WorldWideScience

Sample records for motor energy usage

  1. Distributed Wireless Multi-Sensor Technologies, A Novel Approach to Reduce Motor Energy Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Sexton

    2008-03-28

    This report is the final report for the General Electric Distributed Wireless Multi-Sensor Technologies project. The report covers the research activities and benefits surrounding wireless technology used for industrial sensing applications. The main goal of this project was to develop wireless sensor technology that would be commercialized and adopted by industry for a various set of applications. Many of these applications will yield significant energy savings. One application where there was significant information to estimate a potential energy savings was focused on equipment condition monitoring and in particular electric motor monitoring. The results of the testing of the technology developed are described in this report along with the commercialization activities and various new applications and benefits realized.

  2. Fuel cell usage in motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellone, R.

    1998-01-01

    Much interest has been aroused by fuel cell usage in motor vehicles, since this technology seems to overcome the conventional limits by other kinds of drive, i.e. the high environmental impact of internal-combustion engines and the drawbacks of electric battery vehicles in terms of maximum operating range and battery recharge time. After 2010 its costs are expected to fall in competitive levels with internal-combustion engines [it

  3. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  4. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  5. Challenges for future energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged

  6. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  7. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  8. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  9. Energy usage optimisation of heavy haul freight trains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available tonnage and long distances an enormous amount of energy is required. Using classical mechanics, an energy usage model for typical freight trains based on available tractive power and typical rolling stock resistances (curvature, friction, gravity etc...

  10. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  11. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  12. Energy usage in the rubber industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, M.

    1980-01-01

    The rubber industry has several energy-intensive steps, such as mastication of natural rubber, mixing and extrusion, and vulcanization. Opportunities for energy savings would be available with a continuous mixing process, heat recovery from cooling waters, and abandonment of thermal conduction in vulcanization. 6 figures. (DCK)

  13. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  14. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3... Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors...

  15. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...

  16. United States Data Center Energy Usage Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Herrlin, Magnus [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koomey, Jonathan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Horner, Nathaniel [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Azevedo, Inês [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lintner, William [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report estimates historical data center electricity consumption back to 2000, relying on previous studies and historical shipment data, and forecasts consumption out to 2020 based on new trends and the most recent data available. Figure ES-1 provides an estimate of total U.S. data center electricity use (servers, storage, network equipment, and infrastructure) from 2000-2020. In 2014, data centers in the U.S. consumed an estimated 70 billion kWh, representing about 1.8% of total U.S. electricity consumption. Current study results show data center electricity consumption increased by about 4% from 2010-2014, a large shift from the 24% percent increase estimated from 2005-2010 and the nearly 90% increase estimated from 2000-2005. Energy use is expected to continue slightly increasing in the near future, increasing 4% from 2014-2020, the same rate as the past five years. Based on current trend estimates, U.S. data centers are projected to consume approximately 73 billion kWh in 2020.

  17. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiit, Valdur

    2000-01-01

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  18. Solar energy. Usage of the solar energy in other forms of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruevski, Trpe

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. After a brief description of the solar energy usage, the theory, technology and applications of photovoltaic cells are presented

  19. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Motor-gearbox selection for energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, Douwe; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    Energy consumption of robotic systems is getting more and more attention. Previous work suggests that energy losses in the actuators of robots are a significant source of high energy consumption. A possible reason is that, so far, motor-gearbox selection methods have not focussed on energy

  1. Linear motor with contactless energy transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    An integrated electromagnetic energy conversions device is provided that includes a synchronous or brushless linear (SoBL) motor, and a transformer, where the transformer is integrated electromagnetically and topologically with the SoBL motor, where an electromagnetic field orientation of the

  2. Commercial and Multifamily Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na

    2014-11-17

    In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.

  3. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  4. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  5. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... electric motors and small electric motors. That supplemental proposal, along with an earlier proposal from...

  6. Ban on advertising promoting energy usage violates First Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    In reversing the New York Court of Appeals in the Central Hudson Gas suit, the Supreme Court expanded the protection afforded commercial speech. The result could have a major impact on means used to achieve policy objectives of national and state energy conservation. Public utility commissions attempting to limit the growth of energy usage may have to devise stringent economic regulations that directly affect the marketplace and consumer alternatives. This might require an expansion of the statutory powers of public utility commissions. The Court's decision will require public utility commissions to either adopt regulations that restrict the content and format of utility speech or allocate costs to utility shareholders of impermissible advertising. Otherwise, a utility's unbridled ability to speak, given the economic power of such enterprises and their economic interest, could totally undermine the credibility of national and state energy-conservation policy. 12 references.

  7. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  8. Assessment of the achieved savings from induction motors energy efficiency labeling in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoni, E.C.; Nogueira, L.A.H.; Cardoso, R.B.; Haddad, J.; Souza, E.P.; Dias, M.V.X.; Yamachita, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have modeled the influence of the increase of efficiency of motors. • The amount of saved energy is estimated. • The work deals with the “measurement” of a non-consumed energy. • The influence of the motor useful life is taken into account. • The influence of efficiency decrease along the motor life is also taken into account. - Abstract: Since 1995 Brazil has been applying its labeling program to increase the efficiency of application of many household appliances and equipment. From 2003 on inductions motors have also been receiving the PROCEL prize, which helped push motors efficiency over than those limits established by the labeling program. Therefore, this work presents the development of a model to estimate the amount of savings obtained with the usage of the PROCEL endorsement labels in standard and in energy efficient motors. The estimated peak demand reduction is also inferred. The developed model makes the usage of sales information and of a discard function to estimate the Brazilian motor stock. Approaches such as the use of efficiency loading and efficiency aging factors are employed to estimate motors consumption

  9. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  10. Evaluating multifunctional storage usage for the integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmann, Simon; Wasowicz, Bartholomaeus; Raths, Stephan; Pollok, Thomas; Schnettler, Armin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for High Voltage Technology

    2012-07-01

    Market and grid integration of the increasing share of renewable energy sources (RES) pose significant challenges to the electricity system in Germany. Energy storages are frequently discussed as one part of the solution. However, storage operators in a liberalized electricity market are profit maximizing actors, who are only interested in supporting the integration of RES, if it is economically attractive. A storage dispatch optimization model has been developed to comprehensively analyze the wide range of storage applications. Three storage operational modes are introduced and evaluated in this paper. The entirely market-focused multimarket operation is found to be the most profitable option for storage operators. Integration of RES is of minor importance in this operational mode. Using storage systems only for grid purposes in the grid supportive operational mode is found to be least profitable. A combined storage usage for market and grid applications in the multifunctional operation achieves similar benefits for the grid as in the grid supportive mode by better integrating RES, while also achieving profits from the markets. The current market and regulatory framework however, provides no incentives for storage operators to pursue this dispatch strategy, which is favorable for an improved RES integration.

  11. Motor Challenge Energy Matters, May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The May issue of Energy Matters (formerly Turning Point) features articles on motor, steam, and compressed air systems management. One article explains how chemical treatment can improve boiler system efficiency; another discusses the importance of data logging to assess compressed air system performance. A feature article describes motor system upgrades at Blue Circle Aggregates, a Georgia quarry, which resulted after a no-cost assessment by one of DOE's Industrial Assessment Centers. This issue includes an 8-page special supplement devoted to steam system efficiency

  12. Motor Challenge Energy Matters, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-05-07

    The May issue of Energy Matters (formerly Turning Point) features articles on motor, steam, and compressed air systems management. One article explains how chemical treatment can improve boiler system efficiency; another discusses the importance of data logging to assess compressed air system performance. A feature article describes motor system upgrades at Blue Circle Aggregates, a Georgia quarry, which resulted after a no-cost assessment by one of DOE's Industrial Assessment Centers. This issue includes an 8-page special supplement devoted to steam system efficiency.

  13. Simulated Energy Usage for a Novel 6 DOF Articulated Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, A A; Tlale, N; Bright, G

    2014-01-01

    The serial robot architecture is widespread in modern day manufacturing, and over the last few decades the technology has matured and settled to its current state. One drawback from the architecture however is the location of motors and gearboxes which are either at the joint it controls or close by. A novel hybrid 6 DOF robot was designed to move all the actuators to the robot base, and to control the desired axis through a set of connected links and gears, while maintaining the same workspace and dexterity. This would reduce the inertia of the movable part of the robot and some of the moment arms on the 3 axes required for translation of the 3 DOF spherical wrist. Doing so would decrease the energy requirements when compared to a 6 DOF serial robot. This paper focuses on the mathematical modelling and simulation of the novel hybrid machine design and compares it to an equivalent serial robot

  14. Energy Hub’s Structural and Operational Optimization for Minimal Energy Usage Costs in Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tung Ha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural and optimal operation of an Energy Hub (EH has a tremendous influence on the hub’s performance and reliability. This paper envisions an innovative methodology that prominently increases the synergy between structural and operational optimization and targets system cost affordability. The generalized energy system structure is presented theoretically with all selective hub sub-modules, including electric heater (EHe and solar sources block sub-modules. To minimize energy usage cost, an energy hub is proposed that consists of 12 kinds of elements (i.e., energy resources, conversion, and storage functions and is modeled mathematically in a General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS, which indicates the optimal hub structure’s corresponding elements with binary variables (0, 1. Simulation results contrast with 144 various scenarios established in all 144 categories of hub structures, in which for each scenario the corresponding optimal operation cost is previously calculated. These case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested model and methodology. Finally, avenues for future research are also prospected.

  15. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  16. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  17. Influence of awareness on the usage of motor third party insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a case study of Kampala district. ... informants (insurers, insurance regulators as well as enforcers – traffic police officers); and carried out desk review of motor third party insurance ... enormous negative economic impact on individuals, fam-.

  18. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  19. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  20. A critical assessment of renewable energy usage in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The displacement of non-renewable fossil fuels by renewable energy resources has occurred at a low rate in the USA. But a large number of drivers is expected to cause significant expansion of the US renewable energy industry in the near future. Included among the extrinsic drivers, or those that are not directly related to renewable energy resources, are reductions in natural gas and crude oil supplies and the OPEC Effect. An assessment of petroleum crude oil and natural gas consumption and reserves supports the position that supply problems and significant cost increases will start to occur in the first and second quarters of this century. Among the intrinsic drivers, or those that are directly related to renewable energy resources, are global warming and specific government incentives and mandates such as Renewable Portfolio and Fuel Standards that require the commercial use of renewable energy resources. The increasing US dependence on imported crude oil and environmental and political issues will drive the growth of the renewable energy industry and result in the gradual phase-out of what can be called the Fossil Fuel Era. By the end of this century, the dominant commercial energy mix in the USA is projected to include major contributions by renewable energy resources to help satisfy energy and fuel demands. Practical solutions to the problems of disposing of spent nuclear fuels and the development of clean coal applications will enable these energy resources to afford major contributions also

  1. Using Support Vector Machine to Forecast Energy Usage of a Manhattan Skyscraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R.; Boulanger, A.; Anderson, R.; Wu, L.

    2011-12-01

    As our society gains a better understanding of how humans have negatively impacted the environment, research related to reducing carbon emissions and overall energy consumption has become increasingly important. One of the simplest ways to reduce energy usage is by making current buildings less wasteful. By improving energy efficiency, this method of lowering our carbon footprint is particularly worthwhile because it actually reduces energy costs of operating the building, unlike many environmental initiatives that require large monetary investments. In order to improve the efficiency of the heating and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a Manhattan skyscraper, 345 Park Avenue, a predictive computer model was designed to forecast the amount of energy the building will consume. This model uses support vector machine (SVM), a method that builds a regression based purely on historical data of the building, requiring no knowledge of its size, heating and cooling methods, or any other physical properties. This pure dependence on historical data makes the model very easily applicable to different types of buildings with few model adjustments. The SVM model was built to predict a week of future energy usage based on past energy, temperature, and dew point temperature data. The predictive model closely approximated the actual values of energy usage for the spring and less closely for the winter. The prediction may be improved with additional historical data to help the model account for seasonal variability. This model is useful for creating a close approximation of future energy usage and predicting ways to diminish waste.

