P.H.; van Egmond, T.; de Gier, J.J.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive d

  11. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    Motor vehicle crashes are among the leading causes of injury in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of being sober and buckled up during ever automobile trip.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  12. Particulate Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: A Putative Proallergic Hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution generated from motor vehicle exhaust has become a major cause for scientific and public concern worldwide over recent years. The rapid and marked increase in the motor vehicle traffic and its associated emissions in urban areas have paralleled a sharp increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between people living in close proximity to roads with high traffic density and increased allergic symptoms, reduced lung function and increased sensitization to common aeroallergens. Several laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that pollutants emitted from motor vehicles can induce allergic inflammation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness, which may provide an underlying mechanism for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although the detrimental effects of air pollution on human health have been brought to public attention, it appears that less attention has been given to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of the allergic state. Legislators should consider pollutants emitted from motor vehicle exhausts as a potential pro-allergic hazard, before making important changes in environmental policy.

  13. 76 FR 76622 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Change 2011-03; FMR Case 2011-102-2; Docket 2011-0011; Sequence 2] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR)...

  14. 76 FR 31545 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-34 RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY...: The General Services Administration is proposing to amend the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by....C. 553(a)(2) because it applies to agency management. However, this proposed rule is being...

  15. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and pa

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crashes, and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in the US—harmful and expensive. What works to prevent crash injuries? Using primary enforcement seat belt laws that cover everyone in the car. A primary enforcement law means a police officer ...

  17. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  18. 41 CFR 109-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of new motor vehicles. 109-26.501 Section 109-26.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... motor vehicles....

  19. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  20. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  1. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  2. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  3. 22 CFR 151.8 - Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles. 151.8... LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.8 Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles... insurance throughout the period of registration on all motor vehicles owned or leased or otherwise...

  4. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK56 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Action Plan, NHTSA is issuing this NPRM to propose to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard... crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic way customarily open to the public, and...

  5. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1159 - Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and... Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance. (a) Revisions submitted by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection on October 20, 2000, to the motor vehicle inspection and...

  7. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer... two revisions are appropriate and would not result in any degradation of motor vehicle safety....

  8. 49 CFR 565.14 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements § 565.14 Motor vehicles imported into the United States. (a) Importers shall utilize the VIN assigned by the original manufacturer of the motor vehicle. (b) All passenger...

  9. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  10. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  11. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase of new motor... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501 Purchase of new motor vehicles. (a) It shall be the policy to procure commercially available motor vehicles, unless other vehicles...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  14. 19 CFR 10.310 - Election to average for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to average for motor vehicles. 10.310... Free Trade Agreement § 10.310 Election to average for motor vehicles. (a) Election. In determining whether a motor vehicle is originating for purposes of the preferences under the Agreement or a...

  15. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS Alternative VIN Requirements In Effect for Limited Period § 565.24 Motor vehicles imported into... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have...

  16. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using...

  17. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations....

  18. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006...

  19. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  20. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Controls and Prohibitions § 80.24 Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped with an...

  1. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including its required accident damage... specification cargo tank motor vehicles. 178.320 Section 178.320 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Transportation § 178.320 General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles....

  2. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... pertaining to motor vehicle sales and leasing, the FTC is hosting a series of public roundtables in 2011. The... interested parties to discuss consumer protection issues in connection with motor vehicle sales and...

  3. 14 CFR 1204.1600 - Issuance of motor vehicle for home-to-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Temporary Duty Travel-Issuance of Motor Vehicle for Home-to-Work... travel is authorized to travel by Government motor vehicle and the official authorizing the travel determines that there will be a significant savings in time, a Government motor vehicle may be issued at...

  4. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most imp

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain? (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What size motor vehicles may we obtain? 102-34.50 Section 102-34.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management... fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the replacement standards under subpart E of this part, you may dispose of a Government-owned domestic fleet motor vehicle. Detailed instructions for the transfer of...

  7. 76 FR 8736 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes; Connecticut; Notice of Withdrawal of Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets AGENCY... public that EPA has withdrawn its previous adequacy finding on the 2012 motor vehicle emission...

  8. 76 FR 7204 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... the 2010 particulate matter of ten microns or less (PM-10) motor vehicle emission budget (MVEB)...

  9. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight.This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estimated by evaluating the prevailing weather at the time and place of the crash compared with the weather at the same hour and location on control days a week earlier and a week later.The majority of patients (n = 6962) were injured during daylight hours and bright sunlight was the most common weather condition at the time and place of the crash. The risk of a life-threatening crash was 16% higher during bright sunlight than normal weather (95% confidence interval: 9-24, P vehicle crash. An awareness of this risk might inform driver education, trauma staffing, and safety warnings to prevent a life-threatening motor vehicle crash.

  10. 75 FR 72987 - Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 371, 375, 386, and 387 RIN 2126-AA84 Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... household goods brokers which ``shall provide for the protection of shippers by motor vehicle'' (49...

  11. 78 FR 57585 - Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 380, 383, and 384 RIN 2126-AB06 Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... applying for a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...

  12. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK13 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... rulemaking proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 219, ``Windshield zone... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz...

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.204-4 - Report of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of exempted motor..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-4 Report of exempted motor vehicles. DOE offices shall provide upon request...

  14. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within-the... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  15. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas... shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  16. 76 FR 70128 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  17. 41 CFR 109-38.105 - Agency purchase and lease of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient Motor... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency purchase and lease of motor vehicles. 109-38.105 Section 109-38.105 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  18. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  19. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  20. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  1. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estimated by evaluating the prevailing weather at the time and place of the crash compared with the weather at the same hour and location on control days a week earlier and a week later. The majority of patients (n = 6962) were injured during daylight hours and bright sunlight was the most common weather condition at the time and place of the crash. The risk of a life-threatening crash was 16% higher during bright sunlight than normal weather (95% confidence interval: 9–24, P < 0.001). The increased risk was accentuated in the early afternoon, disappeared at night, extended to patients with different characteristics, involved crashes with diverse features, not apparent with cloudy weather, and contributed to about 5000 additional patient-days in hospital. The increased risk extended to patients with high crash severity as indicated by ambulance involvement, surgical procedures, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, and patient mortality. The increased risk was not easily attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, driving distances, or anomalies of adverse weather. Bright sunlight is associated with an increased risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash. An awareness of this risk might inform driver education, trauma staffing, and safety warnings to prevent a life-threatening motor vehicle crash. Level of evidence: Epidemiologic Study, level III. PMID:28072708

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  3. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Program. 536 Transfer and Trading of Fuel Economy Credits. ] 537 Automotive Fuel... Sealed Beam Headlamp Information. 565 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Requirements. 566 Manufacturer...: Have we organized the material to suit the public's needs? Are the requirements in the rule...

  4. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. 77 FR 22383 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... full the petition of Tesla Motors Inc's. (Tesla) for an exemption of the Model S vehicle line in... Prevention Standard. Tesla requested confidential treatment for specific information in its petition. The...

  6. 75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Rearview Video Systems viii. Development of a Performance-Based or Technology-Neutral Standard ix. Other... scene and vehicle, as well as interviews of the involved parties when possible. When an on-site...

  7. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.5106 - Application of motor vehicle use goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of motor vehicle use goals. 109-38.5106 Section 109-38.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Equipment § 109-38.5106 Application of motor vehicle use goals. (a) At least annually, the motor...

  9. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Lead time. The final rule specified that manufacturers must... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK48 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., 2007, final rule that upgraded Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact...

  10. 76 FR 36486 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ....5216 156 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 16 31,310 0.5110 157 GENERAL MOTORS......... SATURN SKY 2 4,078 0.4904 158... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009...

  11. 76 FR 52880 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Rover, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz USA, Mitsubishi Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. III. Response to... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Manufacturers regarding a March 2010 final rule on the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for side impact...

  12. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 4 13,204 0.3029 160 GENERAL MOTORS...... GMC TERRAIN......... 13 48,605 0.2675 161 SUZUKI... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010. The...

  13. 75 FR 11005 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... QUATTRO.. 8 6992 1.1442 111 VOLKSWAGEN..... GOLF/RABBIT/GTI..... 46 41314 1.1134 112 GENERAL MOTORS... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2007 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2007. The...

  14. 78 FR 41016 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... 100 181,785 0.5501 132 GENERAL MOTORS..... CADILLAC SRX...... 32 59,077 0.5417 133 VOLKSWAGEN... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2011...

  15. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  16. Quinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Gas- and particle-phase emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers were collected using annular denuders, quartz filters, and PUF substrates. Quinone species were measured using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine quinones were observed, ranging from C6 to C16. New species identified in motor vehicle exhaust include methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQN), and aceanthrenequinone. Gas-phase motor vehicle emissions of quinones are also reported for the first time. Six gas-phase quinones were quantified with emission rates of 2-28 000 microg L(-1) fuel consumed. The most abundant gas-phase quinones were 1,4-benzoquinone (BON) and MNQN. The gas-phase fraction was > or = 69% of quinone mass for light-duty gasoline emissions, and > or = 84% for heavy-duty diesel emissions. Eight particle-phase quinones were observed between 2 and 1600 microg L(-1), with BQN the most abundant species followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone. Current particle-phase quinone measurements agree well with the few available previous results. Further research is needed concerning the gas-particle partitioning behavior of quinones in ambient and combustion source conditions.

  17. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk.

  18. Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Murray V; Klems, Joseph P; Zordan, Christopher A; Pennington, M Ross; Smith, James N

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. These spikes have been linked to motor vehicle activity and have the potential to increase exposure dramatically. Characterizing both the contribution and composition of these spikes is critical in developing exposure models and abatement strategies. To determine the contribution of the particle spikes to the ambient number concentration, we implemented wavelet-based algorithms to isolate the particle spikes from measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware, adjacent to a roadway intersection that approximately 28,000 vehicles pass through daily. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC*; TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The high-frequency portion of the signal, consisting of a series of abrupt spikes in number concentration that varied in length from a few seconds to tens of seconds, accounted for 3% to 35% of the daily ambient number concentration, with spike contributions sometimes greater than 50% of hourly number concentrations. When the data were weighted by particle volume, this portion of the signal contributed an average of 10% to 20% to the daily concentration of particulate matter (PM) vehicles accelerated after a red traffic light turned green. As the distance or transit time from emission to sampling increased, the size distribution shifted to a larger particle size, which confirmed the source assignments. To determine the

  19. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  20. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  1. THE STATUS OF MEASURES TO COMBAT MOTOR VEHICLE AIR POLLUTION AND OUTSTANDING ISSUES IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuji SUZUKI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quarter century since fiscal 1970, air pollution generated by motor vehicles has not improved sufficiently, and the state is severe, particularly in major cities. This is caused directly by the increasing volume of motor vehicle traffic that is, in turn, a result of the fact that contemporary socio-economic systems and lifestyles depend largely on the use of the motor vehicle. Social cost of air pollution must be internalized to solve the air pollution problem and the total volume of motor vehicle emission must be reduced and controlled to meet environmental quality standards, not just regulated on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis. This will require a review of the prevailing vehicle-dependent socio-economic systems and lifestyles, and necessitate that we look at a set of drastic measures which strike at the fundamentals of our vehicle usage.

  2. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... rulemaking submitted by Mr. Michael R. Schramm, to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on seat... during normal vehicle operation and certain crash scenarios, resulting in increased risk to vehicle...

  3. Emergency Department and Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfipour, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 33 million licensed drivers 65 years and older in the U.S. This represents a 23 percent increase from 1999, number that is predicted to double by 2030. Although, motor vehicle collisions (MVC-related to emergency department (ED visits for older adults are lower per capita than for younger adults, the older-adults MVCs require more resources, such as additional diagnostic imaging and increased odds of admission. Addressing the specific needs of older-adults could lead to better outcomes yet not enough research currently exists. It is important to continue training emergency physicians to treat the increasing older-patient population, but its also imperative we increase our injury prevention and screening methodology. We review research findings from the article: Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Five-year national study, with commentary on current recommendation and policies for the growing older-adult driving population. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:582–584.

  4. Disparity surveillance of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The lack of race information for nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries in the United States has limited the understanding of racial disparities in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). In this article, we describe a pilot surveillance project in Nebraska that linked crash reports and driver's license records to investigate racial disparity among nonfatal MVC injuries. The project linked 43,157 severely and nonseverely injured drivers from crash reports between 2006 and 2010 to the corresponding state driver's license database so that drivers' race information from each MVC could be retrieved. A log rate model was used to examine the likelihood of MVC injuries by drivers' race along the dimensions of age, sex, and place of residence. Black drivers had 31.6 and 87 percent more severe and nonsevere injuries, respectively, than white drivers. Rural residents were more likely than urban residents to have severe MVC injuries. Controlling for residence status, age, and sex did not alter the basic pattern that black drivers had higher rates of nonfatal MVC injuries. The linkage approach provides an effective way to obtain additional information for MVC injury disparity surveillance. To reduce racial disparities in severe and nonsevere MVC injuries, race-sex-, race-age-, and race-location-specific interventions should be considered based on their significant contributions to disparity.

  5. Rhabdomyolysis and unilateral renal infarction after a motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Toru; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Murata, Akinari; Ukon, Kei; Fuchigami, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    A 46-year-old man with no previous history of abnormal urinalysis findings or renal dysfunction was admitted to a local hospital because of a motor vehicle crash. An open laparotomy was performed to treat a perforation of the small intestine. After operation, oliguria and renal dysfunction developed, and he was admitted to our hospital because of acute renal failure after trauma. Acute renal failure was assumed to be due to rhabdomyolysis with elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatine kinase levels and myoglobinemia. Left flank pain occurred several days after admission, and the serum alkaline phosphatase level increased between days 5 and 12 following admission. Although hemodialysis was performed 9 times and the urine output was satisfactory, the creatinine clearance levels increased only to about 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.84 mL/s/m2) at 6 weeks following admission. As a result, a diagnosis of renal infarction due to acute renal artery occlusion was considered. The left kidney was atrophic on an abdominal computed tomographic scan and was nonfunctioning on a renogram. This case shows the importance of not overlooking the possibility of a renal infarction associated with rhabdomyolysis after a motor vehicle crash. In particular, the changes in the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were important in making a correct diagnosis in this case.

  6. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the vi...

  7. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and motorcycles to produce sounds meeting the requirements of this standard. This proposed standard applies to electric vehicles (EVs) and to those hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle's internal combustion engine (ICE) operating. This standard would ensure that blind, visually-impaired, and other pedestrians are able to detect and recognize nearby hybrid and electric vehicles, as required by the PSEA, by requiring that hybrid and electric vehicles emit sound that pedestrians would be able to hear in a range of ambient environments and contain acoustic signal content that pedestrians will recognize as being emitted from a vehicle. The benefit of reducing the pedestrian injury rate per registered vehicle of HVs to ICE vehicles when 4.1% of the fleet is HV and EV would be 2790 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries. We also estimate that this proposal will result in 10 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries caused by LSVs. Thus, 2800 total injured pedestrians are expected to be avoided due to this proposal representing 35 equivalent lives saved. We do not estimate any quantifiable benefits for EVs because it is our view that EV manufacturers would have installed alert sounds in their cars without passage of the PSEA and this proposed rule. Comparison of costs and benefits expected due to this rule provides a cost of $0.83 to $0.99 million per equivalent life saved across the 3 and 7 percent discount levels for the light EV and HV and LSV fleet. According to our present model, a countermeasure that allows a vehicle

  8. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  9. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  10. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  11. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  12. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  14. 76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 226 (Wednesday, November 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 72404] [FR Doc No: 2011-30305] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle... that the Agency has found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter...

  15. 49 CFR 177.823 - Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations. 177.823 Section 177.823 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.823 Movement of motor vehicles...

  16. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities located... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger...

  17. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY: Environmental...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  19. 78 FR 8122 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes... transportation conformity purposes. The submittal includes MOVES2010 motor vehicle emissions budgets for 2017 and... submitted SIPs cannot be used for conformity determinations until EPA has affirmatively found them...

  20. 75 FR 23306 - Establishment of Advisory Committee on the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Information System AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of establishment of the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Advisory Board. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Final Rule, 74 FR 5740, 5774 (January 30, 2009)...

  1. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform lighting on public use lifts. Public use lifts... be equipped with a public use lift certified as meeting Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403... subject to paragraph S4.1.1, must be equipped with a platform lift certified as meeting either the public...

  2. ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRACTION BLDC MOTOR ON THE BASIS OF VEHICLE ALTERNATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method of estimation of basic parameters of the BLDC motor based on the vehicle powerful alternator to convert an ordinary vehicle into a hybrid one is offered. The results of estimation of basic characteristics of the electric motor on the basis of the automobile alternator G290 are presented.

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.40 - Who must comply with motor vehicle fuel efficiency requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.40 Who must comply... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must comply...

  4. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2307-2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle...

  5. 76 FR 10897 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Register on February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7204) announcing that EPA has withdrawn its May 30, 2008...

  6. 78 FR 57503 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets and Determination of Attainment for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particulate Standard; Tacoma... November 28, 2012, to establish motor vehicle emission budgets for the Tacoma-Pierce County...

