Ingram, James?N.; Flanagan, J.?Randall; Wolpert, Daniel?M.
Summary Current models of motor learning posit that skill acquisition involves both the formation and decay of multiple motor memories that can be engaged in different contexts [1?9]. Memory formation is assumed to be context dependent, so that errors most strongly update motor memories associated with the current context. In contrast, memory decay is assumed to be context independent, so that movement in any context leads to uniform decay across all contexts. We demonstrate that for both obj...
Ingram, James N; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M
Current models of motor learning posit that skill acquisition involves both the formation and decay of multiple motor memories that can be engaged in different contexts. Memory formation is assumed to be context dependent, so that errors most strongly update motor memories associated with the current context. In contrast, memory decay is assumed to be context independent, so that movement in any context leads to uniform decay across all contexts. We demonstrate that for both object manipulation and force-field adaptation, contrary to previous models, memory decay is highly context dependent. We show that the decay of memory associated with a given context is greatest for movements made in that context, with more distant contexts showing markedly reduced decay. Thus, both memory formation and decay are strongest for the current context. We propose that this apparently paradoxical organization provides a mechanism for optimizing performance. While memory decay tends to reduce force output, memory formation can correct for any errors that arise, allowing the motor system to regulate force output so as to both minimize errors and avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. The motor commands for any given context thus result from a balance between memory formation and decay, while memories for other contexts are preserved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo
The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…
A. Talebian; A. Honarpishe; A. Taghavi; E. Fakharian; M. Parsa; GA. Mousavi
AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age gr...
Hoffmann, Pablo F.
This paper discusses the potential effectiveness of spatial sound in the use of multimodal interfaces and virtual environment technologies for the acquisition of motor skills. Because skills are generally of multimodal nature, spatial sound is discussed in terms of the role that it may play...... as to convey information considered critical for the transfer of motor skills....... in facilitating skill acquisition by complementing, or substituting, other sensory modalities. An overview of related research areas on audiovisual and audiotactile interaction is given in connection to the potential benefits of spatial sound as a means to improve the perceptual quality of the interfaces as well...
Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass
investigated the influence of baclofen and diazepam on acquisition of a visuomotor skill. The study was designed as a semi-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 16 healthy human subjects. The motor skill task required the subjects to match a given force trajectory by increasing...... that diazepam and baclofen interfere with the acquisition of a motor skill by disrupting some of the neuroplastic changes that are involved in improved motor performance. This suggests that antispastic treatment should be used with caution in subjects receiving concomitant physiotherapy.......Antispastic medication is often used in the clinic together with physiotherapy. However, some of the antispastic drugs, e.g., baclofen and diazepam, may influence the plastic mechanisms that are necessary for motor learning and hence efficient physiotherapy. In the present study, we consequently...
Kennedy, Kristen M; Partridge, Ty; Raz, Naftali
Aging is associated with reduced performance on information processing speed, memory, and executive functions tasks. Although older adults are also less apt in acquiring new perceptual-motor skills, it is unclear whether and how skill acquisition difficulties are associated with age-related general cognitive differences. We addressed this question by examining structural relations among measures of cognitive resources (working memory) and indices of perceptual-motor skill acquisition (pursuit rotor and mirror tracing) in 96 healthy adults aged 19-80 years of age. Three competing structural models were tested: a single (common) factor model, a dual correlated factors model, and a hierarchical dual-factor model. The third model provided the best fit to the data, indicating age differences in simple perceptual-motor skill are partially mediated by more complex abilities.
Cantarero, Gabriela; Spampinato, Danny; Reis, Janine; Ajagbe, Loni; Thompson, Tziporah; Kulkarni, Kopal; Celnik, Pablo
The cerebellum is involved in the update of motor commands during error-dependent learning. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation, has been shown to increase cerebellar excitability and improve learning in motor adaptation tasks. Although cerebellar involvement has been clearly demonstrated in adaptation paradigms, a type of task that heavily relies on error-dependent motor learning mechanisms, its role during motor skill learning, a behavior that likely involves error-dependent as well as reinforcement and strategic mechanisms, is not completely understood. Here, in humans, we delivered cerebellar tDCS to modulate its activity during novel motor skill training over the course of 3 d and assessed gains during training (on-line effects), between days (off-line effects), and overall improvement. We found that excitatory anodal tDCS applied over the cerebellum increased skill learning relative to sham and cathodal tDCS specifically by increasing on-line rather than off-line learning. Moreover, the larger skill improvement in the anodal group was predominantly mediated by reductions in error rate rather than changes in movement time. These results have important implications for using cerebellar tDCS as an intervention to speed up motor skill acquisition and to improve motor skill accuracy, as well as to further our understanding of cerebellar function. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353285-06$15.00/0.
Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.
Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa
The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS that acquire them in the first year of life. Infants with DS (N=20) and typical infants (N=25), both aged between 3 and 12 months, were evaluated monthly using the AIMS. In the prone position, a difference of up to 3 months was found for the acquisition of the 3rd to 16th skill. There was a difference in the percentage of infants with DS who acquired the 10th to 21st skill (from 71% to 7%). In the supine position, a difference of up to one month was found from the 3rd to 7th skill; however, 100% were able to perform these skills. In the sitting position, a difference of 1-4 months was found from the 1st to 12th skill, ranging from 69% to 29% from the 9th to 12th. In the upright position, the difference was 2-3 months from the 3rd to 8th skill. Only 13% acquired the 8th skill and no other skill was acquired up to the age of 12 months. The more complex the skills the greater the difference in age between typical infants and those with DS and the lower the percentage of DS individuals who performed the skills in the prone, sitting and upright positions. None of the DS infants were able to stand without support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy
Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.
Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.
Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly A.; Law, Barbi; Rymal, Amanda M.
There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled, LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89) attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a 2-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test 1 day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004) self-regulation of learning model. PMID:23355826
Diane M Ste-Marie
Full Text Available There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled; LC as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89 attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a two-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test one day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004 self-regulation of learning model.
Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo
Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty......, a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the soleus H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. The D1 inhibition was increased and the femoral nerve facilitation was decreased following the visuo-motor skill task, suggesting an increase in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. No changes were observed...
Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa
The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…
Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.
The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…
Capio Catherine M
Full Text Available Abstract An implicit approach to motor learning suggests that relatively complex movement skills may be better acquired in environments that constrain errors during the initial stages of practice. This current concept paper proposes that reducing the number of errors committed during motor learning leads to stable performance when attention demands are increased by concurrent cognitive tasks. While it appears that this approach to practice may be beneficial for motor learning, further studies are needed to both confirm this advantage and better understand the underlying mechanisms. An approach involving error minimization during early learning may have important applications in paediatric rehabilitation.
Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.
Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…
Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.
Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…
Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats
Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor...... movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...
Woermann, Niklas; Wieser, Verena
Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping...
Gabbard, Carl P.
The purpose of this article is to briefly describe schema theory and indicate its relevance to early childhood development, with specific reference to children's acquisition of motor skills. Schema theory proposes an explanation of how individuals learn and perform a seemingly endless variety of movements. According to Schmidt (1975), goal…
Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi
Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Verwey, Willem B.; van der Lubbe, Rob
Motor imagery has been argued to affect the acquisition of motor skills. The present study examined the specificity of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill by employing a modified discrete sequence production task: the Go/NoGo DSP task. After an informative cue, a response
Abrahamse, E.L.; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert
Within various contexts, such as sports and the military, training programs are being designed to effectively and efficiently guide perceptual-motor skill acquisition. Even though this notion is often underestimated, the design of such training programs may greatly benefit from findings and theories
Kawai, Risa; Markman, Timothy; Poddar, Rajesh; Ko, Raymond; Fantana, Antoniu L; Dhawale, Ashesh K; Kampff, Adam R; Ölveczky, Bence P
Motor cortex is widely believed to underlie the acquisition and execution of motor skills, but its contributions to these processes are not fully understood. One reason is that studies on motor skills often conflate motor cortex's established role in dexterous control with roles in learning and producing task-specific motor sequences. To dissociate these aspects, we developed a motor task for rats that trains spatiotemporally precise movement patterns without requirements for dexterity. Remarkably, motor cortex lesions had no discernible effect on the acquired skills, which were expressed in their distinct pre-lesion forms on the very first day of post-lesion training. Motor cortex lesions prior to training, however, rendered rats unable to acquire the stereotyped motor sequences required for the task. These results suggest a remarkable capacity of subcortical motor circuits to execute learned skills and a previously unappreciated role for motor cortex in "tutoring" these circuits during learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kawai, Risa; Markman, Timothy; Poddar, Rajesh; Ko, Raymond; Fantana, Antoniu; Dhawale, Ashesh; Kampff, Adam R.; Ölveczky, Bence P.
Motor cortex is widely believed to underlie the acquisition and execution of motor skills, yet its contributions to these processes are not fully understood. One reason is that studies on motor skills often conflate motor cortex’s established role in dexterous control with roles in learning and producing task-specific motor sequences. To dissociate these aspects, we developed a motor task for rats that trains spatiotemporally precise movement patterns without requirements for dexterity. Remarkably, motor cortex lesions had no discernible effect on the acquired skills, which were expressed in their distinct pre-lesion forms on the very first day of post-lesion training. Motor cortex lesions prior to training, however, rendered rats unable to acquire the stereotyped motor sequences required for the task. These results suggest a remarkable capacity of subcortical motor circuits to execute learned skills and a previously unappreciated role for motor cortex in ‘tutoring’ these circuits during learning. PMID:25892304
Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B.
Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur d...
Hodges, Nicola J.; Edwards, Christopher; Luttin, Shaun; Bowcock, Alison
The amount and quality of practice predicts expertise, yet optimal conditions of practice have primarily been explored with novice learners. Ten expert musicians and ten novices practiced disc-throwing skills under self-regulated conditions. A third novice group practiced with the same schedule as the music experts (yoked). The groups did not…
Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B
Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur during the course of motor learning. One important theme is that distinct mechanisms vary in their information processing costs during learning and performance. Fast learning processes may require few trials to produce large changes in performance but impose demands on cognitive resources. Slower processes are limited in their ability to integrate complex information but minimally demanding in terms of attention or processing resources. The representations derived from fast systems may be accessible to conscious processing and provide a relatively greater measure of flexibility, while the representations derived from slower systems are more inflexible and automatic in their behavior. In exploring these issues, we focus on how multiple neural systems may interact and compete during the acquisition and consolidation of new behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Motor Skill and Performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil
This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…
Aguirre, Aitor; Lozano-Rodero, Alberto; Matey, Luis M.; Villamañe, Mikel; Ferrero, Begoña
The combination of virtual reality interactive systems and educational technologies have been used in the training of procedural tasks, but there is a lack of research with regard to providing specific assistance for acquiring motor skills. In this paper we present a novel approach to evaluating motor skills with an interactive intelligent…
Moe, Vegard Fusche
A crucial task for sport research is to understand and explain the processes and conditions underlying skillful motor behavior. One way to account for these processes and conditions is to describe and analyze the distinct stages a learner goes through when acquiring a skill. This article starts by elaborating one of the most dominant…
Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning....... Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of applying paired associative stimulation to the investigation of learning-dependent motor cortical plasticity by comparing the transient increase in CSE accompanying motor skill learning to the associative plasticity induced by pairing electrical motor...
Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe
This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of youth unemployment programmes in the form of vocational training (YUPs), developing a two sector general equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining for skilled workers.......This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of youth unemployment programmes in the form of vocational training (YUPs), developing a two sector general equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining for skilled workers....
Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.
The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation. PMID:23637843
This empirical study compared the average ages at which four congenitally blind children acquired 29 gross motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated distinct developmental delays in the acquisition of motor skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and across the six subdomains that were…
Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes
Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and
Full Text Available Although both emergentism and skill acquisition theory developed in the same field (cognitive theories and as an attempt to replace Universal grammar-based approaches, there are some differences between these two theories. The differences lie under their different models of knowledge representation and their diverse degree of emphasis on the role of input. In addition, skill acquisition considers the process of learning while emergentism considers input and output, and what goes on in between has not been considered. Finally it should be mentioned that these two theories take different views towards the learning process.
Spruit, E.N.; Band, G.P.H.; Hamming, J.F.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.
This literature review covers the choices to consider in training complex procedural, perceptual and motor skills. In particular, we focus on laparoscopic surgery. An overview is provided of important training factors modulating the acquisition, durability, transfer, and efficiency of trained
Verhoef, R.; Tomic, W.
This article presents the results of a review of the literature questioning whether and to what extent computers can be used as a means of instruction for the guided acquisition of communicative writing skills in higher education. To answer this question, the present paper first explores the
Caramiaux, Baptiste; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Wanderley, Marcelo M; Palmer, Caroline
Motor skill acquisition inherently depends on the way one practices the motor task. The amount of motor task variability during practice has been shown to foster transfer of the learned skill to other similar motor tasks. In addition, variability in a learning schedule, in which a task and its variations are interweaved during practice, has been shown to help the transfer of learning in motor skill acquisition. However, there is little evidence on how motor task variations and variability schedules during practice act on the acquisition of complex motor skills such as music performance, in which a performer learns both the right movements (motor skill) and the right time to perform them (timing skill). This study investigated the impact of rate (tempo) variability and the schedule of tempo change during practice on timing and motor skill acquisition. Complete novices, with no musical training, practiced a simple musical sequence on a piano keyboard at different rates. Each novice was assigned to one of four learning conditions designed to manipulate the amount of tempo variability across trials (large or small tempo set) and the schedule of tempo change (randomized or non-randomized order) during practice. At test, the novices performed the same musical sequence at a familiar tempo and at novel tempi (testing tempo transfer), as well as two novel (but related) sequences at a familiar tempo (testing spatial transfer). We found that practice conditions had little effect on learning and transfer performance of timing skill. Interestingly, practice conditions influenced motor skill learning (reduction of movement variability): lower temporal variability during practice facilitated transfer to new tempi and new sequences; non-randomized learning schedule improved transfer to new tempi and new sequences. Tempo (rate) and the sequence difficulty (spatial manipulation) affected performance variability in both timing and movement. These findings suggest that there is a
Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise
Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,
Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Fischer, Ursula
Previous studies investigating the association between fine-motor skills (FMS) and mathematical skills have lacked specificity. In this study, we test whether an FMS link to numerical skills is due to the involvement of finger representations in early mathematics. We gave 81 pre-schoolers (mean age of 4 years, 9 months) a set of FMS measures and numerical tasks with and without a specific finger focus. Additionally, we used receptive vocabulary and chronological age as control measures. FMS linked more closely to finger-based than to nonfinger-based numerical skills even after accounting for the control variables. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and numerical skill was entirely mediated by finger-based numerical skills. We concluded that FMS are closely related to early numerical skill development through finger-based numerical counting that aids the acquisition of mathematical mental representations.
... Text Size Email Print Share Psychological Readiness and Motor Skills Needed for Toilet Training Page Content Article Body ... to see toilet training as a desirable skill. Motor Skills In addition to his physiological development, your child’s ...
Ste-Marie, Diane M; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M; Martini, Rose
The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.
Diane M. Ste-Marie
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.
Butts, Raymond J; Kolar, Melissa B; Newman-Norlund, Roger D
Individuals suffering from motor impairments often require physical therapy (PT) to help improve their level of function. Previous investigations suggest that both intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) and bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may increase the speed and extent of motor learning/relearning. The purpose of the current study was to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel, non-invasive brain stimulation approach that combined an iTBS primer, and bihemispheric stimulation coupled with motor training. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to this novel treatment would make greater functional improvements than individuals undergoing sham stimulation when tested immediately following, 24-h, and 7-days post-training. A total of 26 right-handed, healthy young adults were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 15) or control group (n = 12). iTBS (20 trains of 10 pulse triplets each delivered at 80% active motor threshold (AMT) / 50 Hz over 191.84 s) and bihemispheric tDCS (1.0 ma for 20 min) were used as a primer to, and in conjunction with, 20 min of motor training, respectively. Our primary outcome measure was performance on the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function (JTHF) test. Participants tolerated the combined iTBS/bihemispheric stimulation treatment without complaint. While performance gains in the sham and stimulation group were not significant immediately after training, they were nearly significant 24-h post training (p = 0.055), and were significant at 7-days post training (p iTBS/bihemispheric stimulation protocol is both feasible and effective. Future research should examine the mechanistic explanation of this approach as well as the potential of using this approach in clinical populations.
Full Text Available Individuals suffering from motor impairments often require physical therapy (PT to help improve their level of function. Previous investigations suggest that both intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS and bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may increase the speed and extent of motor learning/relearning and that this increase may be related to brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The purpose of the current study was to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel, non-invasive brain stimulation approach that combined an iTBS primer, and bihemispheric stimulation coupled with motor training. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to this novel treatment would make greater functional improvements than individuals undergoing sham stimulation when tested immediately following, 24-hours, and 7-days post-training. A total of 26 right-handed, healthy young adults were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 15 or control group (n = 12. iTBS (20 trains of 10 pulse triplets each delivered at 80% AMT / 50Hz over 191.84 seconds and bihemispheric tDCS (1.0 ma for 20 minutes were used as a primer to, and in conjunction with, 20 minutes of motor training, respectively. Our primary outcome measure was performance on the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Participants tolerated the combined iTBS/bihemispheric stimulation treatment without complaint. While performance gains in the sham and stimulation group were not significant immediately after training, they were nearly significant 24-hours post training (p = 0.055, and were significant at 7-days post training (p < 0.05. These results suggest that the combined iTBS/bihemispheric stimulation protocol is both feasible and effective. Future research should examine the mechanistic explanation of this approach as well as the potential of using this approach in clinical populations.
Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline
This study is an exploratory product evaluation of the Manchester Motor Skills Programme (MMSP). A mixed methodology was used to explore intended, unintended, positive and negative outcomes for four Key Stage 2 (KS2) children with motor skills difficulties who participated in the MMSP. The children's motor skills, social skills and self-esteem…
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A análise da aquisição de uma habilidade motora através de instrumento simples e fácil pode auxiliar no diagnóstico e no tratamento fisioterapêutico. OBJETIVO: O estudo se propôs a verificar se o teste de labirinto pode ser utilizado como um instrumento de análise na aquisição de uma habilidade motora, através de medidas, tais como, tempo de execução e número de tentativas para estabilizar o desempenho, sob a influência de pistas visuais. MÉTODO: A amostra consistiu de 70 estudantes universitários saudáveis do sexo masculino, de 20 ± 2 anos, divididos em dois grupos que fizeram testes de labirinto com e sem pistas visuais. Foram realizadas 30 tentativas e dois testes de retenção. Os dados foram analisados pela ANOVA two-way de medidas repetidas (Newman-Keuls post hoc. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferença significativa no tempo de execução entre as tentativas com estabilização do desempenho a partir da 8ª tentativa no labirinto sem pistas e da 6ª tentativa no labirinto com pistas, se mantendo após os testes de retenção. No teste de labirinto com pistas a estabilização ocorreu mais cedo e o tempo de execução do movimento foi maior. CONCLUSÕES: As evidências encontradas mostraram que o teste de labirinto permite identificar a quantidade adequada de prática para treinar uma habilidade motora e verificar a influência da pista visual na estabilização do desempenho, sugerindo um instrumento a ser utilizado na FisioterapiaBACKGROUND: Analysis of the acquisition of motor skills by means of a simple and easily used instrument may assist in physiotherapeutic diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the maze test can be used as an instrument for analyzing the acquisition of motor skills, by means of measurements such as the time taken and number of attempts required for performance stabilization, under the influence of visual clues. METHOD: The sample consisted of 70 healthy male university
Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw
The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.
Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.
Henry E. Wang MD MS
Full Text Available During the course of their training, medical students may receive introductory experience with advanced resuscitation skills. Endotracheal intubation (ETI – the insertion of a breathing tube into the trachea is an example of an important advanced resuscitation intervention. Only limited data characterize clinical ETI skill acquisition by medical students. We sought to characterize medical student acquisition of ETI procedural skill.11Presented as a poster discussion on 17 October 2007 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in San Francisco, CA.The study included third-year medical students participating in a required anesthesiology clerkship. Students performed ETI on operating room patients under the supervision of attending anesthesiologists. Students reported clinical details of each ETI effort, including patient age, sex, Mallampati score, number of direct laryngoscopies and ETI success. Using mixed-effects regression, we characterized the adjusted association between ETI success and cumulative ETI experience.ETI was attempted by 178 students on 1,646 patients (range 1–23 patients per student; median 9 patients per student, IQR 6–12. Overall ETI success was 75.0% (95% CI 72.9–77.1%. Adjusted for patient age, sex, Mallampati score and number of laryngoscopies, the odds of ETI success improved with cumulative ETI encounters (odds ratio 1.09 per additional ETI encounter; 95% CI 1.04–1.14. Students required at least 17 ETI encounters to achieve 90% predicted ETI success.In this series medical student ETI proficiency was associated with cumulative clinical procedural experience. Clinical experience may provide a viable strategy for fostering medical student procedural skills.
Memišević Haris; Mačak Amra
Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (...
The thesis focuses on motor abilities of children from birth to the age of eight years. It outlines the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and micromotor skills, and methods how to help children develop these particular areas. The level of motor skills is determined by method of testing in first graders from Stonařov, Pavlov, Třešť and České Budějovice.
Title: Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills Objectives: The aim of study is to assess the changes fine motor skills due to hyperbaric environment in preparation for selected tests of fine motor skills. Methods: The first method was used empirically - research. Then the method chosen of compilation of the information obtained. The basic method to work was the experimental measurement method specially constructed tests on fine motor skills. All measured values were statisticall...
Africa, Eileen K.; van Deventer, Karel J.
Pre-schoolers are in a window period for motor skill development. Visual-motor integration (VMI) is the foundation for academic and sport skills. Therefore, it must develop before formal schooling. This study attempted to improve VMI skills. VMI skills were measured with the "Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration 6th…
Immink, Maarten A; Wright, David L; Barnes, William S
The present study investigated the role of temperature as a contextual condition for motor skill learning. Precision grip task training occurred while forearm cutaneous temperature was either heated (40-45 °C) or cooled (10-15 °C). At test, temperature was either reinstated or changed. Performance was comparable between training conditions while at test, temperature changes decreased accuracy, especially after hot training conditions. After cold training, temperature change deficits were only evident when concurrent force feedback was presented. These findings are the first evidence of localized temperature dependency in motor skill learning in humans. Results are not entirely accounted for by a context-dependent memory explanation and appear to represent an interaction of neuromuscular and sensory processes with the temperature present during training and test.
Ballard, Kirrie J; Smith, Heather D; Paramatmuni, Divija; McCabe, Patricia; Theodoros, Deborah G; Murdoch, Bruce E
Knowledge of Performance (KP) feedback, such as biofeedback or kinematic feedback, is used to provide information on the nature and quality of movement responses for the purpose of guiding active learning or rehabilitation of motor skills. It has been proposed that KP feedback may interfere with long-term learning when provided throughout training. Here, twelve healthy English-speaking adults were trained to produce a trilled Russian [r] in words with KP kinematic feedback using electropalatography (EPG) and without KP (noKP). Five one-hour training sessions were provided over one week with testing pretraining and one day and one week posttraining. No group differences were found at pretraining or one day post training for production accuracy. A group by time interaction supported the hypothesis that providing kinematic feedback continually during skill acquisition interferes with retention.
Vidranski, Tihomir; Farkaš, Daria
Hearing impairment is a major limitation in communication, and it can obstruct psychological development, development of social skills and motor development. Hearing impairment is the third most common contemporary chronic health condition, and it has become a public health problem. The effectiveness of problem solving in everyday life and in emergency situations depends greatly on the amount and quality of the motor programs. Therefore, it is evident that the normal motor development in persons with hearing impairment is essential for everyday life. The aim of this research is to analyze the available information pertaining to motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without a cochlear implant (CI) and to analyze possibilities of influencing their motor skills. The relevant studies on motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without CI were obtained by an extensive computer search of various databases using special keywords and extraction with respect to certain criteria, resulting in 22 studies. The overall results of this systematic review indicate that the children with hearing impairment exhibit suboptimal levels of motor skills especially balance. Very few studies compared children with hearing impairment with CI units and without CI units and the results of those studies are quite contradictory. Numerous studies have confirmed that the regular and appropriate physical exercise can improve motor skills of children with hearing impairment, especially balance. The fact that the development of motor skills is crucial for the child's interaction with the outside world, action, perception and acquisition of academic skills and other skills necessary for life shows the importance of motor skills development for children with hearing impairment.
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun
Background: Little is known about how fine motor skills (FMS) relate to early literacy skills, especially over and above cognitive variables. Moreover, a lack of distinction between FMS, grapho-motor and writing skills may have hampered previous work. Method: In Germany, kindergartners (n = 144, aged 6;1) were recruited before beginning formal…
Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried
There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.
M. K. Omar; A. R. Bakar; A. Mat Rashid
The objective of this study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills among Malaysian community college students. The sample size of the present study 325 students selected randomly. Employability skills were measured using an instrument developed by the Secretaryâs Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). The overall mean of employability skills among community college students was 3.63 (S.D. = 0.47). Thus, we consider the employability skills of community college studen...
Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…
Fu, Wai-Tat; Anderson, John R
Acquisition of interactive skills involves the use of internal and external cues. Experiment 1 showed that when actions were interdependent, learning was effective with and without external cues in the single-task condition but was effective only with the presence of external cues in the dual-task condition. In the dual-task condition, actions closer to the feedback were learned faster than actions farther away but this difference was reversed in the single-task condition. Experiment 2 tested how knowledge acquired in single and dual-task conditions would transfer to a new reward structure. Results confirmed the two forms of learning mediated by the secondary task: A declarative memory encoding process that simultaneously assigned credits to actions and a reinforcement-learning process that slowly propagated credits backward from the feedback. The results showed that both forms of learning were engaged during training, but only at the response selection stage, one form of knowledge may dominate over the other depending on the availability of attentional resources. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
My diploma thesis topic is Fine motor skills development of children with autism spectrum disorder. The objective of this document is to create a well arranged group of exercises and structured tasks aimed to develop fine motor skills of children at pre-school age with autism spectrum disorder. Theoretical part of this diploma thesis contains basic information related to autism and various details about motor skills. Practical section describes individual jobs and structured tasks used for fi...
Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise
Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
The design of skill centre around the country is such that they are specific to particular skill type and usually the buildings cannot be used for another activity. The need to use spaces for multiple functions has ensured that flexible spaces in skill acquisition centres are designed such that the spaces can easily be varied into ...
Obrusnikova, Iva; Cavalier, Albert
Proficiency in fundamental motor skills (FMS) is important for both the health and the overall growth and development of young children. To identify factors that facilitate the development of FMS, the study provided preliminary data on the effect of videomodeling (VM) on the acquisition of FMS by typically developing young children. Participants…
Berencsi, A; Gombos, F; Kovács, I
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are known to have difficulties in carrying out fine motor movements; however, a detailed behavioural profile of WS in this domain is still missing. It is also unknown how great the capacity to improve these skills with focused and extensive practice is. We studied initial performance and learning capacity in a sequential finger tapping (FT) task in WS and in typical development. Improvement in the FT task has been shown to be sleep dependent. WS subjects participating in the current study have also participated in earlier polysomnography studies, although not directly related to learning. WS participants presented with great individual variability. In addition to generally poor initial performance, learning capacity was also greatly limited in WS. We found indications that reduced sleep efficiency might contribute to this limitation. Estimating motor learning capacity and the depth of sleep disorder in a larger sample of WS individuals might reveal important relationships between sleep and learning, and contribute to efficient intervention methods improving skill acquisition in WS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cheng, J; East, P; Blanco, E; Sim, E Kang; Castillo, M; Lozoff, B; Gahagan, S
Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children's motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full-term and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modelling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children's weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse, that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared with normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal weight, overweight and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency that, in turn, may positively impact children's physical activity and overall fitness levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.
Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R
We highlight the importance of promoting a skills-based agenda in the development and preparation of Olympic athletes. The role that specialists with a background in skill acquisition can play is illustrated and the need to move towards a culture where evidence-based practice permeates all aspects of this process reiterated. We provide examples from contemporary research to illustrate how skill-acquisition theory and practice can help inform and guide practitioners, coaches, and administrators in their quest to develop Olympic athletes. Although the acquisition and refinement of skills are essential to performance in most Olympic sports, paradoxically the area of skill acquisition has not impacted in a concerted and meaningful way on this agenda. Skill-acquisition specialists need to be more proactive in forging links with elite sport, whereas practitioners, coaches, and administrators need to appreciate the important role that sports scientists with a background in this area can play in helping to develop future generations of podium athletes.
Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M
Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.
Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.
While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…
Brian, Ali; Taunton, Sally
Background: Young children from disadvantaged settings often present delays in fundamental motor skills (FMS). Young children can improve their FMS delays through developmentally appropriate motor skill intervention programming. However, it is unclear which pedagogical strategy is most effective for novice and expert instructors. Purpose: The…
Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine
With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…
Hill, Grant M.; Turner, Bud
Given increasing childhood inactivity and obesity, and minimal time for quality physical education in elementary and secondary schools, it is essential that children are motivated and held accountable for independent motor and movement skill practice. The Movement and Motor Skill Challenge System provides a comprehensive set of stimulating,…
Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie
Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…
and learning of science and technology at the primary school level of education. ... selected media for skills acquisition;. 2. ..... serve as a platform of bringing together relevant social and ... Creative teaching of science in the elementary school.
Gender and Acquisition of Science Process Skills among Junior Secondary ... for the effective learning of science even at the primary or basic level of education. ... and that activity-based methods of instruction be employed in teaching Basic ...
Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine
With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.
Day, E A; Arthur, W; Gettman, D
The purpose of this study was to examine the viability of knowledge structures as an operationalization of learning in the context of a task that required a high degree of skill. Over the course of 3 days, 86 men participated in 9 training sessions and learned a complex video game. At the end of acquisition, participants' knowledge structures were assessed. After a 4-day nonpractice interval, trainees completed tests of skill retention and skill transfer. Findings indicated that the similarity of trainees' knowledge structures to an expert structure was correlated with skill acquisition and was predictive of skill retention and skill transfer. However, the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the method used to derive the expert referent structure. Moreover, knowledge structures mediated the relationship between general cognitive ability and skill-based performance.
Barela, José Angelo
Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has be...
Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Using matched PISA and PIAAC data from Denmark, we investigate the return to cognitive and non-cognitive skills with respect to labor market outcomes. We measure cognitive and non-cognitive skills at childhood and when the respondents have entered the labor market. Hence, we are able to split up...... the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills...
Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise
Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…
Ciechanski, Patrick; Cheng, Adam; Lopushinsky, Steven; Hecker, Kent; Gan, Liu Shi; Lang, Stefan; Zareinia, Kourosh; Kirton, Adam
Recent changes in surgical training environments may have limited opportunities for trainees to gain proficiency in skill. Complex skills such as neurosurgery require extended periods of training. Methods to enhance surgical training are required to overcome duty-hour restrictions, to ensure the acquisition of skill proficiency. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance motor skill learning, but is untested in surgical procedural training. We aimed to determine the effects of tDCS on simulation-based neurosurgical skill acquisition. Medical students were trained to acquire tumor resection skills using a virtual reality neurosurgical simulator. The primary outcome of change in tumor resection was scored at baseline, over 8 repetitions, post-training, and again at 6 weeks. Participants received anodal tDCS or sham over the primary motor cortex. Secondary outcomes included changes in brain resected, resection effectiveness, duration of excessive forces (EF) applied, and resection efficiency. Additional outcomes included tDCS tolerability. Twenty-two students consented to participate, with no dropouts over the course of the trial. Participants receiving tDCS intervention increased the amount of tumor resected, increased the effectiveness of resection, reduced the duration of EF applied, and improved resection efficiency. Little or no decay was observed at 6 weeks in both groups. No adverse events were documented, and sensation severity did not differ between stimulation groups. The addition of tDCS to neurosurgical training may enhance skill acquisition in a simulation-based environment. Trials of additional skills in high-skill residents, and translation to nonsimulated performance are needed to determine the potential utility of tDCS in surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Döhring, Juliane; Stoldt, Anne; Witt, Karsten; Schönfeld, Robby; Deuschl, Günther; Born, Jan; Bartsch, Thorsten
Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA). Sixteen patients (68 ± 4.4 yrs) were studied in the acute phase and during follow-up using a declarative and procedural test, and were compared to controls. Acute TGA patients displayed profound deficits in all declarative memory functions. During the acute amnestic phase, patients were able to acquire the motor skill task reflected by increasing finger tapping speed across the on-line condition, albeit to a lesser degree than during follow-up or compared to controls. Retrieval two days later indicated a greater off-line gain in motor speed in patients than controls. Moreover, this gain in motor skill performance was negatively correlated to the declarative learning deficit. Our results suggest a differential interaction between procedural and declarative memory systems during acquisition and consolidation of motor sequences in older humans. During acquisition, hippocampal dysfunction attenuates fast learning and thus unmasks the slow and rigid learning curve of striatum-based procedural learning. The stronger gains in the post-consolidation condition in motor skill in CA1 lesioned patients indicate a facilitated consolidation process probably occurring during sleep, and suggest a competitive interaction between the memory systems. These findings might be a reflection of network reorganization and plasticity in older humans and in the presence of CA1 hippocampal pathology. Copyright © 2016
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.
Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A
Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brychta, Petr; Sadílek, Marek; Brychta, Josef
This innovative study trying to do interdisciplinary interface at first view different ways fields: kinantropology and mechanical engineering. A motor skill is described as an action which involves the movement of muscles in a body. Gross motor skills permit functions as a running, jumping, walking, punching, lifting and throwing a ball, maintaining a body balance, coordinating etc. Fine motor skills captures smaller neuromuscular actions, such as holding an object between the thumb and a finger. In mechanical inspection, the accuracy of measurement is most important aspect. The accuracy of measurement to some extent is also dependent upon the sense of sight or sense of touch associated with fine motor skills. It is therefore clear that the level of motor skills will affect the precision and accuracy of measurement in metrology. Aim of this study is literature review to find out fine motor skills level of individuals and determine the potential effect of different fine motor skill performance on precision and accuracy of mechanical engineering measuring.
Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan; Schölkopf, Bernhard
Autonomous robots that can adapt to novel situations has been a long standing vision of robotics, artificial intelligence, and cognitive sciences. Early approaches to this goal during the heydays of artificial intelligence research in the late 1980s, however, made it clear that an approach purely based on reasoning or human insights would not be able to model all the perceptuomotor tasks that a robot should fulfill. Instead, new hope was put in the growing wake of machine learning that promised fully adaptive control algorithms which learn both by observation and trial-and-error. However, to date, learning techniques have yet to fulfill this promise as only few methods manage to scale into the high-dimensional domains of manipulator robotics, or even the new upcoming trend of humanoid robotics, and usually scaling was only achieved in precisely pre-structured domains. In this paper, we investigate the ingredients for a general approach to motor skill learning in order to get one step closer towards human-like performance. For doing so, we study two major components for such an approach, i.e., firstly, a theoretically well-founded general approach to representing the required control structures for task representation and execution and, secondly, appropriate learning algorithms which can be applied in this setting.
Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B
Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97-4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45-3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18-2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53-3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley-Blackwell.
Full Text Available Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (ID, we examined these skills in children with Down syndrome. The sample for this study comprised 90 children with ID, aged 7-15, who were divided in three etiological groups: 1. Down syndrome, 2. Organic/other genetic cause of ID and 3. Unknown etiology of ID. Fine motor skills were assessed by the Purdue Pegboard Test. The results of this study indicate that children with Down syndrome did not differ statistically significantly from the other two etiological groups. On the other hand, children with unknown etiology of ID performed statistically better than children with organic/other genetic cause of ID. An additional goal was to examine fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome in relation to the child's sex. There were no statistically significant differences in fine motor skills between girls and boys with Down syndrome. It is important to provide children with Down syndrome, and all other children with ID, with early (rehabilitation programs for the improvement of their fine motor skills. Special educators and rehabilitators should play a crucial role in the assessment and in creating programs for the development of these skills.
MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale
To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12-33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Not applicable. The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion.
Effects of differents bandwidths knowledge of results on the acquisition of a serial motor skill Los efectos del conocimiento del resultado en el aprendizaje de una tarea motora seriada utilizando distintos márgenes de error
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different ranks of bandwidth KR in the learning of a serial motor task. The participants were 45 undergraduate students, of both genders, randomly assigned to tree groups: (1 wide bandwidth was 10% of the total time; (2 narrow bandwidth was 5% of the total time, and (3 precision of error (BW.0 where the bandwidth was 0%.. The serial task consisted on putting a tennis ball respecting a previously determined time in six holes made on a wooden platform. The experiment was done in three phases, acquisition, immediate retention and retention delayed 24 hours after the acquisition test. The statistical analysis did not point out differences among the three groups regarding precision and consistency at any phases. I spite of not seen significant differences among the ranks, we concluded that the design of bandwidth KR is beneficial for a serial task motor learning and the utilization of bandwidth KR is positive for learning, but can present short-term effects, since long time limits on improvements of performance were not verified. On the other hand we encourage further studies designs that combine other ranks of KR with other variables, and using more complex tasks on the attempt of obtaining more significant results relating to the influence of the bandwidth KR in the motor learning.
Key Words: Motor learning; Knowledge of results; Bandwidth
El objetivo de ese estudio fue investigar los efectos de tres distintos rangos de conocimiento del resultado (CR en margen de error en el aprendizaje de una tarea motora seriada. Fueron utilizados 45 sujetos voluntarios de ambos sexos de la Universidad de León divididos al azar en tres grupos experimentales: con un margen de error amplio del 10% del tiempo total, con un margen de error estrecho del 5% del tiempo total y sin
Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne M; Gole, Glen A; Brown, Brian
In an investigation of the functional impact of amblyopia in children, the fine motor skills of amblyopes and age-matched control subjects were compared. The influence of visual factors that might predict any decrement in fine motor skills was also explored. Vision and fine motor skills were tested in a group of children (n = 82; mean age, 8.2 +/- 1.7 [SD] years) with amblyopia of different causes (infantile esotropia, n = 17; acquired strabismus, n = 28; anisometropia, n = 15; mixed, n = 13; and deprivation n = 9), and age-matched control children (n = 37; age 8.3 +/- 1.3 years). Visual motor control (VMC) and upper limb speed and dexterity (ULSD) items of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency were assessed, and logMAR visual acuity (VA) and Randot stereopsis were measured. Multiple regression models were used to identify the visual determinants of fine motor skills performance. Amblyopes performed significantly poorer than control subjects on 9 of 16 fine motor skills subitems and for the overall age-standardized scores for both VMC and ULSD items (P multiple regression model that took into account the intercorrelation between visual characteristics, poorer fine motor skills performance was associated with strabismus (F(1,75) = 5.428; P = 0.022), but not with the level of binocular function, refractive error, or visual acuity in either eye. Fine motor skills were reduced in children with amblyopia, particularly those with strabismus, compared with control subjects. The deficits in motor performance were greatest on manual dexterity tasks requiring speed and accuracy.
Sarigul-Klijn, Yasemin; Lobo-Prat, Joan; Smith, Brendan W; Thayer, Sage; Zondervan, Daniel; Chan, Vicky; Stoller, Oliver; Reinkensmeyer, David J
Many people with a stroke have a severely paretic arm, and it is often assumed that they are unable to learn novel, skilled behaviors that incorporate use of that arm. Here, we show that a group of people with chronic stroke (n = 5, upper extremity Fugl-Meyer scores: 31, 30, 26, 22, 8) learned to use their impaired arm to propel a novel, yoked-clutch lever drive wheelchair. Over six daily training sessions, each involving about 134 training movements with their "useless" arm, the users gradually achieved a 3-fold increase in wheelchair speed on average, with a 4-6 fold increase for three of the participants. They did this by learning a bimanual skill: pushing the levers with both arms while activating the yoked-clutches at the right time with their ipsilesional (i.e. "good") hand to propel the wheelchair forward. They perceived the task as highly motivating and useful. The speed improvements exceeded a 1.5-factor improvement observed when young, unimpaired users learned to propel the chair. The learning rate also exceeded a sample of learning rates from a variety of classic learning studies. These results suggest that appropriately-designed assistive technologies (or "unmasking technologies - UTs") can unleash a powerful, latent ability for motor learning even for severely paretic arms. While UTs may not reduce clinical impairment, they may facilitate large improvements in a specific functional ability.
Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls? physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh?s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children?s physical activit...
Mohammad Reza Shahabi Kaseb
Full Text Available Introduction: Preparation of neuromuscular system prior to performing motor skills affects the learning of motor skills. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF on limb coordination and accuracy in dart throwing skill. Methods: Thirty two male students were randomly selected as study sample. Based on the pretest scores, the participants were divided into three groups: experimental (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, first control (without warm-up, and second control (specific warm-up. During the acquisition phase, the participants first performed the preparation training related to their own group, then all groups performed the exercise program of dart throwing consisting of 6 blocks of 9 trials in 4 training sessions. Finally, 20 days following the last exercise session, the subjects took the retention and transfer tests. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA test for coordination variable in acquisition test showed no significant difference between the groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding coordination variable in retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, the results of one-way ANOVA for the accuracy variable in acquisition and retention tests showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups for accuracy variable in transfer test. Conclusion: It seems that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, as a preparation method before performance, can enhance the efficacy of training to better learn the coordination pattern of fine motor skills.
Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…
Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J
Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners
Ali, Amir; Subhi, Yousif; Ringsted, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Females are less attracted than males to surgical specialties, which may be due to differences in the acquisition of skills. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that investigate gender differences in the acquisition of surgical skills. METHODS: We performed...... a comprehensive database search using relevant search phrases and MeSH terms. We included studies that investigated the role of gender in the acquisition of surgical skills. RESULTS: Our search yielded 247 studies, 18 of which were found to be eligible and were therefore included. These studies included a total...... of 2,106 study participants. The studies were qualitatively synthesized in five categories (studies on medical students, studies on both medical students and residents, studies on residents, studies on gender differences in needed physical strength, and studies on other gender-related training...
Stevenson, Jennifer L; Lindley, Caitlin E; Murlo, Nicole
Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children. In fact, motor skills were a better predictor of an autism spectrum diagnosis than were scores on a measure of current pragmatic language. These results highlight the important role of motor skills in autism spectrum disorders.
Rule, Audrey C.; Stewart, Roger A.
A pretest-posttest control group design was used to measure the effect of practical life materials (e.g., tweezers, tongs, spoons) on kindergarten children's fine motor skill development. Experimental and control group teachers reported equal amounts of fine motor activity in their classrooms; however, significant interaction effects were found…
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are commonly characterized by deficits in the social and communication domains. However, up to 80 percent of this population also have poor motor skills. Individuals with an ASD experience difficulties in motor planning, imitation, and postural stability. A better understanding of these deficits and of strategies…
Harville, Valerie Terrill
A physical education specialist at an elementary school in one of the fastest growing sections of the country developed and implemented a developmental motor skills program for primary school students. The program focused on: (1) developing a method of referring students for testing; (2) providing a specialized motor diagnostic test; (3) improving…
In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.
Full Text Available The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills.
Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia
Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…
Padrão e ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida Pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants during the first four months corrected age
Elaine P. Raniero
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o padrão e o ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes nascidos pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida, comparando-os com um grupo de lactentes a termo. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 12 lactentes pré-termo saudáveis, (MD=33,6 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 1,25 e 10 lactentes a termo saudáveis (MD=39,1 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 0,73. Eles foram avaliados mensalmente (zero a quatro meses de idade com o Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP. RESULTADOS: O padrão de desempenho motor aumentou ao longo dos meses em ambos os grupos, constatando variabilidade nos escores totais em todas as idades. O grupo pré-termo apresentou escore médio mais elevado do que o a termo entre um e quatro meses de idade. Nesse grupo, o ritmo de aquisição motora foi maior de zero a um do que de três a quatro meses. Verificou-se também que os cuidadores desses lactentes iniciaram a estimulação com brinquedos anteriormente aos cuidadores do grupo a termo. Ambos os grupos apresentaram escores médios inferiores aos do TIMP. CONCLUSÕES: Os lactentes pré-termo apresentaram padrão de desenvolvimento motor semelhante aos típicos quanto à sequência de habilidades adquiridas e ritmo acelerado no período de recém-nascido (RN a um mês de idade. Sugere-se que lactentes pré-termo com essas características não necessitam de correção do grau de prematuridade e que programas de acompanhamento orientem os pais e cuidadores a estimulá-los, desde o primeiro mês, com brinquedos, propiciando a exploração precoce de diversos padrões motores.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants from newborn to four months corrected age, in comparison with a group of full-term infants. METHODS: Twelve healthy preterm infants (mean gestational age=33.6 weeks ± 1.25 and 10 healthy full-term infants (mean
Valerie Cathérine Brandt
Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that can be considered motor responses to preceding inner urges. It has been shown that Tourette patients have inferior performance in some motor learning tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, it has not been investigated whether altered synaptic plasticity is directly linked to impaired motor skill acquisition in Tourette patients. In this study, cortical plasticity was assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation in 14 Tourette patients (13 male; age 18-39 and 15 healthy controls (12 male; age 18-33. Tic and urge severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale. Motor learning was assessed 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity and 9 months later, using the rotary pursuit task. On average, long-term potentiation-like effects in response to the paired associative stimulation were present in healthy controls but not in patients. In Tourette patients, long-term potentiation-like effects were associated with more and long-term depression-like effects with less severe urges and tics. While motor learning did not differ between patients and healthy controls 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity, the learning curve of the healthy controls started at a significantly higher level than the Tourette patients' 9 months later. Induced synaptic plasticity correlated positively with motor skills in healthy controls 9 months later. The present study confirms previously found long-term improvement in motor performance after paired associative stimulation in healthy controls but not in Tourette patients. Tourette patients did not show long-term potentiation in response to PAS and also showed reduced levels of motor skill consolidation after 9 months compared to healthy controls. Moreover
Recently, many countries have put the focus on green growth which specifically aims at achieving a resilient, low-carbon, and resource-efficient economy model that leads to higher quality of life. Environmental pollution and climate change are negatively affecting the sustainability of various economical activities across the world, with Indonesia being one of them. To mitigate the environmental problems, the existing economy should be shifted to a greener economy model which will create green jobs and greening the existing occupation in the industries. Green jobs require workers with green skills. Therefore, development of green skills in TVET institutions is urgently needed. By referencing the existing green skills frame work, green skills acquisition has not been clearly integrated into the existing Indonesian TVET curriculum. However, approach to integrate green skills into TVET curriculum can be carried out through the development of hard skills and soft skills in the domain of knowledge, abilities, and attitudes where green skills is an imparting of both hard skills and soft skills.
The study investigated the effects of photography on acquisition of sculpture skills among Junior Secondary School Students in Osun State. Forty students were randomly selected from two schools. The two schools were purposefully selected from fifty secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Council Area of Osun ...
Abstract. The study investigated the effects of photography on acquisition of sculpture skills among Junior Secondary School Students in Osun State. Forty students were randomly selected from two schools. The two schools were purposefully selected from fifty secondary schools in Ife Central Local. Government Council ...
The socio-economic status of both rural and urban families could be enhanced through the empowerment of the womenfolk, whose activities spread across almost all sectors of the economy. Skill acquisition for women in Nigeria appears to be one of the potent options in this empowerment drive. This paper therefore ...
Taatgen, N.A.; Lee, F.J.
In this article we describe production compilation, a mechanism for modeling skill acquisition. Production compilation has been developed within the ACT-Rational (ACT-R; J. R. Anderson, D. Bothell, M. D. Byrne, & C. Lebiere, 2002) cognitive architecture and consists of combining and specializing
Hance, Julian; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Undre, Shabnam; Darzi, Ara
Standardized short courses in laparoscopic cholecystectomy aim to teach laparoscopic skills to surgical trainees, although end-of-course assessments of performance remain subjective. The current study aims to objectively assess psychomotor skills acquisition of trainees attending laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses. Thirty-seven junior surgical trainees had their laparoscopic skills assessed before and after attending 1 of 3 separate 2-day courses (A, B, and C), all with identical format. Assessments were comprised of a standardized simulated laparoscopic task, with performance measured using a valid electromagnetic hand-motion tracking device. Overall, trainees made significant improvements in path length (P=.006), number of movements (Ppsychomotor skills on courses. In addition to providing participants with an insight into their skills, these data can be used to demonstrate course efficacy.
Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Gajananan, Kugamoorthy
Haptic virtual reality (VR) has revolutionized the skill acquisition in dentistry. The strength of the haptic VR system is that it can automatically record the outcome and associated kinematic data on how each step of the task is performed, which are not available in the conventional skill training environments. The aim of this study was to assess skill acquisition in endodontics and to identify process and outcome variables for the quantification of proficiency. Twenty novices engaged in the experimental study that involved practicing the access opening task with the haptic VR system. Process (speed, force utilization, and bimanual coordination) and outcome variables were determined for assessing skill performance. These values were compared before and after training. Significant improvements were observed through training in all variables. A unique force used pattern and bimanual coordination were observed in each step of the access opening in the posttraining session. The novices also performed the tasks considerably faster with greater outcome within the first two to three training sessions. The study objectively showed that the novices could learn to perform access opening tasks faster and with more consistency, better bimanual dexterity, and better force utilization. The variables examined showed great promise as objective indicators of proficiency and skill acquisition in haptic VR.
Movement plays an important role in the integral development of a child. Good motor skills facilitate learning and thus they consequently have a positive impact on improved learning success. The theoretical part presents the importance and role of gross motor skills and its relationship to the development of fine motor skills. More specifically, we have focused on the following: the course of development of fine motor skills, the impact fine motor skills have on the child and we have also loo...
Motor skills and concepts acquisition and retention: a comparison between two styles of teaching. Adquisición y retención de habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos: una comparación entre dos estilos de enseñanza.
Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the command and guided discovery teaching style on learning manipulative skills and concepts by primary schoolchildren. Fifty nine first grade children, 6 to 7 years of age, were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD; Ulrich, 1985 was used for the assessment of motor performance. Skill concepts were assessed by a paper and pensil test based on those of Hopple (1995. Multivariate analysis of variance (2 styles of teaching X 3 measures for repeated measures was used for data analysis. Results showed that both groups significantly improved skill performance. However, children in the command group, contrary to those in the guided discovery group, exhibited significantly lower scores in the retention measure, compared to their acquisition scores. Skill concepts acquisition and retention was achieved by all children. It seems that both styles are effective for both motor skill and concept learning but the guided discovery style contributes to better motor learning gains.Resumen El propósito de este estudio es investigar el efecto que dos estilos de enseñanza diferentes, la enseñanza basada en el comando y la enseñanza mediante el descubrimiento guiado, producen en la adquisición de habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos, en alumnos de Enseñanza Primaria. Tras distribuir aleatoriamente a cincuenta nueve alumnos de Primer Grado, 6 a 7 años, en dos grupos, se les aplicó el test de Desarrollo Motor Grueso (Ulrich, 1985 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades motrices. Los conceptos de la habilidad fueron evaluados por un test escrito, basado en los de Hopple (1995. Para el análisis de datos, fue empleado el análisis de la variación multivariante (2 estilos de enseñanza X 3 mediciones para las medidas repetidas.Aunque los resultados demostraron que ambos grupos mejoraron significativamente el rendimiento en las
Gregory, Meagan K.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Richman, David M.
Establishing a relation between existing skills and acquisition of communicative responses may be useful in guiding selection of alternative communication systems. Matching and motor-imitation skills were assessed for 6 children with developmental disabilities, followed by training to request the same set of preferred items using exchange-based…
José Angelo Barela
Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.
Barnett, Lisa; Hinkley, Trina; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo
To identify factors associated with children's motor skills. Cross-sectional. Australian preschool-aged children were recruited in 2009 as part of a larger study. Parent proxy-report of child factors (age, sex, parent perception of child skill, participation in unstructured and structured activity), self-report of parent factors (confidence in their own skills to support child's activity, parent-child physical activity interaction, parent physical activity) and perceived environmental factors (play space visits, equipment at home) were collected. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer) and motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) were also assessed. After age adjustment, variables were checked for association with raw object control and locomotor scores. Variables with associations of pobject control as respective outcome variables. Motor skills were assessed for 76 children (42 female), mean [SD] age=4.1 [0.68]; 71 completed parent proxy-report and 53 had valid MVPA data. Child age, swimming lessons, and home equipment were positively associated explaining 20% of locomotor skill variance, but only age was significant (β=0.36, p=0.002). Child age and sex, unstructured activity participation, MVPA%, parent confidence, home equipment (all positively associated), and dance participation (inversely associated) explained 32% object control variance. But only age (β=0.67, p<0.0001), MVPA% (β=0.37, p=0.038) and no dance (β=-0.34, p=0.028) were significant. Motor skill correlates differ according to skill category and are context specific with child level correlates appearing more important. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David
Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…
Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Literature. [and] Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Theory.
Knight, Carolyn M.
Article 1 reviews literature on psychomotor skill acquisition, finding inconclusive research based on a positivist approach. Article 2 reviews theories of skill acquisition. Both reviews will be used to evaluate a skills center for nurses that is based on a constructivist approach. (SK)
Full Text Available The survey was conducted among 183 regular female students in the secondary education. The objective of the research was to see what was the correlation, i.e. the influence of a system of motor tests EUROFIT program for children on motor test - polygon to assess motor skills and habits of pupils who regularly attended the course sport and sport activities. The sample of indicators included one criteria variable for the assessment of motor skills and habits and eight motor variables for the assessment of motor skills. With regression analysis was determined the impact of the system of motor variables on the criterion.
Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A
We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.
Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R
To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.
Muriel T N Panouillères
Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms
Dr. Peter Ashlame Agu
Full Text Available Since the past two decades or so the question of functionality of Nigerian educational products has been an issue of concern and a subject of discussion among educational analysts. This is against the backdrop that many students who graduate with admirable certificates from the nations reputable institutions are often unable to apply the acquired knowledge and skills to work situations. Contemporary societies all over the world require that preparation for work must become an integral part of a persons total educational experience. One reason for this requirement is to equip their citizenry with employable skills to enable them produce and use the goods and services which any society needs for its socio-economic growth. This paper therefore examines the role of skill acquisition in the transformation of Nigerian economy and proffers suggestions on how it can be repositioned to transform Nigerian education.
Full Text Available Learning novel skills involves reorganization and optimization of cognitive processing involving a broad network of brain regions. Previous work has shown asymmetric costs of switching to a well-trained task versus a poorly-trained task, but the neural basis of these differential switch costs is unclear. The current study examined the neural signature of task switching in the context of acquisition of new skill. Human participants alternated randomly between a novel visual task (mirror-reversed word reading and a highly practiced one (plain word reading, allowing the isolation of task switching and skill set maintenance. Two scan sessions were separated by two weeks, with behavioral training on the mirror reading task in between the two sessions. Broad cortical regions, including bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and extrastriate cortices, showed decreased activity associated with learning of the mirror reading skill. In contrast, learning to switch to the novel skill was associated with decreased activity in a focal subcortical region in the dorsal striatum. Switching to the highly practiced task was associated with a non-overlapping set of regions, suggesting substantial differences in the neural substrates of switching as a function of task skill. Searchlight multivariate pattern analysis also revealed that learning was associated with decreased pattern information for mirror versus plain reading tasks in fronto-parietal regions. Inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal cortex showed a joint effect of univariate activation and pattern information. These results suggest distinct learning mechanisms task performance and executive control as a function of learning.
Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre
Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…
Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.
To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…
Brown, Carol G.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Primary Movement programme on the fine motor skills of children in an early years setting in an area of high social disadvantage. Primary Movement is a programme which can be used as an early intervention technique to help children inhibit persistent primary reflexes that have been shown to…
Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.
Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…
Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A. K.; Cameron, Claire E.; Grissmer, David
This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years.…
Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.
Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…
Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David
This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…
Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V
Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...
should also be a clear distinction between movement activities as part of the formal academic programme and activities as part of an extra mural activity plan. Keywords: Motor skills; Movement; Physical development; First year students. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol.
Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…
Wolfgang H Sommer
Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in motor learning. Striatal function depends strongly on dopaminergic neurotransmission, but little is known about neuroadaptions of the dopamine system during striatal learning. Using an established task that allows differentiation between acquisition and consolidation of motor learning, we here investigate D1 and D2-like receptor binding and transcriptional levels after initial and long-term training of mice. We found profound reduction in D1 binding within the dorsomedial striatum (DMS after the first training session on the accelerated rotarod and a progressive reduction in D2-like binding within the dorsolateral striatum (DLS after extended training. Given that similar phase- and region-specific striatal neuroadaptations have been found also during learning of complex procedural tasks including habit formation and automatic responding, the here observed neurochemical alterations are important for our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders that show a dysbalance in the function of striatal circuits, such as in addictive behaviours.
Lisa Katharina Pendt
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.
Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad
The present study compared the performance of a group of sixteen kung fu athletes with that of a control group of fourteen nonathletes on a speeded visuospatial task and a hand-tapping motor task. In the visuospatial task the results showed that athletes were faster than the control participants when stimuli were presented at the periphery of the visual field at a middle and high presentation speed with short interstimulus intervals. Athletes were also significantly faster than nonathlete participants when performing motor actions such as hand-tapping with their dominant hand but groups did not differ with the nondominant hand. These results support the view that athletes perform some speeded visuospatial and motor tasks faster than nonathletes under certain conditions. The findings suggest that, after several years of practice, kung fu athletes develop certain skills that allow them to perform motor speed maneuvers under time pressure conditions.
César Oliva Aravena
Full Text Available This article present a qualitative analysis, relating visual perception to attention in the acquisition of motor abilities process. Research shows that the visual system is already in an advanced stage, right from the moment the baby is born, and that normal eye sight is attained at the age of 5 and continues to improve. On the other hand, attention is an flexible process, subordinated to a cognitive strategy and its relation to eye sight is only functional. The understanfing of the capacity of selective attention is necessary to the teacher or coach for it will help him/her to take decisions on how to teach, which aspects of his/her teaching should be emphasized or inhibited, in the learning process, and wich teaching strategies he/she should use.
Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham
Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support.
The process of transmitting ballet’s complex technique to young dancers can interfere with the innate processes that give rise to efficient, expressive and harmonious movement. With the intention of identifying possible solutions, this article draws on research across the fields of neurology, psychology, motor learning, and education, and considers their relevance to ballet as an art form, a technique, and a training methodology. The integration of dancers’ technique and expressivity is a core theme throughout the paper. A brief outline of the historical development of ballet’s aesthetics and training methods leads into factors that influence dancers’ performance. An exploration of the role of the neuromotor system in motor learning and the acquisition of expert skills reveals the roles of sensory awareness, imagery, and intention in cuing efficient, expressive movement. It also indicates potentially detrimental effects of conscious muscle control, explicit learning and persistent naïve beliefs. Finally, the paper presents a new theory regarding the acquisition of ballet skills. Recontextualization theory proposes that placing a problematic task within a new context may engender a new conceptual approach and/or sensory intention, and hence the genesis of new motor programs; and that these new programs may lead to performance that is more efficient, more rewarding for the dancer, more pleasing aesthetically, and more expressive. From an anecdotal point of view, this theory appears to be supported by the progress of many dancers at various stages of their dancing lives. PMID:27047437
The process of transmitting ballet's complex technique to young dancers can interfere with the innate processes that give rise to efficient, expressive and harmonious movement. With the intention of identifying possible solutions, this article draws on research across the fields of neurology, psychology, motor learning, and education, and considers their relevance to ballet as an art form, a technique, and a training methodology. The integration of dancers' technique and expressivity is a core theme throughout the paper. A brief outline of the historical development of ballet's aesthetics and training methods leads into factors that influence dancers' performance. An exploration of the role of the neuromotor system in motor learning and the acquisition of expert skills reveals the roles of sensory awareness, imagery, and intention in cuing efficient, expressive movement. It also indicates potentially detrimental effects of conscious muscle control, explicit learning and persistent naïve beliefs. Finally, the paper presents a new theory regarding the acquisition of ballet skills. Recontextualization theory proposes that placing a problematic task within a new context may engender a new conceptual approach and/or sensory intention, and hence the genesis of new motor programs; and that these new programs may lead to performance that is more efficient, more rewarding for the dancer, more pleasing aesthetically, and more expressive. From an anecdotal point of view, this theory appears to be supported by the progress of many dancers at various stages of their dancing lives.
Full Text Available The process of transmitting ballet’s complex technique to young dancers can interfere with the innate processes that give rise to efficient, expressive and harmonious movement. With the intention of identifying possible solutions, this article draws on research across the fields of neurology, psychology, motor learning, and education, and considers their relevance to ballet as an art form, a technique, and a training methodology. The integration of dancers’ technique and expressivity is a core theme throughout the paper. A brief outline of the historical development of ballet’s aesthetics and training methods leads into factors that influence dancers’ performance. An exploration of the role of the neuromotor system in motor learning and the acquisition of expert skills reveals the roles of sensory awareness, imagery, and intention in cuing efficient, expressive movement. It also indicates potentially detrimental effects of conscious muscle control, explicit learning and persistent naïve beliefs. Finally, the paper presents a new theory regarding the acquisition of ballet skills. Recontextualisation theory proposes that placing a problematic task within a new context may engender a new conceptual approach and/or sensory intention, and hence the genesis of new motor programs; and that these new programs may lead to performance that is more efficient, more rewarding for the dancer, more pleasing aesthetically, and more expressive. From an anecdotal point of view, this theory appears to be supported by the progress of many dancers at various stages of their dancing lives.
Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong
Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognitio...
Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...
Figueiredo, L S; Ugrinowitsch, H; Freire, A B; Shea, J B; Benda, R N
Providing the learner control over aspects of practice has improved the process of motor skill acquisition, and self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) schedules have shown specific advantages over externally controlled ones. A possible explanation is that self-controlled KR schedules lead learners to more active task involvement, permitting deeper information processing. This study tested this explanatory hypothesis. Thirty undergraduate volunteers of both sexes, aged 18 to 35, all novices in the task, practiced transporting a tennis ball in a specified sequence within a time goal. We compared a high-involvement group (involvement yoked, IY), notified in advance about upcoming KR trials, to self-controlled KR (SC) and yoked KR (YK) groups. The experiment consisted of three phases: acquisition, retention, and transfer. We found both IY and SC groups to be superior to YK for transfer of learning. Postexperiment participant questionnaires confirmed a preference for receiving KR after learner-perceived good trials, even though performance on those trials did not differ from performance on trials without KR. Equivalent IY and SC performances provide support for the benefits of task involvement and deeper information processing when KR is self-controlled in motor skill acquisition.
Full Text Available He purpose of the article is to study correlation of motor and functional characteristics of students of different somatotypes. Material : it was examined first year students (n=577, 17-18 years old. All students were trained in discipline “Physical education”. It was carried out somatotyping. It was considered motor skills and functional characteristics of students. Results : it was determined the reliable differences in values of parameters of motor tests and functional characteristics of students’ organism. It is determined that by the end of the first year of study the positive dynamics is registered: in sthenics (in two of seven motor tests; in asthenics (in four tests. It wasn’t found the reliable positive changes in group of hypersthenics. Students of sthenic and asthenic somatotypes have higher functional reserves of cardiorespiratory system, than girls of hypersthenics somatotype. Conclusions: constitutional features of motor skills and functional parameters of students of different somatotypes allow to concretize provisions of methodology of planning the individual differentiated training in discipline Physical education.
Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes
Learning a fine sequential hand motor skill, comparable to playing the piano or learning to type, improves not only due to physical practice, but also due to motor imagery. Previous studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and motor imagery independently affect motor
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.
Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara
When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…
Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…
Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.
Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…
The oil sector is strategic in any nation's endeavor for development. Disruption of oil supplies leads to a disruption in all sectors of the economy. In addition, by holding a prerogative over technical knowledge, the multinational oil companies have strengthened their influence. They have over time invested in research and development in exploration and refining, and have established a world-wide network of marketing systems. This paper provides a discussion of skill acquisition by indigenous people which is a discussion of the interface between the affiliates of these multinational companies, their corporate desires, and the efforts of emerging nations to control or at least monitor and regulate these affiliates
Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G
Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills are
Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.
The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.
Fischer, Ursula; Suggate, Sebastian P; Schmirl, Judith; Stoeger, Heidrun
Finger counting is widely considered an important step in children's early mathematical development. Presumably, children's ability to move their fingers during early counting experiences to aid number representation depends in part on their early fine motor skills (FMS). Specifically, FMS should link to children's procedural counting skills through consistent repetition of finger-counting procedures. Accordingly, we hypothesized that (a) FMS are linked to early counting skills, and (b) greater FMS relate to conceptual counting knowledge (e.g., cardinality, abstraction, order irrelevance) via procedural counting skills (i.e., one-one correspondence and correctness of verbal counting). Preschool children (N = 177) were administered measures of procedural counting skills, conceptual counting knowledge, FMS, and general cognitive skills along with parent questionnaires on home mathematics and fine motor environment. FMS correlated with procedural counting skills and conceptual counting knowledge after controlling for cognitive skills, chronological age, home mathematics and FMS environments. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and conceptual counting knowledge was mediated by procedural counting skills. Findings suggest that FMS play a role in early counting and therewith conceptual counting knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A
In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14-33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.
van der Fels, Irene M J; Te Wierike, Sanne C M; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. A systematic review. PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articles were included in this study. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers. Motor and cognitive skills were divided into six categories. There was either no correlation in the literature, or insufficient evidence for or against many correlations between motor skills and cognitive skills. However, weak-to-strong evidence was found for some correlations between underlying categories of motor and cognitive skills, including complex motor skills and higher order cognitive skills. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between underlying categories of motor and cognitive skills was found in pre-pubertal children compared to pubertal children (older than 13 years). Weak-to-strong relations were found between some motor and cognitive skills. The results suggest that complex motor intervention programs can be used to stimulate both motor and higher order cognitive skills in pre-pubertal children. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Lee, Candy Chieh; Chen, Ying-Dar; Wang, Tien-Ni
Visual perceptual motor skills have been proposed as underlying courses of handwriting difficulties. However, there is no evaluation tool currently available to assess these skills comprehensively and to serve as a sensitive measure. The purpose of this study was to validate the Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment (CPMSA), a newly developed evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. Its test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness were examined in 43 typically developing children and 26 children with handwriting difficulty. The CPMSA demonstrated excellent reliability across all subtests with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)≥0.80. Significant moderate correlations between the domains of the CPMSA and corresponding gold standards including Beery VMI, the TVPS-3, and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 demonstrated good concurrent validity. In addition, the CPMSA showed evidence of discriminant validity in samples of children with and without handwriting difficulty. This article provides evidence in support of the CPMSA. The CPMSA is a reliable, valid, and promising measure of visual perceptual motor skills for children in early elementary grades. Directions for future study and improvements to the assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.
Vanessa de Sousa
Full Text Available Abstract: Although the relationship between perceptual motor skills and attention is reported in the literature, few studies have empirically explored this association. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between these constructs, using the Bender-Gestalt Test: Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG and the Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA. The participants were 320 children from four public schools in a city located in the South of the state of Minas Gerais, with ages ranging from seven to 10 years (M = 8.39, SD = 1.10 and 196 (55.9 % female. The results showed negative, moderate and significant correlations between the total scores of the instruments, indicating the relationship between the constructs. Although the data has confirmed the existence of a relationship between perceptual motor skills and attention, further studies with samples from other regions are necessary.
Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A K; Cameron, Claire E; Grissmer, David
This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade. Implications of examining the hierarchical interrelations among processes underlying the development of children's mathematics skills are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
During placement in secondary schools, the author notice a general lack of confidence in the ability to use movement. Many of these "Clumsy Children" expressed difficulties with reading and writing and in the area of Mathematics. Was there a connection between under-developed motor skills and general academic and social behaviour? Primary 1-3 are structured around "learning by doing". After that the work changes to more cognitive based learning and more classroom structure. If the children do...
Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark
Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.
Katy A Shire
Full Text Available Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.
Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.
Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.
Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W
Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...
Hockenberry, Marilyn; Krull, Kevin; Moore, Ki; Gregurich, Mary Ann; Casey, Marissa E; Kaemingk, Kris
Improved survival for children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has allowed investigators to focus on the adverse or side effects of treatment and to develop interventions that promote cure while decreasing the long-term effects of therapy. Although much attention has been given to the significant neurocognitive sequelae that can occur after ALL therapy, limited investigation is found addressing fine motor function in these children and motor function that may contribute to neurocognitive deficits in ALL survivors. Fine motor and sensory-perceptual performances were examined in 82 children with ALL within 6-months of diagnosis and annually for 2 years (year 1 and year 2, respectively) during therapy. Purdue Pegboard assessments indicated significant slowing of fine motor speed and dexterity for the dominant hand, nondominant hand, and both hands simultaneously for children in this study. Mean Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) scores for children with low-risk and high-risk ALL decreased from the first evaluation to year 1 and again at year 2. Mean VMI scores for children with standard risk ALL increased from the first evaluation to year 1 and then decreased at year 2. Significant positive correlations were found between the Purdue and the VMI at both year 1 and year 2, suggesting that the Pegboard performance consistently predicts the later decline in visual-motor integration. Significant correlations were found between the Purdue Pegboard at baseline and the Performance IQ during year 1, though less consistently during year 2. A similar pattern was also observed between the baseline Pegboard performance and performance on the Coding and Symbol Search subtests during year 1 and year 2. In this study, children with ALL experienced significant and persistent visual-motor problems throughout therapy. These problems continued during the first and second years of treatment. These basic processing skills are necessary to the development of higher-level cognitive
Aquisição da habilidade motora rebater na educação física escolar: um estudo das dicas de aprendizagem como conteúdo de ensino The acquisition of striking motor skill in school physical education: a study of learning cues as educational content
Sérgio Roberto Silveira
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar o efeito das dicas verbais na aquisição da habilidade rebater na Educação Física Escolar (EFE, com foco de atenção no seu aspecto perceptivo e motor. Participaram do estudo 84 alunos de três turmas de uma escola (faixa etária entre seis a oito anos. Cada turma correspondeu a um grupo: sem dicas, com dica perceptiva e com dica motora. O experimento teve três fases: pré-teste, aulas de EFE e pós-teste. O grupo com dica perceptiva apresentou melhores resultados. Portanto, verificou-se o efeito das dicas relacionado com a especificidade da tarefa no que se refere às suas demandas de processamento. Assim concluiu-se que a dica de aprendizagem relacionada à especificidade da tarefa mostrou o seu potencial como um conhecimento que orienta os alunos em direção à melhoria da qualidade do movimento, confirmando a possibilidade de sua inclusão como conteúdo de ensino da EFE.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of verbal cues on the acquisition of a striking skill, focusing on their perceptual and motor aspects. The sample of this study was made of 84 public school students aged between six to eight years old from three classrooms of the same school. Each classroom constituted a group: no cue, perceptual cue and motor cue group. The experiment was carried out in three phases: pre-test, classes with specific cue and post-test. The group which received perceptual cue showed better results. Thus, it was verified that the effects of cues depend on the specificity of the task concerning its information processing demands. It was concluded that task´s specificity related cue demonstrated its potential as knowledge for the students to guide them towards improvement of the quality of movement and confirms the possibility of its inclusion as a content to be taught in the school physical education.
Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung
While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...
Full Text Available Background: Achievement of a sufficient fundamental motor skills (FMS level by the end of the preschool period is an important premise for the later participation of children in many sports activities. However, only a few studies have focused on the assessment of motor proficiency before entrance to elementary school in the population of preschool children in the Czech Republic. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the FMS of Czech boys and girls at the end of the preschool period. Methods: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second version (MABC-2 was used to assess the motor performance of the children in different domains, i.e., manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance. The research sample consisted of 121 children (age 6.5 ± 0.3 years, 61 boys and 60 girls. Results: According to the total test score performance on MABC-2, we found 2.5% of children with severe motor difficulties indicating the possible presence of Developmental Coordination Disorder and 10.7% of children with a risk of motor difficulties. In total, 64% of boys and 81.6% of girls had an MABC-2 score in the 50th percentile or lower. With respect to gender differences, boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching skills (p < .001; d = 1.10. Moreover, the girls' score in the 25th percentile indicated a low level of aiming and catching skills. Despite significantly better results for boys in one manual dexterity test item, and for girls in one manual dexterity and balance test item, there were no significant gender differences in overall manual dexterity and balance subtests. Conclusion: With the preschool years being a key developmental stage for the acquisition and development of FMS, the findings of low level of FMS in most of children and gender differences in aiming and catching skills highlight the need for improvements in motor competency. An effort should be made, especially for preschool girls, to stimulate the improvement of
E-Skill Information Acquisition Software: A Key to Poverty Alleviation Or Self Reliance. ... has not helped matters. This project is about developing an e-skill transfer using software. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.
Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…
Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…
Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss issues concerning determinants of somatic and motor development of young people from the VII High School name Wanda Szuman in Torun. On this basis it be able to assess the current state of skills kinetic and potential students in adolescence. To measure motor abilities was used International Physical Fitness Test. The study used the following six fitness tests: running at 50 meters, long jump from the spot, grip strength using a dynamometer, traces of lying within 30 seconds, shuttles run 4 x 10 m and slope in front trunk. All tests were performed as recommended by the authors of the test. Was also the classification of all body types surveyed students acording E. Kretschmer's typology and using the key of E. Curtius. After counting the average results of boys and girls on the points turned out to be, that boys predominate over girls motor skills, but also in the suppleness sample, where the assumption had achieved worse results. They obtained a small point lead. The girls can boast a better result in traces of lying receiving six points more than boys.
Full Text Available When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat, we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm. Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of 3 different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, unimanual training appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training, additional unimanual training could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because unimanual training increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the unimanual training performed after sufficient bimanual training could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient bimanual training, the training effect reached a plateau. However, unimanual training performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of bimanual training was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the
Collaer, Marcia L; Brook, Charles G D; Conway, Gerard S; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hines, Melissa
This study investigated early androgen influence on the development of human motor and visuomotor characteristics. Participants, ages 12-45 years, were individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a disorder causing increased adrenal androgen production before birth (40 females, 29 males) and their unaffected relatives (29 females, 30 males). We investigated grip strength and visuomotor targeting tasks on which males generally outperform females, and fine motor pegboard tasks on which females generally outperform males. Physical characteristics (height and weight) were measured to explore whether body parameters could explain differences in motor skills. Females with CAH were stronger and showed better targeting than unaffected females and showed reduced fine visuomotor skill on one pegboard measure, with no difference on the other. Males with CAH were weaker than unaffected males in grip strength but did not differ on the targeting or pegboard measures. Correction for body size could not explain the findings for females, but suggests that the reduced strength of males with CAH may relate to their smaller stature. Further, the targeting advantage in females with CAH persisted following adjustment for their greater strength. Results in females support the hypothesis that androgen may masculinize, or promote, certain motor characteristics at which males excel, and contribute to defeminization of certain fine motor characteristics at which females excel. Thus, these data suggest that organizational effects of androgens on behavior during prenatal life may extend to motor characteristics and may contribute to general sex differences in motor-related behaviors; however, alternative explanations based on activational influences of androgen or altered experiential factors cannot be excluded without further study.
Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye
Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off...... greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age......-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice....
Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M
The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F
Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks.
Logan, Samuel W; Ross, Samantha M; Chee, Keanu; Stodden, David F; Robinson, Leah E
The three aims of this systematic review are to describe: (1) use of the term fundamental motor/movement skills (FMS) in published articles; (2) the quality of definitions; and (3) relative use of process- and product- oriented assessments to measure FMS. The inclusion criteria included: (a) peer-reviewed article, (b) printed in English, (c) published between January 2000 and 31 December 2015, (d) presence of either the term "fundamental motor or movement skill" in the title and/or abstract, and (e) FMS were a measured outcome. There has been an increase in the number of publications on FMS in recent years, with the majority of studies conducted in Australia (n = 41, 33%). Approximately 24% of studies (n = 30) did not provide any explicit definition of FMS. A majority of studies reported the use of process-oriented measures (n = 98, 79%) compared to product-oriented measures (n = 23, 19%), and few studies used both (n = 6, 5%). We recommend that researchers provide: (1) an operational definition of FMS that states FMS are the "building blocks" (or similar terminology) of more advanced, complex movements; (2) specific categories of skills that compose FMS; and (3) at least one specific example of a FMS.
Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril
How do we recall a word's spelling? How do we produce the movements to form the letters of a word? Writing involves several processing levels. Surprisingly, researchers have focused either on spelling or motor production. However, these processes interact and cannot be studied separately. Spelling processes cascade into movement production. For example, in French, producing letters PAR in the orthographically irregular word PARFUM (perfume) delays motor production with respect to the same letters in the regular word PARDON (pardon). Orthographic regularity refers to the possibility of spelling a word correctly by applying the most frequent sound-letter conversion rules. The present study examined how the interaction between spelling and motor processing builds up during writing acquisition. French 8-10 year old children participated in the experiment. This is the age handwriting skills start to become automatic. The children wrote regular and irregular words that could be frequent or infrequent. They wrote on a digitizer so we could collect data on latency, movement duration and fluency. The results revealed that the interaction between spelling and motor processing was present already at age 8. It became more adult-like at ages 9 and 10. Before starting to write, processing irregular words took longer than regular words. This processing load spread into movement production. It increased writing duration and rendered the movements more dysfluent. Word frequency affected latencies and cascaded into production. It modulated writing duration but not movement fluency. Writing infrequent words took longer than frequent words. The data suggests that orthographic regularity has a stronger impact on writing than word frequency. They do not cascade in the same extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Decker, Scott L.; Englund, Julia A.; Carboni, Jessica A.; Brooks, Janell H.
Measures of visual-motor integration skills continue to be widely used in psychological assessments with children. However, the construct validity of many visual-motor integration measures remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of maturation and cognitive skills to the development of visual-motor integration…
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…
van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.
The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…
Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C
Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development.
Kaiser, Marie-Laure; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H
This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control
Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H
This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This book presents the state of the art in reinforcement learning applied to robotics both in terms of novel algorithms and applications. It discusses recent approaches that allow robots to learn motor skills and presents tasks that need to take into account the dynamic behavior of the robot and its environment, where a kinematic movement plan is not sufficient. The book illustrates a method that learns to generalize parameterized motor plans which is obtained by imitation or reinforcement learning, by adapting a small set of global parameters, and appropriate kernel-based reinforcement learning algorithms. The presented applications explore highly dynamic tasks and exhibit a very efficient learning process. All proposed approaches have been extensively validated with benchmarks tasks, in simulation, and on real robots. These tasks correspond to sports and games but the presented techniques are also applicable to more mundane household tasks. The book is based on the first author’s doctoral thesis, which wo...
Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type......-referenced classification of MS, the Danish sample distribution was significantly well for aiming and catching but poorer for the motor coordination test.The total sample and the least active children were most active on weekdays, during preschool time and in the late afternoon at the weekend. However, a relatively larger...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...
Full Text Available The 'Cerebellar Deficit Theory' of developmental dyslexia proposes that a subtle developmental cerebellar dysfunction leads to deficits in attaining 'automatic' procedures and therefore manifests as subtle motor impairments (e.g., balance control, motor skill learning in addition to the reading and phonological difficulties. A more recent version of the theory suggests a core deficit in motor skill acquisition. This study was undertaken to compare the time-course and the nature of practice-related changes in volitional (manual and non-volitional (posture motor performance in dyslexic and typical readers while learning a new movement sequence. Seventeen dyslexic and 26 skilled young adult readers underwent a three-session training program in which they practiced a novel sequence of manual movements while standing in a quiet stance position. Both groups exhibited robust and well-retained gains in speed, with no loss of accuracy, on the volitional, manual, aspects of the task, with a time-course characteristic of procedural learning. However, the dyslexic readers exhibited a pervasive slowness in the initiation of volitional performance. In addition, while typical readers showed clear and well-retained task-related adaptation of the balance and posture control system, the dyslexic readers had significantly larger sway and variance of sway throughout the three sessions and were less efficient in adapting the posture control system to support the acquisition of the novel movement sequence. These results support the notion of a non-language-related deficit in developmental dyslexia, one related to the recruitment of motor systems for effective task performance rather than to a general motor learning disability.
Prakash, Ruchika S; De Leon, Angeline A; Mourany, Lyla; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F
Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex video game skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: (1) Fixed Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants practiced the game, (2) Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or (3) a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 h of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network.
Ruchika S Prakash
Full Text Available Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically-based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex videogame skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: Fixed Emphasis Training (FET, in which participants practiced the game, Hybrid Variable Priority Training (HVT, in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 hours of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network.
Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.
In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…
Full Text Available The game of volleyball with its dynamic character is present in the world of the sport with permanent development and growing popularity and fans. Volleyball is part of a pollystructural complex sports activities. It is performed on a ground of a relatively small size (18 x 9 meters and is a kind of game that requires of players a high level of advanced motoric abilities (speed, strength, endurance, a fast rate of visual reaction, explosivity, as well as specific motoric skills (precision etc.. Scientific conclusion as well as the growing number of conducted researches in the very game, have a real contribution to its modern development and level of popularity. Situation-motoric skills make a significant dimension in the structure of volleyball game. The subject of the research is specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills of 52 volleyball players aged from 16 to 17. The basic goal of the research is to establish the effect of specific-motoric abilities on situation-motoric skills of volleyball players in latent space. In order to assess the specific-motoric abilities 9 tests are used, and to assess the situation-motoric skills 3 precision tests are used. The results obtained from the 12 applied tests are worked out through the basic statistic parameters. Through component factor analysis 3 latent specific-motoric dimensions are isolated as well as one situation-motoric dimension. By regressive analysis there is established a low but statistically significant relation between the criterion and predictor latent dimensions. That confirms the dependence and relation between the specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills. Researches in the fi eld of similar questions have been conducted by the following authors: Jurko et al., 2013 and Nešić, et al., 2011.
Carroll, Regina A.; Joachim, Brad T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Robinson, Nicole
Previous research supports the use of a variety of error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction. We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the effects of 4 commonly used error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for 2 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…
Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo
Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two…
This paper studied the impact of skills acquisition programmes in human and societal economic development in Abua/Odual Local Government Area in Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. One hundred and thirty respondents were randomly selected from 13 skills acquisition centres as participants.
MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A
Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.
...-AG30 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge (DFARS Case 2008... comments is provided below: 1. Comment. One respondent stated that it is customary in the motor carrier freight industry to assume a fixed cost of diesel fuel with a cost recovery mechanism (fuel surcharge) for...
Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.
Olga C. Santos
Full Text Available Personal tracking technologies allow sensing of the physical activity carried out by people. Data flows collected with these sensors are calling for big data techniques to support data collection, integration and analysis, aimed to provide personalized support when learning motor skills through varied multisensorial feedback. In particular, this paper focuses on vibrotactile feedback as it can take advantage of the haptic sense when supporting the physical interaction to be learnt. Despite each user having different needs, when providing this vibrotactile support, personalization issues are hardly taken into account, but the same response is delivered to each and every user of the system. The challenge here is how to design vibrotactile user interfaces for adaptive learning of motor skills. TORMES methodology is proposed to facilitate the elicitation of this personalized support. The resulting systems are expected to dynamically adapt to each individual user’s needs by monitoring, comparing and, when appropriate, correcting in a personalized way how the user should move when practicing a predefined movement, for instance, when performing a sport technique or playing a musical instrument.
Freitas, D L; Lausen, B; Maia, J A; Gouveia, É R; Antunes, A M; Thomis, M; Lefevre, J; Malina, R M
Relationships among skeletal age (SA), body size and fundamental motor skills (FMS) and motor performance were considered in 155 boys and 159 girls 3-6 years of age. Stature and body mass were measured. SA of the hand-wrist was assessed with the Tanner-Whitehouse II 20 bone method. The Test of Gross Motor Development, 2 nd edition (TGMD-2) and the Preschool Test Battery were used, respectively, to assess FMS and motor performance. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, the standardized residuals of SA on chronological age (SAsr) explained a maximum of 6.1% of the variance in FMS and motor performance in boys (ΔR 2 3 , range 0.0% to 6.1%) and a maximum of 20.4% of the variance in girls (ΔR 2 3 , range 0.0% to 20.4%) over that explained by body size and interactions of SAsr with body size (step 3). The interactions of the SAsr and stature and body mass (step 2) explained a maximum of 28.3% of the variance in boys (ΔR 2 2 , range 0.5% to 28.3%) and 16.7% of the variance in girls (ΔR 2 2 , range 0.7% to 16.7%) over that explained by body size alone. With the exception of balance, relationships among SAsr and FMS or motor performance differed between boys and girls. Overall, SA per se or interacting with body size had a relatively small influence in FMS and motor performance in children 3-6 years of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann
Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hazeltine, Eliot; Aparicio, Paul; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B.
This study examined the representational nature of configural response learning using a task that required simultaneous keypresses with 2 or 3 fingers, similar to the production of chords on the piano. If the benefits of learning are related to the retrieval of individual stimulus-response mappings, performance should depend on the frequencies of…
Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun
Previous correlational research has found indications that fine motor skills (FMS) link to early reading development, but the work has not demonstrated causality. We manipulated 51 preschoolers' FMS while children learned to decode letters and nonsense words in a within-participants, randomized, and counterbalanced single-factor design with pre- and posttesting. In two conditions, children wrote with a pencil that had a conical shape fitted to the end filled with either steel (impaired writing condition) or polystyrene (normal writing condition). In a third control condition, children simply pointed at the letters with the light pencil as they learned to read the words (pointing condition). Results indicate that children learned the most decoding skills in the normal writing condition, followed by the pointing and impaired writing conditions. In addition, working memory, phonemic awareness, and grapho-motor skills were generally predictors of decoding skill development. The findings provide experimental evidence that having lower FMS is disadvantageous for reading development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Use of the virtual reality laparoscopic surgery simulator allowed us to objectively assess residents' acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills. We found that residents more readily acquired dominant-hand skills during their 2-month training. We conclude that our training system serves as an effective initial step towards the acquisition of the necessary laparoscopic surgery skills, even though residents do not actually perform surgeries during the training period.
Christopher J Steele
Full Text Available The brain regions functionally engaged in motor sequence performance are well established, but the structural characteristics of these regions and the fibre pathways involved have been less well studied. In addition, relatively few studies have combined multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and behavioural performance measures in the same sample. Therefore, the current study used diffusion tensor imaging, probabilistic tractography, and voxel-based morphometry to determine the structural correlates of skilled motor performance. Further, we compared these findings with fMRI results in the same sample. We correlated final performance and rate of improvement measures on a temporal motor sequence task with skeletonised fractional anisotropy (FA and whole brain grey matter (GM volume. Final synchronisation performance was negatively correlated with FA in white matter underlying bilateral sensorimotor cortex – an effect that was mediated by a positive correlation with radial diffusivity. Multi-fibre tractography indicated that this region contained crossing fibres from the corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF. The identified SLF pathway linked parietal and auditory cortical regions that have been shown to be functionally engaged in this task. Thus, we hypothesise that enhanced synchronisation performance on this task may be related to greater fibre integrity of the SLF. Rate of improvement on synchronisation was positively correlated with GM volume in cerebellar lobules HVI and V – regions that showed training-related decreases in activity in the same sample. Taken together, our results link individual differences in brain structure and function to motor sequence performance on the same task. Further, our study illustrates the utility of using multiple MR measures and analysis techniques to specify the interpretation of structural findings.
Souza, Carolina T; Santos, Denise C C; Tolocka, Rute E; Baltieri, Letícia; Gibim, Nathália C; Habechian, Fernanda A P
To analyze the global motor performance and the gross and fine motor skills of infants attending two public child care centers full-time. This was a longitudinal study that included 30 infants assessed at 12 and 17 months of age with the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). This scale allows the analysis of global motor performance, fine and gross motor performance, and the discrepancy between them. The Wilcoxon test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used. Most of the participants showed global motor performance within the normal range, but below the reference mean at 12 and 17 months, with 30% classified as having "suspected delays" in at least one of the assessments. Gross motor development was poorer than fine motor development at 12 and at 17 months of age, with great discrepancy between these two subtests in the second assessment. A clear individual variability was observed in fine motor skills, with weak linear correlation between the first and the second assessment of this subtest. A lower individual variability was found in the gross motor skills and global motor performance with positive moderate correlation between assessments. Considering both performance measurements obtained at 12 and 17 months of age, four infants were identified as having a "possible delay in motor development". The study showed the need for closer attention to the motor development of children who attend day care centers during the first 17 months of life, with special attention to gross motor skills (which are considered an integral part of the child's overall development) and to children with suspected delays in two consecutive assessments.
Caçola, Priscila; Romero, Michael; Ibana, Melvin; Chuang, Jennifer
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have an increased risk for mental health difficulties. The present pilot study aimed to determine whether distinct group intervention programs improved several psychological variables (anxiety; adequacy and predilection for physical activity; participation, preferences, and enjoyment for activities) and motor skills from the perspective of a child with DCD as well as parental perceptions of motor skills, rate of function, and strengths and difficulties. Eleven children participated in Program A and thirteen in Program B. Both involved 10 sessions of 1 h each. Program A focused on task-oriented activities in a large group involving motor skill training and collaboration and cooperation among children, while Program B was composed of three groups with a direct goal-oriented approach for training of skills chosen by the children. Results indicated that children improved motor skills after both programs, but showed distinct results in regards to other variables - after Program A, children showed higher anxiety and lower levels of enjoyment, even though parents detected an improvement in rate of function and a decrease in peer problems. With Program B, children decreased anxiety levels, and parents noted a higher control of movement of their children. Regardless of the group approach, children were able to improve motor skills. However, it is possible that the differences between groups may have influenced parents' perception of their children's motor and psychological skills, as well as children's perception of anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dania, Jovinia; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah
The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34).…
Paul, Katja; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Lanzer, Peter
Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (CBCVI) provide a fascinating context to study skill acquisition. In CBCVI, multiple cognitive skills are crucial; technical, perceptual, and decision-making skills are all used at the same time and often depend on each other. In order to be able to
Jeff R. Crane
Full Text Available As children transition from early to middle childhood, the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of physical competence should strengthen as skills improve and inflated early childhood perceptions decrease. This study examined change in motor skills and perceptions of physical competence and the relationship between those variables from kindergarten to grade 2. Participants were 250 boys and girls (Mean age = 5 years 8 months in kindergarten. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions were assessed using a pictorial scale of perceived competence. Mixed-design analyses of variance revealed there was a significant increase in object-control skills and perceptions from kindergarten to grade 2, but no change in locomotor skills. In kindergarten, linear regression showed that locomotor skills and object-control skills explained 10% and 9% of the variance, respectively, in perceived competence for girls, and 7% and 11%, respectively, for boys. In grade 2, locomotor skills predicted 11% and object-control skills predicted 19% of the variance in perceptions of physical competence, but only among the boys. Furthermore, the relationship between motor skills and perceptions of physical competence strengthened for boys only from early to middle childhood. However, it seems that forces other than motor skill proficiency influenced girls’ perceptions of their abilities in grade 2.
Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths devel...
Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C
Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hosp, J A; Mann, S; Wegenast-Braun, B M; Calhoun, M E; Luft, A R
Motor learning requires protein synthesis within the primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we show that the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 is specifically induced in M1 by learning a motor skill. Arc mRNA was quantified using a fluorescent in situ hybridization assay in adult Long-Evans rats learning a skilled reaching task (SRT), in rats performing reaching-like forelimb movement without learning (ACT) and in rats that were trained in the operant but not the motor elements of the task (controls). Apart from M1, Arc expression was assessed within the rostral motor area (RMA), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), striatum (ST) and cerebellum. In SRT animals, Arc mRNA levels in M1 contralateral to the trained limb were 31% higher than ipsilateral (pmotor skill learning in rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tokarski, Tomasz; Roman-Liu, Danuta
This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of physical disability (paraplegia) and sensory disability (deafness) on motor skills of the upper limbs. Studies were distinguished by two parameters: the nature of the control curve (sine or random) and the magnitude of the isometric force exerted on the lever (10 N, 20 N, 40 N, 80 N). A comparison of the quality of manual force control in a visual detection task among groups of people with sensory disability (deaf), people with physical disability (paraplegic) and people without disability showed differences among those groups. Values of force above 20 N create conditions of lower quality of control and of direction of force exertion outside the body. At the same time, the study proved that people with some types of disability can perform certain work tasks as effectively as people without disability.
Golding, Jean; Emmett, Pauline; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Steer, Colin; Lingam, Raghu
Although much of children’s motor skills have a heredity component, at least half of the variance is likely to be influenced by the environment It is important to ascertain features of the environment that are responsible so that toxins can be avoided, children at risk can be identified and beneficial interventions initiated. This review outlines the results of published studies and recommends the areas where further research is required. We found much confusion with little comparability concerning the ages or measures used. Few studies had sufficient power and few allowed for confounders. We found that research to date implicates associations with prenatal drinking ≥4 drinks of alcohol per day; diabetes; taking antidepressant drugs; being deficient in iodine or iron; dietary fish; and postnatal depression. The child appearing to be most at risk was born of low birth weight (but not due to preterm delivery); or with neonatal problems. PMID:24170258
Ross, Helen E.
Parabolic flight produces brief alternating periods of high and low gravitoinertial force. Subjects were tested on various paper-and-pencil aiming and tapping tasks during both normal and varied gravity in flight. It was found that changes in g level caused directional errors in the z body axis (the gravity axis), the arm aiming too high under 0g and too low under 2g. The standard deviation also increased for both vertical and lateral movements in the mid-frontal plane. Both variable and directional errors were greater under 0g than 2g. In an unpaced reciprocal tapping task subjects tended to increase their error rate rather than their movement time, but showed a non-significant trend towards slower speeds under 0g for all movement orientations. Larger variable errors or slower speeds were probably due to the difficulty of re-organising a motor skill in an unfamiliar force environment, combined with anchorage difficulties under 0g.
Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.
... consolidated leasing programs for long term (60 continuous days or longer) commercial leasing of passenger... automobile. (3) The acquisition or lease (60 continuous days or longer) of light trucks less than 8,500 GVWR...
Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T
The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.
Hashem Faal Moganloo
Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.
Viholainen, Helena; Ahonen, Timo; Lyytinen, Paula; Cantell, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki
Relationships between early motor development and language and reading skills were studied in 154 children, of whom 75 had familial risk of dyslexia (37 females, 38 males; at-risk group) and 79 constituted a control group (32 females, 47 males). Motor development was assessed by a structured parental questionnaire during the child's first year of life. Vocabulary and inflectional morphology skills were used as early indicators of language skills at 3 years 6 months and 5 years or 5 years 6 months of age, and reading speed was used as a later indicator of reading skills at 7 years of age. The same subgroups as in our earlier study (in which the cluster analysis was described) were used in this study. The three subgroups of the control group were 'fast motor development', 'slow fine motor development', and 'slow gross motor development', and the two subgroups of the at-risk group were 'slow motor development' and 'fast motor development'. A significant difference was found between the development of expressive language skills. Children with familial risk of dyslexia and slow motor development had a smaller vocabulary with poorer inflectional skills than the other children. They were also slower in their reading speed at the end of the first grade at the age of 7 years. Two different associations are discussed, namely the connection between early motor development and language development, and the connection between early motor development and reading speed.
Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto
We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann
We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the level of improvement of motor skills of female volleyball players influenced by kinesiology operators in a period of 6 months. Research was conducted on sample subject of 130 female volleyball players aged from 13±0.6 (mean±SD. Sample variables are divided in two groups: 9 variables of assessment of basic motor skills and 5 variables of assessment of situational motor skills. Analysing difference of arithmetic means between of initial and final measures of treated variables it is determined that there is statistically significant difference on the level Sig=0.001, except for variables of Jelka test which determinates speed duration of female volleyball players. Analysis of quantity changes of basic motor skills, shows that the most important projections on selected discriminative function of basic motor skills have the following variables: body lifting in 30 sec; dynamometry of a hand, hand tapping; pull-up; throwing a 1 kg ball from lying position; side defence movement; push-up on bars and situational motor skill are the variables: precision of tactic serving; consecutive bumping; wall-spikes. Comprehensive development of female volleyball players and diversity in the level of volleyball specialization of the development will depend on systematic work on treated motor skills. This program appeared to be efficient. However, it is necessary to gradually increase the demands for the female volleyball players and to put the accent on performance of acquired situational motor skills in future work.
Discussion: According to the results, there is a significant association between fine motor skills with respect to visual-motor skills of hands and social competence and maturity in children, and it can be used as impact factor for to improve in children’s social growth.
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Sauer, Eve A.; Geye, Heather M.; Schweigert, Emily K.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Background: Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development. Methods: Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech…
Greier, Klaus; Drenowatz, Clemens
Despite considerable efforts the prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth remains high. Poor motor skills have been associated with increased body weight but there is still limited information on the longitudinal association of these health parameters. This study examined the prospective association between motor skills and body weight in 10- to 14-year-old youth. Body weight, height and motor skills, assessed via the German motor test 16-18 (Deutscher Motorik Test, DMT6-18), were measured in 213 middle school students (57% male) every year over a 4‑year period. Club sports participation and migration status were assessed via a questionnaire. Besides an inverse cross-sectional association between body weight and motor skills, excess body weight was associated with impaired development of motor skills (p skills at baseline also reduced the odds of becoming overweight/obese during the observation period. These results were independent of club sports participation. There is a bidirectional, synergistic association between body weight and motor skills. Facilitating the development of motor skills in children and adolescents may therefore be a viable intervention strategy targeting weight management and physical activity in youth.
Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun
Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…
Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri
Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…
Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P
Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50
Erim, Gonca; Caferoglu, Müge
Visual arts education is a process that helps the reflection of inner worlds, socialization via group works and healthier motor skills development of normally developing or handicapped children like the mentally retarded. This study aims to determine the influence of visual art studies on the motor skills development of primary school first grade…
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…
Hall, Tina J.; Hicklin, Lori K.; French, Karen E.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher compliance with state mandated assessment protocols and teacher accuracy in assessing student motor skill performance. Method: Middle school teachers (N = 116) submitted eighth grade student motor skill performance data from 318 physical education classes to a trained monitoring…
Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…
Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer
Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…
Bruce, L.; Farrow, D.; Raynor, A.; Mann, D.L.
Objectives: The influence of motor skill on perceptual-cognitive and perceptual-motor decision making has been theorised but not verified empirically. Method: Expert (n=19), developmental (n=20), and lesser-skilled netballers (n=19) completed tests designed to evaluate three different components of
Paul D. Loprinzi
Full Text Available Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA.
Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy
This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…
Terpening, Zoe; Naismith, Sharon; Melehan, Kerri; Gittins, Catherine; Bolitho, Sam; Lewis, Simon J G
The benefits of sleep for the consolidation of procedural motor skills are less robust in older adults, although the precise reasons for this remain unclear. To date, even less is known about these processes in older adults with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those which impact on motor functioning. While sleep disturbance and motor symptoms are frequent disabling features of Parkinson's disease, no known studies have directly probed sleep-dependent memory consolidation for motor skill learning in Parkinson's disease. Forty patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (age = 63.7 years ± 7.7; disease duration 4.1 years ± 4.4) completed a motor skill learning task pre- and post-sleep and were compared to 20 age- and sex-matched controls recruited from the community. Polysomnography was undertaken during the post-training night and measures of sleep architecture were derived. Parkinson's disease patients did not demonstrate any apparent deficits in within-session learning and overnight stabilization compared to controls, with both groups failing to demonstrate offline improvements in performance (i.e. memory consolidation). In controls, longer duration in slow wave sleep was associated with improved next-day session learning (P = 0.007). However, in Parkinson's disease, no relationships between sleep parameters and learning measures were found. Slow wave sleep microarchitecture and the use of dopaminergic medications may contribute to impaired sleep-dependent multi-session acquisition of motor skill learning in Parkinson's disease. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perez, Monica A.; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo
learning. Here we investigated the effect of visuo-motor skill training involving the ankle muscles on the coupling between electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded from the motor cortex (Cz) and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 11 volunteers...... between cortex and muscle as part of the motor learning process....