  2. THE EFFECT OF THE WINDOW-TO-WALL RATIO ON COOLING ENERGY USAGE AND COMFORT TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Budhiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of the effect of building envelope, especially glass facade buildings on cooling energy usage and thermal comfort. An office building was modeled with various window-to-wall ratio (WWR using panasap glass with SC=0.58 in order to analyze the effect of the WWR addition on cooling energy usage and comfort temperature. The result suggested that the average increase of the cooling energy usage is about 5.67% per 10% WWR addition, and of the operative temperature ranges from 0.350C to 0.560C per 10% WWR addition. Moreover, the building with above 20% WWR doesn’t provide comfort temperature.

  3. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrom, H.; Hall, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  4. Energy and emission analysis for industrial motors in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Rahim, N.A.; Ping, H.W.; Jahirul, M.I.; Mekhilef, S.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The industrial sector is the largest user of energy in Malaysia. Industrial motors account for a major segment of total industrial energy use. Since motors are the principle energy users, different energy savings strategies have been applied to reduce their energy consumption and associated emissions released into the atmosphere. These strategies include using highly efficient motors, variable speed drive (VSD), and capacitor banks to improve the power factor. It has been estimated that there can be a total energy savings of 1765, 2703 and 3605 MWh by utilizing energy-efficient motors for 50%, 75% and 100% loads, respectively. It was also found that for different motor loads, an estimated US$115,936 US$173,019 and US$230,693 can be saved in anticipated energy costs. Similarly, it is hypothesized that a significant amount of energy can be saved using VSD and capacitor banks to reduce speed and improve the power factor, thus cutting energy costs. Moreover, a substantial reduction in the amount of emissions can be effected together with the associated energy savings for different energy savings strategies. In addition, the payback period for different energy savings strategies has been found to be reasonable in some cases.

  5. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for small electric motors, which was published on March 9, 2010. In that final rule, the U.S... titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75 FR 10874. Since the publication of...

  6. Usage of energy- dispersial analysis in studying rocks melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudelas Dušan

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available EDS analysis of constituent minerals of nefelitic basanite from locality Konrádovce – lava stream of ceric basalt formation of upper Phocene-Pleistocene age was carried out using the electron microscope JEOL JSM-840 and the energy-dispersive microanalyser KEVEX DELTA+ with MIRROR QUANTEX+ software.Based on the results of EDS microanalysis, the primary rock can be, from the petrographic point of view, described as nefelitic basanite. The following substances were determined in the primer matter and porfiric phenocrysts:- isometric grainsof pyroxene-augite (point A1,- grainsof nepheline-kalsite (point A2,- cryptocrystallic glassy matter (point A3,- grainsof olivine (point A4,- microlite of basic plagioclase (point A5.The energy-dispersive analysis is fast and full spectrum is taken at the same time. In common, a required time is less than one minute. Results of the measurement donot depend significantly on the topography of sample and it is also possible to analyze a rough surface which makes easier the preparation of samples. A very important aspect of the mentioned method is the precision of obtained results in order to identify the chemical composition of analyzed point which, in a subsequent step, allows to determine the type of mineral. EDS is a convenient and powerful supplement of microscopic studies which are, sometime, unable to distinguish exactly the complete composition of the analyzed rocks.

  7. Energy usage in Beet Suger Factories. Sockerfabrikens energianvaendning; En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltborg, G

    1990-02-01

    A computer program has been developed in order to simulate the energy consumption of beet sugar factories, for various plant configurations. The program is divided into five block units: Extraction and Juice purification, Juice concentration, Crystallization, Drying and finally the Power House. Each block consists of different modules, for example, a heat exchanger, an evaporator, a turbine and a dryer. The purpose of this project was to simulate some different system configurations of a sugar factory, whereby both new and previously used process technologies were utilized. The following parts of the process have been particularly emphasized: Power House - gas turbine, waste heat boiler. Drying - low-temperature dryer, steam dryer. Evaporation - vapour recompression. Crystallization - vapour recompression, continuous system. The different plant configurations have been compared to a reference factory, which is designed according to current technology used in a modern and well balanced Swedish factory. The comparisons are based upon the total power consumption as well as the total annual energy costs. Eleven different plant configurations were studied. The maximum power reduction is 36%, relative to the reference factory. The dissertation also contains an experimental study of a low-temperature drying process. The drying characteristics of pressed beet pulp were studied in a specially designed rotary dryer pilot plant. A number of parameters were varied i.e. the solid moisture content, air velocity, temperature and rotational speed. The results are given in terms of an apparent volumetric heat-transfer coefficient, determined from measured data. A mathematical model was established to determine the residence time of the material in the rotary dryer at different air velocities. (45 refs.).

  8. Assessment of possible usages of fuels alternatives to diesel by maritime, road and river freight transport professionals. Gas-based motorizations, strategic investments for the energy transition of road and maritime freight transport companies within the frame of the 2014/94/EU directive of 22 October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Maler, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    As the 2014/94/EU directive defines alternative fuels (electric power, natural gas under its gaseous and liquefied form, biofuels, liquefied petrol gas or LPG, hydrogen, synthetic fuels, and paraffinic fuels), and states the obligation for member states to develop distribution infrastructures for these fuels, this report addresses fuels which cannot be mixed with diesel fuel and thus require the modification of transport equipment and the development of a new distribution infrastructure, technically different from that for oil-derived fuels. It describes technical and economic characteristics of French freight transport companies, public policies aimed at an energy transition of these companies, and alternate fuels defined by the European directive. Then, it proposes an overview of the status of perspectives of development of alternative motorizations for four types of equipment used in freight transport: freight transport ships, industrial vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and inland vessels

  9. Energy efficiency improvements in electric motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy; Ameida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica; Falkner, H. [eds.] [AEA Technolgy, Harwell (United Kingdom). ETSU

    2000-07-01

    This book covers the state of the art of energy-efficient electric motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. Recent developments in advanced motor technologies by some of the largest manufacturers of motors and drives are also presented. Although energy-efficient motor technologies can save a huge amount of electricity, they still have not been widely adopted. The barriers which can hinder the adoption of those technologies are presented. Policies and programmes to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies and the market transformation are featured in the book, describing the experiences carried out in different parts of the world. This extensive coverage includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  10. Usage of energy reserves in crustaceans during starvation: status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; García-Carreño, Fernando; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Hernández-López, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the usage of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as energy source by marine crustaceans during starvation. Crustaceans are a large and diverse group including some economically important species. The efforts to culture them for human consumption has prompted the interest to understand the preferences of energy sources to be applied for feed formulation and cost reduction. Important differences have been found among species and appear to be related not only to the biochemistry and physiology of nutrition, but also to the living environment of the crustaceans. Furthermore, crustaceans undergo morphological, physiological and behavioral changes due to their natural growing process that affect their feeding habits, an aspect that should be carefully considered. We discuss the current information on marine crustaceans about energy usage and describe areas of future research, where starvation studies render important insights.

  11. Does lower energy usage mean lower carbon dioxide emissions? - A new perspective on the distillation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andika, Riezqa; Husnil, Yuli Amalia; Lee, Moonyong [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Although fossil fuels play an important role as the primary energy source that currently cannot be replaced easily with other energy sources, their depletion and environmental impact are becoming major concerns. Improvements in energy efficiency are believed to solve both problems simultaneously. We examined the relationships between the improvement in energy efficiency, energy usage and CO{sub 2} emissions in industry, especially in the distillation process. The energy efficiency improvement of dimethyl ether (DME) purification performed with dividing-wall column distillation (DWC) and acetic acid recovery performed with mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) were evaluated by recalculating the amount of fuel burnt and its CO{sub 2} emission. The results showed that the paradigm of lower energy being directly proportional to lower CO{sub 2} emissions is not entirely correct. To avoid this confusion, a tool for examining the uncommon behavior of various systems was developed.

  12. The usage of filtration as fulfillment of acceptable indoor and optimal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The role of filtration is a significant factor in the prevention and mitigation of indoor air quality problems. ASHRAE Standard 62-89. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, makes broad and non-specific references to filtration. This paper provides guidelines for the usage of filtration as a means of fulfillment of the Standard's requirements. The paper also references the specific authorities as iterated in the Standard. The discussion will include the usage of filtration in treating contaminated outside air, protection of equipment and systems, protection of occupants, reduction of ventilation air, and source control. The reduction of ventilation air through filtration has significant and positive energy management benefits. Other energy benefits accrue from clean heat exchange surfaces

  13. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... procedures for electric motors to allow currently unregulated motors to be tested by clarifying the test...

  14. Regulatory applications of the relationships between natural gas usage and weather; Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.A.; Patterson, D.L.; Proctor, M.S.; Warren, H.E.; Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-05-01

    This books includes two articles, each with an abstract dealing with the economic aspects of natural gas usage and solar energy usage both depending on the data about weather forecasting. The demand of natural gas depends on weather and the analysis of gas usage is required in a rate case in order to properly estimate the volumes and revenues that would be recovered from current rate under conditions of normal weather. The actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context are needed for future estimation concerning this energy sources which would have a more significant role in the future

  15. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Rahardjo Tirtoatmodjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Gas buang dari motor diesel masih memiliki sejumlah energi panas yang cukup tinggi. Pada motor diesel stasioner, dengan mengalirkan air pada pipa spiral ya...

  16. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  17. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  18. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their...

  19. Technological Decision to Renewable Energy Usage Biogas for Off-grid Systems Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the energy experiments based on electrochemical researches and the thermodynamic calculations, which are carried out on the hydrogenous fuel with the residual content of methane obtained from biogas selected organic waste. Energy indicators are examined in comparison to electrolysis hydrogen. The use of technical and electro physical indicators together with parameters of the fuel operating allowed assessing energy efficiency the module reformer - fuel cell running on a non-standard hydrogenous fuel. Numerical characteristic the efficiency of workflows fuel system reformer – fuel cell is about 39%. To operate the power installation with a predetermined capacity amount used of hydrogenous fuel is comparable to required electrolysis hydrogen amount. Shown the possibility of creation the systems of power supply based on new hydrogen technologies using renewable energy resources local waste. Confirms the relatively high efficiency the usage of hydrogenous fuel for the tasks of off-grid systems consumption.

  20. Shark - new motor design concept for energy saving-applied to Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataru, Ana Mari

    with respect to a corresponding cylindrical air gap machine. Furthermore, the two Switched Reluctance Machines are compared with other motor technologies such as Induction Motor and Brushless DC Motor. Analysis of the forces produced in the Shark SRM reveals particular aspects, adding some difficulties...... geometrical pattern on the longitudinal axis of the electrical machine. This shape modification increases the air gap area and thus the energy conversion, taking place in the machine. Whilst other methods of improving the efficiency consider the use of more and/or better magnetic material and/or optimisation...... of the magnetic circuit of the radial cross-section of the machine, the proposed method makes use of the longitudinal cross-section of the machine. In spite of a few reports claiming the improvement of the efficiency by applying the optimisation of the longitudinal cross-section, none analysis of various air gap...

  1. Regional differences in system usage charges. Impediment to a fair energy transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenz, Maik; Meister, Moritz; Doliwa, Martin; Obbelode, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of the German electricity supply system to production from renewable resources under the national energy transition policy is making it necessary to expand and restructure the distribution networks. Based on the expansion goals of the federal government, expectations are that thinly populated regions with low conflict potential will see a continued growth in distributed generation. This will increase the geographic asymmetry that exists between the production of renewable energy in rural, peripheral regions and its consumption predominantly in urban regions, thus enlarging the regional differences in system usage charges seen already today. The geographic disparity between production and consumption may grow larger still with the continuing installation of new and repowering of existing renewable energy plants. Of the possibilities discussed so far for reforming the scheme of charges, some would only have a weak impact, while others would even exacerbate the problem. The solution proposed in the present article takes account of the costs incurred through upstream supply networks in accordance with Article 14 Section 1 Sentence 1 of the Ordinance on System Usage Charges. In effect it leads to an allocation of costs according to the user-pays principle, thus protecting consumers connected to rural distribution networks against an undue cost burden and charging a fair share of the costs to consumers in urban and industrial distribution networks.