  7. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL05 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...: This NPRM proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly..., MY 2000 Chevrolet S-10, MY 2002 Chevrolet TrailBlazer, MY 2003 Volkswagen Jetta, MY 1996 Ford F-350...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.4902-1781 - GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order. 101-26.4902-1781 Section 101-26.4902-1781 Public Contracts and... GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition—Delivery Order. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  9. Assessment of the forest landscape along selected motor vehicle routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research that aims to analyse and evaluate the attractiveness of the forest landscape in the vicinity of selected motor vehicle routes that differ in terms of technical parameters, such as motorways, regional roads and local (municipal roads. The diversity of landscape units was used as the measure of landscape attractiveness. Landscape diversity analysis allows to establish the details related to specific parts of the road and the options for configuring the road environment. These options relate to the way the forest is managed and mainly involve aspects of infrastructure and cultivation. They include activities such as afforestation work and rebuilding the species composition of forest stands. According to the research, the lower the technical class of a road, the greater is the need to take action to adapt the structural-tree stand system to meet the safety requirements of road users.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnoea, motor vehicle accidents, and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows a very high prevalence in the middle-age work force population and, between all diseases and medical conditions, is the major risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). OSA can be diagnosed and treated, with resultant reduction in MVAs to those seen in the healthy population. It is increasing evidence that it is a major risk factor for occupational accidents also in fields different from the professional transport and for work disability. It is likely that the treatment of OSA results in the reduction of occupational accidents and work performance improvement with expected benefits in work processes and business in general. It is therefore advisable to develop strategies for screening and treatment of OSA in workers. The risk assessment of OSA in workers may also help to reduce the burden on national health care systems.

  11. Sleep disorders as a cause of motor vehicle collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea, excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others, as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored.

  12. Motion Analysis of an Electric Vehicle with Two Independent Drive Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 陈全世; 孙逢春

    2004-01-01

    Motion analyses are performed with the help of stability and simulation analysis, which can provide theoretical bases for applications of an electric vehicle with two independent drive motors. Compared with one-motor drive electric vehicle, the two-motor drive electric vehicle has the advantage of easy layout, simple power train and good drivability and handling characteristics. Analysis shows the method connecting armatures of two DC motors in parallel can function as mechanical differential without a steering sensor, which can simplify structure and increase reliability of the controller. Computer simulations and experiment are carried out to verify conclusions.

  13. Research on motor braking-based DYC strategy for distributed electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Liao, Weijie; Chen, Lei; Cui, Shumei

    2017-08-01

    In order to bring into full play the advantages of motor braking and enhance the handling stability of distributed electric vehicle, a motor braking-based direct yaw moment control (DYC) strategy was proposed. This strategy could identify whether a vehicle has under-steered or overs-steered, to calculate the direct yaw moment required for vehicle steering correction by taking the corrected yaw velocity deviation and slip-angle deviation as control variables, and exert motor braking moment on the target wheels to perform correction in the manner of differential braking. For validation of the results, a combined simulation platform was set up finally to simulate the motor braking control strategy proposed. As shown by the results, the motor braking-based DYC strategy timely adjusted the motor braking moment and hydraulic braking moment on the target wheels, and corrected the steering deviation and sideslip of the vehicle in unstable state, improving the handling stability.

  14. Study on the ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles driven by in-wheel motors have received more and more attention. However, due to the introduction of in-wheel motors, the ratio between unsprung and sprung mass is increased. In this article, to study the influence of this change on ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors, an 11 degrees of freedom of vehicle ride comfort model will be presented and studied with MATLAB/Simulink. Then, road tests will be conducted to corroborate the simulation results. It can be obtained that the vehicle ride comfort becomes poor with the increasing unsprung mass. Finally, semi-active air-suspension proportional–integral–derivative control system will be proposed to improve the vehicle ride comfort. Through the simulation results, one can come to a conclusion that the proportional–integral–derivative control system for air suspension is feasible and effective to improve the ride comfort of the vehicles driven by in-wheel motors.

  15. Performance Analysis of Induction Motor of Electric Vehicle Using Vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu ping

    2012-01-01

    According to the principle of Vector controlused in an asyn- chronous motor,a simulation model of the asynchronous motor in elec-tric vehicle and Vectorcontrolsystem was established with Matlab/Simu-link software. Simulation analysis of the asynchronous motor driving an electric vehicle was performedunder the classic mode of EV , and the simulation results show the modeland control scheme has better stable and dynamic performance,whichcanbe a good candidate for electric ve- hicle propulsion system

  16. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... final rule that amended the child restraint systems (CRSs) prescribed in Appendix A of Federal Motor... Manufacturers (Alliance),\\5\\ Ford Motor Company (Ford), Evenflo Company, Incorporated (Evenflo), IEE S.A....

  17. 49 CFR 325.13 - Inspection and examination of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and examination of motor vehicles. 325... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Administrative Provisions § 325.13 Inspection...

  18. 75 FR 47720 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... QUATTRO... 8 6992 1.1442 111 VOLKSWAGEN GOLF/RABBIT/GTI...... 46 41314 1.1134 112 GENERAL MOTORS... GENERAL MOTORS........ BUICK RENDEZVOUS..... 14 29187 0.4797 176 VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE 13 27249 0.4771 177... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft...

  19. 77 FR 70914 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline, within 10 mm ( 0.4 in... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... vehicle safety standard for side impact protection. In today's document, we correct a minor error in...

  20. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle...

  1. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June......

  2. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel...

  3. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  4. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  5. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject...

  6. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act..., challenging the need for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and... Administrator shall waive preemption for California to enforce new motor vehicle emissions standards and...

  7. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

  8. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  9. Law enforcement officers' risk perceptions toward on-duty motor-vehicle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Heick, Rebecca J; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott

    Motor-vehicle-related events (MVEs) are the leading cause of on-duty death for law enforcement officers, yet little is known about how officers view this significant job hazard. The purpose of this paper is to explore officers' motor-vehicle risk perception and examine how prior on-duty MVEs and the death or injury of a fellow officer influences this perception. A state-wide random sample of 136 law enforcement agencies was drawn using publically accessible databases, stratified on type and size of agency. In total, 60 agencies agreed to participate and a cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to 1,466 officers. Using six-point Likert scales, composite scores for motor-vehicle and intentional violence risk perception were derived. A linear regression multivariable model was used to examine factors affecting motor-vehicle risk perception. Motor-vehicle risk perception scores were significantly higher than intentional violence scores. A prior on-duty motor-vehicle crash, prior roadside incident, or knowledge of fellow officer's injury or death from a MVE significantly increased motor-vehicle risk perception scores. After controlling for potential confounders though, only prior on-duty crashes and roadside incidents impacted motor-vehicle risk perception. The study comprised primarily small, rural agencies and generalizability may be limited. Also, although the data were collected anonymously, reporting and response biases may affect these findings. This study involved a large and diverse cohort of officers and explored motor-vehicle risk perception. A better understanding of officers' risk perceptions will assist in the development and implementation of occupational injury prevention programs, training, and policy.

  10. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  11. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  12. Safety restraint injuries in fatal motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, J; Donaldson, L; Duflou, J; Gorrie, C

    2007-12-01

    The presence of an apparent seat belt mark (SBM) on a car crash occupant is often used as evidence for use of a seat belt at the time of the crash and, conversely, the lack of a SBM is used as an indication that no seat belt was used. This study examined whether there are clear indications of seat belt use to be found at autopsy and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of apparent SBM and whether the use of a seat belt and seating location affects the type and severity of injuries sustained. Information on the type of injuries sustained and seatbelt use was retrieved from autopsy reports and police reports, respectively, for cases of fatal motor vehicle collisions occurring in Sydney, Australia over a 5-year period. In this study, a SBM was only found on restrained occupants. The proportion of restrained occupants with evidence of a SBM was 36% (sensitivity), whilst unrestrained occupants showed no evidence of a SBM (100% specificity). A SBM was also found to reliably reflect the seating position of the occupant. We conclude that restrained occupants can be expected to show evidence of the seat belt in just over one third of cases and that the absence of a SBM is not necessarily an indication that no seat belt was used. Spurious SBM is very unlikely to be present if the occupant was unrestrained.

  13. Motor vehicle accidents: How should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Sata, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit, which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease. Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs, the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown. Recently, Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT), and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs. Besides the ICT and lactulose, there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE. In this commentary, we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE, including neuropsychological tests. We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE, such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee, and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids, on the MVA-related societal costs. PMID:22690067

  14. Motor vehicle accidents: How should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Kawaguchi; Eitaro Taniguchi; Michio Sata

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs.Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit,which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease.Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs,the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown.Recently,Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT),and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs,Besides the ICT and lactulose,there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE.In this commentary,we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE,including neuropsychological tests.We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE,such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee,and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids,on the MVA-related societal costs.

  15. Self-regulation of motor vehicle advertising: is it working in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J; Ouschan, Robyn; Ewing, Michael

    2011-05-01

    There is growing concern that certain content within motor vehicle advertising may have a negative influence on driving attitudes and behaviours of viewers, particularly young people, and hence a negative impact on road safety. In response, many developed countries have adopted a self-regulatory approach to motor vehicle advertising. However, it appears that many motor vehicle advertisements in Australia and elsewhere are not compliant with self-regulatory codes. Using standard commercial advertising methods, we exposed three motor vehicle ads that had been the subject of complaints to the Australian Advertising Standards Board (ASB) to, N = 463, 14-55 year olds to assess the extent to which their perceptions of the content of the ads communicated themes that were contrary to the Australian self-regulatory code. All three ads were found to communicate messages contrary to the code (such as the vehicle's speed and acceleration capabilities). However, the ASB had upheld complaints about only one of the ads. Where motor vehicle advertising regulatory frameworks exist to guide motor vehicle advertisers as to what is and what is not acceptable in their advertising, greater efforts are needed to ensure compliance with these codes. One way may be to make it mandatory for advertisers to report consumer pre-testing of their advertising to ensure that undesirable messages are not being communicated to viewers.

  16. World-wide developments in motor vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, R. [Consulting Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kishan, S. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicles contribute much to urban air pollution. As a result, most governments have enacted emission standards that significantly lower pollutant emission levels from new motor vehicles. For example, vehicles built in the United States emit 95 % fewer pollutants than uncontrolled vehicles when they are new. However, studies indicate that proper maintenance is needed to obtain the full benefit of vehicle emission controls. Furthermore, there is evidence that a significant percentage of the vehicle fleet is not properly maintained. This has led to the creation of motor vehicle Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs. I/M programs inspect vehicles for indications that they are emitting excessive quantities of pollutants. Vehicles that fail the inspection must be repaired in order to comply with program requirements. The first I/M programs were implemented in the United States in the early 1970s. With substantial urging from the federal government, most of the U.S. states with severe air pollution problems have implemented I/M programs. Recently, with the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many states have been required to significantly upgrade the performance and coverage of their I/M programs. I/M programs also have been implemented in Europe and recently in Asia. This presentation reviews developments in I/M programs for light-duty gasoline powered vehicles. Developments in I/M programs for diesel powered vehicles are briefly described. (author)

  17. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  18. 77 FR 40843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    .... 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108, Lamps, reflective devices, and... to vertical aim, luminance of signaling and marking lamps, masking of front turn signals,...

  19. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  20. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  1. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  2. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  3. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  4. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  5. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  6. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, HHS Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  7. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  8. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  9. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  10. Emission Patterns under Alternative Congestion and Motor Vehicle Pollution Mitigation Policies in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Li Fen; Li Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    As a megacity with thriving economy, Shanghai is experiencing rapid motorisation and confronted with traffic congestion problems despite its low car ownership. It is of value to look into the policies on emission control of motor vehicle and congestion reduction in such a city to explore how to reconcile mobility enhancement with the environment. Results of a dynamic simulation displayed time paths of emissions from motor vehicles in Shanghai over the period from 2000 to 2020. The simulation results showed that early policies on emission control of motor vehicle could bring about far-reaching effects on emission reduction, and take advantage of available low-polluting technologies and technical innovation over time. Travel demand management would play an important role in curbing congestion and reducing motor vehicle pollution by calming down car ownership rise and deterring inefficient trips as well as reducing fuel waste caused by congestion.

  11. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  12. Historical review of the use of motorized vehicles on lands administered by Izembek Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review and describe the historical use of motorized vehicles within lands administered by the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, with...

  13. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails (With Labels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  14. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... 2060-AQ09; RIN 2127-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction AGENCY... final rule regarding labeling of cars and trucks with fuel economy and environmental information in the...

  15. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  16. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  17. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  18. On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Christmann

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and ε-support vector regression which both have good robustness properties. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies.

  19. A study of the comparability of Naval activity motor vehicle costs

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Gregory Scott.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis reports on a study conducted to determine the feasibility of using a sampling technique within the Department of the Navy to compare in- house motor vehicle costs with the costs that would be incurred were the General Services Administration or a civilian fleet management contractor employed to meet the Navy's motor vehicle needs. Such cost comparison studies are required by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation A...

  20. A geography of moral hazard: sources and sinks of motor-vehicle commuting externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Bland, Widmer; Scott, Darren M

    2014-09-01

    Motor-vehicles are responsible for harms to health that are not directly experienced by individual drivers - such as air pollution and risk of injury to pedestrians. In addition to their direct effects on health, these harms also represent a moral hazard since drivers are not required to consider their effects as part of their decision to drive. We describe an approach for estimating sources of motor-vehicle commuter externalities as a means of understanding the geography of moral hazard, and in particular, the spatial displacement of negative health externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuting. This approach models motor-vehicle commuter traffic flow by trip origin for small geographic areas within the City of Toronto, Ontario. We find that most health-related externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuters are not locally generated, with a large share coming from outside Toronto. Low income is associated with externalities originating outside the municipal boundary, but not with locally sourced externalities. We discuss the impact of geographical moral hazard on the agency of citizens as well as policy options aimed at addressing motor-vehicle externalities.

  1. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  2. 22 CFR 151.4 - Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance. 151.4 Section 151.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.4 Minimum limits for motor...

  3. 78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 390 RIN 2126-AB44 Lease and Interchange of... regulations governing the lease and interchange of passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) to... that a lessor surrenders control of the CMV for the full term of the lease or temporary exchange...

  4. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... amendments to its emission standards for urban bus engines in a series of rulemakings. The rulemakings at... public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles; additionally,...

  5. Bicycle fatalities : trends in crashes with and without motor vehicles in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Stipdonk, H.L. Methorst, R. & Olivier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Boufous and Olivier (2015) recently found an increasing trend of police-reported cyclist deaths in single-vehicle crashes while a decreasing trend was found for fatal bicycle-motor vehicle crashes. This study sets out to conduct the same trend analyses for the Netherlands using causes of death stati

  6. 77 FR 17105 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: City of Chicago, IL Registration Emblem Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... through the International Fuel Tax Agreement; (3) Under a State law regarding motor vehicle license plates... section 31704; (2) Under the International Fuel Tax Agreement under section 31705 or under an applicable... vehicle inspection standards under section 31136. FMCSA interprets Sec. 14506(b)(3) to establish...

  7. 78 FR 73188 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget in Submitted State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget in Submitted State Implementation Plan; Maricopa... vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) for particulate matter less than ten microns (PM-10) for the year 2012 in... Environmental Quality (ADEQ) as a revision to the Arizona State Implementation Plan (SIP). As a result of...

  8. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  10. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  11. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  12. 77 FR 13385 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City, Cook County, and New Jersey Tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City... reconsideration. SUMMARY: The FMCSA grants a petition for reconsideration submitted by the New York City... credential display requirement of New York City's Commercial Motor Vehicle Tax (CMV Tax) is preempted...

  13. 78 FR 41852 - Hours of Service for Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... commercial motor vehicle programs and safety regulation. Background On April 4, 1997 (62 FR 16370), the... FR 16422): Question 2: What conditions must be met for a Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) driver to... Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  14. Electric vehicles pick up speed as oil prices climb. [General Motors planning EVs in 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    General Motors recently announced that in 1985, its Chevrolet division will begin manufacturing either two-passenger electric automobiles, or small electric vans, or both. Key features of the electric-vehicles will be a separately excited DC motor, regenerative braking, electronic controls, and coil-type suspension. Newly developed zinc-nickel batteries promise higher speeds (up to about 55 mph) and a longer cruising range (about 100 mi before needing a recharge and 30,000 mi before needing replacement). General Motors' commitment to the electric-vehicle market signals the beginning of a radical departure from a traditional petroleum-based economy. (1 diagram, 1 drawing, 2 photos)

  15. Temperature effects on particulate matter emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Edward; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Fulper, Carl R; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, James

    2010-06-15

    The Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES) measured exhaust emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from 496 vehicles recruited in the Kansas City metropolitan area in 2004 and 2005. Vehicle emissions testing occurred during the summer and winter, with the vehicles operated at ambient temperatures. One key component of this study was the investigation of the influence of ambient temperature on particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. A subset of the recruited vehicles were tested in both the summer and winter to further elucidate the effects of temperature on vehicle tailpipe emissions. The study results indicated that PM emissions increased exponentially as temperature decreased. In general, PM emissions doubled for every 20 degrees F drop in ambient temperature, with these increases independent of vehicle model year. The effects of temperature on vehicle emissions was most pronounced during the initial start-up of the vehicle (cold start phase) when the vehicle was still cold, leading to inefficient combustion, inefficient catalyst operation, and the potential for the vehicle to be operating under fuel-rich conditions. The large data set available from this study also allowed for the development of a model to describe temperature effects on PM emission rates due to changing ambient conditions. This study has been used as the foundation to develop PM emissions rates, and to model the impact of ambient temperature on these rates, for gasoline-powered vehicles in the EPA's new regulatory motor vehicle emissions model, MOVES.