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor
Full Text Available Abundant evidence points to a key role of dopamine in motor skill learning, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used a skilled-reaching paradigm to first examine changes in the expression of the plasticity-related gene Arc to map activity in cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning in young animals. In the early phase, Arc mRNA was significantly induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, and striatum. In the late phase, expression of Arc did not change in most regions, except in the mPFC and dorsal striatum. In the second series of experiments, we studied the learning-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32k Da (DARPP-32. Western blot analysis of the phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 and its downstream target cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in the striatum revealed that the early, but not late, phase of motor skill learning was associated with increased levels of phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 and phospho-Ser133-CREB. Finally, we used the DARPP-32 knock-in mice with a point mutation in the Thr34 regulatory site (i.e., protein kinase A site to test the significance of this pathway in motor skill learning. In accordance with our hypothesis, inhibition of DARPP-32 activity at the Thr34 regulatory site strongly attenuated the motor learning rate and skilled reaching performance of mice. These findings suggest that the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway is critically involved in the acquisition of novel motor skills, and also demonstrate a dynamic shift in the contribution of cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning.
Joseph P. Mccleery
Full Text Available Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural mirroring mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.
McCleery, Joseph P.; Elliott, Natasha A.; Sampanis, Dimitrios S.; Stefanidou, Chrysi A.
Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural “mirroring” mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476
Chien, Kuei-Pin; Chen, Sufen
The authors investigated the role of errors in motor skills teaching, specifically the influence of errors on skills self-efficacy and achievement. The participants were 75 undergraduate students enrolled in pétanque courses. The experimental group (guided error-based learning, n = 37) received a 6-week period of instruction based on the students' errors, whereas the control group (correct motion instruction, n = 38) received a 6-week period of instruction emphasizing correct motor skills. The experimental group had significantly higher scores in motor skills self-efficacy and outcomes than did the control group. Novices' errors reflect their schema in motor skills learning, which provides a basis for instructors to implement student-centered instruction and to facilitate the learning process. Guided error-based learning can effectively enhance beginners' skills self-efficacy and achievement in precision sports such as pétanque.
Kester, Liesbeth; Lehnen, Chris; Van Gerven, Pascal; Kirschner, Paul A.
Kester, L., Lehnen, C., Van Gerven, P.W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Just-in-time, Schematic Supportive Information Presentation During Cognitive Skill Acquisition. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 93-112 .
Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bäumer, Anita
Kester, L., Kirschner, P., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Bäumer, A. (2001). Just-in-time information presentation and the acquisition of complex cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 373-391.
Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary
This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.
Prakash, Ruchika S.; De Leon, Angeline A.; Mourany, Lyla; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W.; Boot, Walter R.; Basak, Chandramallika; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F.
Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex video game skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three trai...
Mano, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Sayaka; Haga, Nobuhiko
The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. Cross-sectional survey. The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all. To measure their adaptive behaviour and motor skills, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition was used. They were evaluated on the domains of communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills. We also examined the relationship of the scores with age. There were no statistically significant scores for domains or subdomains. The domain standard score of motor skills was significantly lower than the median scores of the domains and was negatively correlated with age. Children with upper limb deficiencies have individual weaknesses in motor skill behaviours, and these weaknesses increase with age. It may be helpful in considering approaches to rehabilitation and the prescription of prostheses to consider the characteristics and course of children's motor skill behaviours. Clinical relevance Even if children with unilateral upper limb deficiencies seem to compensate well for their affected limb function, they have or will experience individual weaknesses in motor skills. We should take this into consideration to develop better strategies for rehabilitation and prostheses prescriptions.
Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes estruturas de prática na aquisição de uma habilidade motora foram investigados em um experimento em que a prática foi manipulada no que se refere à variabilidade. O delineamento constou de dois grupos de prática combinada (constante-por blocos e constante-aleatória e de duas fases de aprendizagem (estabilização e adaptação. Sessenta estudantes universitários praticaram uma tarefa que consistia em tocar sensores de forma sequencial em integração a um estímulo visual. Para a realização da tarefa foi utilizado o aparelho de "timing" coincidente para tarefas complexas. O desempenho foi avaliado mediante três medidas de erro: absoluto, variável e de execução. O "timing" relativo e sua variabilidade foram utilizados para avaliar a macroestrutura do programa de ação da habilidade ao passo que a microestrutura foi avaliada pela variabilidade do tempo total de movimento. Os resultados mostraram que, ao variar a tarefa em seus aspectos perceptivo (velocidade do estímulo visual e efetor (sequência de toques, a prática constante seguida de prática por blocos apresenta, na fase de adaptação, melhor desempenho em relação ao número de acertos de execução do que a prática constante seguida de prática aleatória, indicando, portanto, que a primeira proporciona mais condições de adaptação a uma nova tarefa motora.The effects of different practice schedules in the adaptive process of motor skill acquisition were investigated in an experiment involving different regimes of the variable practice. The experimental design consisted of two combined practice groups (constant-block and constant-random and two learning phases (stabilization and adaptation. Sixty undergraduate students performed a task that consisted of touching response keys sequentially in integration with a visual stimulus. A coincident timing apparatus combined with a serial response device was used. The overall performance was evaluated
Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long
While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the 'acquisition' of clinical skills. This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the 'acquisition' of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain 'acquisition' of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully.
Cameron, Claire E.
A growing body of research indicates that three foundational cognitive skills--executive function, motor skills, and spatial skills--form the basis for children to make a strong academic, behavioral, and social transition to formal school. Given inequitable early learning environments or "opportunity gaps" in the United States, these…
Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L.
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience difficulties with motor skill learning and performance. The pool is a unique learning environment that can help children with ASDs learn or improve aquatic skills, fitness, and social skills. A pool-based approach is also aligned with the elements of dynamic systems theory, which…
Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves
Motor skill learning is one of the key components of motor function recovery after stroke, especially recovery driven by neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance neurorehabilitation and motor skill learning in stroke patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retention of stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning involving a paretic upper limb have not been resolved. These neural substrates were explored by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized, sham-controlled experiment with two series. Each series consisted of two sessions: (i) an intervention session during which dual transcranial direct current stimulation or sham was applied during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb; and (ii) an imaging session 1 week later, during which the patients performed the learned motor skill. The motor skill learning task, called the 'circuit game', involves a speed/accuracy trade-off and consists of moving a pointer controlled by a computer mouse along a complex circuit as quickly and accurately as possible. Relative to the sham series, dual transcranial direct current stimulation applied bilaterally over the primary motor cortex during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb resulted in (i) enhanced online motor skill learning; (ii) enhanced 1-week retention; and (iii) superior transfer of performance improvement to an untrained task. The 1-week retention's enhancement driven by the intervention was associated with a trend towards normalization of the brain activation pattern during performance of the learned motor skill relative to the sham series. A similar trend towards normalization relative to sham was observed during performance of a simple, untrained task without a speed/accuracy constraint, despite a lack of behavioural difference between the dual transcranial direct current stimulation and sham
Faber, Irene R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.
A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their
Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene
Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…
Faber, I.R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.
A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their
Faber, I.R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.J.
Abstract A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.
Axford, Caitlin; Joosten, Annette V; Harris, Courtenay
Children are reported to spend less time engaged in outdoor activity and object-related play than in the past. The increased use and mobility of technology, and the ease of use of tablet devices are some of the factors that have contributed to these changes. Concern has been raised that the use of such screen and surface devices in very young children is reducing their fine motor skill development. We examined the effectiveness of iPad applications that required specific motor skills designed to improve fine motor skills. We conducted a two-group non-randomised controlled trial with two pre-primary classrooms (53 children; 5-6 years) in an Australian co-educational school, using a pre- and post-test design. The effectiveness of 30 minutes daily use of specific iPad applications for 9 weeks was compared with a control class. Children completed the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and observation checklist, the Shore Handwriting Screen, and self-care items from the Hawaii Early Learning Profile. On post testing, the experimental group made a statistically and clinically significant improvement on the VMI motor coordination standard scores with a moderate clinical effect size (P motor skill-specific applications as an intervention in occupational therapy practice and as part of at home or school play. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Boahin, Peter; Hofman, Adriaan
In the changing global economy, employability skills increasingly are the focus of vocational education and training institutions. This paper explores the effect of academic disciplines, students' background characteristics and industry training on the acquisition of employability skills through competency-based training. A significant…
Mbanefo, Maryrose Chinwe; Eboka, Obiajulu C.
Innovative and entrepreneurial skill acquisition in Nigeria entails focusing on what should be done to bridge the gap between the school and labor market, where the learner will work after graduation, so as to be self-reliant in the society. Specifically, the study determined: The innovative and entrepreneurial skills needed in basic science…
Peng, Ji-Yun; Li, Bao-Ming
It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especially post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill. Here, we show that protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and reconsolidation of a rotarod-running skill. Intra-ventricle infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin 0 h but not 2 h post-training caused a severe deficit in the acquisition of the rotarod-running skill. Protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) also caused a deficit in the maintenance of the rotarod-running skill, as well-trained rats demonstrated a deficit in the rotarod-running performance upon treatment with anisomycin. Similarly, PSI impaired the post-retrieval reconsolidation of the rotarod-running skill: well-trained rats treated with anisomycin 0 h but not 0.5, 2 and 4 h after the task performance exhibited amnesia for the running skill later on. Interestingly, rats treated with anisomycin 6 and 12 h post-retrieval exhibited amnesia for the running skill. Thus, protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of rotarod-running acrobatic motor skill.
Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especially post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill. Here, we show that protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and reconsolidation of a rotarod-running skill. Intra-ventricle infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin 0 h but not 2 h post-training caused a severe deficit in the acquisition of the rotarod-running skill. Protein synthesis inhibition (PSI also caused a deficit in the maintenance of the rotarod-running skill, as well-trained rats demonstrated a deficit in the rotarod-running performance upon treatment with anisomycin. Similarly, PSI impaired the post-retrieval reconsolidation of the rotarod-running skill: well-trained rats treated with anisomycin 0 h but not 0.5, 2 and 4 h after the task performance exhibited amnesia for the running skill later on. Interestingly, rats treated with anisomycin 6 and 12 h post-retrieval exhibited amnesia for the running skill. Thus, protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of rotarod-running acrobatic motor skill.
Marsh, Rachel; Alexander, Gerianne M; Packard, Mark G; Zhu, Hongtu; Peterson, Bradley S
Procedural learning and memory systems likely comprise several skills that are differentially affected by various illnesses of the central nervous system, suggesting their relative functional independence and reliance on differing neural circuits. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a movement disorder that involves disturbances in the structure and function of the striatum and related circuitry. Recent studies suggest that patients with GTS are impaired in performance of a probabilistic classification task that putatively involves the acquisition of stimulus-response (S-R)-based habits. Assessing the learning of perceptual-motor skills and probabilistic classification in the same samples of GTS and healthy control subjects may help to determine whether these various forms of procedural (habit) learning rely on the same or differing neuroanatomical substrates and whether those substrates are differentially affected in persons with GTS. Therefore, we assessed perceptual-motor skill learning using the pursuit-rotor and mirror tracing tasks in 50 patients with GTS and 55 control subjects who had previously been compared at learning a task of probabilistic classifications. The GTS subjects did not differ from the control subjects in performance of either the pursuit rotor or mirror-tracing tasks, although they were significantly impaired in the acquisition of a probabilistic classification task. In addition, learning on the perceptual-motor tasks was not correlated with habit learning on the classification task in either the GTS or healthy control subjects. These findings suggest that the differing forms of procedural learning are dissociable both functionally and neuroanatomically. The specific deficits in the probabilistic classification form of habit learning in persons with GTS are likely to be a consequence of disturbances in specific corticostriatal circuits, but not the same circuits that subserve the perceptual-motor form of habit learning.
Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu
Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gobel, Eric W; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J
Learning of complex motor skills requires learning of component movements as well as the sequential structure of their order and timing. Using a Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task, participants learned a sequence of precisely timed interception responses through training with a repeating sequence. Following initial implicit learning of the repeating sequence, functional MRI data were collected during performance of that known sequence and compared with activity evoked during novel sequences of actions, novel timing patterns, or both. Reduced activity was observed during the practiced sequence in a distributed bilateral network including extrastriate occipital, parietal, and premotor cortical regions. These reductions in evoked activity likely reflect improved efficiency in visuospatial processing, spatio-motor integration, motor planning, and motor execution for the trained sequence, which is likely supported by nondeclarative skill learning. In addition, the practiced sequence evoked increased activity in the left ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, while the posterior cingulate was more active during periods of better performance. Many prior studies of perceptual-motor skill learning have found increased activity in motor areas of the frontal cortex (e.g., motor and premotor cortex, SMA) and striatal areas (e.g., the putamen). The change in activity observed here (i.e., decreased activity across a cortical network) may reflect skill learning that is predominantly expressed through more accurate performance rather than decreased reaction time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
the UBE scheme should be actively involved in classroom activities, and that activity-based methods of instruction be employed in teaching Basic sciences to enable a greater percentage of students to acquire Science Process Skills with higher scores for effective learning of Science subjects. INTRODUCTION. Science Skill ...
Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina
The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…
Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Supporters of the theories of connections treat behavior as a result of relations or associations, whereas learning occurs when these relations are strengthened by repetition or when new relations are formed. These theories are usually classified as theories of stimulus-reaction (S-R, whereas associating in this sense is used to stress the concept most theories usually agree upon: that learning consists of relations and link between stimuli (S-S, between stimuli and reactions (S-R, or between reaction and impulse (R-P. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.
Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016-2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.
Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale
Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.
Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim
Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.
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Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E
This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.
Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M; Reeve, Ronald E
Social communicative deficits and stereotyped or repetitive interests or behaviors are the defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of research suggests that gross motor deficits are also present in most children with ASD. This study sought to understand how pediatric ASD severity is related to motor skills and social skills. A multivariate analysis of variance analysis of 483 children with autism ( N = 444) and ASD ( N = 39) revealed a nonsignificant difference between groups. Results suggest little difference between severity groups on gross motor and social skills within the limited age range of the participants (about 5.6 years of age).
Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A
This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.
Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D
Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, Leah E
The purpose of this investigation had two folds. First, it aimed to discover the relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschoolers. Secondly, it examined the effect of sex on perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills within the sample. A total of 119 children (mean age 4.00, SD 0.55 years) participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd Edition was used to assess fundamental motor skills and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance was used to assess perceived physical competence. The results show a moderate and significant correlation between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills. Sex differences were also found with boys demonstrating more proficient motor skills and reporting higher perceived physical competence compared with girls. The findings provide relevant information to the child development literature and suggest that a positive relationship exist between preschoolers' self-perceptions of the physical ability and fundamental motor skills. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The study was a survey research which investigated the production skills possessed by .... like creative thinking, decision making, marketing etc. (Olutoyin ... difficult to get teaching jobs or set up and handle their own businesses which resulted ...
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
students acquired the basic Science Process Skills measured but at a very low and little ... the UBE scheme should be actively involved in classroom activities, and that activity-based methods of ... that the ability to make good observation.
Frezzato, Renata Camargo; Santos, Denise Castilho Cabrera; Goto, Maura Mikie Fukujima; Ouro, Michelle Prado Cabral do; Santos, Carolina Taddeo Mendes Dos; Dutra, Vivian; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro
To screen the global development of children with and without congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate the association between fine motor skills and expressive language development in both groups. This is a prospective study of a cohort of children diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and monitored in a reference service for congenital hypothyroidism of a public hospital and of children without this disorder. The screening was performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in the cognitive, gross and fine motor skills, and receptive and expressive language domains. The children's performance was expressed in three categories: competent, and non-competent. We screened 117 children with average age of 21 months diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism at birth, with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level normalized during screening, and 51 children without the condition. The children with Congenital Hypothyroidism presented lower performance in gross and fine motor skills upon comparison between the two groups, and no differences were found in the cognitive and receptive and expressive language domains. The association between fine motor skills and language persisted in the group with Hypothyroidism, demonstrating that the interrelationship of skills is present in all individuals, although this group is two times more likely to present expressive language impairment when fine motor skills are already compromised. In the development process, both skills - motor and expressive language - might be associated and/or dependent on each other in the sample assessed.
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chagas Daniel V
Full Text Available Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes has been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known about the extent to which gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent nonathletes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes. Methods. The total of 34 students (27 females and 7 males aged 13-14 years who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was indicated by two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills. Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02. Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2 = 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230, F = 10.836, p = 0.02. Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in the execution of specific volleyball tasks.
Vegter, R.J.K.; De Groot, S.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.
To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces
Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Veeger, Dirkjan Hej; van der Woude, Lucas H V
To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique during the initial stage of motor learning. Therefore, 70 naive able-bodied men received 12-min uninstructed wheelchair practice, consisting of three 4-min blocks separated by 2 min rest. Practice was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed and constant power output relative to body mass. Energy consumption and the kinetics of propulsion technique were continuously measured. Participants significantly increased their mechanical efficiency and changed their propulsion technique from a high frequency mode with a lot of negative work to a longer-slower movement pattern with less power losses. Furthermore a multi-level model showed propulsion technique to relate to mechanical efficiency. Finally improvers and non-improvers were identified. The non-improving group was already more efficient and had a better propulsion technique in the first block of practice (i.e., the fourth minute). These findings link propulsion technique to mechanical efficiency, support the importance of a correct propulsion technique for wheelchair users and show motor learning differences.
Marlow, Nicholas; Altree, Meryl; Babidge, Wendy; Field, John; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy J
Training in basic laparoscopic skills can be undertaken using traditional methods, where trainees are educated by experienced surgeons through a process of graduated responsibility or by simulation-based training. This study aimed to assess whether simulation trained individuals reach the same level of proficiency in basic laparoscopic skills as traditional trained participants when assessed in a simulated environment. A prospective study was undertaken. Participants were allocated to one of two cohorts according to surgical experience. Participants from the inexperienced cohort were randomized to receive training in basic laparoscopic skills on either a box trainer or a virtual reality simulator. They were then assessed on the simulator on which they did not receive training. Participants from the experienced cohort, considered to have received traditional training in basic laparoscopic skills, did not receive simulation training and were randomized to either the box trainer or virtual reality simulator for skills assessment. The assessment scores from different cohorts on either simulator were then compared. A total of 138 participants completed the assessment session, 101 in the inexperienced simulation-trained cohort and 37 on the experienced traditionally trained cohort. There was no statistically significant difference between the training outcomes of simulation and traditionally trained participants, irrespective of the simulator type used. The results demonstrated that participants trained on either a box trainer or virtual reality simulator achieved a level of basic laparoscopic skills assessed in a simulated environment that was not significantly different from participants who had been traditionally trained in basic laparoscopic skills. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Full Text Available Many motor skills, once acquired, are stored over a long time period, probably sustained by permanent neuronal changes. Thus, in this paper we have investigated with quantitative stereology the generation and persistence of neuronal density changes in primary motor cortex (MI following motor skill learning (skilled reaching task. Rats were trained a lateralised reaching task during an "early" (22-31 days oíd or "late" (362-371 days oíd postnatal period. The trained and corresponding control rats were sacrificed at day 372, immediately after the behavioural testing. The "early" trained group preserved the learned skilled reaching task when tested at day 372, without requiring any additional training. The "late" trained group showed a similar capacity to that of the "early" trained group for learning the skilled reaching task. All trained animáis ("early" and "late" trained groups showed a significant Ínter hemispheric decrease of neuronal density in the corresponding motor forelimb representation área of MI (cortical layers II-III
Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers found that children with a competent level of motor skill performance are more likely to be physically active. This study examined how well K-1 students demonstrated motor skill competency in relation to Physical Education Content Standard 1. Methods Participants were K-1 grade students (N = 1,223-1,588; boys = 568–857; girls = 526–695; Mean age = 5.5 yrs old who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The K-1 students’ motor skill competency in running, weight transferring, hand dribbling, and underhand catching skills was assessed using four PE Metrics skill assessment rubrics in the intervention year 1 and year 2, respectively. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests. Results The students in the intervention year 1 and year 2 cohorts performed at the Competent Level or higher in the four skill assessments. The prevalence of the students’ demonstration of skill competency across the four skills was high in the two intervention years. The intervention year 2 cohort scored significantly higher than the intervention year 1 cohort in the four skill assessments. The boys significantly outperformed than the girls in the two manipulative skills in the intervention year 1 and in the two manipulative skills and the weight transferring skill in the intervention year 2. No gender differences in the running skill in either year were found. Conclusions The evidence-based CATCH PE play a critical role in developing and building K-1 students’ ability to demonstrate motor skill competency in four fundamental skills. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03015337 , registered date: 1/09/2017, as "retrospectively registered".
Full Text Available Strategies to early develop and implement motor skill promotion in preschoolers are lacking. Thus, we examined the effects of a card-based exercise promotion program in a kindergarten setting. 214 preschool children (5.5 ± 0.6 y, range 4.2–6.7 y were examined in the present intervention study. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were measured. Children were randomly assigned to the KIDZ-Box® physical activity intervention program (INT: n = 107 or the control group (CON: n = 107. Children were trained daily for 15 min over 7 month at the preschool for agility, balance, endurance and jump performance, employing the card-based KIDZ-Box® media package. At pre- and post-testing, dynamic balance, jump and agility performance were tested. Cross-sectionally, agility testing differed between sexes (p = 0.01 and BMI (p = 0.02. Trends towards a significant association were found between BMI and side-to-side jumping (p = 0.1 and beam balancing (p = 0.05. Relevant interventional effects favoring the intervention group were slightly found for agility (p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.02 and moderately for side-to-side jumping (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08. Balance performance did not relevantly improve. As jumping cards have been used frequently by the teachers, jumping improvements are plausible. The activity cards are feasibly applicable but should be employed with more structure during longer training sessions.
This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.
Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on six standardized assessments in a sample of middle-SES kindergarteners. 3- and 4-year-olds’ (N=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten; EF was measured at fall of kindergarten; and Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skills appeared distinct. Further, controlling for background variables, higher levels of both EF and fine motor skills, specifically design copy, predicted higher achievement on multiple subtests at kindergarten entry, as well as improvement from fall to spring. Implications for research on school readiness are discussed. PMID:22537276
Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L
Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children's learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success.
Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.
Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children’s learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success. PMID:27660751
Judith Jiménez Díaz
Full Text Available Fundamental motor skills are the basis for participation in more advanced lifetime activities. Whereas considerable research has been reported on motor behavior of children, much less is known about performance in later years, especially adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine age and gender differences on fundamental motor skills (FMS ability across three age groups: children (M = 9.37 yr., SD = 1.26, adolescents (M = 14.80 yr., SD = 2.04 and young-adults (M = 19.88 yr., SD = 2.72. Participants (n = 114 were assessed on five locomotor skills (run, gallop, slide, hop, and distance jump and five object control skills (bounce, catch, overhand throw, strike and kick using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills, which is a process-oriented instrument. ANOVA results comparing gender and group revealed no significant interactions. Moreover, main effects for group were found for three individual skills: galloping –adolescents and young-adults performed better than children (p < .01–, throwing –children and adolescents performed better than young-adults (p < .01 –, and kicking –young-adults performed better than children and adolescents (p < .05–. Also, we found main effects for gender for total FMS ability (p < .01, locomotor subscale (p < .05 and object control subscale (p < .01, and for six individual motor skills: run (p < .05, jump (p < .05, throw (p < .01, kick (p < .01, bounce (p < .01 and strike (p < .01; males outperformed females for all the skills. However, in view of total FMS ability, locomotor skills and object control skills results suggest similar performance across ages. Therefore, it is important to enhance fundamental motor skills at all ages, as an option to help individuals engage in physical activities.
Vincent Oreste Mancini
Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.
LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M
We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor skill from 12 to 24 months in HR infants (Study 1) and its relation to later expressive vocabulary at 36 months in HR infants (Study 2). In Study 1, we also included 25 infants without a family history of autism to serve as a normative comparison group for a parent-report fine motor measure. We found that HR infants exhibited fine motor delays between 12 and 24 months and expressive vocabulary delays at 36 months. Further, fine motor skill significantly predicted expressive language at 36 months. Fine motor and expressive language skills are related early in development in HR infants, who, as a group, exhibit risk for delays in both. Our findings highlight the importance of considering fine motor skill in children at risk for language impairments and may have implications for early identification of expressive language difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: Visual-motor skill is a part of visual perception which can integrate visual processing skills to fine movements. Visual-motor dysfunction is often to cause problems in copying and writing. The purpose of this study is investigation of occupational therapy interventions effect on the visual-motor skill in children with learning disorders. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, 23 students with learning disorders (2nd, 3rd, 4th grade were selected and they were divided (through Randomized Block Method into two groups, 11 persons as intervention group and the others as the control group (12 people. Both groups were administered the “Test of Visual-Motor Skills- Revised” (TVMS-R. Then case group received occupational therapy interventions for 16 sessions and two groups were administered by TVMS-R again. Data was analyzed by using paired T-test and independent T-test. Results: Total mark of TVMS-R demonstrated statistically significant difference in visual-motor skills between case and control groups (P<0/001. This test has 8 categories. Total mark of 1, 3,4,6,8 categories demonstrated that occupational therapy had significant effect on visual analysis skills (P<0/005. Total mark of 2, 5, 7 categories demonstrated that occupational therapy had significant effect on visual-spatial skills (P<0/001. Conclusion: Occupational therapy interventions had significant effect on the visual-motor skills and its items (visual-spatial, visual analysis, visual-motor integration and eye fixation skills.
Hashem Faal Moghanlo
Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people. Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results. Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.
Chow, Bik C; Louie, Lobo H T
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of preschool type (public vs private) on motor skill performance in 239 (121 boys, 118 girls) preschool children ages 3 to 6.5 yr. Preschoolers were tested on 12 fundamental motor skills from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition and 11 anthropometrics (body height, weight, Body Mass Index, waist and hip girths, and body segment lengths). Analysis of variance controlled for anthropometrics and age indicated that children from private preschools performed better on locomotor skills than those from public preschools. However, no difference was found in object control skills. The results suggest that performance of locomotor skills by preschool children is affected by their schools' physical environment.
Buja, Andreas; Volfovsky, Natalia; Krieger, Abba M; Lord, Catherine; Lash, Alex E; Wigler, Michael; Iossifov, Ivan
In individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), de novo mutations have previously been shown to be significantly correlated with lower IQ but not with the core characteristics of ASD: deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behavior. We extend these findings by demonstrating in the Simons Simplex Collection that damaging de novo mutations in ASD individuals are also significantly and convincingly correlated with measures of impaired motor skills. This correlation is not explained by a correlation between IQ and motor skills. We find that IQ and motor skills are distinctly associated with damaging mutations and, in particular, that motor skills are a more sensitive indicator of mutational severity than is IQ, as judged by mutational type and target gene. We use this finding to propose a combined classification of phenotypic severity: mild (little impairment of either), moderate (impairment mainly to motor skills), and severe (impairment of both IQ and motor skills). Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to examine the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of competence of children in their first year of school. We also explored gender-based differences. Findings Participants were 260 kindergarten children (mean age = 5y 9 m; boys = 52% from eight schools; representing 78% of eligible children in those schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions of physical competence were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Motor skill scores were generally low (percentile ranks ranged from 16 - 24 but perceptions of physical competence were positive (boys = 18.1/24.0, girls = 19.5/24.0. A MANOVA showed a significant overall effect for gender (Wilk's lambda = .84 with F (3, 254 = 15.84, p Conclusions Although motor skill levels were quite low, the children generally held positive perceptions of their physical competence. These positive perceptions provide a window of opportunity for fostering skillfulness. The modest relationships between perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency suggest that the children are beginning to make self-judgments at a young age. Accordingly, opportunities for children to become and feel physically competent need to occur early in their school or preschool life.
LeGear, Mark; Greyling, Lizette; Sloan, Erin; Bell, Rick I; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Temple, Viviene A
Our aim was to examine the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of competence of children in their first year of school. We also explored gender-based differences. Participants were 260 kindergarten children (mean age = 5y 9 m; boys = 52%) from eight schools; representing 78% of eligible children in those schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions of physical competence were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Motor skill scores were generally low (percentile ranks ranged from 16 - 24) but perceptions of physical competence were positive (boys = 18.1/24.0, girls = 19.5/24.0). A MANOVA showed a significant overall effect for gender (Wilk's lambda = .84 with F (3, 254) = 15.84, p competence among girls was not significant; however all other correlations were modest but significant. Although motor skill levels were quite low, the children generally held positive perceptions of their physical competence. These positive perceptions provide a window of opportunity for fostering skillfulness. The modest relationships between perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency suggest that the children are beginning to make self-judgments at a young age. Accordingly, opportunities for children to become and feel physically competent need to occur early in their school or preschool life.
Hauser, Peter C.; Cohen, Julie; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Bavelier, Daphne
Visual constructive and visual-motor skills in the deaf population were investigated by comparing performance of deaf native signers (n = 20) to that of hearing nonsigners (n = 20) on the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction subtest, and…
Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.
Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…
Pieters, Stefanie; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; Van Waelvelde, Hilde
In a sample of 39 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) and 106 typically developing controls belonging to three control groups of three different ages, we found that visual perception, motor skills and visual-motor integration explained a substantial proportion of the variance in either number fact retrieval or procedural…
Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.
Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…
Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Otipkova, Z; Musalek, M; Lejcarova, A
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder. Characterized by recurring problems with impulsiveness and inattention in combination with hyperactivity, motor impairments have also been well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the fine and gross motor skills of male and female children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts within seven skill assessments. This included three fine motor tasks: (1) spiral tracing, (2) dot filling, (3) tweezers and beads; and four gross motor tasks: (1) twistbox, (2) foot tapping, (3) small plate finger tapping, and (4) large plate finger tapping. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display poorer motor skills in comparison to neurotypical controls in both fine and gross motor assessments. However, statistically significant differences between the groups only emerged in four of the seven tasks (spiral tracing, dot filling, tweezers and beads and foot tapping). In line with previous findings, the complexity underlying upper limb tasks solidified the divide in performance between children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts. In light of similar research, impairments in lower limb motor skill were also observed. Future research is required to further delineate trends in motor difficulties in ADHD, while further investigating the underlying mechanisms of impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dahdal, Philippe; Meyer, Antonia; Chaturvedi, Menorca; Nowak, Karolina; Roesch, Anne D; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between impaired fine motor skills in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and their cognitive status, and to determine whether fine motor skills are more impaired in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than in non-MCI patients. Twenty PD MCI and 31 PD non-MCI patients (mean age 66.7 years, range 50-84, 36 males/15 females), all right-handed, took part in a motor performance test battery. Steadiness, precision, dexterity, velocity of arm-hand movements, and velocity of wrist-finger movements were measured and compared across groups and analyzed for confounders (age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms, and disease duration). Statistical analysis included t tests corrected for multiple testing, and a linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant predictors for fine motor function. PD MCI patients performed significantly worse in precision (p motor function skills were confounded by age. Fine motor skills in PD MCI patients are impaired compared to PD non-MCI patients. Investigating the relation between the fine motor performance and MCI in PD might be a relevant subject for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle
The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…
DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa
Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…
Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean
This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…
D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu
The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…
Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo
This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…
McPherson, Gary E.
Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)
Preece, Abdul Shakhour Duncan
The study investigates the effectiveness of community of inquiry method in preparing students to develop listening and speaking skills in a sample of junior secondary school students in Borno state, Nigeria. A sample of 100 students in standard classes was drawn in one secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis through stratified random sampling…
Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others
A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)
Mann, D.L.; Ryu, D.; Abernethy, B.A.; Poolton, J.M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a
Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A
Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants' language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants' early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.
Full Text Available Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N=29 were around three months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants’ language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants’ early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.
Sellés, Pilar; Ávila, Vicenta; Martínez, Tomás; Ysla, Liz
This paper deals with the skills related to the early reading acquisition in two countries that share language. Traditionally on reading readiness research there is a great interest to find out what factors affect early reading ability, but differ from other academic skills that affect general school learnings. Furthermore, it is also known how the influence of pre-reading variables in two countries with the same language, affect the development of the reading. On the other hand, several studies have examined what skills are related to reading readiness (phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness, naming speed, linguistic skills, metalinguistic knowledge and basic cognitive processes), but there are no studies showing whether countries can also influence the development of these skills.Our main objective in this study was to establish whether there were differences in the degree of acquisition of these skills between Spanish (119 children) and Peruvian (128 children), five years old children assessed in their own countries and after controlling Economic, Social and Cultural Status (ESCS). The results show that there are significant differences in the degree of acquisition of these skills between these two samples. It's especially relevant, in these results, that the main predictor in a regression study was the country of origin, explaining a higher percentage of variance than other variables such as age differences, in months, or gender. These findings corroborate the results obtained in other studies with migrant population.
Gelfman, Laura P; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Helen; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; O'Neill, Lynn; Smith, Cardinale B; Kelley, Amy S
Communication skills are critical in Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine because these patients confront complex clinical scenarios. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course by comparing pre- and post-course real-time assessment of the participants leading family meetings. We also evaluated the participants' sustained skills practice. We compare the participants' skill acquisition before and after Geritalk using a direct observation Family Meeting Communication Assessment Tool and assess their deliberate practice at follow-up. First-year Geriatrics or Palliative Medicine fellows at Mount Sinai Medical Center and the James J. Peters Bronx VA Medical Center participated in Geritalk. Pre- and post-course family meeting assessments were compared. An average net gain of 6.8 skills represented a greater than 20% improvement in use of applicable skills. At two month follow-up, most participants reported deliberate practice of fundamental and advanced skills. This intensive training and family meeting assessment offers evidence-based communication skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vasserman, Marsha; Bender, H Allison; Macallister, William S
The relations between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and motor skills are well documented, with research indicating both early and lifelong motor deficits in children with this disorder. Despite neuroanatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, which may predict differential rates of motor impairment between ADHD subtypes, evaluation of motor skill deficits in children with different presentations are limited in scope and equivocal in findings. The present investigation evaluated early motor development history and objectively measured motor skills in children with ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). One hundred and one children with ADHD-I (n = 53) and ADHD-C (n = 48) were included. Variables included Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), history of motor delays, and utilization of early intervention services, as well as objectively measured motor impairment as assessed via tasks of fine-motor coordination. No between-group differences were found for FSIQ, but differences in age emerged, with the ADHD-I group being older. No differences in early motor delays were observed, though a considerably higher percentage of children with ADHD-C demonstrated early difficulties. Surprisingly, although children and adolescents with ADHD-C reported more frequent utilization of early intervention services, those with ADHD-I exhibited greater levels of current motor impairment on objective tasks. Given the over-representation of older children in the ADHD-I group, data were reanalyzed after excluding participants older than 10 years of age. Although the between-group differences were no longer significant, more than twice the number of parents of children with ADHD-C reported early motor delays, as compared with the ADHD-I group. Overall, children with ADHD-I were more likely to exhibit current objectively measured motor impairment, possibly due to later identification, less intervention, and/or different neurodevelopmental substrates
Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen
Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…
This paper attempts to refute the assumption that early motor development is determined genetically and is not influenced by environmental factors. The paper re-examines three studies which are consistently cited as providing evidence for a maturational theory of motor development: the "early training study" by Gesell and Thompson, the "swaddling…
Pirila, Sija; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko; Ruusu-Niemin, P; Kilpinen, R
The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this
Liu, Ting; Breslin, Casey M.; ElGarhy, Sayed
Without proper motor assessment, children with autism spectrum disorder may be placed in educational settings that are inappropriate for their motor abilities. However, many practitioners find it challenging to choose which assessment to use to assess these children, especially with the number of instruments available. The purpose of this study…
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Johnson, W. Lewis
We are interested in developing effective performance-oriented training for the operation of systems that are used for monitor and control purposes. We have focused on one such system, the communications Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which is a worldwide system for navigating, tracking and communicating with unmanned interplanetary spacecraft. The tasks in this domain are procedural in nature and require reactive, goal-oriented skills; we have previously described a cognitive model for problem solving that accounts for both novice and expert levels of behavior as well as how skill is acquired. Our cognitive modeling work in this task domain led us to make a number of predictions about tutoring that have influenced the design of the system described in this paper.
Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril
Learning how to write involves the automation of grapho-motor skills. One of the factors that determine automaticity is "motor anticipation." This is the ability to write a letter while processing information on how to produce following letters. It is essential for writing fast and smoothly. We investigated how motor anticipation…
Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R
Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Khair, Kate; Meerabeau, Liz; Gibson, Faith
There is an increasing prevalence of children/young people with long-term conditions (LTC) in the UK due to improvements in health-care management and delivery. These children are often involved, from an early age, in their own care and management; yet, there are little data to support how or when they develop the necessary skills and knowledge to become competent at this care. This study aimed to understand self-management of haemophilia, from a child's perspective, in the 21st century in the UK where intensive prophylactic therapy is given from early childhood. A qualitative study using grounded theory to evaluate life-experiences of children and young people with haemophilia. Thirty boys aged 4-16 with severe haemophilia treated at a single paediatric haemophilia care centre were interviewed at home or in a focus group. Multimethod qualitative research including age-appropriate research tools (draw and write, photo-elicitation and interviews) to facilitate data collection from children. Boys develop self-management skills over time. They learn from health-care professionals, their parents and other family members with haemophilia. Self-management skills (bleed recognition, self-infusion, self and medicines management, pain and risk management and conceptualizing preventative therapy) are developed through experiential learning and individualized education, and not through formalized expert patient programmes. The boys in this study have benefited from early prophylactic factor replacement therapy. They develop skills in haemophilia and self-management at a relatively young age and are experts in their own haemophilia care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…
Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill.
Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia
Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Qian; Ko, Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Yan, Leo Y. C.; Chan, Danny C. W.; Arbuthnott, Gordon; Ke, Ya; Yung, Wing-Ho
The mechanisms underlying the emergence of learned motor skill representation in primary motor cortex (M1) are not well understood. Specifically, how motor representation in the deep output layer 5b (L5b) is shaped by motor learning remains virtually unknown. In rats undergoing motor skill training, we detect a subpopulation of task-recruited L5b neurons that not only become more movement-encoding, but their activities are also more structured and temporally aligned to motor execution with a timescale of refinement in tens-of-milliseconds. Field potentials evoked at L5b in vivo exhibit persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) that parallels motor performance. Intracortical dopamine denervation impairs motor learning, and disrupts the LTP profile as well as the emergent neurodynamical properties of task-recruited L5b neurons. Thus, dopamine-dependent recruitment of L5b neuronal ensembles via synaptic reorganization may allow the motor cortex to generate more temporally structured, movement-encoding output signal from M1 to downstream circuitry that drives increased uniformity and precision of movement during motor learning. PMID:28598433
Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.
Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido
This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.
Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard
This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985
Taverna, Livia; Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta
CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.
Full Text Available CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76, including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT. VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA. A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7% as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40 than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87 and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81. Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.
Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta
CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07–5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children’s motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS’s total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children’s motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis’ tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia. PMID
Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the urgent problems of forming a pianist – the development of score reading skills, in particular the development of motor skills required for this aptitude. Since this ability is not innate, the formation of score reading skills becomes one of the central problems of musical education. Sight-reading is a complex process, requiring the development of complex musical abilities: skills in piano technique, musical and auditory representations, internal hearing. The article presents a series of exercises that can serve as a solid basis for the formation and development of score reading skills.
Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E
Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks selected sport trainings on perceptual- motor skills among typical obese girls and girls with Down syndrome (aged 7-13. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with control group, 22 obese children with Down syndrome and 22 typical obese children who were selected purposefully participated in 24 purposeful sport training sessions. All groups were assessed with Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency before and after training sessions. Results: The findings showed that both groups of participants significantly developed in their gross motor skills (P<0.05 but not in fine skills. Also, the results indicated that obese children with Down syndrome had significantly (P<0.05 higher progress in both gross and fine motor skills than typical children. Conclusion: Despite of the variety of influential genetic and environmental constraints on obese children with Down syndrome they can develop their perceptual-motor skills via purposeful sport trainings such as play and leisure. Necessity of early perceptual-motor training is discussed.
Full Text Available Body fat percentage is higher in relation to muscle in reduced physical activity, which significantly affects the level of motorabilities of students. The results of previously conducted research in the area of motor skills quickly become obsolete. During school age tracking students growth and development enables us to assess the regularity of the developmental period. By measuring the motor dimensions we come to some data about their development. If we want to get to the question of whether there is a change in the development of motor skills, it is necessary to compare their development with the development of students the same age measured more than twenty years. The aim of this study was to determine the difference of motor abilities of the pupils aged 13 years measured in 1970 and 1995 year. Measurement of motor skills are performed according to the methodology that was applied by Kurelić et al. (1975. Determination of differences was done by Difference test from the statistical package Statistica 8.0 for Windows, compared to the availabledata of means and standard deviations of respondents. The results of this research indicate that students which are measured in 1970 had better motor skills compared to students of the same age measured in 1995, except in test foot taping (MTAN.
Miyadahira, A M
It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.
Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F
Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. Eloirdi; A. Arfaoui; A.O.T. Ahami
The issue of motor learning and underlying factors are widely debated. This work has a double aim, to bring out the profile of mental skills and to evaluate their correlation with performance in sport and physical education in Moroccan secondary school students. The study was based on a sample of 202 Moroccan students. We used the test Mental Skills Assessment Tool (OMSAT-3) to assess mental skills. According to the results, the OMSAT-3 displayed a very satisfactory internal consistency, ...
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.
van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21
Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C
The purpose of this study was to examine the linear relationship between gross motor skills and cardiometabolic risk, with aerobic fitness as a mediator variable, in low-income children from the United States. Participants were a convenience sample of 224 children (mean ± SD age = 9.1 ± 1.1 yr; 129 girls and 95 boys) recruited from five low-income elementary schools from the Mountain West Region of the United States. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition. Gross motor skills were analyzed using a locomotor skill, a ball skill, and a total gross motor skill score. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run that was administered during physical education class. A continuous and age- and sex-adjusted metabolic syndrome score (MetS) was calculated from health and blood marker measurements collected in a fasted state before school hours. Total effects, average direct effects, and indirect effects (average causal mediation effect) were calculated using a bootstrap mediation analysis method via a linear regression algorithm. The average causal mediation effect of gross locomotor skills on MetS scores, using aerobic fitness as the mediator variable, was statistically significant (β = -0.055, 95% confidence interval = -0.097 to -0.021, P = 0.003). The model explained approximately 17.5% of the total variance in MetS with approximately 43.7% of the relationship between locomotor skills and MetS mediated through aerobic fitness. Ball skills did not significantly relate with cardiometabolic risk. There is a significant relationship between gross locomotor skills and cardiometabolic risk that is partially mediated through aerobic fitness in a sample of low-income children from the United States.
Pixa, Nils H; Pollok, Bettina
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of cortical excitability as well as neuroplastic reorganization using a weak constant current applied through the skull on the cerebral cortex. TDCS has been found to improve motor performance in general and motor learning in particular. However, these effects have been reported almost exclusively for unimanual motor tasks such as serial reaction time tasks, adaptation tasks, or visuo-motor tracking. Despite the importance of bimanual actions in most activities of daily living, only few studies have investigated the effects of tDCS on bimanual motor skills. The objectives of this review article are: (i) to provide a concise overview of the few existing studies in this area; and (ii) to discuss the effects of tDCS on bimanual motor skills in healthy volunteers and patients suffering from neurological diseases. Despite considerable variations in stimulation protocols, the bimanual tasks employed, and study designs, the data suggest that tDCS has the potential to enhance bimanual motor skills. The findings imply that the effects of tDCS vary with task demands, such as complexity and the level of expertise of the participating volunteers. Nevertheless, optimized stimulation protocols tailored to bimanual tasks and individual performance considering the underlying neural substrates of task execution are required in order to probe the effectiveness of tDCS in greater detail, thus creating an opportunity to support motor recovery in neuro-rehabilitation.
DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C; Goffman, Lisa
To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged-matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the procedural deficit hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains.
Çetinkaya, Engin; Çift, Hakan; Aybar, Ahmet; Erçin, Ersin; Güler, Gamze Babür; Poyanlı, Oğuz
The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the impact of the simulation training program in learning duration of arthroscopic motor skills. Furthermore, we investigated the difference between junior and experienced residents in the improvement of arthroscopic motor skills duration. We established 2 study groups according to participants' year of experience in orthopedic residency with junior group residents with three years or less than three years experience as group 1 and experienced group with over 3 years of experience as group 2. We calculated duration change of motor skill test results for each participant before and after the course. The tools used were; auto scoring mirror tracer(ASMT), 0'Conner the tweezer dexterity test(OCTDT), etch-a-sketch with overlay(ESOT), purdue the pegboard test(PPT), two-arm coordination test(TACT) and grooved pegboard test(GPT) which were all produced by Lafayette firm. These instruments were used to practice and measure the basic motor skills. All post-course test durations for participants decreased significantly when compared to pre-course. We calculated percentage change of motor skill test results for each participant before and after the course. All motor skill test percentage changes were similar between two groups. In comparison of participants according to their experiences, results revealed that there was no difference in test results of experienced and junior surgeons. Both groups had provided equal improvement in terms of motor skills. As our results revealed, residents will be able to act with a strong motivation to learn applications through basic arthroscopic information gained in early period of orthopedic training and will make more successful applications of real patients. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann
A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…
Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sara Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas
BACKGROUND: Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation...... to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference...... data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. METHODS: Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed...
MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly
The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.
Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Paterson, Phyllis G.
Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) of zinc (Zn) has been recently implemented to understand the efficiency of various therapeutic interventions targeting post-stroke neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. However, it is uncertain if micro XFI can resolve neuroplasticity-induced changes. Thus, we explored if learning-associated behavioral changes would be accompanied by changes in cortical Zn concentration measured by XFI in healthy adult rats. Proficiency in a skilled reach-to-eat task during early and late stages of motor learning served as a functional measure of neuroplasticity. c-Fos protein and vesicular Zn expression were employed as indirect neuronal measures of brain plasticity. A total Zn map (20 × 20 × 30 μm3 resolution) generated by micro XFI failed to reflect increases in either c-Fos or vesicular Zn in the motor cortex contralateral to the trained forelimb or improved proficiency in the skilled reaching task. Remarkably, vesicular Zn increased in the late stage of motor learning along with a concurrent decrease in the number of c-fos-ip neurons relative to the early stage of motor learning. This inverse dynamics of c-fos and vesicular Zn level as the motor skill advances suggest that a qualitatively different neural population, comprised of fewer active but more efficiently connected neurons, supports a skilled action in the late versus early stage of motor learning. The lack of sensitivity of the XFI-generated Zn map to visualize the plasticity-associated changes in vesicular Zn suggests that the Zn level measured by micro XFI should not be used as a surrogate marker of neuroplasticity in response to the acquisition of skilled motor actions. Nanoscopic XFI could be explored in future as a means of imaging these subtle physiological changes. PMID:27840249
Hochstenbach, J; Mulder, T
Regaining independent mobility is one of the most important goals in physical therapy with patients suffering from the consequences of stroke. Both physical therapy and occupational therapy are learning processes in which the patient has to remaster old skills or has to learn novel skills. It is
Gill, Simone V; Hung, Ya-Ching
Little is known about how obesity relates to motor planning and skills during functional tasks. We collected 3-D kinematics and kinetics as normal weight (n=10) and overweight/obese (n=12) children walked on flat ground and as they crossed low, medium, and high obstacles. We investigated if motor planning and motor skill impairments were evident during obstacle crossing. Baseline conditions showed no group differences (all ps>.05). Increased toe clearance was found on low obstacles (p=.01) for the overweight/obese group and on high obstacles (p=.01) for the normal weight group. With the crossing leg, the overweight/obese group had larger hip abduction angles (p=.01) and medial ground reaction forces (p=.006) on high obstacles and high anterior ground reaction forces on low obstacles (p=.001). With the trailing leg, overweight/obese children had higher vertical ground reaction forces on high obstacles (p=.005) and higher knee angles (p=.01) and anterior acceleration in the center of mass (p=.01) on low obstacles. These findings suggest that differences in motor planning and skills in overweight/obese children may be more apparent during functional activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S
The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.
Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N
To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution. OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036). OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.
Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Jittimanee, Pannapa; Viratket, Piyanuch
We have developed a haptic virtual reality system for dental skill training. In this study we examined several kinds of kinematic information about the movement provided by the system supplement knowledge of results (KR) in dental skill acquisition. The kinematic variables examined involved force utilization (F) and mirror view (M). This created three experimental conditions that received augmented kinematic feedback (F, M, FM) and one control condition that did not (KR-only). Thirty-two dental students were randomly assigned to four groups. Their task was to perform access opening on the upper first molar with the haptic virtual reality system. An acquisition session consisted of two days of ten trials of practice in which augmented kinematic feedback was provided for the appropriate experimental conditions after each trial. One week after, a retention test consisting of two trials without augmented feedback was completed. The results showed that the augmented kinematic feedback groups had larger mean performance scores than the KR-only group in Day 1 of the acquisition and retention sessions (ANOVA, p0.05). The trends in acquisition and retention sessions suggest that the augmented kinematic feedback can enhance the performance earlier in the skill acquisition and retention sessions.