  2. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  3. Biomass based energy combines with motor fuel production; Biobraenslebaserade energikombinat med tillverkning av drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    In the report the state of development of production processes for various motor fuels, such as FT diesel, methanol , DME and ethanol, from biomass is reviewed. Biomass and black liquor gasification processes as well as processes for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass are discussed. The processes are complicated and still not very well tried in their whole context. The gas cleaning steps, which are necessary to reach acceptable catalyst lifetimes in the motor fuel production processes based on gasification, have been tested in the oil industry and to some extent in coal gasification plants, but not with syngas from biomass or black liquor gasification. For black liquor gasification particularly, also material selection and material lifetime issues remain to be solved. For ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass process development is needed, to increase the yield in the pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation steps. The energy yields of the processes are dependent on the degree of complexity of the processes, as well as on the integration and balancing of energy demanding steps and steps with energy surplus. This is especially valid for the processes based on gasification, due to high temperatures in the gasifier and some of the catalytic steps, but also for the ethanol process, which benefit from optimal steam integration in the evaporation and distillation steps. Also steam integration with cogeneration plants, or for black liquor gasification with pulp mills, improves the overall energy balance. In addition, the energy yield when motor fuels are produced by gasification is dependent on the usage of the off-gas. The efficiency is improved when the off-gas is burned in a boiler or gas turbine, than when it is flared. In the report examples are given of processes with and without integration.

  4. Motor systems energy efficiency supply curves: A methodology for assessing the energy efficiency potential of industrial motor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Aimee; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States, Canada, the European Union, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil, bottom-up energy efficiency supply curve models were constructed to estimate the cost-effective electricity efficiency potentials and CO 2 emission reduction for three types of motor systems (compressed air, pumping, and fan) in industry for the selected countries/region. Based on these analyses, the share of cost-effective electricity saving potential of these systems as compared to the total motor system energy use in the base year varies between 27% and 49% for pumping, 21% and 47% for compressed air, and 14% and 46% for fan systems. The total technical saving potential varies between 43% and 57% for pumping, 29% and 56% for compressed air, and 27% and 46% for fan systems. - Highlights: → Development of conservation supply curves for the industrial motor systems. → An innovative approach combining available aggregate country-level data with expert opinion. → Results show both cost-effective and technical potential for energy saving and their costs. → Policy implication of the results are briefly discussed.

  5. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  6. Electromagnetic Energy Converters - Rotating Motors and Linear Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekergaard, Boel

    2011-07-01

    This licentiate thesis presents a study of the electromagnetic properties of linear synchronous permanent magnet generators, utilized in wave energy converters, and a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle. Both machine topologies are presented, designed with a numerical simulation tool, based on a model derived from Maxwell's equations. Full scale prototypes of both the machines are under construction. A continued study about the impact on the magnetic circuit caused by the longitudinal ends of a linear generator is performed. The results present significant core losses in the translator and an increased cogging force caused by the longitudinal ends. Further, a new electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena is presented. Experimental results indicate that a successful electric resonance between the generator and external circuit has been achieved. Finally, detailed analytical and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the losses in the two pole permanent magnet motor over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate that the efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system can be increased relative existing designs and argue for limiting of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased. The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the so called Lysekil Wave Power Project, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electrical vehicle with closely related ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System

  7. Energy resources and usage. Charles Kolling Research Lab. technical note ER-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D W

    1973-02-01

    From maximum utilization of industrial enengy conference; Sydney, Australia (21 Feb 1973). The overall picture shows that Australia faces no foreseeable energy problems. Such an assumption ignores many technological and environmental problems associated with the inefficient or thoughtless use of invaluable energy resources. Energy wasted is irrecoverable whereas energy un- used has a potentially individual and national good either in subsequent usage or in export to some less-favorably placed country. No rushed or ill-considered decision need be made, and with the advent of nuclear power or an export decision to be made, the decisions may be well planned. Issues such as Lake Pedder, the Clutha controversy, and the forthcoming public inquiry into environmental aspects of the proposed Moomba--Sydney natural gas pipeline give an indication of the pattern of the future, and an informed public interest in such matters should be welcomed by all concerned. National planning and coordiation are correlated with technological advances for the optimum decisions to be made involving energy. (24 references) (MCW)

  8. Computer usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenblatt, Jeffery [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Claybaugh, Erin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Young, Scott [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-12-01

    The electricity consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads (MELs) in the home has grown in recent years, and is expected to continue rising. Consumer electronics, in particular, are characterized by swift technological innovation, with varying impacts on energy use. Desktop and laptop computers make up a significant share of MELs electricity consumption, but their national energy use is difficult to estimate, given uncertainties around shifting user behavior. This report analyzes usage data from 64 computers (45 desktop, 11 laptop, and 8 unknown) collected in 2012 as part of a larger field monitoring effort of 880 households in the San Francisco Bay Area, and compares our results to recent values from the literature. We find that desktop computers are used for an average of 7.3 hours per day (median = 4.2 h/d), while laptops are used for a mean 4.8 hours per day (median = 2.1 h/d). The results for laptops are likely underestimated since they can be charged in other, unmetered outlets. Average unit annual energy consumption (AEC) for desktops is estimated to be 194 kWh/yr (median = 125 kWh/yr), and for laptops 75 kWh/yr (median = 31 kWh/yr). We estimate national annual energy consumption for desktop computers to be 20 TWh. National annual energy use for laptops is estimated to be 11 TWh, markedly higher than previous estimates, likely reflective of laptops drawing more power in On mode in addition to greater market penetration. This result for laptops, however, carries relatively higher uncertainty compared to desktops. Different study methodologies and definitions, changing usage patterns, and uncertainty about how consumers use computers must be considered when interpreting our results with respect to existing analyses. Finally, as energy consumption in On mode is predominant, we outline several energy savings opportunities: improved power management (defaulting to low-power modes after periods of inactivity as well as power scaling), matching the rated power

  9. Shark, new motor design concept for energy saving applied to switched reluctance motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataru Kjaer, A.M.

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to document and promote a relatively new concept of designing electrical machine with improved efficiency, without using more or better material. The concept, called Shark, consists in replacing the cylindrical air gap by a non-linear shape obtained by translating specific geometrical pattern on the longitudinal axis of the electrical machine. This shape modification increases the air gap area and thus the energy conversion, taking place in the machine. Whilst other methods of improving the efficiency consider the use of more and/or better magnetic material and/or optimisation of the magnetic circuit of the radial cross-section of the machine, the proposed method makes use of the longitudinal cross-section of the machine. In spite of a few reports claiming the improvement of the efficiency by applying the optimisation of the longitudinal cross-section, none analysis of various air gap shapes and of their influence on the magnetic performance has been reported. Due to a simple geometry, the Switched Reluctance Machine has been selected for demonstration of the Shark principle. Initially, linear and finite element analyses are considered. They provide the basic knowledge of the manner in which various Shark air gap, having different dimensions, influence the energy conversion in the machine. The saturation mechanisms, specific to each Shark profile are analysed and optimum Shark profile and its dimensions are selected for implementation in a demonstration machine. Due to the lack of quick analysis tools, an analytical model of the Shark Switched Reluctance Machine is also proposed in this thesis. This model is conceived by modifying one of the existing models of cylindrical air gap Switched Reluctance Machines, such as to account for the presence of the Shark profiles in the air gap. The calculations are verified by measurement on two demonstration machines, having cylindrical and Shark air gaps. The measurement proved the theory right and

  10. Economic viability of geothermal energy usage in comparison to renewable and conventional energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaumann, G.

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive lecture given by Prof. Dr. Gunter Schaumann in Bad Duerkheim, Germany, discusses the use of geothermal energy in relationship to other forms of renewable energy sources and conventional energy technologies used to provide heat, power and motive force. The characteristics of geothermal energy from various sources and examples of its possible use are discussed. In particular, the paper deals with deep geothermal energy, which can provide heating energy for district heating schemes, if necessary with the help of heat pumps. The prospects of such a use of geothermal energy in the next 50 years in various suitable regions in Germany is discussed and the associated prerequisites are listed. The present situation concerning the use of geothermal energy in Germany is examined. An example of a geothermal heating power station that also features a gas-fired combined heat and power installation, a heat pump and a peak-load boiler is given. Also, the generation of electrical power using the Organic Rankine Cycle is discussed. The factors influencing the economic viability of geothermal power stations are discussed in detail and the resulting energy prices are compared with conventional plants. The paper gives details of the calculation of investment and energy costs for heat and power generation and presents figures based on exemplary installations

  11. Energy from waste. Potentials and possibilities for usage; Energie aus Abfall. Potenziale und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, Rainer; Fritz, Thomas [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst (HAWK), Goettingen (DE). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec); Fricke, Klaus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft

    2009-05-15

    In the present article the results of appraisal for the determination of the theoretical potential of energy and the current secondary energy supply of waste streams, which are relevant for the power production in Germany are represented. To sum up, the following conclusions arise from the balance: The theoretical primary energy supply potential of the examined waste streams amounts from 540 to 650 PJ/a and corresponds from 3.9 to 4.6% of the total primary energy consumption in Germany. In consideration of the system-dependent efficiencies and steering of flow patterns for materials altogether approx. 53 PJ electricity and 104 PJ (used) heat were produced as secondary energy within the regarded ranges in the year 2006 in Germany. This corresponds approx. to 1.7% of the final energy consumption in Germany. The outcome of the evaluated energy data for 2006 is a middle energy efficiency of approx. 26.5% (approx. 8.9% electrically and approx. 17.6% thermally). Under technically optimized conditions the power efficiency can be raised possibly on approx. 37%, whereby the share of the final energy consumption in Germany would increase to 2,3%. (orig.)

  12. Energy, economic and environmental benefits of using high-efficiency motors to replace standard motors for the Malaysian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Electric motors use major share (i.e. about 30-80% of total industrial energy consumption) of total industrial energy use around the world. Experiences from other countries show that government intervention in the form of regulations such as mandatory and voluntary approaches can save sizeable amount of energy along with the reduction in emissions associated with energy savings. This paper presents potential energy savings by introducing high-efficiency motors as a case study in Malaysian industrial sector. Emission reductions associated with the energy savings has been estimated and presented as well. It was also estimated that a cumulative amount of 1940 and 892 GWh of energy can be saved for 20 and 120 kW motors, respectively, in Malaysia relative to BAU over the next 10 years. Similarly, a cumulative amount of USD 100 million and USD 60 million can be saved as utility bills for the same motor categories. It has been found that the payback period of different capacities of motors are less than a year. Based on results, it was found that 1789 million kg of CO 2 emission can be avoided by replacing standard motors with high-efficiency motors.

  13. Survey on usage of electronic journals in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Fukazawa, Takeyasu

    2008-05-01

    Survey on usage of electronic journals was performed quantitatively by analyzing downloads accesses data to the 1,783 journals titles published by Elsevier in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2006. Although JAEA researchers are interested in 1,028 journal titles among physics, chemistry, engineering, medicine, social sciences etc., it is found that 80% of total downloads was occupied by only 102 journal titles. To satisfy researcher's needs for electronic journals effectively, identification the core journals by librarians based on user's needs is rational way in cost. By shifting from print to electronic journals, the number of users increased by 30% and the number of papers read by researchers increased by 7 times. It is also found that many of researchers do not use SD (Science Directs) useful functions such as searching, linking to other bibliographic records, and alerting new information of electronic journals. To inform the useful functions to researchers by librarians is necessary. (author)

  14. Energy conservation: motors in industry; Maitrise de l`energie: les moteurs dans l`industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoine, O.; David, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-12-31

    The Electricite de France demand side management policy towards industry is particularly aimed at reducing industry`s power consumption from electric motors through the use of electronic speed variators which may induce mean energy savings of 25 percent. Pumps, fans and compressors, amounting to two-third of the total electric motor energy consumption, are the main application fields for electronic variators. EDF proposes technical and energy diagnosis and audits in industrial plants in order to evaluate the possibility and potential of electronic variator introduction

  15. Analisis Perhitungan Panas Motor DC SHUNT Pada Saat Start Dan Pengereman ( Aplikasi pada Laboratorium Konversi Energi Listrik FT-USU ).