  16. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers : findings from the DRIVE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data

  17. Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Jun LI; R. M. Goodall

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the development of inte-grated control strategies for railway vehicles with inde-pendently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are pre-sented, which are followed by an investigation of the inte-grated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and prac-ticality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.

  18. Rolling Stability Control Utilizing Rollover Index for In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Hori, Yoichi

    In this paper, a novel integrated stability program (ISP) based on robust rolling stability control (RSC) for in-wheel electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate, (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely, (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel, and (4) a motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable a high-performance three-dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. Rolling stability is important for all classes of light-vehicles, especially, for EVs that have narrow tread and high center of gravity. In this study, RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. However, as the drivability of the vehicle will be changed significantly if only RSC is applied, vehicle rolling motion should be controlled depending on the rolling state. Therefore, variable weight-ISP and variable reference-ISP are proposed using rolling state information. For detecting rolling state, rollover index (RI) is introduced. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by the simulation and the experimental results.

  19. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  20. Cardiac injuries in car occupants in fatal motor vehicle collisions--an autopsy-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Elisabeth E; Tsang, Yee-Wah; Champaneri, Anisha; Pueschel, Klaus; Byard, Roger W

    2010-08-01

    Motor vehicle accidents contribute widely to population morbidity and mortality around the world, and cardiac injuries are a major factor determining outcome. Autopsy reports from 380 motor vehicle occupants who died in motor vehicle crashes in Adelaide, Australia, and Hamburg, Germany, over a 6-year period were reviewed, analysing the presence and type of cardiac injuries and their correlation with factors such as crash type, presence of seatbelt/airbag and vehicle speed as well as with the presence of other injuries which might predict the presence of cardiac injuries in a clinical setting. 21.1% had cardiac injuries identified macroscopically autopsy or histology. Cardiac injuries were the only cause of death or contributed to a fatal outcome in 76% of these cases. Sternal fractures and left-sided serial rib fractures were predictive of cardiac injury.

  1. ERGONOMIC DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JENČEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The number and consequences of traffic accidents and work accidents in road transport represent a burden for individuals and society, as well as a substantial economic burden for transport companies, while also affecting their competitiveness. Research in the area of transport and road vehicle ergonomics can contribute to ensuring conditions for a more secure and efficient operation of commercial road vehicles, thereby reducing the risk of road accidents. The safety of vehicle operation and road transport depends in large part on good comportment between ergonomic vehicle design and human capabilities and limitations. Eventual ergonomic incongruity between these elements may have negative safety implications. The article presents an approach to ergonomic design of commercial road vehicles and their ergonomic evaluation, which occurs in two stages, the design of the vehicle and its exploitation.

  2. Disability risk in pediatric motor vehicle crash occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Petty, John K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates among children in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are typically low; however, nonfatal injuries can vary in severity by imposing differing levels of short- and long-term disability. To better discriminate the severity of nonfatal MVC injuries, a pediatric-specific disability risk (DR) metric was created. The National Automotive Sampling System 2000 to 2011 was used to define the top 95% most common Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ injuries among pediatric MVC occupants. Functional Independence Measure scores were abstracted from the National Trauma Data Bank 2002 to 2006. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. The DR and coinjury-adjusted DR (DRMAIS) of the most common AIS 2+ MVC-induced injuries were calculated for 7-year-old to 18-year-old children by determining the proportion of those disabled after an injury to those sustaining the injury. DR and DRMAIS values ranged from 0 to 1, representing 0% to 100% DR. The mean DR and DRMAIS of all injuries were 0.290 and 0.191, respectively. DR and DRMAIS were greatest for injuries to the head (DR, 0.340; DRMAIS, 0.279), thorax (DR, 0.320; DRMAIS, 0.233), and spine (DR, 0.315; DRMAIS, 0.200). The mean DR and DRMAIS increased with increasing AIS severity but there was significant variation and overlapping values across AIS severity levels. Comparison of DRMAIS to coinjury-adjusted mortality risk (MRMAIS) revealed that among 118 injuries with MRMAIS of 0.000, DRMAIS ranged from 0.000 to 0.429. Incorporation of DR metrics into injury severity metrics may improve the ability to distinguish between the severity of different nonfatal injuries. This is especially crucial in the pediatric population where permanent disability can result in a high number of years lost due to disability. The accuracy of such severity metrics is crucial to the success of pediatric triage algorithms such as Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithms. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  3. Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy and cerebral palsy during infancy: a longitudinal cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Naqib, Faisal; Thiruchelvam, Deva; R Barrett, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incidence of cerebral palsy among children born to mothers who had their pregnancy complicated by a motor vehicle crash. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of children born from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2012 in Ontario, Canada. Participants Cases defined as pregnancies complicated by a motor vehicle crash and controls as remaining pregnancies with no crash. Main outcome Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy by age 3 years. Results A total of 1 325 660 newborns were analysed, of whom 7933 were involved in a motor vehicle crash during pregnancy. A total of 2328 were subsequently diagnosed with cerebral palsy, equal to an absolute risk of 1.8 per 1000 newborns. For the entire cohort, motor vehicle crashes correlated with a 29% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy that was not statistically significant (95% CI −16 to +110, p=0.274). The increased risk was only significant for those with preterm birth who showed an 89% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +7 to +266, p=0.037). No significant increase was apparent for those with a term delivery (95% CI −62 to +79, p=0.510). A propensity score-matched analysis of preterm births (n=4384) yielded a 138% increased relative risk of cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +27 to +349, p=0.007), equal to an absolute increase of about 10.9 additional cases per 1000 newborns (18.2 vs 7.3, p=0.010). Conclusions Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy among the subgroup of cases with preterm birth. The increase highlights a specific role for traffic safety advice in prenatal care. PMID:27650764

  4. Regarding the NVH Behaviour of the more Electric Vehicles. Study Case of a Small PM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lazăr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The noise and vibration behaviour of electric and hybrid vehicles is dramatically different from conventional vehicles. The noise and vibration mechanisms of the individual components (combustion engine, electric motor, transmission etc. are known in principle, but an electric or hybrid powertrain features additional and different components as well as new operation modes compared to a conventional powertrain. This results in new interactions which are uncommon in this form for conventional vehicles. In the case of the electric traction, the electric motor becomes an important noise and vibrations source. Depending on the design of the motor, the electromagnetic (EM pulses and corresponding torque pulses from the motor can be very strong. These can be radiated as noise directly from the motor housing and can also be transmitted structurally to the support structure through the motor mounts. However, the EM forces are generally lower than the combustion and reciprocating mass forces of an IC engine, and significantly, they are at a much higher frequency. On the other side, the electric drives are quite numerous in cars. Lot of smaller motors are involved in X-by-wire systems or other comfort oriented systems. As a study case, the paper is focused on the NVH produced by a 0.25kW PM motor.

  5. Acquired maxillofacial defects from motor vehicle accidents: statistics and prosthodontic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J P

    1990-02-01

    Trauma from motor vehicle accidents is one of the leading causes of death in the United States; moreover, the costs related to personal harm are only second to cancer. Head and neck injuries predominate and involve contact with the vehicle's interior (80%), contact with the vehicle's exterior (12%), or noncontact with the vehicle (8%). The patient with maxillofacial defects resulting from motor vehicle accident will have numerous soft tissue and hard tissue injuries ranging from neurologic involvement to fractures and/or avulsions of the temporomandibular joint, maxillae, mandible, teeth, and supporting structures. Tooth avulsions, pulpitis, and fractures without pulpitis have been found in a 4:2:1 ratio. The prosthodontist plays an important team role by anticipating the increased functional demands that may be placed on the required prostheses and by anticipating the preprosthetic procedures and counseling that may be necessary to assist in the total treatment.

  6. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  7. Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Motor Vehicle Taxation in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the motor vehicle tax in relation with fiscal decentralization, particularly from 2005 with competence delegated to the self-governing regions in the area of motor vehicle tax. The result of this provision in the field of fiscal decentralization is increasing of differences in the motor vehicle tax burden in self-governing regions of Slovakia. The paper is the result of solving a series of impact studies solved by the authors in this field. Gradually over time from the transfer of competences in setting tax rates on motor vehicles to self-governing regions and usage of the incomes of this tax can realistically assess the development and impact of this element of fiscal decentralization in the Slovak Republic as well as propose a solution of resulting situation. The aim is to eliminate differences in motor vehicle tax burden at regional and interstate level while maintaining the current level of tax revenues of self-governing regions.

  8. Analysis on Beijing’s Policy of Restricting Motor Vehicle Usage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; ZUO Xiaoxuan

    2012-01-01

    Along with the increase of car ownership,the problem of traffic congestion has appeared more and more serious since the 1990s in Beijing.In order to deal with the problem of traffic congestion,the policy of restricting motor vehicle usage,as a measure of transportation demand management by decreasing the total number of on-road motor vehicles,was firstly implemented in 2006 in trial,which continued from 2008 during the period of Olympic Games up to day.Starting with an analysis on policy motivation,this paper describes the practices of restricting motor vehicle usage in Beijing since 2006,analyzes the effects on the performance of the city’s transportation,and concludes after a comparative analysis that,in spite of the positive effects on relieving the traffic congestion,the policy of restricting motor vehicle usage could only constitute a temporary measure of traffic demand management,rather than a fundamental one,because the comprehensive effects would decrease along with the continuous growth of motor vehicle possession.

  9. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicle performance,dynamic modeling of the motor and other components is necessary. Whereas the switchedreluctance machine is well suited for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to the simpleand rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range atconstant power, in this paper dynamic performance of the switched reluctance motor for eseries hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. For this purpose a switched reluctance motorwith its electrical drive is modeld and simulated first, and then the other components of aseries hybrid electric vehicle, such as battery, generator, internal combusion engine, andgearbox, are designed and linked with the electric motor. Finally a typical series hybridelectric vehicle is simulated for different drive cycles. The extensive simulation results showthe dynamic performance of SRM, battery, fuel consumption, and emissions.

  10. a critical evaluation of motor vehicle manufacturing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motor manufacturing, but the national technological consciousness based on policy thrust. Keywords: major units ... forms that has been variously modified using wood for trucks and ... After the Nigerian. Civil War in the early 1970s, some state.

  11. Electrification of General Motors' vehicles. A portfolio of solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, Uwe D.; Nitz, Larry T. [General Motors Company, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The electrification of the automobile is progressing fast and is changing the architecture of future vehicles tremendously. This trend is a result of the need for higher vehicle efficiency and the desire to diversify the energy sources used for transportation. General Motors offers a wide portfolio of solutions for vehicle electrification to meet the expectations of customers. Micro-hybrid systems for engine stop-start will become a standard solution for many market segments. Mild and strong hybrid systems together with optimized combustion engines enable the next level of propulsion system efficiency. Plugin hybrids offer the possibility to supplement the energy in the fuel with energy from the grid. The Chevrolet Volt and the Opel Ampera are electric vehicles with extended range. They operate as an electric vehicle as long as there is useful energy in the battery. However, unlike a battery electric vehicle they do not suffer from lost vehicle utility when the battery is depleted. Volt and Ampera can continue operation by using an internal combustion engine. General Motors will widen its portfolio by offering battery-electric vehicles and fuel cellelectric vehicles in the near future. GM sees a coexistence of all the different electrified propulsion systems over the coming decades. (orig.)

  12. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Jody A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC in the United States (U.S..Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS. Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years and younger (18-64 years MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults.Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.3 visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0-18.8 visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46-9.36. Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86, have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77-3.14, or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42-2.23 as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8-19.2 of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8-7.5 of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71-4.43, and admission to the ICU if

  13. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.

  14. Automated processing of data on the use of motor vehicles in the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola S. Osmokrović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of introducing information technology into the armed forces is the automation of the management process. The management in movement and transport (M&T in our armed forces has been included in the process of automation from the beginning. For that reason, today we can speak about the automated processing of data on road traffic safety and on the use of motor vehicles. With regard to the overall development of the information system of the movement and transport service, the paper presents an information system of the M&T service for the processing of data on the use of motor vehicles. The main features, components and functions of the 'Vozila' application, which was specially developed for the automated processing of data on motor vehicle use, are explained in particular.

  15. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  16. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the...

  17. Presentation of CAE system for motor sports vehicle chassis development; Motor sports sharyo no shassis kaihatsuyo CAE system no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, N.; Ueda, E. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In the recent motor sports vehicle development introduction of a new model in a short cycle to secure high competition ability shortens the period from its completion to the race. And application of embedded controls makes development process more complicated. In this circumstance, predictive development style becomes more important in order to achieve the performance at high level when the new car is at shakedown. In this paper, summary and the application examples are presented with regard to three important CAE tools such as lap time simulation, vehicle dynamics simulation and suspension kinematics simulation which are developed to realize the said development style. (author)

  18. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  19. Role of motor vehicle lifetime extension in climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Hubacek, Klaus; Suh, Sangwon; Minx, Jan; Kudoh, Yuki; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2011-02-15

    Vehicle replacement schemes such as the "cash for clunkers" program in the U.S. and the "scrappage scheme" in the UK have featured prominently in the economic stimulation packages initiated by many governments to cope with the global economic crisis. While these schemes were designed as economic instruments to support the vehicle production industry, governments have also claimed that these programs have environmental benefits such as reducing CO2 emissions by bringing more fuel-efficient vehicles onto the roads. However, little evidence is available to support this claim as current energy and environmental accounting models are inadequate for comprehensively capturing the economic and environmental trade-offs associated with changes in product life and product use. We therefore developed a new dynamic model to quantify the carbon emissions due to changes in product life and consumer behavior related to product use. Based on a case study of Japanese vehicle use during the 1990-2000 period, we found that extending, not shortening, the lifetime of a vehicle helps to reduce life-cycle CO2 emissions throughout the supply chain. Empirical results also revealed that even if the fuel economy of less fuel-efficient ordinary passenger vehicles were improved to levels comparable with those of the best available technology, i.e. hybrid passenger cars currently being produced in Japan, total CO2 emissions would decrease by only 0.2%. On the other hand, we also find that extending the lifetime of a vehicle contributed to a moderate increase in emissions of health-relevant air pollutants (NOx, HC, and CO) during the use phase. From the results, this study concludes that the effects of global warming and air pollution can be somewhat moderated and that these problems can be addressed through specific policy instruments directed at increasing the market for hybrid cars as well as extending lifetime of automobiles, which is contrary to the current wisdom.

  20. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  1. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  2. Control Algorithms of Propulsion Unit with Induction Motors for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALACKY, P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of algorithms for controlling electronic differential and differential lock of an electrically driven vehicle. The simulation part addresses the development of algorithms suitable for the implementation into a real system of a road vehicle. The algorithms are then implemented into a vehicle, a propulsion unit of which is consists of two separate electric drives with induction motors fed by voltage inverters with own control units using advanced signal processors. Communication among control units is provided by means of SPI interface. A method of vector control is used for the control of induction motors. The developed algorithms are experimentally verified for correct function in a laboratory using a roll test stand and while driving an electrically driven vehicle on the road.

  3. Benzene exhaust emissions from in-use General Motors vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, J.M.; Williams. R.L. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Benzene emissions were measured from the exhaust of 73 in-use, light-duty vehicles. Benzene averaged 27 mg/mile for 1983-1987 cars. Hydrocarbon emissions also decreased after 1982 as closed-loop systems and fuel control improved. Benzene emissions showed a modest increase with mileage: the base-line benzene was 6.6 mg/mile with an increase of 1.0 mg/mile for each additional 10,000 miles of travel. Lower levels of benzene were emitted from dual-bed catalysts than from three-way catalysts. However, since many engine modifications were made during the period when dual-bed catalysts were replaced with three-way catalysts than from three-way catalysts. However, since many engine modifications were made during the period when dual-bed catalysts were replaced with three-way catalysts, a direct comparison is difficult. In a recent EPA paper, benzene emissions were calculated to be 102-119 mg/mile for the 1986 vehicle fleet. Based on the in-use values measured in this study of 9.4 mg/mile for 1983-1987 vehicles, substantial decreases in the fleet average are expected as these newer vehicles dominate the vehicle fleet.

  4. Single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on vehicle and driver behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Kreußlein, Maria; Augusto, Bruno; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2016-10-01

    This research work studies the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles and the corresponding driver reactions. An experimental study in a moving-base driving simulator is conducted to analyse the influence of single wheel hub motor failures for motorway speeds. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated objectively on the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and compared to the subjective evaluation. Findings indicate that critical traffic situations impairing traffic safety can occur for motorway speeds. Clear counteractions by the drivers had to be taken.

  5. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of...

  6. Developing particulate thin filter using coconut fiber for motor vehicle emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, A. Y. P.; Juswono, U. P.; Riyanto, S.