Hummel, Hans; Paas, Fred; Koper, Rob
Hummel, H. G. K., Paas, F., & Koper, R. (2006). Effects of cueing and collaboration on the Acquisition of Complex Legal Skills. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 613-632. [Also availabe at http://hdl.handle.net/1820/1646
Hummel, Hans; Paas, Fred; Koper, Rob
Hummel, H. G. K., Paas, F., & Koper, R. (2006). Effects of cueing and collaboration on the Acquisition of Complex Legal Skills. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 613-632. [Also availabe at http://hdl.handle.net/1820/482
Audu, R.; Bin Kamin, Yusri; Bin Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Bin Saud, Muhammad Sukri; Hamid, Mohd. Zolkifli Abd.
This study is designed to identify the most significant teaching methods that influence the acquisition of generic skills of mechanical engineering trades students at technical college level. Descriptive survey research design was utilized in carrying out the study. One hundred and ninety (190) respondents comprised of mechanical engineering…
This paper examines the effect of adaptive skill acquisition on youth development in the Niger delta area of Nigeria with emphasis on Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from 99 respondents, which cut across four stakeholder institutions in the study area. Data analysis was by ...
This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…
Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS) was a federally-funded project in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools in its fourth year of operation in 1992-93. It served 312 limited-English-proficient and 57 English-proficient students through instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA) in…
Frank, David J.; Macnamara, Brooke N.
Performance on verbal and mathematical tasks is enhanced when participants shift from using algorithms to retrieving information directly from memory (Siegler, 1988a). However, it is unknown whether a shift to retrieval is involved in dynamic spatial skill acquisition. For example, do athletes mentally extrapolate the trajectory of the ball, or do…
Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…
Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.
Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…
Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire
Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome occurs due to an extra chromosome 21, known as Trisomy 21. In addition to delayed cognitive and speech development, children with Down syndrome may also experience delayed gross and fine motor development. Virtual Reality Therapy, such as Nintendo Wii is a computer-based technology that allows users to interact with a virtual three-dimensional scenario and the most innovative physical rehabilitation method. High scores indicate that the player has a good motor skill. This study aimed to examine the difference between the score of fine motor skill in children with and without Down syndrome. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2015 to 40 children aged between 9–12 years old who came from public primary schools and special needs schools in Bandung, West Java. They were divided into 2 groups using random gender and age pairing; one group was children with Down syndrome and another other group was normal children. The children’ scores of Nintendo Wii game were collected three times. The collected data were statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results: The proportion of children with low-grade fine motor skill in Down syndrome group was larger than those with high-grade fine motor skill. In the other hand, in normal children group, the proportion was reversed compared to Down syndrome group. There was a significant difference in score of fine motor skill between children with Down syndrome and normal children (p=0.000. Conclusions: The fine motor skill of children with Down syndrome is poorer than normal children’s.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin
To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dadgar, Hooshang; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Soleymani, Zahra; Khorammi, Anahita; McCleery, Joe; Maroufizadeh, Saman
Objective: Development of early social skills in children is a complex process. To understand this process, it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in other developmental domains may be affected by these skills. The present study aimed at investigating the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: In this study, 20 children with ASD aged 3 to 5 years (M = 4.05, SD = 0.55) participated. All children were diagnosed as ASD based on the DSM-V criteria by an independent child psychiatrist. Additionally, Autism Diagnostic interview-Revised was used for subsequent diagnostic confirmation. Children were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS), and the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS). All examinations were videotaped for subsequent scoring. The relationship between these skills was estimated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: A significant and strong correlation was obtained between TGMD total score and imitation total score (r =.776; p 0.05). A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with Initiating Joint Attention and Responding to Joint Attention (p≤0/025) as ESCS subscales. But MIS and TGMD total scores were not correlated with social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have an association with each other and with early social communication skills.
Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.
The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…
Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia
To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score < -2, and 30.2% were mild-to-moderately stunted or length-for-age Z score < -1. Stunting status was significantly associated with motor and phonetic language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342
Nicola J. Pitchford
Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of eggshell mosaic toward fine motor skills of children with intellectual and develompental disability. The data was collected with observation, and the analysis technique used analysis in condition and analysis between conditions. The conclusion of this research was eggshell mosaic gives effect toward the fine motor skills of the children, it was shown from fine motor skills of the children before eggshell mosaic treatment, during the treatment and after controlling, and the fine motor skills of the children was improved.
Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Schwenkreis, Peter; El Tom, Susan; Ragert, Patrick; Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R
As a model for use-dependent plasticity, the brains of professional musicians have been extensively studied to examine structural and functional adaptation to unique requirements of skilled performance. Here we provide a combination of data on motor performance and hand representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex of professional violin players, with the aim of assessing possible behavioural consequences of sensorimotor cortical asymmetries. We studied 15 healthy right-handed professional violin players and 35 healthy nonmusician controls. Motor and somatosensory cortex asymmetry was assessed by recording the motor output map after transcranial magnetic stimulation from a small hand muscle, and by dipole source localization of somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves. Motor performance was examined using a series of standardized motor tasks covering different aspects of hand function. Violin players showed a significant right-larger-than-left asymmetry of the motor and somatosensory cortex, whereas nonmusician controls showed no significant interhemispheric difference. The amount of asymmetry in the motor and somatosensory cortices of musicians was significantly correlated. At the behavioural level, motor performance did not significantly differ between musicians and nonmusicians. The results support a use-dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players. However, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetries at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task-specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.
van Dijk, Henk; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback can be used to train motor functions at a distance, which makes therapy at home a possibility. To enable patients to train properly without the presence of a therapist, artificial feedback is considered essential. We studied the combined effect of age and timing
The purpose of the study was to examine how young children interact in the context of learning fundamental motor skills. Twenty-nine preschool children were observed during a period of six consecutive months while they were participating in their daily motor skills program. Fieldwork research methodology was used and data were collected using participant observation techniques. During data analysis, emerging patterns were identified and cross-referenced against data collected from other sources (triangulation). Girls were found to interact in a cooperative, caring, and sharing manner. Boys were found to interact in a competitive, individualized, and egocentric manner. A cultural pattern of cooperative interaction among Asian children was found. In addition, both boys and girls tried to maintain their gender style of interaction when dealing with the opposite sex. This study reveals several aspects of the social environment that may need to be considered when teaching motor skills to young children.
Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J
The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Ulrich, Beverly
Assessments of brain activity during motor task performance have been limited to fine motor movements due to technological constraints presented by traditional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a promising method by which to overcome these constraints and investigate motor performance of functional motor tasks. The current study used fNIRS to quantify hemodynamic responses within the primary motor cortex in twelve healthy adults as they performed unimanual right, unimanual left, and bimanual reaching, and stepping in place. Results revealed that during both unimanual reaching tasks, the contralateral hemisphere showed significant activation in channels located approximately 3 cm medial to the C3 (for right-hand reach) and C4 (for left-hand reach) landmarks. Bimanual reaching and stepping showed activation in similar channels, which were located bilaterally across the primary motor cortex. The medial channels, surrounding Cz, showed significantly higher activations during stepping when compared to bimanual reaching. Our results extend the viability of fNIRS to study motor function and build a foundation for future investigation of motor development in infants during nascent functional behaviors and monitor how they may change with age or practice.
Guo, Yumei; Wang, Zhuo; Prathap, Sandhya; Holschneider, Daniel P
A variety of physical fitness regimens have been shown to improve cognition, including executive function, yet our understanding of which parameters of motor training are important in optimizing outcomes remains limited. We used functional brain mapping to compare the ability of two motor challenges to acutely recruit the prefrontal-striatal circuit. The two motor tasks - walking in a complex running wheel with irregularly spaced rungs or walking in a running wheel with a smooth internal surface - differed only in the extent of skill required for their execution. Cerebral perfusion was mapped in rats by intravenous injection of [C]-iodoantipyrine during walking in either a motorized complex wheel or in a simple wheel. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by whole-brain autoradiography and analyzed in three-dimensional reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping and seed-based functional connectivity. Skilled or simple walking compared with rest, increased rCBF in regions of the motor circuit, somatosensory and visual cortex, as well as the hippocampus. Significantly greater rCBF increases were noted during skilled walking than for simple walking. Skilled walking, unlike simple walking or the resting condition, was associated with a significant positive functional connectivity in the prefrontal-striatal circuit (prelimbic cortex-dorsomedial striatum) and greater negative functional connectivity in the prefrontal-hippocampal circuit. Our findings suggest that the level of skill of a motor training task determines the extent of functional recruitment of the prefrontal-corticostriatal circuit, with implications for a new approach in neurorehabilitation that uses circuit-specific neuroplasticity to improve motor and cognitive functions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.
Full Text Available Background Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. Results Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. Conclusions This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.
Uzark, Karen; Smith, Cynthia; Donohue, Janet; Yu, Sunkyung; Romano, Jennifer C
Neurodevelopmental dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a common outcome of congenital heart defects and their treatment in infancy. The effects of the intensive care unit (ICU) experience and environment on these infants are unknown and potentially modifiable, but no validated metric is available for objective evaluation of early motor impairments in the ICU/hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the motor status of hospitalized infants after cardiac operations, including the development and field-testing of the Congenital Heart Assessment of Sensory and Motor Status (CHASMS) metric. CHASMS item generation was based on review of the literature, focused interviews with parents, and expert consensus. A nurse administered CHASMS to 100 infants aged younger than 10 months old undergoing cardiac operations. Preoperative and postoperative CHASMS scores were compared, and associations between CHASMS scores and patient characteristics were examined. Physical therapists assessed neuromotor skills by using the Test of Infant Motor Performance or the Alberta Infant Motor Scales for correlation with CHASMS scores. CHASMS gross motor scores declined postoperatively in 64% (25 of 39). Lower CHASMS scores, after adjusting for age, were associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p motor CHASMS scores were significantly correlated with Test of Infant Motor Performance (r = 0.70, p Motor Scales scores (r = 0.88, p Motor impairments in infants after cardiac operations are common and may be exacerbated by longer intubation and prolonged exposure to the ICU environment. The feasibility, reliability, and validity of CHASMS were supported for the evaluation of motor skills in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was investigation the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD.Method: Twenty children with ASD aged 3-5 years (M=4.05, SD=0.55 were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2, the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS and, the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS.Results: There was significant and strong correlation between TGMD total score and imitation total score(r =.776; p <0.001.However, the relationship between MIS subscales and TGMD-2 locomotor subtest scores was not significant (P>0.05. A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with ESCS subscales except social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales.Conclusion: The results support previous studies that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have association with some early social communication skills. However, these results showed the needs for clinicians to target imitation and motor skills in early intervention programs in ASD.
Wang, Y; Wang, H-L; Li, Y-H; Zhu, F-L; Li, S-J; Ni, H
In past few decades, there has an outburst of research surrounding second to fourth finger digit ratio (2D:4D) and its relation to prenatal sex steroids including both testosterone and estrogen. In utero, testosterone and estrogen are responsible for the differences in digit ratio between the genders. Recent research has tried to extend past the influence of steroids and look at the potential effect of digit ratios on fine and gross motor skills in children. We compiled the current understanding of the connection between sex hormones and the development of the 2D:4D ratio as well as the effect the ratio has on motor skills. There seems to be a significant positive correlation between 2D:4D digit ratio and precision of fine motor skill. In addition, there is a negative correlation between 2D:4D ratio and speed of fine motor activity. In this review, we will outline the use of 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and through that, a proxy marker for fine and gross motor skills.
Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.
Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan
This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs, the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. Wistar (WIS rats were used as controls. Results Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity in a familiar, but not in a novel environment. They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most sensitive measure of skilled performance (i.e., single attempt success. In contrast, their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. Conclusion The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD.
Full Text Available In this work surveys of latent motility abilities and skills of school children are shown. The sample for this survey was consisted of two subsamples. First one has consisted of deaf children N=29, and the second one has consisted hearing children of same age N=69. Subsamples of deaf is chosen according to model of applied sample, and subsample is chosen randomly, so two stages group sample N=90 has been created. After quantitative differences have been discovered between subsamples, hearing pupils have shown statistically better results at motility skills and techniques than deaf children and cumulative results have been subjected to inter correlation of variables. The target of using this method was determination of saturation of common variability through saturation of variables and their correlation by Ortoblique rotation for determination of latent information that are going to serve as practical guides at education and deaf children treatment, because of improvement of their motility abilities and skills according to hearing children. Three factors have been singled out as main preview of measurement on manifest variables. According to first review of measuring it has been established that at deaf children is needed to work on improving of physical abilities and mobility and then developed motility abilities and skills. Their information has been gained most probably by non system fluctuations as information about ability of balance maintaining which is most probably non dependable of motility abilities and skills as at deaf and hearing children too. According to this survey by entering the structure of measuring instrument it is possible to create programs for improving motility abilities and skills at deaf children.
Celano, Marianne; Hartmann, E Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth G; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn
To assess motor functioning in children aged 4 years 6 months enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, and to determine contributions of visual acuity and stereopsis to measured motor skills. One hundred and four children (53% female) with unilateral aphakia randomized to intraocular lens or contact lens treatment were evaluated at 4 years 6 months (age range 4y 6mo-4y 11mo) for monocular recognition visual acuity, motor skills, and stereopsis by a traveling examiner masked to treatment condition. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2). Visual acuity was operationalized as log10 of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) value for treated eye, best logMAR value for either eye, and intraocular logMAR difference. Student's t-tests showed no significant differences in MABC-2 scores between the intraocular lens and contact lens groups. The mean total score was low (6.43; 18th centile) compared with the normative reference group. Motor functioning was not related to visual acuity in the treated eye or to intraocular logMAR difference, but was predicted in a regression model by the better visual acuity of either eye (usually the fellow eye), even after accounting for the influence of age at surgery, examiner, orthotropic ocular alignment, and stereopsis. Children with unilateral congenital cataract may have delayed motor functioning at 4 years 6 months, which may adversely affect their social and academic functioning. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the motor skills differences between girls and boys (aged 7 in Tehran in 2004. Materials & Methods: This research was analytical descriptive The subjects were 120 children includes 60 girls and 60 boys. those were selected by simple random sampling at the first grade of primary School. Each subject was individually assessed by Lincoln Oseretsky motor developmental scale. Results: The findings of this research after data analysis by spss soft ware and sample t Test indicated that: There is not any significant differences between total score of motor skills, total balance score, static and dynamic balance with open eyes, bilateral motor coordination, upper limbs coordination, upper and lower limbs coordination, velocity and dexterity of hand movements in boys and girls (P>0/005. The only Significant differences between boys and girls motor skills is eye hand coordination (P<0/03. Conclusion: The findings of this research is used to better planning and defining the theraputic and educational programs in the field of motor development.
Dhakshin S Ramanathan
Full Text Available Despite many prior studies demonstrating offline behavioral gains in motor skills after sleep, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate the neurophysiological basis for offline gains, we performed single-unit recordings in motor cortex as rats learned a skilled upper-limb task. We found that sleep improved movement speed with preservation of accuracy. These offline improvements were linked to both replay of task-related ensembles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep and temporal shifts that more tightly bound motor cortical ensembles to movements; such offline gains and temporal shifts were not evident with sleep restriction. Interestingly, replay was linked to the coincidence of slow-wave events and bursts of spindle activity. Neurons that experienced the most consistent replay also underwent the most significant temporal shift and binding to the motor task. Significantly, replay and the associated performance gains after sleep only occurred when animals first learned the skill; continued practice during later stages of learning (i.e., after motor kinematics had stabilized did not show evidence of replay. Our results highlight how replay of synchronous neural activity during sleep mediates large-scale neural plasticity and stabilizes kinematics during early motor learning.
Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance.
Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A
Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, M V; Lekhal, R; Aarø, L E; Schjølberg, S
Communicative and motor development is frequently found to be associated. In the current study we investigate to what extent communication and motor skills at 1½ years predict skills in the same domains at 3 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath. Data stem from 62,944 children and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their child's communication and motor skills at ages 1½ and 3. Associations between communication and motor skills were estimated in a cross-lagged model with latent variables. Early communication skills were correlated with early motor skills (0.72). Stability was high (0.81) across time points for motor skills and somewhat lower (0.40) for communication skills. Early motor skills predicted later communication skills (0.38) whereas early communication skills negatively predicted later motor skills (-0.14). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that these two difficulties are not symptoms of separate disorders, but might rather be different manifestations of a common underlying neurodevelopmental weakness. However, there also seem to be specific developmental pathways for each domain. Besides theoretical interest, more knowledge about the relationship between these early skills might shed light upon early intervention strategies and preventive efforts commonly used with children with problems in these areas. Our findings suggest that the relationship between language and motor skills is not likely to be simple and directional but rather to be complex and multifaceted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K
The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
To investigate workplace cultures in the acquisition of computer usage skills by mature age workers. Data were gathered through focus groups conducted at job network centres in the Greater Brisbane metropolitan region. Participants who took part were a mixture of workers and job-seekers. The results suggest that mature age workers can be exposed to inappropriate computer training practices and age-insensitive attitudes towards those with low base computer skills. There is a need for managers to be observant of ageist attitudes in the work place and to develop age-sensitive strategies to help mature age workers learn computer usage skills. Mature age workers also need to develop skills in ways which are practical and meaningful to their work.
Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.
Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…
Saly Said Abd El-Hady
and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome. Saly Said Abd El-Hady ... knowledge. It is a general term involving multiple classes of mental capacities. ..... organizations that can inappropriately influence this work. .... skills, cognitive development and balance functions of children with Down · syndrome.
Full Text Available Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR techniques open new perspectives for perceptualmotor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multimodal, VR training simulators.
Flegal, Kristin E; Anderson, Michael C
Skilled athletes often maintain that overthinking disrupts performance of their motor skills. Here, we examined whether these experiences have a basis in verbal overshadowing, a phenomenon in which describing memories for ineffable perceptual experiences disrupts later retention. After learning a unique golf-putting task, golfers of low and intermediate skill either described their actions in detail or performed an irrelevant verbal task. They then performed the putting task again. Strikingly, describing their putting experience significantly impaired higher skill golfers' ability to reachieve the putting criterion, compared with higher skill golfers who performed the irrelevant verbal activity. Verbalization had no such effect, however, for lower skill golfers. These findings establish that the effects of overthinking extend beyond dual-task interference and may sometimes reflect impacts on long-term memory. We propose that these effects are mediated by competition between procedural and declarative memory, as suggested by recent work in cognitive neuroscience.
Roitberg, Ben Z; Kania, Patrick; Luciano, Cristian; Dharmavaram, Naga; Banerjee, Pat
Manual skill is an important attribute for any surgeon. Current methods to evaluate sensory-motor skills in neurosurgical residency applicants are limited. We aim to develop an objective multifaceted measure of sensory-motor skills using a virtual reality surgical simulator. A set of 3 tests of sensory-motor function was performed using a 3-dimensional surgical simulator with head and arm tracking, collocalization, and haptic feedback. (1) Trajectory planning: virtual reality drilling of a pedicle. Entry point, target point, and trajectory were scored-evaluating spatial memory and orientation. (2) Motor planning: sequence, timing, and precision: hemostasis in a postresection cavity in the brain. (3) Haptic perception: touching virtual spheres to determine which is softest of the group, with progressive difficulty. Results were analyzed individually and for a combined score of all the tasks. The University of Chicago Hospital's tertiary care academic center. A total of 95 consecutive applicants interviewed at a neurosurgery residency program over 2 years were offered anonymous participation in the study; in 2 cohorts, 36 participants in year 1 and 27 participants in year 2 (validation cohort) agreed and completed all the tasks. We also tested 10 first-year medical students and 4 first- and second-year neurosurgery residents. A cumulative score was generated from the 3 tests. The mean score was 14.47 (standard deviation = 4.37), median score was 13.42, best score was 8.41, and worst score was 30.26. Separate analysis of applicants from each of 2 years yielded nearly identical results. Residents tended to cluster on the better performance side, and first-year students were not different from applicants. (1) Our cumulative score measures sensory-motor skills in an objective and reproducible way. (2) Better performance by residents hints at validity for neurosurgery. (3) We were able to demonstrate good psychometric qualities and generate a proposed sensory-motor
Courson, Melody; Macoir, Joël; Tremblay, Pascale
The literature reports that the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) are involved in motor planning and execution, and in motor-related cognitive functions such as motor imagery. However, their specific role in action language processing remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over SMA and pre-SMA during an action semantic analogy task (SAT) in relation with fine motor skills (i.e., manual dexterity) and motor imagery abilities in healthy non-expert adults. The impact of rTMS over SMA (but not pre-SMA) on reaction times (RT) during SAT was correlated with manual dexterity. Specifically, results show that rTMS over SMA modulated RT for those with lower dexterity skills. Our results therefore demonstrate a causal involvement of SMA in action language processing, as well as the existence of inter-individual differences in this involvement. We discuss these findings in light of neurolinguistic theories of language processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636
Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana
Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.
Kantak, Shailesh S; Winstein, Carolee J
Behavioral research in cognitive psychology provides evidence for an important distinction between immediate performance that accompanies practice and long-term performance that reflects the relative permanence in the capability for the practiced skill (i.e. learning). This learning-performance distinction is strikingly evident when challenging practice conditions may impair practice performance, but enhance long-term retention of motor skills. A review of motor learning studies with a specific focus on comparing differences in performance between that at the end of practice and at delayed retention suggests that the delayed retention or transfer performance is a better indicator of motor learning than the performance at (or end of) practice. This provides objective evidence for the learning-performance distinction. This behavioral evidence coupled with an understanding of the motor memory processes of encoding, consolidation and retrieval may provide insight into the putative mechanism that implements the learning-performance distinction. Here, we propose a simplistic empirically-based framework--motor behavior-memory framework--that integrates the temporal evolution of motor memory processes with the time course of practice and delayed retention frequently used in behavioral motor learning paradigms. In the context of the proposed framework, recent research has used noninvasive brain stimulation to decipher the role of each motor memory process, and specific cortical brain regions engaged in motor performance and learning. Such findings provide beginning insights into the relationship between the time course of practice-induced performance changes and motor memory processes. This in turn has promising implications for future research and practical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L
Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between the predictor-basic motor and situational-motor tests in sports games. On the sample of 62 subjects of the first year of high school was carried out measurements which covered 12 basic and 6 motor variables and situational tests in volleyball and basketball.Based on the results of the canonical correlation analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between the predictor variables and a set of criterion variables, situational-motor tests basketball and volleyball. These results are logical given the structure of movements from basketball and volleyball that require a high level of coordination and speed.
Logan, Samuel W; Barnett, Lisa M; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Stodden, David F
Process-oriented motor competence (MC) assessments evaluate how a movement is performed. Product-oriented assessments evaluate the outcome of a movement. Determining the concurrent validity of process and product assessments is important to address the predictive utility of motor competence for health. The current study aimed to: (1) compare process and product assessments of the standing long jump, hop and throw across age groups and (2) determine the capacity of process assessments to classify levels of MC. Participants included 170 children classified into three age groups: 4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years old. Participants' skills were examined concurrently using three process assessments ((Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition [TGMD-2]), Get Skilled; Get Active, and developmental sequences) and one product measure (throw speed, jump and hop distance). Results indicate moderate to strong correlations between (1) process assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .37-70) and (2) process and product assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .26-.88). In general, sensitivity to detect advanced skill level is lowest for TGMD-2 and highest for developmental sequences for all three skills. The use of process and product assessments is suggested to comprehensively capture levels of MC in human movement.
Leah Elizabeth Robinson
Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age
Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive neuro-developmental disorders that are caused by damage to the developing brain and affect movement and posture. Children with cerebral palsy suffer difficulty in motor function (coordination and control.The present inquiry investigated the impact of conductive education on motor skills in children having cerebral palsy. Methods: A quasi-experimental research was done using pretest-posttest and control group design. The study subjects consisted of all children with cerebral palsy in Shiraz. A sample of 30 subjects was randomly chosen to employ convenience sampling procedure and classified to two groups of treatment (15 subjects and control (15 subjects. The pretest was performed for both groups, and the experimental group received conductive education in 20 sessions. While the control subjects did not have this education, finally, the post-test was performed for both groups. The Lincoln-Oseretsky test was used to measure motor skills. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Results: The results showed that conductive education had a significant effect on motor skills (P<0.001 and its subscales such as speed of movement (P<0.001, general static coordination (P<0.001, general dynamic coordination (P<0.001, dynamic manual coordination (P<0.001, synchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001, and asynchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001 in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusion: The findings indicated the effectiveness of conductive education on cerebral palsy children’s motor skills. Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement a conductive education program to improve motor skills of cerebral palsy children.
Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.
The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.
Zahiri, Mohsen; Booton, Ryan; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
This article presents a hardware/software simulation environment suitable for anytime/anywhere surgical skills training. It blends the advantages of physical hardware and task analogs with the flexibility of virtual environments. This is further enhanced by a web-based implementation of training feedback accessible to both trainees and trainers. Our training system provides a self-paced and interactive means to attain proficiency in basic tasks that could potentially be applied across a spectrum of trainees from first responder field medical personnel to physicians. This results in a powerful training tool for surgical skills acquisition relevant to helping injured warfighters.