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Eka Dian Arjuna

    2011-01-01

    Motor adalah mesin yang mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi mekanis. Pada motor arus searah energi listrik arus searah diubah menjadi energi mekanis. Dalam dunia industri, motor arus searah banyak digunakan sebagai penggerak pompa air, blower, hoist pada crane. Dalam operasi suatu motor DC maka akan timbul rugi – rugi panas sehingga terjadi kenaikan suhu yang menyebabkan kerusakan isolasi pada motor DC tersebut. Pada motor DC rugi – rugi panas lebih besar terjadi pada kea...

  16. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  17. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We are coming to realize that there is an urgent need to reduce energy usage in buildings and it has to be done in a sustainable way. This thesis focuses on the performance of the building envelope; more precisely thermal performance of walls and super insulation material in the form of vacuum insulation. However, the building envelope is just one part of the whole building system, and super insulators have one major flaw: they are easily adversely affected by other problems in the built environment. Vacuum Insulation Panels are one fresh addition to the arsenal of insulation materials available to the building industry. They are composite material with a core and an enclosure which, as a composite, can reach thermal conductivities as low as 0.004 W/(mK). However, the exceptional performance relies on the barrier material preventing gas permeation, maintaining a near vacuum into the core and a minimized thermal bridge effect from the wrapping of barrier material round the edge of a panel. A serpentine edge is proposed to decrease the heat loss at the edge. Modeling and testing shows a reduction of 60 % if a reasonable serpentine edge is used. A diffusion model of permeation through multilayered barrier films with metallization coatings was developed to predict ultimate service life. The model combines numerical calculations with analytical field theory allowing for more precise determination than current models. The results using the proposed model indicate that it is possible to manufacture panels with lifetimes exceeding 50 years with existing manufacturing. Switching from the component scale to the building scale; an approach of integrated testing and modeling is proposed. Four wall types have been tested in a large range of environments with the aim to assess the hydrothermal nature and significance of thermal bridges and air leakages. The test procedure was also examined as a means for a more representative performance indicator than R-value (in USA). The

  18. 76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... provides a new means for manufacturers of electric motors and their private labelers to prepare and submit... preferred mechanism for submitting Compliance Certification information for electric motors covered under...

  19. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  20. Study on Enhanceing Mechanisim and Policy on Energy Efficiency of Electrical Motor System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng; Chen, Lili; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Motor is a kind of terminal energy-consumption equipment with the maximum power consumption in China every year; compared with international advanced level, the technical innovation of motor equipment, speed regulating system, drive system and automatic intelligent control technique in China still lag behind relatively; the standard technical service support system of motor system is not complete, the energy conserving transformation mode needs to be innovated, and the market development mechanism of motor industry is not perfect, etc. This paper analyzes the promotion mechanism and policy on energy efficiency of the motor system in China in recent years, studies the demonstration cases of successful promotion of high-efficiency motor, standard labeling, financial finance and tax policy, and puts forward suggestions on promotion of high-efficiency motor in China.

  1. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  2. Motor Challenge: Improving Efficiency of Tube Drawing Bench Reduces Energy Use by 34%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erika Ericksen

    1999-01-01

    The case study reveals how a manufacturer of high-precision, small-diameter steel tubing has reduced energy consumption and realized considerable electrical, labor, and materials cost savings with a more energy-efficient motor

  3. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)

  4. A Study on Energy Saving of Single Phase Induction Motor By Voltage Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jong Moon [Pusan College of Information Technolgy, Pusan (Korea); Kim, Joon Hong [Dong Myong College, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a simple effective method for energy saving of AC motors having a widely variable load. The proposed method is based on an optimal efficiency control which is operated by voltage-current pattern such as to maintain the maximum efficiency on the efficiency-output characteristics of the motor, TRIAC voltage control characteristics. The parameters of simplified voltage-current pattern can be determined approximately and reliably from the rated voltage and current of the motor. Experiments are focused on a single phase capacitor motor, the optimal energy saving are proved by proposed method. (author). 8 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This guidebook provides a step-by-step approach to developing a motor system energy-improvement action plan. An action plan includes which motors should be repaired or replaced with higher efficiency models, recommendations on maintaining a spares inventory, and discussion of improvements in maintenance practices. The guidebook is the successor to DOE’s 1997 Energy Management for Motor Driven Systems. It builds on its predecessor publication by including topics such as power transmission systems and matching driven equipment to process requirements in addition to motors.

  6. New energy opinion leaders' lifestyles and media usage - applying data mining decision tree analysis for UNIDO - ICHET web site users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.; Veziroglu, A.; Warren, S.; Que, Y.

    2007-01-01

    According to the innovation diffusion research, the innovators, opinion leaders, and diffusion agents play vital roles in promoting the acceptance of innovation. The innovators and opinion leaders must be able to cope with the high degree of uncertainty about an innovation and usually they have higher innovation-related media usage than the majority. Based on consumer behavior studies, lifestyle analysis could help researchers divide consumers into different lifestyle groups to understand and predict consumer behaviors. Lifestyle allows researchers to investigate consumers via their activities, interests and opinions instead of using demographic variables. The purpose of this research is to investigate how new energy innovators and opinion leaders' different lifestyles affect their new energy product adoption, and their media usage regarding new energy reports or promotion. In order to achieve the purposes listed above, the researchers need to locate and contact the potential innovators and opinion leaders in this field. Thus the researchers cooperate with UNIDO-ICHET to launch this survey. This cross-discipline online survey was formally launched from Aug 2005 to Oct 2006. The result of this survey successfully collected 2040 new energy innovators and opinion leaders' information. The researchers analyzed the data using SPSS statistics software and Data Mining decision tree analysis. Then the researchers divided new energy innovators into four groups: social-oriented, young modern, conservative, and show-off-oriented. They also analyzed which lifestyle groups are better targets for innovation agencies to launch innovation-related promotions or campaigns

  7. Procedure for the energy evaluation of electric motors; Procedimiento para la evaluacion energetica de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliz Quiroz, Marco Antonio [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    The present article is not a complete treaty about motors, here it is simply tried to show a practical procedure to evaluate electric motors, in order to determine the economics of their possible replacement by others of high efficiency. With the former in mind, the included database is sustained in the information of a representative number of motors brands commercialized in Mexico, since to include all the brands sold in our country would not be practical and it would be outside the scope of this publication. [Spanish] El presente articulo no es todo un tratado acerca de motores, sencillamente aqui se pretende mostrar un procedimiento practico para evaluar los motores electricos, a fin de determinar la rentabilidad de su eventual reemplazo por otros de alta eficiencia. Por lo anterior, la base de datos incluida se sustente en la informacion de un numero representativo de marcas de motores comercializados en Mexico, ya que abarcar todas las marcas vendidas en nuestro pais no seria practico y quedaria fuera del alcance de esta publicacion.

  8. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Yoon, Jong-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor

  9. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsu [Ensemble Center for Automotive Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong-Yun [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor.

  10. Comparison the programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors; Comparacao de programas de eficiencia energetica para motores eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues dos; Demanboro, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; jimnaturesa@yahoo.com; joubert@fec.unicamp.br; anto1810@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a comparison among the existing programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors in Brazil, in the United States of America and in the European Community. The analysis is restricted to the action of each program, considering that the mentioned countries present distinct economical, political and social characteristics. Therefore, it is intended to discuss the main barriers existing in the Brazilian industrial context which cause difficulties to develop a program of electric motors efficiency and to indicate some ways to overcome those barriers. (author)

  11. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  12. Mixed-waste pyrolysis of biomass and plastics waste – A modelling approach to reduce energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Gebreegziabher, Tesfaldet; Ng, Denny K.S.; Hui, Chi Wai

    2014-01-01

    Thermal co-processing of waste mixtures had gained a lot of attention in the last decade. This is largely due to certain synergistic effects such as higher quantity and better quality of oil, limited supply of certain feedstock and improving the overall pyrolysis process. Many experiments have been conducted via TGA analysis and different reactors to achieve the stated synergistic effects in co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes. The thermal behaviour of plastics during pyrolysis is different from that of biomass because its decomposition happens at a high temperature range with sudden release of volatile compared to biomass which have a wide range of thermal decomposition. A properly designed recipe and operational strategy of mixing feedstock can ease the operational difficulties and at the same time decrease energy consumption and/or improve the product yield. Therefore it is worthwhile to study the possible synergistic effects on the overall energy used during co-pyrolysis process. In this work, two different modelling approaches were used to study the energy related synergistic effect between polystyrene (PS) and bamboo waste. The mass loss and volatile generation profiles show that significant interactions between the two feedstocks exist. The results also show that both modelling approaches give an appreciable synergy effect of reduction in overall energy when PS and bamboo are co-pyrolysed together. However, the second approach which allows interaction between the two feedstocks gives a more reduction in overall energy usage up to 6.2% depending on the ratio of PS in the mixed blend. - Highlights: • Proposed the mixed-waste pyrolysis modelling via two modelling approaches. • Study the energy related synergistic effects when plastics and biomass are pyrolysed together. • Mass loss and volatile generation profiles show the existence of significant interactions. • Energy usage can be reduced by up to 6.2% depending on the percentage of the plastic

  13. Usage aspects of photovoltaic energy in public lighting systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Boetzelaer, J.C.S.; Beltman, J.L.M.; Dullens, M.; Schumacher, R.A.

    2001-04-01

    The largest part of the market for autonomous photovoltaic cells consists of public lighting systems. In the Netherlands are circa 400 solar light lampposts. Suppliers of lampposts believe that the potential of that market is much larger. However, sales figures show that the market has come to a halt. It is the opinion of the suppliers that some prejudices exist with respect to usage aspects (e.g., high cost for purchase and maintenance, low reliability of the systems and sensitive for hooliganism). The (non)-existence of those prejudices is subject of this study

  14. Environmental physiology: effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacher, G.A.; Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Obermeyer, W.; Russell, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation. So far, mice have been exposed to fast neutron-gamma radiation or to the chemical effluents of an atmospheric pressure experimental fluidized-bed combustor. The physiological parameters measured included: O 2 consumption; CO 2 production; motor activity; and deep body temperatures

  15. 'Motor challenge' pilot programme; Motor Challenge Pilotprogramm. Schweizer Teilnahme im SAVE-Programm: pilot actions for motor systems industrial energy use challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a pilot project associated with the Motor Challenge Programme (MCP) initiated by the European Commission (Transport and Energy Committee). The programme is briefly described, which aims to improve the efficiency of electrical motors used in industrial compressed-air, pump and ventilator systems as well as in comprehensive motor driven systems. Switzerland's participation in this pilot project is examined, which was concluded after a period of two years when the Motor Challenge Programme itself was launched in February 2003. The mechanisms of the programme are described, whereby companies may become involved in the programme either as partners (users of drive systems) or as endorsers (suppliers, planners, etc., of such systems). Experience gained with two companies in Switzerland - a food processing group and a major chemical pulp producer - who participated in the programme is presented. Efficiency potentials of around 3 GWh/a were identified; these represent a high proportion of the estimated total of 18 GWh/a in the overall programme. A follow-up project is proposed that is to provide detailed information and initiate further efficiency projects in order to encourage other companies to participate in the MCP programme.

  16. Amorphous and Nanocomposite Materials for Energy-Efficient Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveyra, Josefina M.; Xu, Patricia; Keylin, Vladimir; DeGeorge, Vincent; Leary, Alex; McHenry, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore amorphous soft-magnetic alloys as candidates for electric motor applications. The Co-rich system combines the benefits of low hysteretic and eddy-current losses while exhibiting negligible magnetostriction and robust mechanical properties. The amorphous precursors can be devitrified to form nanocomposite magnets. The superior characteristics of these materials offer the advantages of ease of handling in the manufacturing processing and low iron losses during motor operation. Co-rich amorphous ribbons were laser-cut to build a stator for a small demonstrator permanent-magnet machine. The motor was tested up to ~30,000 rpm. Finite-element analyses proved that the iron losses of the Co-rich amorphous stator were ~80% smaller than for a Si steel stator in the same motor, at 18,000 rpm (equivalent to an electric frequency of 2.1 kHz). These low-loss soft magnets have great potential for application in highly efficient high-speed electric machines, leading to size reduction as well as reduction or replacement of rare earths in permanent-magnet motors. More studies evaluating further processing techniques for amorphous and nanocomposite materials are needed.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network to Support the Intelligent Control of Efficient Energy Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jesús; García, Andrés; Morenas, Javier de Las

    2018-06-09

    Energy saving has become a major concern for the developed society of our days. This paper presents a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) designed to provide support to an automatic intelligent system, based on the Internet of Things (IoT), which enables a responsible consumption of energy. The proposed overall system performs an efficient energetic management of devices, machines and processes, optimizing their operation to achieve a reduction in their overall energy usage at any given time. For this purpose, relevant data is collected from intelligent sensors, which are in-stalled at the required locations, as well as from the energy market through the Internet. This information is analysed to provide knowledge about energy utilization, and to improve efficiency. The system takes autonomous decisions automatically, based on the available information and the specific requirements in each case. The proposed system has been implanted and tested in a food factory. Results show a great optimization of energy efficiency and a substantial improvement on energy and costs savings.