    2016-03-01

    Amounts of motor vehicles in Indonesia have been recognized a sharply increase from year to year with the increment reaching to 22 % per annum. Meanwhile motor vehicles produce particulate emissions in different sizes with high concentrations depending on type of vehicles, fuels, and engine capacity. Motor Particle emissions are not only to significantly contribute the atmosphric particles but also adverse to human health. In order to reduce the particle emission, it is needed a filter. This study was aimed to develop a thin filter using coconut fiber to reduce particulate emissions for motor vehicles. The filter was made of coconut fibers that were grinded into power and mixed with glues. The filter was tested by the measurements of particle concentrations coming out from the vehicle exhaust directly and the particle concentrations after passing through the filter. The efficiency of the filter was calculated by ratio of the particle concentrations before comming in the filter to the particle conentrations after passing through the filter. The results showed that the efficiency of the filter obtained more than 30 %. The efficiency increases sharply when a number of the filters are arranged paralelly.

  7. Multi-functional annular fairing for coupling launch abort motor to space vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Buning, Pieter G. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Engelund, Walter C. (Inventor); Schuster, David M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An annular fairing having aerodynamic, thermal, structural and acoustic attributes couples a launch abort motor to a space vehicle having a payload of concern mounted on top of a rocket propulsion system. A first end of the annular fairing is fixedly attached to the launch abort motor while a second end of the annular fairing is attached in a releasable fashion to an aft region of the payload. The annular fairing increases in diameter between its first and second ends.

  8. Motor integrated permanent magnet gear in a battery electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2013-01-01

    ) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to the drivetrain of the Tesla Roadster and two direct drive axial flux motors in a few...

  9. Vehicles motors and environment; Moteurs automobiles et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionnet, F.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the problem of the pollutants emission by the motors of automobiles. The european regulations lead the automotive industry to develop research programs to decrease the emission level more and more difficult to raise. He discusses the new catalysts, the diesel engines, the direct injection and the natural gas fuels. (A.L.B.)

  10. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analyticalsensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust ofShanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its correspondingx-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There arc manykinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harnful to people,such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. We found that the lead concentration was 6820μg/g andthe bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leadedgasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. We havealso detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its contentvaries from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highestreached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while theleaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to thehuman beings.

  11. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Positions b. Leadtime for Small Vehicle Manufacturers c. Static Lockout of Active Head Restraints During.... Petitions for Rulemaking a. Discomfort Metric for Non-Use Position and Relaxation Requirement for Gap b... of Active Head Restraints During Backset Retention Testing 1. NHTSA Agrees To Specify the Fixation...

  12. 77 FR 72296 - Public Meeting of the U.S.-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 30 and 31, 2012, the RCC and its bi-national working groups facilitated stakeholder meetings in Washington, DC. This notice announces a public meeting of the RCC Motor Vehicles Working Group. DATES:...

  13. 75 FR 38168 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard... to the requirements of the Federal motor vehicle theft prevention standard. The final rule also... INFORMATION section and Appendix A-I listing of the final rule. All previous information associated with the...

  14. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  15. 49 CFR 1572.201 - Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada or Mexico to and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada or Mexico to and within the United States. 1572.201 Section 1572.201... Land Modes § 1572.201 Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada...

  16. 40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel by truck or rail car? 80.583 Section 80.583 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.60... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we calculate...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.80 - Where may we obtain help with our motor vehicle acquisition plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.80 Where may we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may we obtain...

  19. Auto-Test on Motor Temperature Rising in Electric Vehicles with Mutual MRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method to calculate the motor temperature rising in electric vehicle (EV) is proposed based on the stator resistance identification. The measure theory of the motor temperature rising with the stator resistance is discussed at first. An enhanced magnetism motor dynamic math model is built which is the research object. Then the resistance identification system model is built on the mutual model reference adaptive system (MRAS) theory. The simulation diagram of the mutual MRAS model is constructed and the resistance identification performance is studied in different motor states. Simulation results indicate that the stator resistance identification model with the mutual MRAS is effective. At the same time, the identification of motor temperature rising is possible with the identification of the stator resistance.

  20. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  1. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  2. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, compactness/sprawl indices were developed for metropolitan areas and counties which have been widely used in health and other research. In this study, we first update the original county index to 2010, then develop a refined index that accounts for more relevant factors, and finally seek to test the relationship between sprawl and traffic crash rates using structural equation modelling. Controlling for covariates, we find that sprawl is associated with significantly higher direct and indirect effects on fatal crash rates. The direct effect is likely due to the higher traffic speeds in sprawling areas, and the indirect effect is due to greater vehicle miles driven in such areas. Conversely, sprawl has negative direct relationships with total crashes and non-fatal injury crashes, and these offset (and sometimes overwhelm) the positive indirect effects of sprawl on both types of crashes through the mediating effect of increased vehicle miles driven. The most likely explanation is the greater prevalence of fender benders and other minor accidents in the low speed, high conflict traffic environments of compact areas, negating the lower vehicle miles travelled per capita in such areas.

  3. 77 FR 59986 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Kelly Services, Voith Industrial Services, Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, The Landing of GM, Filtration Services...

  4. 77 FR 62535 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services, Voith Industrial Services, Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, the Landing Of GM, Filtration Services...

  5. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ..., in the case of an electric drive system, attenuate the electric current driving the vehicle... assembly if signals from the pedal position sensor exceed design limits. This could occur without brake... are supplanted by electronic components including sensors, electric motors, a control module,...

  6. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... for emission standards and related test procedures contained in its urban bus regulations as they affect the 2002 and later model years. Urban buses are conventionally powered by a heavy-duty...

  7. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Programs B. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Europe C. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Japan D. Seat Belt... the negative consumer reaction, Congress adopted a provision, as part of the Motor Vehicle and School... seats. C. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Japan Japan's National Agency for Automobile Safety and Victim's...

  8. Time trend of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission factors from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Motor vehicle is an important emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and this is particularly true in urban areas. Motor vehicle emission factors (EFs) for individual PAH compound reported in the literature varied for 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission estimation. In this study, the major factors affecting EFs were investigated and characterized by regression models. Based on the model developed, a motor vehicle PAH emission inventory at country level was developed. It was found that country and model year are the most important factors affecting EFs for PAHs. The influence of the two factors can be quantified by a single parameter of per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity), which was used as the independent variables of the regression models. The models developed using randomly selected 80% of measurements and tested with the remained data accounted for 28 to 48% of the variations in EFs for PAHs measured in 16 countries over 50 years. The regression coefficients of the EF prediction models were molecular weight dependent. Motor vehicle emission of PAHs from individual countries in the world in 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, and 2025 were calculated and the global emission of total PAHs were 470, 390, and 430 Gg in 1985, 1995, and 2005 and will be 290 and 130 Gg in 2015 and 2025, respectively. The emission is currently passing its peak and will decrease due to significant decrease in China and other developing countries.

  9. Brief, Early Treatment for ASD/PTSD Following Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Edward J.; Blanchard, Edward B.; Kuhn, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Early, brief interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) have historically been, with few exceptions, unsuccessful with single session or even very brief (3 to 6 sessions) interventions. In contrast, very intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) applied over the first 6 to 8 weeks…

  10. Identity and Apprenticeship: The Case of English Motor Vehicle Maintenance Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    The paper arises from my PhD thesis on the learner biographies of retail and motor vehicle maintenance apprentices in Germany and England which explores the interrelationship of social structures and individual agency in identity formation over time and in particular learning environments. The paper reports initial findings, focusing largely on…

  11. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  12. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs... Technical Report on its existing Safety Standard 126, Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's...

  13. Impact of motor vehicle accidents on neck pain and disability in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Vos (Kees); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); J. Passchier (Jan); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High levels of continuous neck pain after a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are reported in cross-sectional studies. Knowledge of this association in general practice is limited. Aim: To compare the differences in perceived pain and disability in patients with acute neck pain du

  14. 76 FR 5248 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2005...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... passenger cars. The Act also addressed several other actions to reduce motor vehicle theft, such as... taken by insurers to assist in deterring thefts. Rental and leasing companies also are required to... leasing company to which this regulation applies must submit a report annually not later than October...

  15. 77 FR 23320 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... cars. The Act also addressed several other actions to reduce motor vehicle theft, such as increased... assist in deterring thefts. Rental and leasing companies also are required to provide annual theft reports to the agency. In accordance with 49 CFR 544.5, each insurer, rental and leasing company to...

  16. Validity of three accelerometers during treadmill walking and motor vehicle travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Matthew; Petrou, Andrea; Skipper, Lindsay; Wilcock, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    To determine the relative accuracy during treadmill walking and motor vehicle travel of the ActivPAL, PALlite and Digi-Walker accelerometers. Forty healthy volunteers wearing all accelerometers undertook either five treadmill walks (n=20) at speeds ranging between 0.6 and 1.4 m/s or a 15 min motor vehicle journey (n=20). Step counts recorded by each accelerometer were compared with the actual step count determined by video analysis (treadmill walking) or with an actual step count of zero (motor vehicle). Mean percentage measurement error was calculated and compared between devices by one-way ANOVA and Student t test. For treadmill walking, the measurement error was lowest for the ActivPAL, with no significant differences between the ActivPAL and the PALlite monitors. The measurement error was significantly higher for the Digi-Walker at speeds of Digi-Walker (25 steps), but not the ActivPAL monitor (0 steps). The ActivPAL accelerometer accurately measures step count over a range of walking speeds and, unlike the other accelerometers tested, is not falsely triggered by motor vehicle travel.

  17. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  18. CURRENT VECTOR CONTROL OF PERMANENT-MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR OF HYBRID VEHICLE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of traction permanent-magnet synchronous motor under current vector optimum control in the possible traction-speed mode area which are relevant for hybrid vehicle engine have been investigated. As a criterion of optimality a maximum of electromagnetic moment per unit of current have been taken.

  19. DEFINITION OF OUTPUT ENERGY PARAMETERS OF A VEHICLE WITH AIR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was made trailer-speed motion analysis of minibus GAZ-2217 with air motor instead of the internal combustion engine and recommendations allowing to determine the output power of the power plant parameters for vehicle movement at low speed in urban cycle.

  20. 77 FR 20486 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... diagram of the identity, design and location of the components of the antitheft device for the...

  1. Road traffic fatalities among pedestrians, bicyclists and mo-tor vehicle occupants in Sirjan, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the crash and injury data in forensic medicine for years of 2004-2007. Methods: A sample of over 567 accident cases (9 pedestrians, 116 bicyclists, and 442 motor vehicle occupants) was considered from the Department of Foren-sic Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, in-volving drivers of all ages and covering a four-year period.Results: The male fatality rates were significantly higher than female ones. The groups at 15-30 years old and at 30-55 years old had the first and second highest numbers of deaths (40% and 34%, respectively). There were sub-stantial differences in distribution of injuries in motor ve-hicle occupants and pedestrians and bicyclists. Among motor vehicle occupants, there were more head injuries, such as skull fracture, brain contusion, subdural haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage. Nearly 77% of fatalities occurred during 08:00-22:00 in Sirjan. Internal bleeding was also higher in motor vehicle occupants. Pedestrians and bicyclists also had head injuries frequently.Conclusions: In spite of reduction of road traffic fatali-ties in Sirjan in 2007, it is still one of the cities with high road traffic fatality in the world. These results underline the im-portance of preventive strategies in transportation, sug-gesting that different methods are necessary to reduce fa-talities of various traffic participants.

  2. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  3. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  4. 77 FR 71717 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    .... 30, 2005). ] SABIC Innovative Plastics US LLC (SABIC-IP) sent a letter to NHTSA on August 11, 2008... expected to affect the cost of manufacturing motor vehicle lighting equipment. D. Executive Order 13132... expenditure by State, local or tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of more than...

  5. Asphyxia: a rare cause of death for motor vehicle crash occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Carol; Stanley, Christina; Eastman, A Brent; Vaughan, Teresa; Vilke, Gary M; Hoyt, David B; Pacyna, Sharon; Smith, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicle related trauma is one of the leading causes of traumatic death. Although most of these deaths are because of severe blunt force trauma, there are people without severe injury who die of asphyxia related to the motor vehicle collision. There were 37 deaths because of motor vehicle related asphyxia in San Diego County during 1995-2004. Almost half (48.6%) of these deaths were because of compression asphyxia, 29.7% were positional asphyxia deaths, and 16.2% died of a combination of compression and positional asphyxia. We were unable to classify the mechanism of asphyxia for the remaining 5.4% of asphyxia deaths. Almost all occupants dying from asphyxia were involved in rollover crashes and may have been incapacitated by obesity, drug or alcohol intoxication, or blunt force trauma. Compression asphyxia deaths occurred both from vehicle crush with intrusion into the passenger compartment and from ejection of the occupant and subsequent crushing by the vehicle. Positional asphyxia occurred in positions interfering with normal respiration, including inversion. None of the occupants had injury severe enough to result in death at the scene if they had not first died of asphyxia. This study suggests classifying the mechanism of asphyxia for these fatalities may be a challenge to forensic pathologists who seldom see these rare deaths.

  6. DSP-Based Sensor Fault Detection and Post Fault-Tolerant Control of an Induction Motor-Based Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekheïra Tabbache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with sensor fault detection within a reconfigurable direct torque control of an induction motor-based electric vehicle. The proposed strategy concerns current, voltage, and speed sensors faults that are detected and followed by post fault-tolerant control to allow the vehicle continuous operation. The proposed approach is validated through experiments on an induction motor drive and simulations on an electric vehicle using a European urban and extraurban driving cycle.

  7. Dynamic wheelset drive load of the railway vehicle caused by short-circuit motor moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of dynamic response of the railway vehicle wheelset drives caused by short-circuit traction motor torque. The individual wheelset drive with hollow graduated shaft is one of subsystems of the two-axled vehicle bogie with two wheelset drives. The model respects the viscoelastic suspension of the both engine stators with gear housings mounted on the bogie frame and all the other couplings among bogie drive components. The dynamic response is investigated in dependence on longitudinal creepage and forward velocity of the vehicle at the moment of the sudden short-circuit in one asynchronous traction motor. The method is applied to bogie of the electric locomotive developed for speed about 200 km/h by the company ŠKODA TRANSPORTATION, s. r. o. The wheelset drive vibration is confronted with stability conditions of the whole bogie.

  8. Raising of Operating a Motor Vehicle Effects on Environment in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertman, S. A.; Ertman, J. A.; Zakharov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    Severe low-temperature conditions, in which considerable part of Russian Motor Park is operated, affect vehicles negatively. Cold weather causes higher fuel consumption and C02 emissions always. It is because of temperature profile changing of automobile motors, other systems and materials. For enhancement of car operation efficiency in severe winter environment the dependency of engine warm-up and cooling time on ambient air temperature and wind speed described by multifactorial mathematical models is established. -On the basis of experimental research it was proved that the coolant temperature constitutes the engine representative temperature and may be used as representative temperature of engine at large. The model of generation of integrated index for vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines was developed. the method for evaluation of vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines allows to decrease higher fuel consumption in cold climate.

  9. A dual-channel flux-switching permanent magnet motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Wu, Zhongze; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Baoan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    The flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is a relatively novel brushless machine having both magnets and concentrated windings in the stator, which exhibits inherently sinusoidal PM flux-linkage, back-EMF waveforms, and high torque capability. However, in the application of hybrid electric vehicles, it is essential to prevent magnets and armature windings moving in radial direction due to the possible vibration during operation, and to ensure fault-tolerant capability. Hence, in this paper based on an original FSPM motor, a dual-channel FSPM (DC-FSPM) motor with modified structure to fix both armature windings and magnets and improved reliability is proposed for a practical 10 kW integral starter/generator (ISG) in hybrid electric vehicles. The influences of different solutions and the end-effect on the static characteristics, are evaluated based on the 2D and 3D finite element analysis, respectively. Finally, both the predicted and experimental results, compared with a prototype DC-FSPM motor and an interior PM motor used in Honda Civic, confirm that the more sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and lower torque ripple can be achieved in the DC-FSPM motor, whereas the torque is smaller under the same coil current.

  10. 75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... issuing this final rule to facilitate the development and introduction of fuel cell vehicles, a type of... so by revising the agency's standard regulating electrolyte spillage and electrical shock...

  11. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  12. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-05-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  13. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  14. Vehicle Fleet Information - BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN: Bureau of Motor Vehicle License Branch Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 142 branch offices of the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles (BMV). Addresses for each branch...

  15. Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling and Software Simulation Computing for Roundabout in Urban City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban road traffic systems, roundabout is considered as one of the core traffic bottlenecks, which are also a core impact of vehicle emission and city environment. In this paper, we proposed a transport control and management method for solving traffic jam and reducing emission in roundabout. The platform of motor vehicle testing system and VSP-based emission model was established firstly. By using the topology chart of the roundabout and microsimulation software, we calculated the instantaneous emission rates of different vehicle and total vehicle emissions. We argued that Integration-Model, combing traffic simulation and vehicle emission, can be performed to calculate the instantaneous emission rates of different vehicle and total vehicle emissions at the roundabout. By contrasting the exhaust emissions result between no signal control and signal control in this area at the rush hour, it draws a conclusion that setting the optimizing signal control can effectively reduce the regional vehicle emission. The proposed approach has been submitted to a simulation and experiment that involved an environmental assessment in Satellite Square, a roundabout in medium city located in China. It has been verified that setting signal control with knowledge engineering and Integration-Model is a practical way for solving the traffic jams and environmental pollution.

  16. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose...

  17. 40 CFR 80.533 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the provisions of § 80.554(d), the baseline volumes of motor vehicle diesel fuel produced..., BMV equals the average annual volume of motor vehicle diesel fuel produced or imported from January 1... annual volume of motor vehicle diesel fuel produced or imported during the period from January 1,...