Daou, Marcos; Lohse, Keith R; Miller, Matthew W
Recent evidence suggests practicing a motor skill with the expectation of teaching it enhances learning by increasing information processing during motor preparation. However, the specific motor preparatory processes remain unknown. The present study sought to address this shortcoming by employing EEG to assess participants' motor preparatory processes while they completed a golf putting pretest, and then practiced putting with the expectation of (a) teaching another participant how to putt the next day (teach group, n = 30), or (b) being tested on their putting the next day (test group, n = 30). Participants' EEG during the 3-s prior to and 1-s after initiating putter movement was analyzed. All participants completed posttests 1 day after the practice session. The teach group exhibited better posttest performance (superior learning) relative to the test group, but no group differences in motor preparatory processing (EEG) emerged. However, participants in both groups exhibited linear decreases in both theta power at frontal midline and upper-alpha power over motor areas during putt initiation. These results suggest a decrease in working memory and action monitoring (frontal midline theta), and an increase in motor programming (motor upper-alpha) during putt initiation. Further, participants in both groups exhibited increased frontal midline theta from pretest to practice, but decreases in both upper motor-alpha and upper-alpha coherence between left/right temporal and motor planning regions. These results suggest participants utilized working memory and action monitoring to a greater extent during practice relative to pretest, while refining their motor programming and verbal-analytic/visuospatial involvement in motor programming. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between actual fundamental motor skill (FMS proficiency, perceived motor confidence and competence, and physical activity (PA among female children (n= 160; mean age = 10.69 ± 1.40 years. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2 was used to assess seven FMSs (locomotor, object-control, and stability. Motor confidence and competence were assessed using a valid skill-specific scale, and a modified version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and classified as low, moderate, and high active. One-way and two-way ANOVAs (post-hoc honest significant difference (HSD and correlation coefficients were used to analyse the data. Findings indicate that the majority of youth (71.8% were not meeting the minimum 60 min of daily PA recommended for health, and that 98.1% did not achieve the FMS proficiency expected for their age. While there were high levels of perceived physical self-confidence (PSC reported within FMS skill-specific tasks, there was no significant correlation observed between actual FMS proficiency and perceived PSC among the cohort. Results show that low, moderately, and highly active female participants differ significantly in terms of their overall FMS (p = 0.03 and locomotor (LOC control scores (p = 0.03. Results from a two-way between-groups analysis of variance also revealed no statistically significant interaction effect between PA grouping and physical performance self-concept (PPSC on overall FMS proficiency levels. Results of a multiple linear regression indicate that perceived PSC is a significant predictor (beta = 0.183 of participants’ overall PA levels. Data show a need for targeting low levels of PA, and low FMS proficiency in female youth, and for developing interventions aiming to enhance perceived PSC levels.
Several preliminary applications of adaptive training to I complex synthetic flight trainers have been attempted (Loses, I ,5 I Ellis, Norman , and Matheny...Association, San Francisco, 1976. Lowes, A. H., Ellis, N. C., Norman , D. A., and Matheny, W. 3. Improving piloting skills in turbulent air using a self...intercept observer. Orlando, Florida: Naval Training Equipment Center, NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 71-C-6219-1, 1973. Smallwood , R. D. A decision structure for
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the latent space of motor skills and knowledge of the female students of the first year of secondary school. This study included 120 girls, and it was conducted at the end of the school year, after the realization of the regular physical education classes. According to nine tests aimed to evaluate motor skills and 16 more to assess motor knowledge, factors that define the latent space of motor skills of the test group were isolated by factor analysis, which shows in what way this program influenced the development of the test area. The agility and frequency of movement factor, as well as the factor of explosive strength were isolated in the motor skills area, which indicates that the standard program does not provide the development of fine motor skills in subjects. There were also isolated factors such as: the factor of average motor skills in the manipulation of the ball, the random factor of motor coordination, manual manipulation factor with the ball and the factor of insufficient movement coordination, from which it can be concluded that there is no logical development dimension in this area, nor proper development of motor skills.
Christopher A Zaino
@@ 1 DEFINITION OF MOTOR LEARNING Motor learning is the study of how we acquire and modify movements.1 The acquisition of motor skills is the process of learning how to do a particular movement (performance), but the real key to therapeutic intervention is being able to affect permanent changes in motor skills via the process of motor learning. Therefore, motor learning is defined as the ability to retain the ability to perform a motor task at a later time. In rehabilitation, it is important to be cognizant of the concepts of acquisition and retention. We can facilitate acquisition,but do little to assist in the retention of the task (learning). Conversely, we can arrange practice such that acquisition is slowed, but we can actually be assisting learning the task. It is important to have a clear goal in mind and work towards the eventual learning of the task to allow full functional use of that skill.
Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E
The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan
Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young adults…
Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina
Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…
Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline
Research findings indicate that there appears to be a relationship between poor motor skills and self-esteem, however this relationship is ambiguous. This review examines the effects of poor motor skills on global and/or domain specific self-esteem. Four databases, Google Scholar and the Manchester Online library were searched for articles…
Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis
Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…
Laukkanen, A; Pesola, A; Havu, M; Sääkslahti, A; Finni, T
Adequate motor skills are essential for children participating in age-related physical activities, and gross motor skills may play an important role for maintaining sufficient level of physical activity (PA) during life course. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and PA in children when PA was analyzed by both metabolic- and neuromuscular-based methods. Gross motor skills (KTK--Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder and APM inventory--manipulative skill test) of 84 children aged 5-8 years (53 preschoolers, 28 girls; 31 primary schoolers, 18 girls) were measured, and accelerometer-derived PA was analyzed using in parallel metabolic counts and neuromuscular impact methods. The gross motor skills were associated with moderate-to-high neuromuscular impacts, PA of vigorous metabolic intensity, and mean level of PA in primary school girls (0.5 motor skills (0.4 motor skills and PA stressing both metabolic and neuromuscular systems in children. Furthermore, PA highly stressing neuromuscular system interacts with gross motor proficiency in girls especially. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chou, Willy; Chow, Julie Chi; Lin, Chien-Ho; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Lin
We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]). Children's IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ - Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT), respectively. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual-motor coordination subtest ( F =3.37-4.38, p motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ - VIQ) had significant positive correlations with the fine motor domain and fine motor subtests of the CDIIT ( r =0.18-0.29, p motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. This study suggests important implications for clinicians, therapists, and researchers: discrepantly higher PIQ could be related to better visual-motor coordination, and discrepantly higher VIQ could be related to poor visual-motor coordination. Furthermore, the results support that when therapists are working with preschool-aged children with ASD who are developing fine motor skills or undertaking fine motor tasks related to visual-motor coordination, they may need to pay attention to the children's IQD.
Full Text Available The present inter-disciplinary research is aimed at investigating the impact of computerized application of spatial visualization on motor and concentration skills. An experiment composed of experimental and control groups for checking the central hypothesis among subjects of the same age group was carried out by physical education MA students. Virtual simulations offer MA students and teachers the unique opportunity to observe and manipulate normally inaccessible objects, variables and processes in real time. The research design focused on a qualitative research comparing the pupils' percents of success in spatial visualization and motor skills between pre- and post- training. The findings showed that just as the students realized the experimental group pupils' achievements, the computer's inter-disciplinary impact on motor performance and concentration skills became clear to the MA students. The virtual computerized training based on spatial visualization mostly contributed to the inter-disciplinary research, physical education and communication. All the findings lead to the conclusion that computerized application of spatial visualization seem to mediate between virtual reality and developing motor skills in real time involving penalty kick, basketball, jumping, etc.
Greef, de K.J.F.; Spek, van der E.D.; Bekker, M.M.; Fedtke, S.; Bekker, T.; Schijven, M.; Gekker, A.; Schouten, B.
Children who have special needs when it comes to motor skill development, for instance as a result of developmental coordination disorder or cerebral palsy, need to undergo long bouts of physical therapy. This can often be considered boring, to the detriment of the efficacy of the therapy. One way
SMK Nasional as a secondary vocational education institution contribute in creating skilled labor to meet the needs of the industry. Motorcycle Engineering expertise program at the SMK Nasional in improving the graduate's quality carries out industrial class education with PT Astra Honda Motor (PT AHM); it is intended so that there is a link and…
Full Text Available Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74, Copa del Rey (n = 8, and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21. We used an ad hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move towards the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.
Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun
Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Fine motor skills are important for children not only in the activities of daily living, but also for learning activities. In the present study, the effects of supervised physical training were investigated in normal children. Objective: To evaluate the effects of supervised training by combining full-body exercise and the eye-hand coordination activities to improve fine motor skills in a group of five-year-old normal children. Methods: Fifty-two children were selected and randomized in exercise and control groups. The exercise group participated in three 30-minute training sessions per week for 24 weeks. Results: The fine motor skills and hand grip strength of the exercise group were significantly increased, while there was no significant change in the control group during the experimental period. Conclusion: The results indicate that the current exercise training program is effective and can be applied to 5-year-old normal children to improve their fine motor skills. In addition, this program has simple physical activities that are appropriate to the physical and mental level of child development. The 30-minute training session would be easily implemented in the kindergarten program. Level of Evidence I; High quality randomized trial with statistically significant difference or no statistically significant difference but narrow confidence intervals.
Stewart, Roger A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Giordano, Debra A.
This study explored the effect of fine motor skill activities on the development of attention in kindergarteners (n = 68) in five classes at a suburban public school in the Intermountain West through a pretest/posttest experimental group (n = 36) control group (n = 32) design. All children received the regular curriculum which included typical…
Müürsepp, Iti; Aibast, Herje; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati
The aim of the study was to evaluate motor skills, haptic object recognition and social interaction in 5-year-old children with mild specific expressive language impairment (expressive-SLI) and articulation disorder (AD) in comparison of age- and gender matched healthy children. Twenty nine children (23 boys and 6 girls) with expressive-SLI, 27 children (20 boys and 7 girls) with AD and 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) with typically developing language as controls participated in our study. The children were examined for manual dexterity, ball skills, static and dynamic balance by M-ABC test, haptic object recognition and for social interaction by questionnaire completed by teachers. Children with mild expressive-SLI demonstrated significantly poorer results in all subtests of motor skills (psocial interaction (p0.05) in measured parameters between children with AD and controls. Children with expressive-SLI performed considerably poorer compared to AD group in balance subtest (psocial interaction are considerably more affected than in children with AD. Although motor difficulties in speech production are prevalent in AD, it is localised and does not involve children's general motor skills, haptic perception or social interaction. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Finger Tapping Test of the Developmental Neuropsychological Test Battery was also used. Results: Tests of motor skill were less sensitive to HIV infection (F (1, 48) = 1.134, p= .292) than verbal fluency tests-Hopkins Verbal Learning (F (1, 48) = 42.994, p=.000, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test- delay (F (1, 48) = 45.886, ...
The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...
Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather
This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…
Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further
Cordovani, Ligia; Cordovani, Daniel
Motor skill practice is very important to improve performance of medical procedures and could be enhanced by observational practice. Observational learning could be particularly important in the medical field considering that patients' safety prevails over students' training. The mechanism of observational learning is based on the mirror neuron…
Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra
Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAmotor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.
This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…
LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.
We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…
Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert
This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…
Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes
This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…
Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from
Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja
Background The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing
Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…
Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Abrahamse, E.L.; de Kleine, Elian; Verwey, Willem B.
Previous studies have shown that motor sequencing skill can benefit from the reinstatement of the learning context—even with respect to features that are formally not required for appropriate task performance. The present study explored whether such context-dependence develops when sequence
Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert
Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.
Texas Child Care, 2003
Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)
Ekornås, Belinda; Lundervold, Astri J; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael
This study investigates motor skill performance and self-perceived competence in children with anxiety disorders compared with children without psychiatric disorders. Motor skills and self-perception were assessed in 329 children aged 8 to 11 years, from the Bergen Child Study. The Kiddie-SADS PL diagnostic interview was employed to define a group of children with an anxiety disorder without comorbid diagnosis, and a control group (no diagnosis) matched according to gender, age, and full-scale IQ. Children in the anxiety disorder group displayed impaired motor skills and poor self-perceived peer acceptance and physical competence compared with the control group. Two-thirds of the anxious boys scored on the Motor Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) as having motor problems. The present study demonstrated impaired motor skills in boys with "pure" anxiety disorders. Anxious children also perceived themselves as being less accepted by peers and less competent in physical activities compared with children in the control group.
Cantarero, Gabriela; Lloyd, Ashley; Celnik, Pablo
Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after learning, indicative of how much LTP was used to learn, is essential for retention. Here we provide supporting evidence of it in humans. Induction of LTP-like plasticity can be abolished using a depotentiation protocol (DePo) consisting of brief continuous theta burst stimulation. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess whether application of DePo over M1 after motor learning affected (1) occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and (2) retention of motor skill learning. We found that the magnitude of motor memory retention is proportional to the magnitude of occlusion of LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, DePo stimulation over M1, but not over a control site, reversed the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity induced by motor learning and disrupted skill retention relative to control subjects. Altogether, these results provide evidence of a link between occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and retention and that this measure could be used as a biomarker to predict retention. Importantly, attempts to reverse the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after motor learning comes with the cost of reducing retention of motor learning.
Full Text Available Introduction. The study of the physical development of children and youth have quite a rich tradition. Conducted observations show that standard of living is very different in different regions of the country. The purpose of physical education is not only to improve the body of a young man, but also providing it with the knowledge and skills related to physical education. The aim of this study was to assess the state of development of somatic children aged 13 - 14 years of high school in Kruszwica, determine the level of their motor skills and evaluation of somatic sexual dimorphism. And the answer: if holiday break contributed to changes somatic features and motor skills of subjects. Materials and methods. The study was conducted twice: before the summer (June and after the summer break, and have them included 72 students (39 boys and 33 girls aged 13 - 14 years. Physical development determined on the somatic features: height and weight, efficiency of the motor, in turn, on the basis of level of skills and mobility. Habit of body students characterized using the Rohrer index. To determine the motor of subjects used trials of the International Physical Fitness Test. Results and conclusions. Analysis of the results allows to draw the following conclusions: •After holiday break students are higher and heavier than before the holidays. •After holiday break increased motor skills of both sexes in the strength of the abdominal muscles, but only in boys increase the explosive power in the legs and improve their speed. •Boys achieved better results after holiday break than girls in testing the speed and explosive power tests of legs. •According to Mollison Index compared characteristics of somatic and motor skills before summer the most varied of agility course and body height, after holidays: the explosive power of the legs and body height. •The impact of the summer break has not affected to changes in somatic and motor skills of the young
Lin, Yu-Chen; Chao, Yen-Li; Wu, Shyi-Kuen; Lin, Ho-Hsio; Hsu, Chieh-Hsiang; Hsu, Hsiao-Man; Kuo, Li-Chieh
Numerous tools have been developed to evaluate handwriting performances by analysing written products. However, few studies have directly investigated kinetic performances of digits when holding a pen. This study thus attempts to investigate pen-grip kinetics during writing tasks of school-age children and explore the relationship between the kinetic factors and fine motor skills. This study recruited 181 children aged from 5 to 12 years old and investigated the effects of age on handwriting kinetics and the relationship between these and fine motor skills. The forces applied from the digits and pen-tip were measured during writing tasks via a force acquisition pen, and the children's fine motor performances were also evaluated. The results indicate that peak force and average force might not be direct indicators of handwriting performance for normally developing children at this age. Younger children showed larger force variation and lower adjustment frequency during writing, which might indicate they had poorer force control than the older children. Force control when handling a pen is significantly correlated with fine motor performance, especially in relation to the manual dexterity. A novel system is proposed for analysing school-age children's force control while handwriting. We observed the development of force control in relation to pen grip among the children with different ages in this study. The findings suggested that manipulation skill may be crucial when children are establishing their handwriting capabilities. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
N. P. Martinova
Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of motor skills’ formation in girl students, who practice aerobic by experimental program. Material: in the research 40 girl students participated. Motor skills level was tested with the help of state and additional tests. Results: it was found that for training quickness it is necessary to use rope skipping in mode, corresponding to development of this quality. For training maximal strength it is purposeful to use more complex power exercises in ground part of the complex. Conclusions: implementation of rope skipping means in dance aerobic trainings increases training influence on practically all motor skills. Rope skipping permits to doze and regulate training load. The same under musical accompaniment develop sense of rhythm. In some modes such jumps facilitate training of speed power qualities and power endurance.
Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic
Socio-motor improvisation is defined as the creative action of two or more people without a script or anticipated preparation. It is evaluated through two main parameters: movement synchronization and movement richness. Experts in art (e.g., dance, theater or music) are known to exhibit higher synchronization and to perform richer movements during interpersonal improvisation, but how these competences evolve over time is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether performing more synchronized and richer movements over time can promote the acquisition of improvisation. Pairs of novice participants were instructed to play an improvisation mirror game in three different sessions. Between sessions, they performed an unintended interpersonal coordination task in which synchronization and richness were manipulated, resulting in four different groups of dyads. Our results demonstrate that synchronization during improvisation improved for all groups whereas movement richness only enhanced for dyads that performed synchronized movements during unintended coordination tasks. Our findings suggest that movement synchrony contributes more than movement richness to the acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette
Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…
Gudmundsson, E; Gretarsson, S J
Parent questionnaires of child motor and language skills are useful in many contexts. This study validates one such measure, the Preschool Child Development Inventory (PCDI), a mother-answered standardized measure of motor (fine and gross) and language (expression and comprehension) skills of 3-6-year-old children. Eighty-one mothers answered the inventory and their children were concurrently tested on six verbal subtests of WPPSI-R(IS). The six language and motor subtests of the PCDI revealed the predicted convergent and divergent correlations with the verbal subtests of the WPPSI-R(IS). As predicted, the motor subtests diverged and the language subtests converged with the expected WPPSI-R(IS) subtests. Principal components analysis of all the measures (the PCDI and the WPPSI-R(IS) subtests) revealed two components, verbal and motor in content. The findings support the validity of a mother-answered inventory to assess language and motor development. It is pointed out that such inventories are a viable brief and cost effective alternative to individual testing, both to supplement such measures in clinical practice and as main information in research, for example on determinants of development. Some suggestions are made for future research and applications. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol
This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.
Lim, Christopher; Donovan, Andrew M; Harper, Nevin J; Naylor, Patti-Jean
The majority of Canadian children are not physically active enough for healthy development. School playgrounds are a primary location to promote physical activity and motor skill practice. The benefits of children's play in nature have also been highlighted, but few studies have evaluated children's access and exposure to nature for play on school grounds. This study examined children's access to nature on school grounds and the opportunities afforded by those natural elements for motor skill practice. Extensive naturescapes (multiple nature elements in one setting) were not common, and natural elements were limited, ranging from 1.97 to 5.71 elements/school. The most common element was a forested area (26.5% of all natural elements identified). In comparison to built structures, the number of natural elements was low. Some elements differed between school districts and appeared to be related to local geography and terrain (hilly, rocky terrain, tidal flats, etc.). Our assessment showed that naturescape elements afforded opportunities for the development of some key fundamental motor skills (FMS), specifically, locomotor and stability skills, but opportunities to develop manipulative skills were limited. To maximize potential FMS development, physical literacy, and psycho-social benefits, additional elements or more comprehensive multi-element naturescapes and facilitation (social or environmental) are recommended.
Full Text Available Objective: This research has been carried out with the aim of adaptation, standardization and finding the validity and reliability of Visual-Motor Skills-revised Test for children. Materials & Methods: A multi-stage sampling from the children of the city of Tehran resulted in a sample of 1281 subjects, ages 2,11 through 13,11.the test consisted of 23 geometric designs and each of the designs was assessed through a definite criteria and was scored as errors(weakness and accuracies(strength.For adaptation and standardization of this test, at first step the examiner`s manual and the test items were translated into Farsi. The final form of the test was obtained after performing the pre-tryout and tryout stages, and doing the data analysis by classic model of reliability. Internal consistency coefficients of the subtests were obtained by Cronbach`s Alpha time consistency of the subtests and compound scores were obtained by test-retest. Alpha coefficients for the compound scores were obtained by Guilford formula, which is designed for estimating the compound scores. To obtain the content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity of the subtests and compound scores, appropriate methods were used. Results: The results obtained ensure the applicability of this test for the evaluation of visual-motor skills of children of Tehran. Conclusion: According to the findings, this test can be used for the disorders in eye-hand coordination, the identification of children with disorders in visual – motor skills. It can also be used for the documentation of the development of fine – motor skills specially in visual – motor skills in 3-14 years – old children.
Full Text Available Football, by tradition is a popular sport, a mass sport, both for those who 32ractici it and for the audience. The game of football becomes the only sport that can be 32racticin by everybody. Its simplicity is expressed by a regulation set which includes few basic rules, logical rules and relatively easy to understand. Football is a game that develops basic motor skills: speed, strength, stamina, specific skills. Use of means specific to the football game in physical education classes at the secondary level aims to improve motor skills and streamline the educational process. The means specific to the football game that are used are simple, clear, suitable for both girls and boys, in order to achieve outstanding results in physical education classes
Nakata, Bruce Negrello; Cavalini, Worens; Bonin, Eduardo A; Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Loureiro, Marcelo P
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires the mastery of manual skills and a specific training is required. Apart from residencies and fellowships in MIS, other learning opportunities utilize massive training, mainly with use of simulators in short courses. A long-term postgraduate course represents an opportunity to learn through training using distributed practice. The objective of this study is to assess the use of distributed practice for acquisition of basic minimally invasive skills in surgeons who participated in a long-term MIS postgraduate course. A prospective, longitudinal and quantitative study was conducted among surgeons who attended a 1-year postgraduate course of MIS in Brazil, from 2012 to 2014. They were tested through five different exercises in box trainers (peg-transfer, passing, cutting, intracorporeal knot, and suture) in the first (t0), fourth (t1) and last, eighth, (t2) meetings of this course. The time and penalties of each exercise were collected for each participant. Participant skills were assessed based on time and accuracy on a previously tested score. Fifty-seven surgeons (participants) from three consecutive groups participated in this study. There was a significant improvement in scores in all exercises. The average increase in scores between t0 and t2 was 88% for peg-transfer, 174% for passing, 149% for cutting, 130% for intracorporeal knot, and 120% for suture (p < 0.001 for all exercises). Learning through distributed practice is effective and should be integrated into a MIS postgraduate course curriculum for acquisition of core skills.
Full Text Available Studies have suggested that having students observe peers while acquiring physical-examination (PE skills fosters the acquisition of the psychomotor skills required to conduct a PE. One difficulty, however, has been to disentangle the effect of peer observation from peer feedback, both of which occur when students learn in groups. This study investigated the influence of peer feedback on learning the neurolocomotor physical exam for low-back pain. 120 second-year medical students were randomly assigned to a peer-feedback group (n=61 or a no-peer-feedback group (n=53, during a regular learning activity with a standardized-patient instructor. Students first practised the NLE in groups of three, with or without peer feedback, depending on the group to which they were assigned. Subsequently, the members of both groups performed the NLE individually. The final NLE was videotaped and assessed later. Peer feedback had a positive effect on the acquisition of PE skills (87.9% vs. 90.8%, p=0.023, despite the fact that students had an initial preference for instructor feedback compared with peer feedback. These results support the use of group activities that give students the opportunity to provide feedback to their peers while learning PE skills.
Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate medical students’ perception ofthe usefulness and effectiveness of an e-learning packagedeveloped to enhance the acquisition of consulting skills.MethodA survey with mixed method data analysis was conducted.Participants were 67 medical students completing theirthird year primary care rotation as part of a five-year degreeat the University of Tasmania. Participants completed a 10question anonymous online survey after using the elearningpackageResultsOf the participants, 92% found it enjoyable and 95% foundthe e-learning package useful; 75% perceived it to beeffective in increasing their performance and 91% believedit increased their knowledge in consulting skills. Benefits forparticipants’ confidence, style and structure of consultingskills were found.ConclusionParticipants found the e-learning package to be enjoyableand effective. E-learning should be further utilised in ablended learning environment to support face-to-faceteaching in consulting skills.
Vitish-Sharma, P; Knowles, J; Patel, B
Laparoscopic surgery requires working in a three-dimensional environment with a two-dimensional view. Skills such as depth perception, hand to eye co-ordination and bimanual manipulation are crucial to its efficacy. To compare the efficiency of training in laparoscopic skills on a VR simulator with a traditional box trainer. Twenty medical students were recruited. An initial training session on the relevant anatomy and steps of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was given. Baseline skills were recorded using a pre-training laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Parameters measured were: (1) total time taken (mins); (2) number of movements right and left instrument; (3) path length (cms) of right and left instrument was recorded. Ten students trained on a VR simulator, and ten on a box trainer, for three hours each. The box trainer group exercises were based on the Royal College of Surgeons core laparoscopic skills course, and the VR trainer exercises were based on the Simbionix LapMentor basic skills tasks. Following this both groups were reassessed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Both groups showed improvement in all measured parameters. A student T-test at 95% confidence interval showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups pre and post training. Both the VR and box trainer are effective in the acquisition of laparoscopic skills. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.
This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.
Lee, Mei-Hua; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv
Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice. Critically, when we investigated the movement coordination, we found that the lower task performance of children was associated with limited exploration of their movement repertoire. These results reveal the critical role of motor exploration in understanding developmental differences in motor learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.