  18. Current On-Campus Attitudes toward Energy Usage, Efficiency, and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, Liz [Manhattan College NY, NY 10471; Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030; Manhattan College NY, NY 10471; Sintov, Nicole [USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey, CA 90292; Orosz, Michael [USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey, CA 90292

    2016-10-01

    Context & Background for Energy Survey Methods & Survey Overview Respondent Demographics Results Demand Response Current Environmental Comfort Perceptions Smart Meters Perceived Smart Meter Benefits Motivators of Energy Efficient Practices Summary & Implications

  19. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  20. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions. (author)

  1. A model for improving energy efficiency in industrial motor system using multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero Sola, Antonio Vanderley; Mota, Caroline Maria de Miranda; Kovaleski, Joao Luiz

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, several policies have been proposed by governments and global institutions in order to improve the efficient use of energy in industries worldwide. However, projects in industrial motor systems require new approach, mainly in decision making area, considering the organizational barriers for energy efficiency. Despite the wide application, multicriteria methods remain unexplored in industrial motor systems until now. This paper proposes a multicriteria model using the PROMETHEE II method, with the aim of ranking alternatives for induction motors replacement. A comparative analysis of the model, applied to a Brazilian industry, has shown that multicriteria analysis presents better performance on energy saving as well as return on investments than single criterion. The paper strongly recommends the dissemination of multicriteria decision aiding as a policy to support the decision makers in industries and to improve energy efficiency in electric motor systems. - Highlights: → Lack of decision model in industrial motor system is the main motivation of the research. → A multicriteria model based on PROMETHEE method is proposed with the aim of supporting the decision makers in industries. → The model can contribute to transpose some barriers within the industries, improving the energy efficiency in industrial motor system.

  2. A model for improving energy efficiency in industrial motor system using multicriteria analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Sola, Antonio Vanderley, E-mail: sola@utfpr.edu.br [Federal University of Technology, Parana, Brazil (UTFPR)-Campus Ponta Grossa, Av. Monteiro Lobato, Km 4, CEP: 84016-210 (Brazil); Mota, Caroline Maria de Miranda, E-mail: carolmm@ufpe.br [Federal University of Pernambuco, Cx. Postal 7462, CEP 50630-970, Recife (Brazil); Kovaleski, Joao Luiz [Federal University of Technology, Parana, Brazil (UTFPR)-Campus Ponta Grossa, Av. Monteiro Lobato, Km 4, CEP: 84016-210 (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    In the last years, several policies have been proposed by governments and global institutions in order to improve the efficient use of energy in industries worldwide. However, projects in industrial motor systems require new approach, mainly in decision making area, considering the organizational barriers for energy efficiency. Despite the wide application, multicriteria methods remain unexplored in industrial motor systems until now. This paper proposes a multicriteria model using the PROMETHEE II method, with the aim of ranking alternatives for induction motors replacement. A comparative analysis of the model, applied to a Brazilian industry, has shown that multicriteria analysis presents better performance on energy saving as well as return on investments than single criterion. The paper strongly recommends the dissemination of multicriteria decision aiding as a policy to support the decision makers in industries and to improve energy efficiency in electric motor systems. - Highlights: > Lack of decision model in industrial motor system is the main motivation of the research. > A multicriteria model based on PROMETHEE method is proposed with the aim of supporting the decision makers in industries. > The model can contribute to transpose some barriers within the industries, improving the energy efficiency in industrial motor system.

  3. Energy supply with growing energy efficiency - the energy supply companies as driving force for rational energy use?; Energieversorgung bei wachsender Energieeffizienz - die Energieversorgungsunternehmen als Motor rationeller Energieverwendung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, J. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke VDEW e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schulz, E. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke VDEW e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-09-23

    The authors explain that growing energy efficiency was and is the positive prerequisite for the development of the electricity supply industry. They show that the business-oriented use of the concept of integrated resource planning by economic enterprises can improve energy efficiency and thus contribute towards mastering future demands and challenges. With the eta-initiative for energy rationalism the German electricity suppliers also intend to continue being motors of energy efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser verdeutlichen, dass wachsende Energie-Effizienz positive Voraussetzung fuer die Entwicklung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft war und ist. Sie arbeiten heraus, dass die unternehmenswirtschaftliche Nutzung des Konzepts der Integrierten Ressourcen-Planung die Energie-Effizienz verbessern und damit dazu beitragen kann, die kuenftigen Anforderungen und Herausforderungen zu meistern. Mit der eta-Initiative fuer Energievernunft wollen die deutschen Stromversorger auch in Zukunft Motor der Energie-Effizienz bleiben. (orig.)

  4. The transport sector's energy usage in 2011; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ellen; Kadic, Zinaida; Lindblom, Helen

    2012-11-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of the Sweden's energy consumption. As the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels, its conversion to other fuel-/energy types have a major impact in the coming years with the increasing requirements for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This situation is expected to change and expand requirements for statistics on the transport sector's energy use. Since 2008, as a result of the increased interest, the Swedish Energy Agency publish an annual collection of statistics for the transport sector.

  5. Green energy from microalgae: Usage of algae biomass for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupskaite, Virginija; Makarevicie, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass can be used for various types of biofuels, including biodiesel and biogas. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. (widespread in freshwater Lithuanian lakes) usage for biogas production. Microalgae were cultivated under mixotrophic conditions (growth medium BG11 containing technical glycerol). In order to determine biogas yield and quality dependence on feedstock preparation, the analyses of biogas production have been performed with algae biomass prepared i n different ways: wet centrifuged; wet centrifuged, frozen and defrost; dry not de-oiled and dry de-oiled. The highest biogas yield in both cases (Scenedesmus sp. – 646 ml/gDM and Chlorella sp. – 652 ml/gDM) was obtained from centrifuged, frozen and defrost biomass. Biogas yield was app. 1.46 times higher comparing to yield of biogas produced from wastewater sludge. Our results showed that different types of biomass preparation have no significant influence on quality of biogas. Key words: microalgae, biomass, biogas production, biogas quality

  6. CDF GlideinWMS usage in Grid computing of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvada, Marian; Sfiligoi, Igor; Benjamin, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Many members of large science collaborations already have specialized grids available to advance their research in the need of getting more computing resources for data analysis. This has forced the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) collaboration to move beyond the usage of dedicated resources and start exploiting Grid resources. Nowadays, CDF experiment is increasingly relying on glidein-based computing pools for data reconstruction. Especially, Monte Carlo production and user data analysis, serving over 400 users by central analysis farm middleware (CAF) on the top of Condor batch system and CDF Grid infrastructure. Condor is designed as distributed architecture and its glidein mechanism of pilot jobs is ideal for abstracting the Grid computing by making a virtual private computing pool. We would like to present the first production use of the generic pilot-based Workload Management System (glideinWMS), which is an implementation of the pilot mechanism based on the Condor distributed infrastructure. CDF Grid computing uses glideinWMS for its data reconstruction on the FNAL campus Grid, user analysis and Monte Carlo production across Open Science Grid (OSG). We review this computing model and setup used including CDF specific configuration within the glideinWMS system which provides powerful scalability and makes Grid computing working like in a local batch environment with ability to handle more than 10000 running jobs at a time.

  7. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  8. Energy usage, problems and policy proposals: evidence from distinctive villages in poverty-stricken loess areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinglong; Xue, Weixian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine energy consumption among poverty-stricken loess areas of middle Gansu, and put forward a settlement to energy upgrading and meanwhile mitigating environmental contagion and shaking off poverty. Energy consumption of 371 households from 3 distinctive categories of landform is explored. The surveyed data investigation displays that energy consumption composition is marked by clear dissimilarity of power mix, with stalk(41%) and coal(32.3%) acting as the major form, fire grass a powerful supplement, and the remaining power resources playing a tiny part for the mountain; coal(52.45%) being the dominant power, dry grasses(20%) and stalk (17.6%) performing a supplemental part, other resources of power being at the insignificant position for the semi-mountain; beside which there being a similar energy pattern on the plain except stalk composing a tiny share of 7.5%. This energy mix is mainly attributed to economic poverty, and provokes a list of ills such as plant damage, water loss and soil erosion, ultimately posing a formidable threat to sustainable development. A fresh energy engineering mode termed quaternity-dominating pattern is introduced and addressed, which can lift the sample areas out of poverty both in economics and energy. The paper concludes with pointing out practical proposals on launching and running this energy engineering project for the sample areas. This paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge by exploring energy use among poverty-stricken regions, usually being disregarded in most studies of China.

  9. Assessment of energy consumption and optimisation of usage in the paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, N J.D.; Murgatroyd, W; Ladomatos, N

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the project is to determine what can be learned from a statistical analysis of data on energy consumption in the paper industry. Existing data were collected and analyzed at three different levels of aggregation: the country, the production site, and the individual machine. For each level, two types of analysis were made: inter-unit comparison, and a temporal comparison within a unit. The work was complemented by three detailed physical balances on paper-making machines, a procedure usually referred to as an energy analysis. Considerable success was achieved in identifying and quantifying the structural influences on energy consumption. In this respect the different analyses illuminate each other. Despite the fact that in some instances either data were not made available or it proved inadequate for good statistical reliability, several firm conclusions can be drawn, conclusions which are significant from the point-of-view of energy management, and several recommendations are made. These are summarized.

  10. Energy integration on multi-periods and multi-usages for hybrid electric and thermal powertrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of the efficiency of vehicle energy systems promotes an active search to find innovative solutions during the design process. This requires more accurate modeling of complex systems, which offers new ways to improve the design efficiency of energy systems. The vehicle is a highly dynamic system. The size and the efficiency of the convertors are dependent on the dynamic driving profile. In order to increase the energy efficiency, using energy integration techniques, an adapted methodology is required to choose the best points for the integrated system design. The idea is to clusterize the dynamic profile on typical multi-periods of the vehicle use. The energy system design is then optimized for these typical multi-periods. In this article a new methodology is applied on hybrid electric vehicles, in order to define the energy integrated powertrain configuration of the vehicle. The energy recovery potential of a single stage Organic Rankine Cycle for a thermal engine in combination with a hybrid electric powertrain is assessed for different drive cycles profiles and comfort situations. After the energy integration, a multi-objective optimization is applied to define the optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle with a waste heat recovery system. - Highlights: • K-means algorithm transforms the dynamic driving profile on static multi-periods. • The clusters represent the typical powertrain use and size the heat recovery utility. • The maximal heat recovery potential on thermal powertrains is 11% for urban driving. • The maximal heat recovery potential on hybrid electric powertrains is 5%. • Engine downsizing increases heat recovery potential on hybrid electric powertrains

  11. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  12. Summary of treatment, storage, and disposal facility usage data collected from U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.; Oswald, K.; Trump, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the level and extent of treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) assessment duplication. Commercial TSDFs are used as an integral part of the hazardous waste management process for those DOE sites that generate hazardous waste. Data regarding the DOE sites' usage have been extracted from three sets of data and analyzed in this report. The data are presented both qualitatively and quantitatively, as appropriate. This information provides the basis for further analysis of assessment duplication to be documented in issue papers as appropriate. Once the issues have been identified and adequately defined, corrective measures will be proposed and subsequently implemented

  13. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Doru A. Nicola; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Daniel C. Cismaru

    2015-01-01

    Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both tra...

  14. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  15. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use products is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternating current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  16. Usage Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinaltenkamp, Michael; Plewa, Carolin; Gudergan, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance extant theorizing around resourceintegration by conceptualizing and delineating the notion of a usage center. Ausage center consists of a combination of interdependent actors that draw onresources across their individual usage processes to create v...