  18. 40 CFR 80.530 - Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31, 2006? 80.530 Section 80.530 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.530 Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle...

  19. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms to report a domestic fleet crash. The forms should be carried in any domestic fleet motor vehicle....

  1. Electromagnetic interference in electrical systems of motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubiński, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic ignition system affects the electronic equipment of the vehicle by electric and magnetic fields. The measurement of radio electromagnetic interference originating from the ignition system affecting the audiovisual test bench was carried out with a variable speed of the ignition system. The paper presents measurements of radio electromagnetic interference in automobiles. In order to determine the level of electromagnetic interference, the audiovisual test bench was equipped with a set of meters for power consumption and assessment of the level of electromagnetic interference. Measurements of the electromagnetic interference level within the audiovisual system were performed on an experimental test bench consisting of the ignition system, starting system and charging system with an alternator and regulator.

  2. Sensorless torque control scheme of induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Cheng SHAO

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the sensorless torque robust tracking problem of the induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)applications is addressed.Because motor parameter variations in HEV applications are larger than in industrial drive system,the conventional field-oriented control(FOC)provides poor performance.Therefore,a new robust PI-based extension of the FOC controller and a speed-flux observer based on sliding mode and Lyapunov theory are developed in order to Improve the overall performance.Simulation results show that the proposed sensorless torque control scheme is robust with respect to motor parameter variations and loading disturbances.In addition,the operating flux of the motor is chosen optimally to minimize the consumption of electric energy,which results in a significant reduction in energy losses shown by simulations.

  3. Design of a high-torque machine with two integrated motors axes reducing the electric vehicle consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chaieb

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The motorization of electric vehicle needs to work at a constant power on a wide range of speed. In order to be able to satisfy these requirements, we describe in this paper a solution, which consists in modifying of a simple structure of a permanent magnet motor by a double rotor structure integrating two motor axes into the same machine. This article describes, then, a design methodology of a permanent magnet motor with double rotor, radial flux, and strong starting torque for electric vehicles. This work consists on the analytical dimensioning of the motor by taking into account several operation constraints followed by a modelling by the finite elements method. This study is followed by the comparison between this motor and a motor with one rotor. A global model of the motor- converter is developed for the purpose to answer several optimisation problems

  4. Dynamic motion stabilization for front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new dynamic motion stabilization approach to front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles. The approach includes functions such as traction control system, electronic differential system, and electronic stability control. The presented electric vehicle was endowed with anti-skid performance in longitudinal accelerated start; smooth turning with less tire scrubbing; and safe driving experience in two-dimensional steering. The analysis of the presented system is given in numerical derivations. For practical verifications, this article employed a hands-on electric vehicle named Corsa-electric vehicle to carry out the tests. The presented approach contains an integrated scheme which can achieve the mentioned functions in a single microprocessor. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented methodology.

  5. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  6. Modeling and Performance Prediction of Induction Motor Drive System for Electric Drive Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-yong; CHEN Quan-shi; SUN Feng-chun

    2007-01-01

    The principle of rotor flux-orientation vector control on 100/150 kW three-phase AC induction motor for electric drive tracked vehicles is analyzed, and the mathematic model is deduced. The drive system of induction motor is modeled and simulated by Matlab/Simulink. The characteristics of motor and drive system are analyzed and evaluated by practical bench test. The simulation and bench test results show that the model is valid, and the driving control system has constant torque under rated speed, constant torque above rated speed, widely variable speed range and better dynamic characteristics. In order to evaluate the practical applications of high power induction motor driving system in electric drive tracked vehicles, a collaborative simulation based on interface technology of Matlab/Simulink and multi-body dynamic analysis software known as RecurDyn is done, the vehicle performances are predicted in the acceleration time (0-32 km/h) and turning characteristic (v=10 km/h, R=B).

  7. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namju Jeon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  8. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  9. Background paper for the development of motor vehicle fuel consumption regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The automotive industry is Canada's largest manufacturing sector and consists of 23 passenger or commercial vehicle assembly plants and more than 640 auto parts plants. Over 150,000 people are employed in automotive assembly and component manufacturing. Manufacturing is clustered in central Canada, while distribution is spread across the country. This paper provided background information on the development of motor vehicle consumption regulations. Contextual information was provided on the Canadian motor vehicle manufacturing industry; the history of motor vehicle fuel consumption regulations; and Canadian regulation of fuel consumption. Experience under the standards and developments in Canada in this area were also discussed. Last, the paper identified and discussed other international policies and regulatory regimes. The paper presented a comparison of the current and future standards or targets in the various regimes that were standardized to North American test methods and applicable to cars and passenger-carrying light trucks against those of the United States and California. It was concluded that there are no widely used international standards for fuel efficiency that could be adopted in Canada. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  11. Detection and Classification of Motor Vehicle Noise in a Forested Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey L.; Reed, Sarah E.; Dietz, Matthew S.; Fristrup, Kurt M.

    2013-11-01

    Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management.

  12. Overcrowded motor vehicle trauma from the smuggling of illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Mary F; Judkins, Dan; Porter, John M; Latifi, Rifat; Williams, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    Overcrowded motor vehicle crashes caused by the very active criminal enterprise of smuggling illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest is a recent and under-recognized trauma etiology. A computerized database search from 1990 through 2003 of local newspaper reports of overcrowded motor vehicle crashes along the 281 miles of Arizona's border with Mexico was conducted. This area was covered by two level I trauma centers, but since July 2003 is now served only by the University Medical Center. Each of these crashes involved a single motor vehicle in poor mechanical shape packed with illegal immigrants. Speeding out of control on bad tires, high-speed rollovers result in ejection of most passengers. Since 1999, there have been 38 crashes involving 663 passengers (an average of 17 per vehicle) with an injury rate of 49 per cent and a mortality rate of 9 per cent. This relatively recent phenomenon (no reports from before 1998) of trauma resulting from human smuggling is lethal and demonstrates the smugglers' wanton disregard for human life, particularly when facing apprehension. Even a few innocent bystanders have been killed. These crashes overwhelm a region's trauma resources and must be recognized when planning the distribution of trauma resources to border states.

  13. 机动车辆火灾调查%Investigation on motor vehicles fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建林

    2011-01-01

    近年来,机动车遍布全国各大城市,已成为移动的建筑,随之而来的机动车辆火灾事故频发,载客车辆因人员高度密集造成群死群伤;载货车辆因货物集中或运载危险品造成重大损失,并引发交通堵塞、环境污染等次生灾害.本文主要介绍了机动车火灾的现场勘验和调查,通过现场勘验确定起火点,调查询问收集和发现证据等方面对机动车辆火灾进行研究,从中发现起火原因的规律和特点,采取有针对性的措施,有效地遏制和减少此类火灾发生,达到预防机动车辆火灾的目的.%In recent years, the motor vehicles scattered all the big cities in the whole country, and became the moving building. The following problems were the fire accidents of motor vehicles occurred frequently, the passenger vehicle accident caused massive casualties due to the high density crowd, the freight vehicle accident caused major loss due to the goods concentration of hazardous material transportation, and it might result in secondary disasters like traffic jam or environmental pollution. In this paper, the on-spot inspection and investigation of motor vehicle fire were introduced. The motor vehicle fire was studied in various aspects, such as fire origin determination by scene inspection, evidence collection and detection by investigation and inquiry, and the principle and characteristics of fire cause could be found. So the pertinent measures could be applied to effectively contain and reduce the occurrence of this kind of fire and achieve the object of preventing motor vehicle fire.

  14. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Mawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  16. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  17. Effect of motor vehicle emission on assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Pryimak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of motor vehicle emission ingredients on the state of assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants is studied in Dnepropetrovsk. The morphometric indices of leaves of studied species are discussed. The changes of the leaves area and their amount on a plant are shown. The damages of assimilative organs and its structure abnormalities are revealed. The negative influence of motor transport emission on forming and growth of leaves was determined. The Aster novі-belgii L. and Tagetes patula L. are resistant, but Begonia×semperflorens hort, Salvia splendens L. and Zinnia elegans Jacq. are sensitive to the influence of emissions.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the tradeoffs between the electric motor and the transmission in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, E.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency, weight, and cost of various propulsion system for 4-passenger electric vehicles are compared. These systems comprise the electric motor and the required speed reducing transmission to obtain the appropriate speed at the wheel. Three types of motors, dc synchronous, and squirrel-cage were considered at 6000 ycm and 24 000 rpm for a peak power of 40 kW. Two types of gearing selected were a single speed differential and a differential with a differential with a 4-speed gearbox. Only components that were readily realizable within present state-of-the-art were considered.

  19. 76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... located outside the occupant compartment shall not enter the occupant compartment. Clarifies the... S5.2 allowed a battery module located outside the passenger compartment to become dislodged as long... sport utility vehicles (SUV) or station wagons, a battery module located inside the occupant...

  20. 78 FR 13853 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; Vehicle Rollover...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... regulatory impact analysis for FMVSS No. 126, and 2002 accident rollover data from the NHTSA Web site www..., rollover resistance ratings were based solely on a vehicle's Static Stability Factor (SSF), a calculation... prevents an 18 kilogram (40 pound) linear impactor from moving more than 100 millimeters (4 inches)...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4041-3 - Application of tax on sales of special motor fuel for use in motor vehicles and motorboats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vehicle which is used to haul clay from a clay pit to its factory. This vehicle has not been registered... to haul clay from the pit to the factory and in the fork lift truck, assuming both of these are used... exemption from tax with respect to special motor fuel sold for use on a farm for farming purposes or...

  2. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of the Fixed Timing Fishhook steering and grade B road excitation. The results show that the electromagnetic force has a certain effect on the load transfer and can reduce the antirollover performance of the vehicle. Therefore, the effect of the electromagnetic force on the rollover characteristic should be considered in the vehicle design. To this end, extensive analysis was conducted on the effect of the road level, vehicle speed, and the road adhesion coefficient on the vehicle rollover stability. The results indicate that vehicle rollover stability worsens when the above-mentioned factors increase, the most influential factor being the road adhesion coefficient followed by vehicle speed and road level. This paper can offer certain theory basis for the design of the in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles.

  3. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  4. 77 FR 65765 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... vehicle lines experienced a significant theft rate reduction after installation of a Pass-Key like... by the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) and compiled by the agency, show that theft rates are lower for exempted GM models equipped with the PASS-Key like...

  5. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  6. MODELLING AND TORQUE TRACKING CONTROL OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabirin Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.

  7. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  8. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  9. CO{sub 2} from motor vehicles - Issue and state of RD in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Kazuo [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The transportation sector, particularly road transport, is a major cause of growing oil consumption and is, therefore, a dominant source of increasing worldwide atmospheric CO{sub 2}. It is also a larger source of conventional atmospheric pollutants than any other single human activity. Thus, transportation is obviously given primary concern in global environmental issues. Although the impact of motor vehicles on the environment is often mentioned, it will be helpful to review several basic considerations before starting discussion.

  10. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maddalena eBoccia; Laura ePiccardi; Pierluigi eCordellieri; Cecilia eGuariglia; Anna Maria eGiannini

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the r...

  11. Optimization of motor and gearbox for an ultra light electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Isabelle; Sergeant, Peter; Van den Bossche, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The integrated design of the drivetrain of a single person ultra light electric vehicle powered by batteries is optimized towards high efficiency and low mass. The drivetrain of each front wheel consists of an outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a gearbox and the power electronics with converter and control print. The complete drivetrain is optimized for the New European Driving Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure. For the optimization of the complete drivetrain analyti...

  12. The link between texting and motor vehicle collision frequency in the orthopaedic trauma population

    OpenAIRE

    Neil M. Issar; Kadakia, Rishin J.; James M. Tsahakis; Zachary T. Yoneda; Sethi, Manish K.; Mir, Hassan R.; Kristin Archer; Obremskey, William T.; A. Alex Jahangir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This study will evaluate whether or not texting frequency while driving and/or texting frequency in general are associated with an increased risk of incurring a motor vehicle collision (MVC) resulting in orthopaedic trauma injuries. Methods: All patients who presented to the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Orthopaedic Trauma Clinic were administered a questionnaire to determine background information, mean phone use, texting frequency, texting frequency while drivin...

  13. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Methods Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994–2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥ 0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994–June 2009 while July 2009–2011 represented the post-commercialization period. Results In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p < 0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. Conclusions Prevention efforts and policy changes in Colorado are needed to address this concerning trend in marijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. PMID:24831752

  14. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994-2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994-June 2009 while July 2009-2011 represented the post-commercialization period. In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p<0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. Prevention efforts and policy changes in Colorado are needed to address this concerning trend in marijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  16. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-01-01

    The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previou...

  17. An augmented gravity model of South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Sichei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study applies an “augmented” gravity model to South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories to 71 countries over the period 1994 to 2004.  A static panel data model is specified and estimated.  Several conclusions are drawn from the study.  First, a number of variables, namely, importer income, distance, level of import tariffs, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, use of right-hand drive vehicles are important determinants of bilateral trade flows for motor vehicles, parts and accessories.  Second, solving the gravity model deterministically, we show that export potential exists in a number of countries like Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Malaysia.  A number of barriers hinder the members of the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA from exploiting these export markets. These include very high import tariffs, lack of South Africa’s diplomatic mission in the trading partner and the uncertainty regarding what happens at the expiry of the Motor Industry Development Programme (MIDP in 2012. Finally, the export potential identified by the gravity model should be regarded only as an indication since it is sensitive to the model specification and sample of countries.

  18. [Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lívia Victório de Carvalho; Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez

    2009-02-01

    Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70); front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32); and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI: 8.10-159.52. Contributing factors included highway maintenance problems (OR = 4.35; CI: 1.94-9.75) and disobeying traffic signs (OR = 5.69; CI: 2.01-16.12). In conclusion, reduction of motor vehicle accidents on this highway requires comprehensive intervention rather than targeting measures only to drivers or highway patrol personnel, but considering regional issues and their economic, social, and cultural dimensions.

  19. Operation analysis of AC traction motors in terms of electromagnetic torque capability on sustainable railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulucea Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable operation of electric railway systems represents a significant purpose nowadays in the development of high power and high speed locomotives and trains. At present, high speed electric vehicles mostly work with three-phase induction motors or three-phase synchronous motors as traction motors. The two electric machine types have different efficiencies at different operation points, and experience differences with respect to safety, speed and power, energy use and exergy efficiency. An important issue that correlates these aspects is the electromagnetic torque developed by an electric traction motor. In order to provide an overview of the technical performance of the operation of sustainable railway systems, a detailed analysis is carried out of the electromagnetic torque capability of AC electric motors utilized as traction motors in modern locomotives of high power and/or high speed. The results of this work may help in enhancing the main criteria for optimising the safe and sustainable operation of electric railway traction systems.

  20. Environmental assessment proposed restriction of motorized vehicle use on the beaches of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal recommends the closure of approximately 13% miles of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge beach to unauthorized motorized vehicle use from May 15 through...

  1. Control of a Dual-Stator Flux-Modulated Motor for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategies for a novel dual-stator flux-modulated (DSFM motor for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The DSFM motor can be applied to EVs because of its simple winding structure, high reliability, and its use of two stators and rotating modulation steels in the air gap. Moreover, it outperforms conventional brushless doubly-fed machines in terms of control performance. Two stator-current-oriented vector controls with different excitation in the primary winding, direct and alternating current excitation, are designed, simulated, and evaluated on a custom-made DSFM prototype allowing the decoupled control of torque. The stable speed response and available current characteristics strongly validate the feasibility of the two control methods. Furthermore, the proposed control methods can be employed in other applications of flux-modulated motors.

  2. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  3. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  4. Ancillary benefits for climate change mitigation and air pollution control in the world's motor vehicle fleets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    The global motor vehicle population has grown very rapidly in the past half century and is expected to continue to grow rapidly for the next several decades, especially in developing countries. As a result, vehicles are a major source of urban air pollution in many cities and are the fastest-growing source of greenhouse emissions. Strategies exist to reduce both problems, but many countries emphasize one over the other rather than pursuing strategies that reduce both concerns. Using diesel as an example, this article illustrates that it is now possible not only to reduce carbon dioxide with the increased use of diesel vehicles but also to improve urban air pollution. Doing so requires both stringent emissions regulations and clean fuels. Several principles contained in the Bellagio Memorandum are highlighted as guides for policy makers.

  5. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and

  6. Fordism and Taylorism are responsible for the early success and recent decline of the U.S. motor vehicle industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the ways in which the ideas of Fordism and Taylorism have been responsible for the success of the U.S. motor vehicle companies until 1955, and for their subsequent decline. On three occasions, the motor vehicle industry has changed the fundamental ideas on the process of manufacturing, and, perhaps more significantly, on how humans work together to create value. Under Fordism and Taylorism, the conditions of employment at the assembly lines became less and less bearable ...

  7. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidiscipl...