  17. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  18. Regulatory aspect of radiation usage : Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984 (ACT 304): summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Explaning in general the matters must be obeyed by every `person` who exercise the activities related to atomic energy in Malaysia . Details explanation provided in the regulations and orders. Regulations and orders are supported by other documents - code of practice, standards, advice materials.

  19. Regulatory aspect of radiation usage : Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984 (ACT 304): summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Explaning in general the matters must be obeyed by every 'person' who exercise the activities related to atomic energy in Malaysia . Details explanation provided in the regulations and orders. Regulations and orders are supported by other documents - code of practice, standards, advice materials

  20. Energy efficiency in speed control system for induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em sistema de controle de velocidade em motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Arlete Vieira da; Ribeiro, Elisangela do Nascimento; Tenorio, Iana Cavalcanti; Horta, Mario Marcos Brito [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UnBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: arlete.silva@prof.unibh.br, nr.elisangela@gmail.com, ianactenorio@gmail.com, mario_bhorta@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of energy efficiency of induction motors fed by frequency inverters, since this is a practical resource that has progressively allowed the replacement of mechanical speed reducers. In this work the speed control of induction motors of the squirrel cage has steeped through the frequency inverters using scalar control. Induction motors are frequently used in industrial applications due to its simple construction, its low maintenance and reduced in size. It was possible through tests made at UNI-BH Electrical Engineering laboratory to obtain satisfactory results regarding the performance of the inverter CFW08 (WEG), speed control of induction motor. (author)

  1. Natural gas in Brazil's energy matrix: demand for 1995-2010 and usage factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Elton; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius de A; Alonso, P.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the constraints hampering achievement of the 12% share planned for natural gas in Brazil's energy matrix by 2010, and advises policies for reaching that goal on the basis of forecasts and three probable scenarios for the development of the Brazilian economy. The 12% share goal was established in 1993 by the Ministry of Mines and Energy and confirmed in 2000, and is now in full development. The figures used to represent the estimates of natural gas demands in the three scenarios were obtained from the Integrated Energy Planning Model (MIPE--Modelo Integrado de Planejamento Energetico), which is a technical and economic forecasting model developed by a group of researchers linked to the Energy Planning Program run by the Graduate Engineering Programs Coordination Unit at the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE-UFRJ) under the sponsorship of Petrobras (a Brazilian enterprise operating in the oil and gas segment) and Eletrobras (a Brazilian enterprise in charge of electricity demand planning). The analysis of the constraints take place under the aegis of the objective proposed by the Brazilian Government. The authors suggest specific actions to be taken in four application areas of natural gas: industrial, electric power generation, domestic distribution and vehicular fleet conversions. All the actions proposed encourage the use of a fuel with low environmental impacts and high calorie power, replacing firewood and other polluting fuels and are evaluated relative to the impacts occurring in society, especially from the standpoint of social welfare in a developing country. The necessity of developing the goods and services infrastructure in the country to support the natural gas insertion in the Brazilian energy matrix is also addressed

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Usage and Energy Efficiency Behavior in Low- and High-Income Households: The Case of Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however, the need to adopt energy efficiency measures has not just been driven by the imperative to mitigate the negative effects of climate change but also by a critical shortage of energy. This research looks at households’ energy consumption behavior in low- and high-income areas of Kitwe. Recent studies on the relationship between household energy consumption and behavioral lifestyle have been descriptive, with limited emphasis on the relationships between various variables. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to investigate relationships between the two income groups and various energy consumption-related variables such as knowledge about energy reduction measures, energy saving strategies, barriers to the use of energy saving strategies, and the motives for using energy reduction strategies. Methodologically, the study was largely quantitative in nature, with questionnaires administered to a combined total of 56 households. However, key interviews were also conducted that helped us to get a clearer understanding of some of the issues covered in the research. Key findings are that whereas the descriptive statistics show that there are behavioral differences between the two income groups, the inferential statistics show that there is no relationship between income level and the energy efficiency variables. This has been found to be consistent with results from studies done elsewhere. The key lesson is that there is low usage of energy efficiency measures in both low- and high-income areas and that the authorities need to change the way information is disseminated to consumers from the current method of advertising to social diffusion.

  3. Wind energy with special review on its usage in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenov, Arsen

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a short theoretical survey is given on the power limits that could be obtained as a result of the wind kinetic energy and on the development in the construction of different elements of eol power plants. A review is made on the different types of generator's losses. Multiple ways are shown for wind energy storage. Also, a review is given of the autonomic wind systems which are considered as especially attractive, as well as some examples for their realization. The wind energetic potential is analyzed for one location (Main Meteorological station - Stip), and the results from the calculations are given in a graphical form in the appendix. (author). 9 refs., 12 charts

  4. Technical and economical conditions of nuclear energy usage continuation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylys, J.; Ziedelis, S.; Klevas, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main producer of electric energy in Lithuania is Ignalina NPP with its two RBMK-1500 type reactors. It covers up to 86% of total annual electricity production. The compulsory premature closure of Ignalina NPP due to the decision of EU authorities will decrease maximum power generating capacity to 3273 MW in the year 2010 (slump of 42% in respect to 5698 MW of the year 2000) and it will cause a complex of serious technical, economical, ecological, and social consequences. The most important ones for energy sector are the negative power balance and the shortage of power generating capacity which can emerge straight after closure of the second unit of Ignalina NPP. An attempt has been taken to prove, that the most realistic way for replacement of lost power generating capacities is the construction of new nuclear or combined cycle gas turbine power plants. The results of the comparative analysis of their effectiveness and competitiveness are presented in the paper. Estimating the basic prevailing technical and economical factors and three possible scenarios of economy growth, the changes of power balance and levelised cost of produced electricity are compared. It is demonstrated that a new modern nuclear power plant would be competitive and it would be even a more favourable option in respect to a combined cycle gas turbine power plant due to the relatively lower energy production cost, especially when estimating the possible future growth of price for fossil fuel. (authors)

  5. Potensi Energi Listrik Pada Gas Buang Sepeda Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Latif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fossil energy sources dwindling due to the many needs, especially in industrial and automotive sectors which are the largest energy users and the highest waste heat-producing. This causes many alternative energy sources are developing, included thermal energy utilization. The research utilized waste heat energy from motorcycle exhaust pipe into electrical energy with using Thermo Electric Generator (TEG. By using the thermocouple principle, difference of temperature between hot and cold side of TEG resulted voltage. Testing was conducted with three points are on head, body and mouth of the exhaust pipe. The maximum output voltage is generated in the head is greater than the other positions. At the head of exhaust, the maximum output voltage which is generated by 1 modul, 2 modules and 3 modules of TEG on each other is 1.26 V, 2.27 V and 3.43 V respectively.

  6. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  7. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains.

  8. Muscle-tendon interaction and elastic energy usage in human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V.; Grey, Michael James

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore how the interaction between the fascicles and tendinous tissues is involved in storage and utilization of elastic energy during human walking. Eight male subjects walked with a natural cadence (1.4 +/- 0.1 m/s) on a 10-m-long force plate system. In vivo......-stance phase. In contrast, the soleus fascicles were lengthened until the end of the single-stance phase. These findings suggest that the elastic recoil takes place not as a spring-like bouncing but as a catapult action in natural human walking. The interaction between the muscle fascicles and tendinous...

  9. Reduction of energy usage in postharvest horticulture through management of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Ron B H; Golding, John B

    2015-05-01

    Cool chain management is the preferred technology to extend the postharvest life of horticultural produce, but with rising energy costs and community pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a need to use less energy-intensive technologies. Minimising the level of ethylene around horticultural produce inhibits ripening and senescence and therefore has the potential to reduce the use of refrigeration. The long-distance transport of bananas within Australia and from Central America to Europe is used as a case study to show that the need for refrigeration could be reduced if the appropriate concentrations of ethylene were maintained around fruit during transit. Data are also presented to show a similar benefit of ethylene control with green beans, as well as another study showing that apples treated with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene could be stored at a higher temperature without loss of quality to the consumer. The range of technologies available to manage ethylene levels is discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A Motor/Generator for Flywheel Energy Storage System Levitated by Bulk Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, C.S.; Yeon, J.U.; Jeoung, H.M.; Choi, J.H. [Chungbuk National University (Korea); Lee, H.J; Hong, G.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The energy storage systems are being widely researched for the high quality of the electric power. The FES(flywheel energy storage system)is especially, on the center of the research because it does not make any pollution and its life is long. The FES converts the electrical energy into the mechanical kinetic energy of the flywheel and reconverts the mechanical energy into the electrical energy, In order to store as much energy as possible, the flywheel is supposed to be rotated with very high speed. The motor/generator of the FES should be high efficient at high speed, and generate constant torque with respect to the rotation. In this paper, a motor/generator employing a Halbach array of permanent magnets is designed and constructed to meet the requirements, and its characteristics are examined. The magnetic field is analysed by using the magnetic surface charge method. The armature winding is designed for the harmonic components to be minimized by using the FFT. The sinusoidal currents for the motor driving are generated by the hysteresis current controller. A sample superconducting flywheel energy storage system is constructed with a duralumin flywheel which has a maximum rotating speed of 40,000[rpm] and a stored energy of 240[Wh] and its validity is examined through the experiment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. On possibility of high energy electron irradiation usage for material alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskij, R.A.; Livshits, V.B.; Payuk, V.A.; Plotnikov, S.V.; Kuz'minykh, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Review of papers concerning over 2.5 MeV fast electron beam (FEB) irradiation of metals and semiconductors is made. It makes possible to transform physical and mechanical properties ofsurface layers due to their alloyage with different elements or due to redistribution of alloy impurities at the essential depth. It is shown, that electron beam irradiation of materials results in the formation of essential temperature gradient in the sample near the surface and defect nonequilibrium concentration. Along with the increase of diffusion effective ratio the heterogeneous distribution of temperature and defects results in the formation of atom nucompensated fluxes within the sample, which result in element redistribution. Drift of one element through the layer of the second one occurs as a result. Gradient of temperature and defects, amfient temperature and correlation of migration activation energies of element atoms are considered as determining factors at anomalous mass transfer

  12. Metrology for the persevering production, distribution, and usage of energy; Metrologie fuer die nachhaltige Erzeugung, Verteilung und Nutzung von Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Klaus-Dieter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. ' Chemische Physik und Explosionsschutz'

    2012-12-15

    The author describes the metrological challenges given by the necessarily effective production, transport, distribution, consumption, conservation, and storage of energy, the latter is considered in connection with mobility. Finally the activities of the PTB in this connection are listed. (HSI)

  13. Modelling and Simulation of Fuel Cell Dynamics for Electrical Energy Usage of Hercules Airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Radmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC with hydrogen storage system for generating part of Hercules airplanes electrical energy is presented. Feasibility of using fuel cell (FC for this airplane is evaluated by means of simulations. Temperature change and dual layer capacity effect are considered in all simulations. Using a three-level 3-phase inverter, FC’s output voltage is connected to the essential bus of the airplane. Moreover, it is possible to connect FC’s output voltage to airplane DC bus alternatively. PID controller is presented to control flow of hydrogen and oxygen to FC and improve transient and steady state responses of the output voltage to load disturbances. FC’s output voltage is regulated via an ultracapacitor. Simulations are carried out via MATLAB/SIMULINK and results show that the load tracking and output voltage regulation are acceptable. The proposed system utilizes an electrolyser to generate hydrogen and a tank for storage. Therefore, there is no need for batteries. Moreover, the generated oxygen could be used in other applications in airplane.

  14. Forecasting of Energy and Petroleum Consumption by Motor Transport in the Regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontiy Viktorovich Eder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the directions for the improvement of methodological approach to forecasting the energy consumption in transport, taking into account special features of Russian regions. The authors developed a multivariate model allowing to predict the motor vehicle rate specified for the regions of the Russian Federation depending on the economic, social and institutional features. We formalized the dynamic (trend model for predicting the effectiveness of energy consumption per unit of the vehicle in Russia with details on Federal districts. In the study, in predicting the number of motor transport, the authors applied the methods of economic and mathematical simulation modelling based on the results of the econometric analysis for the calculation of the population having motor transport. In determining the potential specific energy consumption, we have aggregated trending patterns and convergence. The study has shown that by 2040, the number of passenger cars in Russia will grow to 57.1 million, and the total number of all types of road transport will grow by 14.9 million units to 66.2 million. The highest growth rates are predicted in the Central regions of Russia and in some areas of Siberia. The smallest growth rates are expected in the Chukotka Autonomous District, Kamchatka and Primorsky regions. Energy efficiency in transport and active introduction of alternative motor fuels, primarily methane, will reduce the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel by motor transport. Thus, in the forecast period of 2018–2040, the consumption of petroleum products by motor transport will be reduced by 8.9 million tons: from 61,9 million tons of oil to 51.7 million tons of oil. The results of the study can be applied for the formulation of proposals on the creation of scientific and methodological apparatus to predict the development of transport sector and oil products supply in of the regions of Russia.

  15. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner Untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtoatmodjo, Rahardjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %.

  16. Safety, efficacy, and usage compliance of home-use device utilizing RF and light energies for treating periorbital wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael H; Biron, Julie; Levi, Liora; Sensing, Whitney

    2017-03-01

    The aging process is often associated with undesirable effects on facial skin such as skin redundancy, reduction of elasticity, and increased wrinkling. Radiofrequency (RF) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used, clinically proven technologies for skin rejuvenation. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and usage compliance of the home-use device, utilizing RF and LED energies, for self-treatment of periorbital wrinkles and improvement of skin appearance. Thirty-three subjects performed 21 treatment sessions every other day, over 6 weeks on the periorbital areas. In addition, two maintenance treatments were conducted 1 and 2 months following treatment end. Each subject served as his/her own control, comparing results before treatment, and 3 months following treatment end. Thirty subjects completed the study. A blinded, independent photographs assessment of three dermatologists demonstrated an average reduction of 1.49 Fitzpatrick scores (P Skin Tightening (HST) device offers a safe and effective in-home noninvasive technique to improve the appearance of age-related periorbital wrinkles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synergetic motor control paradigm for optimizing energy efficiency of multijoint reaching via tacit learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    A human motor system can improve its behavior toward optimal movement. The skeletal system has more degrees of freedom than the task dimensions, which incurs an ill-posed problem. The multijoint system involves complex interaction torques between joints. To produce optimal motion in terms of energy consumption, the so-called cost function based optimization has been commonly used in previous works.Even if it is a fact that an optimal motor pattern is employed phenomenologically, there is no evidence that shows the existence of a physiological process that is similar to such a mathematical optimization in our central nervous system.In this study, we aim to find a more primitive computational mechanism with a modular configuration to realize adaptability and optimality without prior knowledge of system dynamics.We propose a novel motor control paradigm based on tacit learning with task space feedback. The motor command accumulation during repetitive environmental interactions, play a major role in the learning process. It is applied to a vertical cyclic reaching which involves complex interaction torques.We evaluated whether the proposed paradigm can learn how to optimize solutions with a 3-joint, planar biomechanical model. The results demonstrate that the proposed method was valid for acquiring motor synergy and resulted in energy efficient solutions for different load conditions. The case in feedback control is largely affected by the interaction torques. In contrast, the trajectory is corrected over time with tacit learning toward optimal solutions.Energy efficient solutions were obtained by the emergence of motor synergy. During learning, the contribution from feedforward controller is augmented and the one from the feedback controller is significantly minimized down to 12% for no load at hand, 16% for a 0.5 kg load condition.The proposed paradigm could provide an optimization process in redundant system with dynamic-model-free and cost-function-free approach

  18. Synergetic motor control paradigm for optimizing energy efficiency of multijoint reaching via tacit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    A human motor system can improve its behavior toward optimal movement. The skeletal system has more degrees of freedom than the task dimensions, which incurs an ill-posed problem. The multijoint system involves complex interaction torques between joints. To produce optimal motion in terms of energy consumption, the so-called cost function based optimization has been commonly used in previous works.Even if it is a fact that an optimal motor pattern is employed phenomenologically, there is no evidence that shows the existence of a physiological process that is similar to such a mathematical optimization in our central nervous system.In this study, we aim to find a more primitive computational mechanism with a modular configuration to realize adaptability and optimality without prior knowledge of system dynamics.We propose a novel motor control paradigm based on tacit learning with task space feedback. The motor command accumulation during repetitive environmental interactions, play a major role in the learning process. It is applied to a vertical cyclic reaching which involves complex interaction torques.We evaluated whether the proposed paradigm can learn how to optimize solutions with a 3-joint, planar biomechanical model. The results demonstrate that the proposed method was valid for acquiring motor synergy and resulted in energy efficient solutions for different load conditions. The case in feedback control is largely affected by the interaction torques. In contrast, the trajectory is corrected over time with tacit learning toward optimal solutions.Energy efficient solutions were obtained by the emergence of motor synergy. During learning, the contribution from feedforward controller is augmented and the one from the feedback controller is significantly minimized down to 12% for no load at hand, 16% for a 0.5 kg load condition.The proposed paradigm could provide an optimization process in redundant system with dynamic-model-free and cost-function-free approach.

  19. Advanced drive package saves energy. Synchronous reluctance motor with frequency converter; Energiesparpaket der Zukunft. Synchronreluktanzmotor und Frequenzumrichter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donabauer, Fred [ABB Automation Products GmbH, Ladenburg (Germany); Lendenmann, Heinz [ABB AB, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    The drive package consisting of a synchronous reluctance motor and a frequency converters with Direct Torque Control (DTC) reaches a high level of efficiency and can make a substantial contribution to energy saving in many drive applications. The motor needs no permanent magnets or excitation system. The synchronous reluctance motor is up to two sizes smaller than an induction motor with a similar output and its power density is up to 40% higher than that of an induction motor. A frequency converter with DTC enables exact speed control without requiring an encoder. (orig.)

  20. Actuation Using Piezoelectric Materials: Application in Augmenters, Energy Harvesters, and Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenoehrl, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are used in many manipulation, movement, and mobility applications as well as transducers and sensors. When used at the resonance frequencies of the piezoelectric stack, the actuator performs at its maximum actuation capability. In this Space Grant internship, three applications of piezoelectric actuators were investigated including hammering augmenters of rotary drills, energy harvesters, and piezo-motors. The augmenter shows improved drill performance over rotation only. The energy harvesters rely on moving fluid to convert mechanical energy into electrical power. Specific designs allow the harvesters more freedom to move, which creates more power. The motor uses the linear movement of the actuator with a horn applied to the side of a rotor to create rotational motion. Friction inhibits this motion and is to be minimized for best performance. Tests and measurements were made during this internship to determine the requirements for optimal performance of the studied mechanisms and devices.

  1. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  2. Force Analysis and Energy Operation of Chaotic System of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoyuan; Hu, Jianbing

    2017-12-01

    The disadvantage of a nondimensionalized model of a permanent-magnet synchronous Motor (PMSM) is identified. The original PMSM model is transformed into a Kolmogorov system to aid dynamic force analysis. The vector field of the PMSM is analogous to the force field including four types of torque — inertial, internal, dissipative, and generalized external. Using the feedback thought, the error torque between external torque and dissipative torque is identified. The pitchfork bifurcation of the PMSM is performed. Four forms of energy are identified for the system — kinetic, potential, dissipative, and supplied. The physical interpretations of the decomposition of force and energy exchange are given. Casimir energy is stored energy, and its rate of change is the error power between the dissipative energy and the energy supplied to the motor. Error torque and error power influence the different types of dynamic modes. The Hamiltonian energy and Casimir energy are compared to find the function of each in producing the dynamic modes. A supremum bound for the chaotic attractor is proposed using the error power and Lagrange multiplier.

  3. Rethinking Energy in Parkinsonian Motor Symptoms: A Potential Role for Neural Metabolic Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi eAmano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized as a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in a variety of debilitating symptoms, including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Research spanning several decades has emphasized basal ganglia dysfunction, predominantly resulting from dopaminergic cell loss, as the primarily cause of the aforementioned parkinsonian features. But, why those particular features manifest themselves remains an enigma. The goal of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework that parkinsonian motor features are behavioral consequence of a long-term adaptation to their inability (inflexibility or lack of capacity to meet energetic demands, due to neural metabolic deficits arising from mitochondrial dysfunction associated with PD. Here, we discuss neurophysiological changes that are generally associated with PD, such as selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, in conjunction with metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction. We then characterize the cardinal motor symptoms of PD, bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and gait disturbance, reviewing literature to demonstrate how these motor patterns are actually energy efficient from a metabolic perspective. We will also develop three testable hypotheses: (1 neural metabolic deficits precede the increased rate of neurodegeneration and onset of behavioral symptoms in PD, (2 motor behavior of persons with PD are more sensitive to changes in metabolic/bioenergetic state, and (3 improvement of metabolic function could lead to better motor performance in persons with PD. These hypotheses are designed to introduce a novel viewpoint that can elucidate the connections between metabolic, neural and motor function in PD.

  4. Performance exploration of an energy harvester near the varying magnetic field of an operating induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Yunus; Kurt, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper explores the piezoelectric harvester performance. • The varying magnetic field generates electricity via exciting harvester. • Generated power should be optimized via load resistance. • 0.11 mW/cm 3 Power can be generated from 500 cm 3 surrounding volume. - Abstract: This paper reports a performance exploration of a piezoelectric harvester which is positioned near an operating induction motor. The harvester includes a magnet knob in a pendulum arrangement, which ascertains mechanical vibrations under the varying magnetic field. This energy harvester transforms the ambient unused magnetic energy into the electricity due to the piezoelectric layer attached to the pendulum. It has been proven that when the motor is under operation, the varying ambient field causes a varying magnetic force at the tip of harvester, then output voltage between the terminals of piezoelectric layer is produced due to the mechanical vibrations. This output signal has some characteristics of the operating induction motor in terms of its operation frequency, number of magnetic pole and natural frequency of the harvester. Since the surrounding field of the induction motor directly depends on the current flowing through the windings and electrical parameters, both the amplitude U and the frequency ω m of the harvested voltage can be characterized after some certain parametrical explorations. It has been proven that the harvested voltage strictly depends on the electrical load, which is attached to the terminals of the harvester, after the rectifying circuit. The harvested power per surrounding volume can be increased up to 0.11 mW/cm 3 , if the entire surrounding volume of the motor is considered

  5. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... horsepower, manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) after December 19, 2010, to... Design B, six-pole open motors rated 250, 300, and 350 horsepower are not consistent with the EISA 2007... component of another piece of equipment), on or after December 19, 2010, shall have a nominal full load...

  6. Energy optimal control strategies for electro motors; low-cost and sensorless PWM-VSI based induction motor control. Vol. 1: Main report, appendix and annex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F

    1998-02-01

    When variable speed induction motor drives are used in applications that run at low load for long periods, energy can be saved by reducing the motor flux at low load. In this report the efficiency of 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives are investigated experimentally with efficiency optimized and constant flux control, with sinusoidal and PWM voltage supply and with varying switching frequency. Steady-state motor models are developed and verified experimentally, and are used to analyze and develop efficiency optimizing control strategies. Four energy optimal control strategies are tested experimentally: cos({phi}) control, model-based control, off-line calculated airgap flux control and stator current/input power minimising search control. Their dynamical properties and their ability to reject load disturbances are analysed. Their ability to save energy is tested on a water pump system. For a typical predefined test-cycle the energy optimal control reduces the energy consumption with 10% compared with classical constant V/Hz control. (au)

  7. Usage of NASA's Near Real-Time Solar and Meteorological Data for Monitoring Building Energy Systems Using RETScreen International's Performance Analysis Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Charles, Robert W.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Ziegler, Urban; Leng, Gregory J.; Meloche, Nathalie; Bourque, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes building energy system production and usage monitoring using examples from the new RETScreen Performance Analysis Module, called RETScreen Plus. The module uses daily meteorological (i.e., temperature, humidity, wind and solar, etc.) over a period of time to derive a building system function that is used to monitor building performance. The new module can also be used to target building systems with enhanced technologies. If daily ambient meteorological and solar information are not available, these are obtained over the internet from NASA's near-term data products that provide global meteorological and solar information within 3-6 days of real-time. The accuracy of the NASA data are shown to be excellent for this purpose enabling RETScreen Plus to easily detect changes in the system function and efficiency. This is shown by several examples, one of which is a new building at the NASA Langley Research Center that uses solar panels to provide electrical energy for building energy and excess energy for other uses. The system shows steady performance within the uncertainties of the input data. The other example involves assessing the reduction in energy usage by an apartment building in Sweden before and after an energy efficiency upgrade. In this case, savings up to 16% are shown.