  8. The effect of motor vehicle emission towards lead (Pb content of rice field soil with different clay content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.Wati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle gas emission contains lead (Pb which is a hazardous and toxic substance. Agricultural land, especially rice field, which is located nearby roads passed by many motor vehicle, are susceptible to the accumulation of Pb. If Pb is permeated by plants cultivated in the rice field, it will be very hazardous for humans as they are the final consumers. Hence, it is essential to identify Pb content of rice-field soil initiated by motor vehicle gas emission. This study was aimed to identify the effects of motor vehicle density, the distance between rice-field and road, and the clay content of soil towards Pb content of soils in Blitar and Ngawi Regencies of East Java. The method used for the study was survey method managed by using three-factor nested design with three replicates. The results of this study showed that motor vehicle density and the distance of rice field to road provide significant affected the total of Pb content of soil. However, the dissemination pattern of Pb in the soil was irregular due to the factors of climate and environment. Before Pb reached soil surface, Pb was spread out in the air due to the effect of temperature, wind velocity, vehicle velocity, size of vehicle, and road density. Consequently, the location with low motor vehicle density and positioned faraway to the road had higher total rate of Pb than the location with high motor vehicle density and positioned nearby the road. Clay content affected the total rate of Pb content as much as 37%, every 1% increase of clay content increased the total rate of Pb as much as 0.08 mg/kg.

  9. 75 FR 64779 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City, Cook County, and New Jersey Tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City... Jersey, New York City, and Cook County, Illinois are preempted by Federal law. The Safe, Accountable... York City's Administrative Code, Sec. 11-809, requires CMVs used principally in New York City or in...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.75 - Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....75 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is responsible...

  11. A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V

    2015-12-01

    Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community.

  12. Longitudinal dynamics of motor vehicles. Traffic system motor vehicle, power demand and energy demand, power train. Book to the course of lectures 'Motor car engineering'. 14. ed.; Laengsdynamik von Kraftfahrzeugen. Verkehrssystem Kraftfahrzeug, Leistungs- und Energiebedarf, Antriebstrang, Fahrzeugdynamik. Vorlesungsumdruck Fahrzeugtechnik I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallentowitz, Henning; Gies, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the longitudinal dynamics of motor vehicles. The longitudinal dynamics describe the procedures and components affecting the movement of a vehicle in its longitudinal direction. The introducing chapter describes the traffic system motor vehicle as well as the economic aspects of motor vehicles. The following chapters of this contribution are concerned to the following topics: (a) Power demand and energy demand with consideration of the wheel resistance, air resistance, upward gradient resistance and the acceleration resistance; (b) Power train; (c) Vehicle dynamics under consideration of the road performance, fuel consumption, propulsion principles and driving borders.

  13. 40 CFR 2.311 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 1901 et seq. (2) Average fuel economy has... section applies, except that information this is fuel economy data is not eligible for confidential... information obtained under the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. 2.311 Section 2.311...

  14. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  15. Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ha, Eunhee; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Sungmi; Moon, Byung-In; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

  16. Accidents in The Netherlands involving heavy motor vehicles : an analysis concerning underrun protection of rear ends, compared to the sides and the front ends. On behalf of RDW Vehicle Technology & Information Centre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1998-01-01

    In this report accident data concerning heavy vehicles (all motor vehicles with a total weight of more than 3500 kg) are studied. Special attention is given to the question whether accidents involving heavy motor vehicles gave specific reason for concern regarding other road users with respect to un

  17. Accidents in The Netherlands involving heavy motor vehicles : an analysis concerning underrun protection of rear ends, compared to the sides and the front ends. On behalf of RDW Vehicle Technology & Information Centre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1998-01-01

    In this report accident data concerning heavy vehicles (all motor vehicles with a total weight of more than 3500 kg) are studied. Special attention is given to the question whether accidents involving heavy motor vehicles gave specific reason for concern regarding other road users with respect to un

  18. The influence of the non-motor vehicles for the car-following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Cheng, Rong-jun; Lei, Li; Ge, Hong-xia

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the non-motor vehicles and traffic jerk is considered for the car-following model in this paper. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. A control signal which is the velocity difference between the target vehicle and the following vehicle is added into the model and the stability condition is obtained. Numerical simulation is used to display the results for the stability of the model with and without control signal.

  19. Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ables, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile

  20. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  1. Passenger compartment intrusion as a predictor of significant injury for children in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan L; Nance, Michael L; Arbogast, Kristy B; Elliott, Michael R; Winston, Flaura K

    2009-02-01

    Passenger compartment intrusion, loss of integrity of the vehicle occupant compartment due to a motor vehicle crash, has frequently been used as a triage criterion. Data to support intrusion as a proxy for injury severity in child occupants are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intrusion and injury to children in motor vehicle crashes. Crash investigation data were reviewed from the partners for child passenger safety database, a large, child-focused crash surveillance system. Data included: intrusion (centimeters), direction of impact, age of occupant, and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score. Analyses examined the relationship between the amount of intrusion and the risk of any AIS > or = 2, or > or = 3 injury. Data were available on 880 children, age 0 year to 15 years. AIS > or = 2 and > or = 3 injuries occurred in 40.3% and 12.6% of child occupants, respectively. Intrusion was strongly and positively associated with the odds of both an AIS > or = 2 and > or = 3 injury (p or = 2, or > or = 3 injury increased on average by 2.9% (95% CI = 1.9-3.8%), or 4.0% (95% CI = 2.7-5.2%), respectively, for each additional centimeter of intrusion, adjusting for age, restraint use, seating row, and direction of impact. The association between passenger compartment intrusion and injury in children supports its application in triage, and usefulness in injury predictive models. Future studies should determine methods for providing valid field information on intrusion to the trauma team.

  2. Study on Adaptive Slid Mode Controller for Improving Handling Stability of Motorized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQiang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive slid mode controller was established for improving the handling stability of motorized electric vehicle (MEV. First and foremost, the structure and advantages of electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors will be provided. Then, an ideal cornering model of vehicles will be brought and analyzed, after which a method to estimate side-slip angle was also proposed and three typical sensors were used in the theory. Besides, an idea for the recognition of road adhesion coefficient was derived based on MEV platform, which will be helpful for better control performances. Finally, the scheme of control method was given and some typical tests for observing handling properties were implemented based on Simulink and Carsim software. With the outcomes from the experiments, which vividly showed the merits of the controller, one can come to a conclusion that MEV that equips with the adaptive slid mode controller always enjoys better handling performances than the one without control. Furthermore, the controller researched is friendly to the real-time working conditions, which will hold practical values in the future.

  3. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and

  4. The Maintenance of Motor Vehicle Equipment%机动车辆设备的维护修理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle exposes different breakdowns in different stages.The principles of motor vehicle maintenance are:main prevention,forced maintenance,and timely repairing.In order to solve problems of motor vehicle effectively, reasons and types of breakdowns should be analyzed and measures should be taken to guarantee the normal operation of vehicles.%机动车辆在不同时期会出现不同的故障.机动车辆维护与修理原则是:预防为主、强制维护、及时修理.为了有效解决车辆的故障问题,需要有针对性地进行分析研究故障产生的原因和类型,并采取可行措施有效解决故障问题,保证车辆的正常行驶.

  5. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  6. Autopsy investigation and Bayesian approach to coronary artery disease in victims of motor-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; Flores, Jose; Merigioli, Sara; LeDuc, Louis; Benito, Begoña; Partemi, Sara; Arzamendi, Dabit; Campuzano, Oscar; Leung, Tack Li; Iglesias, Anna; Talajic, Mario; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Ramon

    2011-09-01

    Each year, 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of motor-vehicle accidents (MVA), representing a tremendous burden to healthcare. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of coronary disease and its possible role in motor-vehicle accidents. We examined consecutive cases of non-hospital sudden death autopsies in the area of West Quebec during the period of 2002-2006, and we focused on those victims of MVA. Severe coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a narrowing of ≥ 75% of a cross-sectional area or the presence of acute plaque events in major epicardial coronary arteries. From a total cohort of 1260 autopsies, MVA were responsible for 123 deaths, 100 of whom were men and 23 were women. Significant CAD was documented in approximately 37% of these cases. In individuals older than 60 years, the prevalence of significant CAD and ischemia were 86.2% and 19.8%, respectively. A percentage of 40% of the coronary patients showed erratic driving before the accident, as observed by witnesses. Statistical analysis showed that an individual affected by CAD has 9% probability of suffering a motor-vehicle accident. The prevalence of severe CAD and acute myocardial ischemia is very high among individuals who have suffered a MVA. Our data suggest the hypothesis that acute CAD could be the cause of accidents in a large group of the drivers affected by coronary disease. For these reasons CAD could be investigated in drivers above 50 years old, as a possible preventive measure and determinant of individual risk stratification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Naseri Esfahani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency.Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features.Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license.Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  8. Evaluation of geriatric patients with trauma scores after motor vehicle trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yunsur; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Daş, Murat; Karakayali, Onur; Delice, Orhan; Kavalci, Cemil

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting in-hospital mortality among geriatric trauma patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) following a motor vehicle collision. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a high-volume tertiary care facility in the central Anatolian Region. Clinical data were extracted from hospital databases for all eligible geriatric patients (either driver, passenger or pedestrian) with entries dated between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the in-hospital mortality effects of variables including demographic characteristics, trauma mechanisms, injured body parts and various trauma scores. There were 395 geriatric motor vehicle trauma presentations to the ED during the 3-year period. Of these patients, 371 (93.9%) survived, and 24 (6.1%) died in the ED, operating room or intensive care unit. The multivariate logistic regression model included the following variables: heart failure, cranial trauma, abdominal trauma, thoracic trauma, pelvic trauma, Glasgow Coma Score and Injury Severity Score (ISS). These variables were chosen because univariate analysis indicated that they were potential predictors of mortality. The multivariate logistic regression showed that the presence of heart failure (OR: 20.2), cranial trauma (OR: 3.6), abdominal trauma (OR: 26.9), pelvic trauma (OR: 9.9) and ISS (OR: 1.2) were predictors of in-hospital mortality in the study population. In our study, heart failure, cranial trauma, abdominal trauma, pelvic trauma, and ISS were found to be the most important predictors of in-hospital mortality among geriatric motor vehicle trauma patients. © 2013.

  9. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003–2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. PMID:26967529

  10. Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaril, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport, one of the main consumers of motor fuel and source of toxic emissions, soot, and greenhouse gases, are determined to a large extent by the fuel quality which is characterized by many parameters. Fuel density is one of these parameters and it can serve as an indicator of fuel quality. It has been theoretically substantiated that an increased density of motor fuel has a negative impact both on the environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport. The use of fuels with a high density leads to an increase in carbonization within the engine, adversely affecting the vehicle performance and increasing environmental pollution. A program of technological measures targeted at reducing the density of the fuel used was offered. It includes a solution to the problem posed by changes in the refining capacities ratio and the temperature range of gasoline and diesel fuel boiling, by introducing fuel additives and adding butanes to the gasoline. An environmental tax has been developed which allows oil refineries to have a direct impact on the production of fuels with improved environmental performance, taking into account the need to minimize the density of the fuel within a given category of quality.

  11. Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some in...

  12. Traumatic Rupture of A Posterior Mediastinal Teratoma following Motor-Vehicle Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a posterior mediastinal mature cystic teratoma with rupture secondary to blunt chest trauma in a 20-year-old male involved in a motor-vehicle accident. Initial treatment was guided by Advanced Trauma Life Support and a tube thoracostomy was performed for presumed hemothorax. The heterogeneous collection within the thoracic cavity was discovered to be the result of a ruptured cystic mass. Pathologic findings confirmed the mass consistent with a mature cystic teratoma. As mediastinal teratomas are most commonly described arising from the anterior mediastinum, the posterior location of the teratoma described in this report is exceedingly rare.

  13. Study on Modeling and Control Strategy for Electric Drive Motor of Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖自力; 黄苏融; 马晓军; 庞宾宾

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the requirements for electric transmission system of a military tracked vehicle, the motor' s design indexes were analysed and calculated. A model based on saturate inductance parameter of interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor was brought forward by using finite element analysis. And its control strategy based on the largest running capability was studied also. The experiment resuhs for a scale model show that the modelling method improves the model' s accuracy, and the motor' s control strategy is effective.

  14. Restraint use in motor vehicle crash fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lois K; Farrell, Caitlin A; Mannix, Rebekah

    2015-09-01

    Despite improvements in child passenger safety legislation and equipment, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) continue to be the leading cause of death in children younger than 10 years. The objective of this study was to describe factors associated with restraint use in fatal MVC in children 0 year to 9 years old. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System, maintained by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, was used to obtain data on MVC fatalities from 2001 to 2010 in children 0 year to 9 years old. The main outcome was restraint use. Demographic information (age, sex, and race) and crash characteristics including vehicle type (sedan, van, truck, sports utility vehicle) and seat position in the vehicle were analyzed with the χ statistic to evaluate these factors for any restraint use compared with no restraint use in MVC fatalities. There were 7,625 MVC fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old from 2001 to 2010.Among these fatalities, 4,041 (53%) had any restraint use. Front seat passengers accounted for 20.9% (1,595 of 7,625) of the fatalities. Children 0 year to 3 years old had a higher proportion of restraint use than children 4 years to 9 years old (p passenger safety to improve proper restraint use and to decrease MVC fatalities in children. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level II.

  15. Descriptions of Motor Vehicle Collisions by Participants in Emergency Department–Based Studies: Are They Accurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young M. Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examined the accuracy of research participant characterizations of motor vehicle collisions (MVC.Methods: We conducted an emergency department-based prospective study of adults presenting for care after experiencing an MVC. Study participants completed a structured clinical interview that assessed the number of lanes of the road where the collision took place, vehicle type, road condition, speed limit, seat belt use, airbag deployment, vehicle damage, time of collision, and use of ambulance transportation. Study participant data were then compared with information recorded by Michigan State Police at the scene of the MVC. Agreement between research participant reports and police-reported data were assessed by using percentage agreement and j coefficients for categorical variables and correlation coefficients for continuous variables.Results: There were 97 study participants for whom emergency department interviews and Michigan State Police Report information were available. Percentage agreement was 51% for number of lanes,76% for car drivability, 88% for road condition, 91% for vehicle type, 92% for seat belt use, 94% for airbag deployment, 96% for speed limit, 97% for transportation by ambulance, and 99% for vehicle seat position. j values were 0.32 for seat belt use, 0.34 for number of lanes, 0.73 for vehicle type, 0.76 for speed limit, 0.77 for road condition, 0.87 for airbag deployment, 0.90 for vehicle seat position, and 0.94for transport by ambulance. Correlation coefficients were 0.95 for the time of the collision, and 0.58 for extent of damage to the vehicle. Most discrepancies between patients and police about extent of vehicle damage occurred for cases in which the patient reported moderate or severe damage but the police reported only slight damage.Conclusion: For most MVC characteristics, information reported by research participants was consistent with police-reported data. Agreement was moderate or high for

  16. Children with special physical health care needs: restraint use and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kallan, Michael J; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Blum, Nathan J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    Physical disabilities may affect a child passenger's fit within a conventional motor vehicle restraint. The aim of this study is to describe and compare injury risk in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) among children with and without special physical health care needs (SPHCN). This analysis, conducted in 2007-2008, utilizes data collected between December 1998 and November 2002 in a cross-sectional study of children ≤15 years old involved in crashes of State-Farm insured vehicles in 15 states and the District of Columbia. Parent reports via telephone survey were used to define pre-crash SPHCN, restraint status, and occurrence of significant injuries using a validated survey. Complete data were collected for 18,852 children aged 0-15 years; 159 children were reported to have a SPHCN (0.8% and 0.7% of children aged 0-8 and 9-15 years, respectively). A greater proportion of children with SPHCN aged 0-8 years were appropriately restrained (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in restraint use among children with and without SPHCN aged 9-15 years. There was no significant association between the presence of a SPHCN and injury risk in either age group, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics (children aged 0-8 years: OR 1.27, 95% CI: 0.48-3.33; children aged 9-15 years: OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.38-6.11). Children with and without SPHCN have similar injury risk in MVC, despite increased age-appropriate restraint usage among children aged 0-8 years. When counseling families about vehicle safety, practitioners should consider the fit of a child with SPHCN in a restraint system.

  17. A separately excited synchronous motor as high efficient drive in electric vehicles; Die stromerregte Synchronmaschine als hocheffizienter Traktionsmotor in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illiano, Enzo [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung; Brusa Elektronik AG, Sennfeld (Switzerland)

    2013-08-15

    The separately excited synchronous motor has several advantages which make this topology a very promising traction drive for electric vehicles. The comparison of the separately excited motor with other common topologies also shows the proper regulation of the current in the rotor will rise the complexity of the entire system. In addition the presence of a rotor current has a negative effect on the continuous power of the motor, as the investigations of ETH Zuerich and Brusa show. An optimised motor regulation and an accurate rotor shape design are indispensible to reduce the power deficit. (orig.)

  18. Associations between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and physical activity in Colombian adults from urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Diana C; Gomez, Luis F; Mallarino, Christina; Arango, Carlos M; Flórez, Alberto; Nylander, Andrew; Parra, Diana C

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary behaviors are associated with less physical activity. Little evidence exists about this association and its relation with commuting time in Latin America. This study examined the association between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and physical activity levels in the domains of leisure time physical activity and transportation, among Colombian adults in urban areas. A secondary data analysis of the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. Time spent traveling in motor vehicles and physical activity were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Binary logistic regressions were conducted. Time spent traveling in motor vehicles for 120 minutes or more was reported among 27.6% of the sample. The prevalence of walking and bicycling as a means of transportation for at least 150 minutes per week was 34% and 4.4%, respectively. Achieving at least 150 minutes of leisure time physical activity a week was reported by 18.4% of the sample. This study suggests negative associations between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and active transport, with significant trend associations in stratified analyses. No significant associations were found between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and leisure time physical activity.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of the Vibration Characteristics of the In-Wheel Motor Driving Vehicle Based on Bond Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bond graph theory is applied to the modeling and analysis of the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle. First, an 11-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle is established based on bond graph, and then the correctness of the model is verified. Second, under the driving condition of class B road excitations and a speed of 50 Km/h, the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle are simulated and analyzed, and the activity of each part in the system is then calculated. Third, these parts that have less of an effect on the vibration characteristics of an in-wheel motor driving vehicle are identified according to the magnitude of the activity, and then the model is simplified by removing these parts. Finally, the reliability of the simplified model is verified by comparing the vibration characteristics of the model before and after simplification. This study can provide a method for the modeling and simulation of the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle.

  20. Passive Thermal Control for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicle Spin Motors Sub-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Matthew; Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Mobley, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will require improved entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technology over the Viking-heritage systems which recently landed the largest payload to date, the 900 kg Mars Science Laboratory. As a result, NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is working to advance the state of the art in Mars EDL systems by developing and testing three key technologies which will enable heavier payloads and higher altitude landing sites on the red planet. These technologies consist of a large 33.5 m diameter Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute and two different Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class that inflates to a 6 m diameter torus (SIAD-R), and an exploration class that inflates to an 8 m diameter isotensoid (SIADE). All three technologies will be demonstrated on test vehicles at high earth altitudes in order to simulate the Mars EDL environment. Each vehicle will be carried to altitude by a large helium balloon, released, spun up using spin motors to stabilize the vehicle's trajectory, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a large solid rocket motor. The vehicle will then be spun down using another set of spin motors, and will deploy either the SIAD-R or SIAD-E, followed by the SSDS parachute until the vehicle lands in the ocean. Component level testing and bounding analysis are used to ensure the survival of system components in extreme thermal environments and predict temperatures throughout the flight. This paper presents a general description of the thermal testing, model correlation, and analysis of the spin motor passive thermal control sub-system to maintain spin motor performance, prescribed vehicle trajectory, and structural integrity of the test vehicle. The spin motor subsystem is predicted to meet its requirements with margin.

  1. Passive Thermal Control for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicle Spin Motors Sub-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Matthew; Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Mobley, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will require improved entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technology over the Viking-heritage systems which recently landed the largest payload to date, the 900 kg Mars Science Laboratory. As a result, NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is working to advance the state of the art in Mars EDL systems by developing and testing three key technologies which will enable heavier payloads and higher altitude landing sites on the red planet. These technologies consist of a large 33.5 m diameter Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute and two different Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class that inflates to a 6 m diameter torus (SIAD-R), and an exploration class that inflates to an 8 m diameter isotensoid (SIADE). All three technologies will be demonstrated on test vehicles at high earth altitudes in order to simulate the Mars EDL environment. Each vehicle will be carried to altitude by a large helium balloon, released, spun up using spin motors to stabilize the vehicle's trajectory, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a large solid rocket motor. The vehicle will then be spun down using another set of spin motors, and will deploy either the SIAD-R or SIAD-E, followed by the SSDS parachute until the vehicle lands in the ocean. Component level testing and bounding analysis are used to ensure the survival of system components in extreme thermal environments and predict temperatures throughout the flight. This paper presents a general description of the thermal testing, model correlation, and analysis of the spin motor passive thermal control sub-system to maintain spin motor performance, prescribed vehicle trajectory, and structural integrity of the test vehicle. The spin motor subsystem is predicted to meet its requirements with margin.

  2. [The prevalence of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke inside motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrol, M T; Tolosana, M; Soler, M T; Taló, M; Godoy, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the level of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke (SHS) inside motor vehicles. A prevalence study was conducted on the exposure of children under the age of 18 to SHS in motor vehicles in Lleida (Spain). The population was the users of private motor vehicles. The sample was random, and the data were collected by direct observation. The study variables were: the age and sex of the driver, whether the driver was smoking, and the presence of an exposed passenger under the age of 18. A total of 1600 vehicles were observed, 134 of which (8.4%) were carrying a child. In 8 of these 134 vehicles (6%; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0) a child was exposed to SHS. In all these cases, the driver was a male (P=0.02), and in 75% of cases he was over 40 years old. The rate of child exposure to SHS is very high. There is, therefore, a case for organising campaigns to prevent smoking tobacco inside motor vehicles in the presence of children in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding the effect of compensation on recovery from severe motor vehicle crash injuries: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Darnel F; Cameron, Ian D; Harris, Ian A

    2011-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence recovery from serious injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes, particularly differences between those with compensable and non-compensable injuries. Qualitative study using grounded theory and focus group methods within the trauma service of a university teaching hospital. 34 subjects (27 male, 7 female), of whom 21 were participants with a compensation claim and 13 were not. Each had sustained injuries in motor vehicle crashes between two and seven years previously. Themes identified from transcripts of the focus groups. The themes identified from participants claiming compensation were a strong sense of entitlement and injustice, a difficult claims and settlement process, an inability to move on with life during the claims process, an extreme dislike of medico-legal assessments, the necessity of legal representation to assist with the claims process, and a perceived lack of trust about having to prove an injury or disability. The themes common to all participants were the significance of the trauma experience, the importance of family and social support, and, if self-employed, financial hardship and difficult experiences in returning to work. The injury recovery experience was difficult for all subjects, but it was particularly stressful for those claiming compensation. Based on this study, the claims process, particularly medico-legal examinations, and other factors that could impact on injury recovery, are targets for further research, possible policy review, or legislative change.

  4. Motor vehicle fatal crash profiles of 13-15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F; Tison, Julie

    2012-04-01

    The goal was to provide a description of fatal crashes involving 13-15-year-old drivers and passengers. Information was obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2005-2009. The 1,994 passenger deaths during the 2005-2009 period far exceeded the number of driver deaths (299) or the number of drivers in fatal crashes (744). Passenger deaths occurring with teenage drivers, particularly 16-17-year-olds, increased with passenger age. Most 13-15-year-old drivers in crashes were driving either with no license or permit (63%), or with a permit but without required adult presence (10 percent). Fatal crashes involving illegal driving were most likely to involve high-risk actions such as speeding and nonuse of belts. Supervised learners were few in number (about 12 per year) and had the lowest rates of high-risk actions. The main issues for 13-15-year-olds' motor vehicle deaths are passenger deaths and driving without a license or adult supervision. Parents, pediatricians, and others need to recognize the increase in motor vehicle occupant deaths that occurs in the early teen years. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle accidents: A questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Daniel; Jackowski, Christian; Pfäffli, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In Switzerland, the prevalence of an excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in drivers undergoing a driving capacity assessment is currently not known. In this study, private and professional drivers were evaluated by means of a paper-based questionnaire, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and additional questions to sleepiness-related accidents, near-miss accidents, health issues, and demographic data. Of the 435 distributed questionnaires, 128 completed were returned. The response rate was 29%. The mean age of the investigated drivers was 42.5 years (20-85 years). According to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 9% of the participants are likely to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. An equal percentage has a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome based on the Berlin Questionnaire. 16% admitted an involuntary nodding off while driving a motor vehicle. This subset of the participants scored statistically significant higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p = 0.036). 8% of the participants already suffered an accident because of being sleepy while driving. An equal number experienced a sleepiness-related near-miss accident on the road. The study shows that a medical workup of excessive daytime sleepiness is highly recommended in each driver undergoing a driving capacity assessment. Routine application of easily available and time-saving assessment tools such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire could prevent accidents in a simple way. The applicability of the Berlin Questionnaire to screen suspected fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents is discussed.

  6. Motor vehicle road crashes during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, D J; Langley, J D; Chalmers, D

    1992-04-22

    From a sample of 848 teenagers, 50 individuals reported a total of 52 motor vehicle road crash events: 42 involved a car, six a motorcycle, and four a bus, over a two year period. Males and females were equally represented in each type of crash. Twenty-one of the car crashes, four of the motorcycle crashes and three of the bus crashes involved injury. The injuries sustained in the motorcycle crashes were predominantly to the extremities and in the other crashes they were mainly to the head or face. On average drivers less than 25 years of age had more passengers in their cars and were involved in more nighttime crashes. A seat belt was worn in only 18 (44%) of the car crashes. A motorcycle helmet was worn in four of the six motorcycle crashes. Six (15%) crashes were reported to have involved alcohol. The main areas of risk associated with motor vehicle road crashes involving teenagers and young adults have been addressed by legislation or the graduated drivers' licensing system. An evaluation of these measures is required to establish whether they are effective.

  7. A Novel Direct Torque Control Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive used in Electrical Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified direct torque control (DTC scheme for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is investigated, which enables low torque ripple by using an improved voltage vector selection strategy instead of switching table used in conventional DTC. Based on the control of stator flux, torque angle and torque, voltage vector selection strategy of PMSM DTC drive is proposed. In the proposed voltage vector selection strategy, the applied voltage vector is determined according to outputs of hysteresis comparators for stator flux and torque, angular position of stator flux and torque angle, which is finally synthesized by space vector modulation (SVM. Modeling and experimental results for an interior PMSM used in Honda Civic 06My Hybrid electrical vehicle are given. Simulation and experimental results show torque ripple is reduced and the total harmonics of stator current is decreased when compared those of conventional DTC. And a fixed switching frequency is obtained with the help of SVM. In addition, the proposed DTC doesn’t need any additional PI controller, which maintains the simplicity in conventional DTC. Keywords: direct torque control, permanent magnet synchronous motor, electrical vehicle, torque ripple, switching frequency

  8. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  9. Optimal Velocity Control for a Battery Electric Vehicle Driven by Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbin Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has high efficiency and high torque density. Field oriented control (FOC is usually used in the motor to achieve maximum efficiency control. In the electric vehicle (EV application, the PMSM efficiency model, combined with the EV and road load system model, is used to study the optimal energy-saving control strategy, which is significant for the economic operation of EVs. With the help of GPS, IMU, and other information technologies, the road conditions can be measured in advance. Based on this information, the optimal velocity of the EV driven by PMSM can be obtained through the analytical algorithm according to the efficiency model of PMSM and the vehicle dynamic model in simple road conditions. In complex road conditions, considering the dynamic characteristics, the economic operating velocity trajectory of the EV can be obtained through the dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Simulation and experimental results show that the minimum energy consumption and global energy optimization can be achieved when the EV operates in the economic operation area.

  10. From research to public policy: the prevention of motor vehicle injuries, childhood drownings, and firearm violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, G J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of the modern sciences of injury epidemiology and injury prevention and to illustrate the use of applied research in formulating effective public policy. MEDLINE searches were conducted from 1966 to 1990, and bibliographies of articles thus obtained were reviewed. Fugitive sources were identified by multiple means. Motor vehicle fatality rates on a per mile driven basis have been reduced by 50% over the past 25 years, largely through attention to the road environment and design of motor vehicles. Passive restraint systems such as air bags promise further reductions. Drowning has emerged as a leading cause of death among young children. Complete pool fencing is expected to prevent many of these events. Firearm violence, particularly among young people, is rapidly increasing. Firearms are hazardous consumer products but are not addressed as such by our current regulatory structure and intervention agenda. Epidemiologic and other applied research can make important contributions to the development of public policies designed to prevent injury. Such policies often address the design and performance of hazardous products and environments and consider individual behavior change as only a secondary objective.

  11. Sedative Hypnotic Medication Use and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Boudreau, Denise M; Ebel, Beth E; Grossman, David C; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-08-01

    We sought to estimate the association between sedative hypnotic use and motor vehicle crash risk. We conducted a new user cohort study of 409 171 adults in an integrated health care system. Health plan data were linked to driver license and collision records. Participants were aged 21 years or older, licensed to drive in Washington State, had at least 1 year of continuous enrollment between 2003 and 2008, and were followed until death, disenrollment, or study end. We used proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk of crash associated with 3 sedatives. We found 5.8% of patients received new sedative prescriptions, with 11 197 person-years of exposure. New users of sedatives were associated with an increased risk of crash relative to nonuse: temazepam hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.91), trazodone HR = 1.91 (95% CI = 1.62, 2.25), and zolpidem HR = 2.20 (95% CI = 1.64, 2.95). These risk estimates are equivalent to blood alcohol concentration levels between 0.06% and 0.11%. New use of sedative hypnotics is associated with increased motor vehicle crash risk. Clinicians initiating sedative hypnotic treatment should consider length of treatment and counseling on driving risk.

  12. Drinking, substance use and the operation of motor vehicles by young adolescents in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pickett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired driving is a recognized cause of major injury. Contemporary data are lacking on exposures to impaired driving behaviours and related injury among young adolescents, as well as inequities in these youth risk behaviours. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cycle 6 (2009/10 of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey involved 26,078 students enrolled in 436 Canadian schools. We profiled cross-sectionally the reported use of alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs by on-road and off-road vehicle operators when young adolescents (mean age 13.3 (± 1.6 years were either driving or riding as a passenger. Comparisons were made across vulnerable subgroups. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were used to quantify the effects of the driving behaviours on risks for motor vehicle-related injury. Attributable risk fractions were also estimated. A total of 10% (± 3% of participants reported recent operation of an on-road or off-road motor vehicle after consuming alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs, while 21% (± 3% reported riding as a passenger with a driver under the same conditions. Larger proportions of youth reporting these risk behaviours were males, and from older age groups, rural communities, and socio-economically disadvantaged populations. The behaviours were consistently associated with increased risks for motor vehicle-related injury at the individual level (RR 2.35; 95% CI: 1.54 to 3.58 for frequent vs. no exposure as a driver; RR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.36 for frequent vs. no exposure as a passenger and at the population level (Attributable Risk Fraction: 7.1% for drivers; 14.0% for passengers. The study was limited mainly by its reliance on self-reported data. CONCLUSION: Impaired driving is an important health priority among young adolescents in Canada. Inequities in the involvement of younger adolescents in these risk behaviours suggest the need for targeted interventions for specific subgroups such as youth

  13. Ridesharing and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Four U.S. Cities: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher N; Jacoby, Sara F; Dong, Beidi; Delgado, M Kit; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2017-06-14

    Uber, the world's largest ridesharing company, has reportedly provided over two billion journeys globally since operations began in 2010; however, the impact on motor vehicle crashes is unclear. Theoretically, ridesharing could reduce alcohol-involved crashes in locations where other modes of transportation are less attractive than driving one's own vehicle while alcohol-affected. We conducted interrupted time series analyses using weekly counts of injury crashes and the proportion that were alcohol-involved in four US cities (Las Vegas, NV; Portland, OR; Reno, NV; San Antonio, TX). We considered that a resumption of Uber operations after a temporary break would produce a more substantial change in ridership than an initial launch, so we selected cities where Uber launched, ceased, and then resumed operations (2013-2016). We hypothesized that Uber's resumption would be associated with fewer alcohol-involved crashes. Results partially supported this hypothesis. For example, in Portland, Uber's resumption was associated with a 61.8% reduction (95% confidence interval = 38.7%, 86.4%) in the alcohol-involved crash rate (an absolute decrease of 3.1 [95% confidence interval = 1.7, 4.4] alcohol-involved crashes per week); however there was no concomitant change in all injury crashes. Relationships between ridesharing and motor vehicle crashes differ between cities over time, and may depend on specific local characteristics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The use of generalized estimating equations in the analysis of motor vehicle crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Caroline B; Knight, Stacey; Reading, James C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if it is necessary to use generalized estimating equations (GEEs) in the analysis of seat belt effectiveness in preventing injuries in motor vehicle crashes. The 1992 Utah crash dataset was used, excluding crash participants where seat belt use was not appropriate (n=93,633). The model used in the 1996 Report to Congress [Report to congress on benefits of safety belts and motorcycle helmets, based on data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES). National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NHTSA, Washington, DC, February 1996] was analyzed for all occupants with logistic regression, one level of nesting (occupants within crashes), and two levels of nesting (occupants within vehicles within crashes) to compare the use of GEEs with logistic regression. When using one level of nesting compared to logistic regression, 13 of 16 variance estimates changed more than 10%, and eight of 16 parameter estimates changed more than 10%. In addition, three of the independent variables changed from significant to insignificant (alpha=0.05). With the use of two levels of nesting, two of 16 variance estimates and three of 16 parameter estimates changed more than 10% from the variance and parameter estimates in one level of nesting. One of the independent variables changed from insignificant to significant (alpha=0.05) in the two levels of nesting model; therefore, only two of the independent variables changed from significant to insignificant when the logistic regression model was compared to the two levels of nesting model. The odds ratio of seat belt effectiveness in preventing injuries was 12% lower when a one-level nested model was used. Based on these results, we stress the need to use a nested model and GEEs when analyzing motor vehicle crash data.

  15. Effects of reformulated gasoline and motor vehicle fleet turnover on emissions and ambient concentrations of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Robert A; Hooper, Daniel S; Kean, Andrew J; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Hesson, James M; Balberan, Nancy T; Stevenson, Eric D; Kendall, Gary R

    2006-08-15

    Gasoline-powered motor vehicles are a major source of toxic air contaminants such as benzene. Emissions from light-duty vehicles were measured in a San Francisco area highway tunnel during summers 1991, 1994-1997, 1999, 2001, and 2004. Benzene emission rates decreased over this time period, with a large (54 +/- 5%) decrease observed between 1995 and 1996 when California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) was introduced. We attribute this one-year change in benzene mainly to RFG effects: 36% from lower aromatics in gasoline that led to a lower benzene mass fraction in vehicle emissions, 14% due to RFG effects on total nonmethane organic compound mass emissions, and the remaining 4% due to fleet turnover. Fleet turnover effects accumulate over longer time periods: between 1995 and 2004, fleet turnover led to a 32% reduction in the benzene emission rate. A approximately 4 microg m(-3) decrease in benzene concentrations was observed at a network of ambient air sampling sites in the San Francisco Bay area between the late 1980s and 2004. The largest decrease in annual average ambient benzene concentrations (1.5 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) or 42 +/- 19%) was observed between 1995 and 1996. The reduction in ambient benzene between spring/summer months of 1995 and 1996 due to phase 2 RFG was larger (60 +/- 20%). Effects of fuel changes on benzene during fall/winter months are difficult to quantify because some wintertime fuel changes had already occurred prior to 1995.

  16. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  17. Uncertainty analysis and design optimization of hybrid rocket motor powered vehicle for suborbital flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an uncertainty analysis and design optimization method and its applications on a hybrid rocket motor (HRM powered vehicle. The multidisciplinary design model of the rocket system is established and the design uncertainties are quantified. The sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties shows that the uncertainty generated from the error of fuel regression rate model has the most significant effect on the system performances. Then the differences between deterministic design optimization (DDO and uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO are discussed. Two newly formed uncertainty analysis methods, including the Kriging-based Monte Carlo simulation (KMCS and Kriging-based Taylor series approximation (KTSA, are carried out using a global approximation Kriging modeling method. Based on the system design model and the results of design uncertainty analysis, the design optimization of an HRM powered vehicle for suborbital flight is implemented using three design optimization methods: DDO, KMCS and KTSA. The comparisons indicate that the two UDO methods can enhance the design reliability and robustness. The researches and methods proposed in this paper can provide a better way for the general design of HRM powered vehicles.

  18. Fuzzy System Model for Management of Driver Distractions in Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Shaout

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a low cost and driver’s environment friendly design of a Fuzzy Logic software system to manage driver distractions in a motor vehicle is presented. The system uses four inputs; vehicle speed, radio volume setting, frequency of left or right hand turns per minute and brightness conditions external to the vehicle. The system provides a single output in the form of a Driver Attention Load rating. This rating is used as a parameter to determine the degree to which the driver’s environment needs to be adjusted in terms of radio volume level, brightness of instrument cluster display and reducing the amount of connected phone interruptions per minute. The Fuzzy Inference Software System is modeled and simulated using MATLAB. After simulation, the final system and associated graphical user interface are designed as a standalone application written in Java. An open source Java library called jFuzzyLogic is used to model the Fuzzy Inference System and the Java Swing toolkit is used for the design of the graphical user interface.

  19. An Analysis of Children Left Unattended in Parked Motor Vehicles in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driely Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the incidence of children left unattended in parked motor vehicles in Brazil. These events have been widely explored in the United States but less so abroad, and never in Brazil. Over the period from 2006 to 2015, we collected data from news reports on 31 cases, including 21 fatalities. The circumstances mostly involved a caregiver, especially a parent, forgetting the child (71%, but cases also included the child being intentionally left in the vehicle (23% or gaining access to the vehicle (3%. Children tended to be forgotten more frequently in fatal cases (86%, particularly on the way to daycare, than non-fatal incidents where circumstances were more evenly distributed between forgetting (40% and being intentionally left behind (50%. Incidents occurred throughout the country but mostly in the southeastern region near the city of São Paulo. Additionally, the danger for children is present year-round as we observed cases in every season, albeit with a peak in the summer. This heat-related hazard is not well recognized across Brazil and we recommend increasing awareness through education. Further, given the high percentage of cases involving parents forgetting to leave their children at daycare, we recommend arrangements between daycare providers and parents to communicate when a child does not attend as expected.

  20. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths in the United States, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C

    2015-10-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time.

  1. Methods for measurements of energy and emissions related to motor vehicles: Identification of needs for improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl-Erik Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Technology; Karlsson, Hua L. [MTC AB, Haninge (Sweden); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The official methods in use today for emission testing of vehicles and engines were primarily developed for the characterisation of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles fuelled with petrol or diesel oil. The setting of new lower emission standards will make it difficult to obtain sufficient accuracy, using the present systems, for the quantification of exhaust emissions in the future. Development of new emission control technology and improved fuels has made it possible to meet these more stringent standards. Consequently new emission standards will lead to a need for new and improved methodologies and new instrumentation for the characterisation of the emissions from vehicles/engines/fuels. The present report comprises a discussion and comments on questions related to improved methods for emission measurements. The report is based on a study of the literature, site visits to laboratories and research institutes etc in the US and a meeting with representatives of the EU Commission, carried out during the spring of 2001. The conclusions and recommendations in the pre-study report are summarised in sub titles: General, regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, greenhouse gases and fuel consumption. Since the questions and problems discussed have an international connection they should be discussed in an international forum. However, before such discussions can be organised the problems related to measurement of emissions and fuel consumption must be more extensively studied than in this pre-study.

  2. The Effect of State Regulations on Motor Vehicle Fatalities for Younger and Older Drivers: A Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, David C; Morrisey, Michael A

    2001-01-01

    Policymakers have had a long-standing interest in improving the motor vehicle safety of both younger and older drivers. Although younger and older drivers share the distinction of having more crashes and fatalities per mile driven than other age groups, the problems posed by these two groups stem from different origins and manifest in different ways. A number of state-level policies and regulations may affect the number of motor vehicle crashes and fatalities in these two high-risk groups. A ...

  3. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Emissions as an Indicator of Reduction of Negative Externalities Related to Road Motor Vehicle Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of carbon dioxide emissions generated by road motor vehicles in the Czech Republic and the European Union. We discuss the current need for the introduction of environmental features to the system of taxation of motor vehicles, aiming at the mitigation of harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere. The most harmful substance produced during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by motor vehicles is CO2, whose emissions are subsequently used as an instrument for green tax reforms in the European Union member states. In this article we define the main EU legal standards regulating harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere as a result of road motor transport. We may cite for instance the Regulation (EC No. 443/2009 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars. The aim of the European Union is to reduce average emission values of new passenger cars sold in the EU to 130 g CO2/km by 2015 and to 95 g CO2/km by 2020. Assessment of tax on motor vehicles according to CO2 emissions shall help fulfil commitments from the Kyoto Protocol, aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  6. Driving with pets as a risk factor for motor vehicle collisions among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue.

  7. Motor Vehicle Crash-Associated Eye Injuries Presenting to U. S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson W. Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs are a leading cause of injury in the United States (U.S.. Detailed knowledge of MVC eye injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments (ED will aid clinicians in diagnosis and management. The objective of the study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of non-fatal motor vehicle crash-associated eye injuries presenting to U.S. EDs from 2001 to 2008. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP from 2001 to 2008 to assess the risk of presenting to an ED with a MVC-associated eye injury in relation to specific occupant characteristics, including age, gender, race/ethnicity, disposition, and occupant (driver/passenger status. Results: From 2001 to 2008, an estimated 75,028 MVC-associated eye injuries presented to U.S. EDs. The annual rate of ED-treated eye injuries resulting from MVCs declined during this study period. Males accounted for 59.6% of eye injuries (95% confidence interval [CI] 56.2%-63.0%. Rates of eye injury were highest among 15-19 year olds (5.8/10,000 people; CI 4.3-6.0/10,000 and among African Americans (4.5/10,000 people; CI 2.0-7.1/10,000. Drivers of motor vehicles accounted for 62.2% (CI 58.3%-66.1% of ED-treated MVC eye injuries when occupant status was known. Contusion/Abrasion was the most common diagnosis (61.5%; CI 56.5%-66.4%. Among licensed U.S. drivers, 16-24 year olds had the highest risk (3.7/10,000 licensed drivers; CI 2.6-4.8/10,000. Conclusion: This study reports a decline in the annual incidence of ED-treated MVC-associated eye injuries. The risk of MVC eye injury is greatest among males, 15 to 19 year olds and African Americans. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:693-700

  8. Sonolência e acidentes automobilísticos Sleepiness and motor vehicle accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE FAGONDES CANANI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo tem por finalidade apresentar uma sucinta revisão sobre as repercussões da sonolência excessiva no desempenho dos motoristas no trânsito, enfatizando a necessidade da maior valorização do tema abordado. Métodos: Revisão bibliográfica da literatura nacional e internacional, abrangendo artigos originais e publicações oficiais da American Thoracic Society e da American Sleep Apnea Association. Resultados: As evidências de que a sonolência é um fator que pode contribuir de forma decisiva para a ocorrência de acidentes automobilísticos são crescentes. As dificuldades com relação à caracterização da sonolência precedendo o acidente são discutidas no texto. Muitas são as causas de sonolência excessiva; felizmente, sua maioria é passível de identificação e manejo adequado. Conclusões: É importante que haja maior entendimento do problema em nosso meio, para que possam ocorrer modificações na abordagem do paciente com sonolência excessiva e também discussões acerca das leis de trânsito vigentes e das obrigações legais do médico com relação a este problema.Objective: The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of the effects of excessive sleepiness on driving performance, and to emphasize the importance of the subject. Methods: Bibliographic review of national and international literature, including original articles and official publications from the American Thoracic Society and the American Sleep Apnea Association. Results: There is growing evidence that excessive sleepiness may be an important factor related to the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. Difficulties regarding the identification of sleepiness as a preceding factor related to motor vehicle crashes are discussed on the text. There are many causes for excessive sleepiness. Fortunately most of them are easy to recognize and have specific treatment. Conclusions: A better understanding of the problem is fundamental

  9. Burden of hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement: United States, 2002 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Lynch, Charles F; Ramirez, Marizen; Torner, James

    2013-11-01

    Bicycling and bicycling injuries have increased during the past decade in the United States, but research on the extent and outcomes of injuries has lagged behind. This study aimed to estimate the current burden of injury from bicycling injury hospitalizations by motor vehicle crash (MVC) and non-MVC in the United States. We included patients with primary or secondary diagnosis e-codes corresponding to MVC or non-MVC bicycle injury, drawn from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2009). Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and logistic regression were used to examine patient and hospital characteristics (length of stay, total charges, nonroutine discharges, and demographics) associated with hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement. On average, from 2002 to 2009, there were an annually estimated 6,877 MVC and 18,457 non-MVC bicycle injury hospitalizations nationwide. This translates to more than $1 billion of hospital charges overall, $425 million for MVC and $588 million for non-MVC per year. After controlling for covariates, MVC bicycling injury hospitalizations had an average length of stay that was 2 days longer (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.3) and an average hospitalization charge of $23,424 more (95% CI, $21,360-$25,538) than non-MVC. Those with MVC bicycling injuries were more than two times as likely to have a nonroutine hospital discharge than non-MVC (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.06-2.39). The burden of injury from bicycle crashes is large overall, and MVC-related bicycling injuries result in longer hospital stays, higher costs, and more nonroutine hospital discharges than non-MVC, despite the fact that non-MVC hospitalizations are more frequent and result in higher total charges, overall. To have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of injury from bicycle crashes, educational interventions, policy, and infrastructure changes should include all age groups and prioritize reducing bicycle-motor vehicle

  10. Development of Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor Suitable for Variable-Speed Drive for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Takahashi, Norio; Shimomura, Eiji; Arata, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Yousuke; Tajima, Toshinobu

    Regarding environmental and energy issues, increasing importance has been placed on energy saving in various systems. To save energy, it would be desirable if the total efficiency of various types of equipment were increased.Recently, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and an electric vehicle (EV) have been developed. The use of new technologies will eventually lead to the realization of the new- generation vehicle with high efficiency. One new technology is the variable-speed drive over a wide range of speeds. The motor driving systems of the EV or the HEV must operate in the variable-speed range of up to 1:5. This has created the need for a high-efficiency motor that is capable of operation over a wide speed range. In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel permanent magnet reluctance motor (PRM) and discuss its characteristics. We developed the PRM, which has the capability of operating over a wide speed range with high efficiency. The PRM has a rotor with a salient pole, which generates magnetic anisotropy. In addition, the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor core counter the q-axis flux by the armature reaction. Then, the power density and the power factor increase. The PRM produces reluctance torque and torque by permanent magnet (PM) flux. The reluctance torque is 1 to 2 times larger than the PM torque. When the PRM operates over a constant-power speed range, the field component of the current will be regulated to maintain a constant voltage. The output power of the developed PRM is 8 to 250kW. It is clarified that the PRM operates at a wide variable-speed range (1:5) with high efficiency (92-97%). It is concluded that the PRM has high performance over a wide constant-power speed range. In addition, the PRM is constructed using a small PM, so that we can solve the problem of cost. Thus, the PRM is a superior machine that is suited for variable-speed drive applications.

  11. The electric motor in the hybrid vehicle. A comparison of three different types of electric motors; Der Elektromotor im Hybridfahrzeug. Vergleich von drei unterschiedlichen Elektromotorentypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschnik, Harald

    2009-07-01

    According to the experts, hybrid technology is the key technology in the automotive industry for the next few decades. Many of the well established automobile manufacturers are focusing their research and development activities on this upcoming technology. The big advantage of hybrid vehicles is the electrified powertrain. Due to intelligent combination of the combustion- and electric engine, the benefits of the two different powertrain configurations can be used. The following research is concerned and closely examines the role of the electric engine in the hybrid vehicle. The scope of the research is focused on the demands of an electric engine, the technical configuration, functionality and economy of three different engine types which are often used in the serial production and prototyping. In order to make a direct comparison of the performance of this different engine types, they were all tested in a go-cart. The go-carts for each engine were constructed in the same way. The interpretation of the measurement results showed that the synchronous engine with permanent magnets had the best performance when considering the level of electrical efficiency, closely followed by the switched reluctance motor. The efficiency of the electrical motor makes a high contribution to the total efficiency of the vehicle. The measurement result confirms the selection of a synchronous motor is, under consideration of the electrical efficiency, the most advantageous solution for hybrid vehicles. (orig.)

  12. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability lim

  13. Injury pattern, injury severity, and mortality in 33,495 hospital-admitted victims of motorized two-wheeled vehicle crashes in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdesdorff, H.A. Siegerink, B. Sier, C.F. Reurings, M.C. & Schipper, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents involving motorized two-wheeled vehicle (MTV) riders often result in severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this nationwide study is to describe the influence of the type of motorized two-wheeled vehicle on the patient injury severity and mortality on hospitalization, afte

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C- to Part 544... - Appendix C- to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C- to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and... REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Pt. 544, App. C Appendix C— to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.210 - May I use a Government motor vehicle for transportation between places of employment and mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle for transportation between places of employment and mass transit facilities? 102-34.210... of employment and mass transit facilities? Yes, you may use a Government motor vehicle for transportation between places of employment and mass transit facilities under the following conditions: (a)...

  16. 5 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C to... - Daily Inconvenience or Hardship Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Motor Vehicle to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Motor Vehicle to Remote Duty Posts B Appendix B to Subpart C to Part 591... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites Pt. 591, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C to Part 591—Daily Inconvenience or Hardship Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Motor Vehicle to Remote...

  17. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C to... - Daily Transportation Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Private Motor Vehicle to Remote...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Commuting Over Land by Private Motor Vehicle to Remote Duty Posts A Appendix A to Subpart C to Part 591... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites Pt. 591, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A to Subpart C to Part 591—Daily Transportation Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Private Motor Vehicle to Remote...

  18. Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Peralta, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries.

  19. Knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraint use in Nova Scotia: phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Young, Julian B; Langille, Donald B

    2015-01-01

    To examine changes to knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraint (CMVR) use in Nova Scotia after the implementation of stricter car seat and new booster seat (BS) legislation in 2007. A random telephone survey of households (at least one child 3.0-68) and 43(17-114), respectively). With regards to rear-facing car seats (RFCSs), new legislation and associated social marketing on graduating from a rear-facing car seat was not associated with increases in correct practice. Legislation, combined with social marketing at the time of introduction, is an effective means to educate parents on when to graduate from a FFCS and the importance of BSs while also influencing parents to use them, though not for RFCS graduation. The known protective effect of BSs dictates the need for all regions in Canada to adopt comprehensive BS legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of early nightmares on the development of sleep disturbances in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Sledjeski, Eve M; Spoonster, Eileen; Fallon, William F; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-12-01

    The present study prospectively examined the extent to which trauma-related nightmares affected the subsequent development of insomnia symptoms in 314 motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims. Participants were assessed in-hospital and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year post-MVA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that 6-week PTSD symptoms (PTSS) and 3-month nightmares, but not 2-week nightmares were positively associated with sleep onset and maintenance problems reported at 3-month post-MVA. Nightmares reported at 3-months post-MVA were positively associated with 1-year sleep maintenance problems. These findings highlight the dynamic relationship between PTSS and sleep problems as well as the potential importance of early intervention for trauma-related nightmares as a means to prevent sleep problems after a traumatic experience.