  8. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  9. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V.; Dilling-Hansen, M.

    1996-01-01

    CO 2 -emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs

  10. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  11. Comparative analysis of energy economy among different types of electric motor driving; Analise comparativa de economia de energia entre diferentes tipos de acionamento de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santos da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique, e-mails: mcelo_sant@ig.com.br; caique1979@yahoo.com.br; Albuquerque, Carlos Jesivan Marques; Fortes, Marcio Zamboti [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: cjesivan@uss.br; mzamboti@uss.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of controlled drives loads of small power can cause undesirable disturbances for electrical installations, but it brings some benefits when comparing the energy consumption that this application has on its regular period of operation. This study analyses using comparatives, the electrical economy using the different types of drives for three phase electric induction motors of low voltage. Running up tests on the test bench didactic, the inverter drives, soft starter and contactor switch were analyzed for different loads (motor without load, 50% and 100% load), rating in S1 and S4. (author)

  12. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  13. Parallel changes in cortical neuron biochemistry and motor function in protein-energy malnourished adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Hackett, Mark J; Caine, Sally; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2017-04-01

    While protein-energy malnutrition in the adult has been reported to induce motor abnormalities and exaggerate motor deficits caused by stroke, it is not known if alterations in mature cortical neurons contribute to the functional deficits. Therefore, we explored if PEM in adult rats provoked changes in the biochemical profile of neurons in the forelimb and hindlimb regions of the motor cortex. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging using a synchrotron generated light source revealed for the first time altered lipid composition in neurons and subcellular domains (cytosol and nuclei) in a cortical layer and region-specific manner. This change measured by the area under the curve of the δ(CH 2 ) band may indicate modifications in membrane fluidity. These PEM-induced biochemical changes were associated with the development of abnormalities in forelimb use and posture. The findings of this study provide a mechanism by which PEM, if not treated, could exacerbate the course of various neurological disorders and diminish treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy efficient power electronic controller for a capacitor-run single-phase induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Ilango, G.; Samidurai, K.; Roykumar, M.; Thanushkodi, K.

    2009-01-01

    At present the speed control of a capacitor-run single-phase induction motor is being achieved by using triac based voltage regulators. This paper proposes a new scheme; an electronic transformer acts as a voltage regulator. Performance comparison is made between these two schemes in this paper. It is found that the proposed scheme has superior operating and performance characteristics. Experimental results show that apart from improvement in performance with respect to power factor and total harmonic distortion an appreciable amount of energy saving is also obtained in the electronic transformer based scheme.

  15. Regional differences in system usage charges. Impediment to a fair energy transition?; Regionale Unterschiede der Netznutzungsentgelte. Hindernis fuer eine faire Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenz, Maik; Meister, Moritz; Doliwa, Martin; Obbelode, Felix [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt EnERgioN

    2014-12-15

    The conversion of the German electricity supply system to production from renewable resources under the national energy transition policy is making it necessary to expand and restructure the distribution networks. Based on the expansion goals of the federal government, expectations are that thinly populated regions with low conflict potential will see a continued growth in distributed generation. This will increase the geographic asymmetry that exists between the production of renewable energy in rural, peripheral regions and its consumption predominantly in urban regions, thus enlarging the regional differences in system usage charges seen already today. The geographic disparity between production and consumption may grow larger still with the continuing installation of new and repowering of existing renewable energy plants. Of the possibilities discussed so far for reforming the scheme of charges, some would only have a weak impact, while others would even exacerbate the problem. The solution proposed in the present article takes account of the costs incurred through upstream supply networks in accordance with Article 14 Section 1 Sentence 1 of the Ordinance on System Usage Charges. In effect it leads to an allocation of costs according to the user-pays principle, thus protecting consumers connected to rural distribution networks against an undue cost burden and charging a fair share of the costs to consumers in urban and industrial distribution networks.

  16. A survey of protective cushion usage in individuals with spinal cord injury while traveling in a motor vehicle and on a commercial airliner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Isa A; Nieves, Jeremiah D; Kirshblum, Steven C

    2014-11-01

    While there are specific recommendations for pressure relieving cushions when seated in a wheelchair, there is a paucity of information regarding prescribed wheelchair cushions for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) when traveling and not in their wheelchair seat. A questionnaire was designed to ascertain if individuals with SCI who are primarily wheelchair users utilize a prescribed wheelchair cushion when traveling in a motor vehicle (MV) or on a commercial airliner, as not utilizing one may be a causative factor in developing pressure ulcers. Survey design in an outpatient SCI rehabilitation setting. Full-time wheelchair users, with chronic (>1 year) SCI. Forty-two participants completed the survey, with a mean age of 39 years old and time post-injury of 10.4 years. All subjects used a prescribed wheelchair cushion when seated in their wheelchair. Twenty-seven subjects reported transferring to a MV seat (59.5% of sample), with 25 (92.6%) reporting not using a prescribed wheelchair cushion when sitting directly on the MV seat. For subjects who traveled on an airplane (n = 23-54.8%), 19 (82.6%) reported that they do not sit on a prescribed specialty cushion. Persons with chronic SCI, who are primary wheelchair users, utilize prescribed wheelchair cushions when sitting in their wheelchair, but most do not utilize a prescribed wheelchair cushion when seated in a MV (if they transfer out of their chair) or on a airplane seat. Studies to determine the pressures over the bony prominences on their travel surfaces may need to be undertaken to see whether the pressures are appropriate, as they may be a source of skin breakdown.

  17. Motors of Change for R&D and Innovation towards Sustainable Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kılkış

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a revival of mission-oriented R&D and innovation programs in prioritized areas that serve the aim of decoupling economic growth from environmental pressures. This paper analyzes the governance process in activating the innovation actors in the area of energy technologies in Turkey. This process that was coordinated by TÜBİTAK led to the National Energy R&D and Innovation Strategy for 2011-2016. The three main phases of this process are mapped to be strategy-building, prioritization, and implementation involving six different participatory approaches. The Strategy is based on the strategic aims of mission-oriented R&D projects, capacity advancement, commercialization, and governance. Two new, call-based grant programs launched with eleven energy calls in the first year are overviewed. These programs were key to activating a phase known as “motors of change” for the innovation system. The second year led to the selection of the topic of “Energy Efficiency” for a pilot technology roadmap process, which involved a separate, multi-actor governance process. The paper concludes with the key role of R&D and innovation in allowing energy to contribute to the sustainable development of Turkey by utilizing energy resources effectively and efficiently.

  18. Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, Antonio Vanderley Herrero; Augusto de Paula, Xavier Antonio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors (OHF) and the level of energy losses in organizations. The purpose is to subsidize the formularization of institutional policies in organizations to improve the energy efficiency in the productive sector. The research was carried out in ten industries of the following sectors: pulp and paper; food; wood and chemical products. The losses of electric energy were determined in motor systems with the aid of a mathematical model and the evaluation of 27 OHF identified in the literature review was made with the supervisors in the industries by means of a structurized questionnaire. Seven OHF had presented significant correlation with energy losses and six of them are inversely proportional to the losses, in accordance with linear regression analysis. The inversely proportional factors to the losses also with significant correlation are considered determinative OHF and constitute barriers for energy efficiency in organizations. These barriers are linked with the following organizational areas: management system; education of employees; strategical vision. The study recommends the implementation of the determinative OHF in organizations as a way to transpose the human barriers for energy efficiency

  19. Energy-Based Adaptive Sliding Mode Speed Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Namazi Isfahani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motor drives is a major subject based on these drives’ extensive use in the industry. In this paper, by using a well-known cascaded torque control structure and taking the machine physical structure characteristics into account, the proposed energy-based (passivity-based adaptive sliding algorithm derived from the view point of energy dissipation, control stability and algorithm robustness. First, a nonlinear dynamic model is developed and decomposed into separate slow and fast passive subsystems which are interconnected by negative feedbacks. Then, an outer loop speed control is employed by adaptive sliding controller to determine the appropriate torque command. Finally, to reduce torque ripple in switched reluctance motor a high-performance passivity-based current controller is proposed. It can overcome the inherent nonlinear characteristics of the system and make the whole system robust to uncertainties and bounded disturbances. The performance of the proposed controller algorithm has been demonstrated in simulation, and experimental using a 4KW, four-phase, 8/6 pole SRM DSP-based drive system.

  20. Performance characteristics of conventional X-ray generator isotope source and high energy accelerator in rocket motor evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.; Rao, K.V.; Subbalah, C.; Uttam, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Final qualification of solid rocket motors and other related components in the Indian Space Programme is carried out using radiographic sources of different energies. The necessity to have different sources of varying energies arises from the fact that the components in the space programme vary from small fastners to gigantic solid rocket motors. In order to achieve the best radiographic quality with the optimised exposure time different X-ray sources are used. To have 100% coverage and to reduce the inspection time, a Real Time Radiography for the high energy LINAC is also planned

  1. Methodology for quantifying the technological level of energy in electric motors; Metodologia para quantificacao do nivel tecnologico energetico de motores eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopatzki, Evandro Andre; Bianchessi, Joel Marcos [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Konopatzki, Angelica da Silva Lima [Faculdade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Cascavel (FACIAP), PR (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Marim, Cesar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The market competition created in agricultural industry because of its insertion in the domestic and foreign markets, verified by the increase in GDP share of agribusiness in the Brazilian GDP, led us to have better control of costs and inputs. Thus the final value of products sold by these agribusinesses can download increasing the space in the consumer market. Electricity is one of the inputs now being studied and this paper presents a model for determining the coefficients that allow the comparison of different existing technologies for electric motors inserting an indicator of technological innovation called Technological Level Energy (NTE). The NTE was developed and tested in Storage Units of Grain (UAG) in the region of Cascavel - Parana where data were collected in six UAG, analyzed in medium weighted, had levels of different energy technology development. The main elements used to create the NTE are the number of engines installed in UAG, the lifetime of the engine considered from its manufacture and motor plate data such as income and the power factor. As a comparative process, each region can create your NTE and analyze your situation in a national context. The UAG will use the NTE to technological innovation and planning projects such as depreciation, financing and cross-examination of financial resources for the exchange of electric motors. Thus the NTE will aid in comparative indication of the timing for replacement of electric motors. Moment from which the energy demand, according to the obsolescence of equipment, are considered excessive compared to other more modern UAG. (author)

  2. Inquiry relating to safety due to modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (establishment of waste safety testing facility) in Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Application was made to the director of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) for the license relating to the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (the establishment of waste safety testing facility) from the director of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on November 30, 1978. After passing through the safety evaluation in the Nuclear Safety Bureau of STA, inquiry was conducted to the head of the Atomic Energy Safety Commission (AESC) on June 6, 1979, from the director of the STA. The head of AESC directed to conduct the safety examination to the head of the Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Specialist Committee on June 7, 1979. The content of the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material is the establishment of waste safety testing facility to study and test the safety relating to the treatment and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes due to the reprocessing of spent fuel. As for the results of the safety examination, the siting of the waste safety testing facility which is located in the Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the test plan of the glass solidification of high level radioactive liquid are presented as the outline of the study plan. The building, main equipments including six cells, the isolation room and the glove box, the storage, and the disposal facilities for gas, liquid and solid wastes are explained as the outline of the facilities. Concerning the items from the viewpoint of safety, aseismatic design, slightly vacuum operation, shielding, decay heat removal, fire protection, explosion protection, criticality management, radiation management and environmental effect were evaluated, and the safety was confirmed. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... windings, which protects them from condensation, moisture, dirt, and debris. This insulation typically... and Moisture Resistant Windings 4. Inverter-Capable Electric Motors 5. Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated... set. [cir] Definite-purpose inverter- fed electric motor. [cir] Electric motor with moisture resistant...

  4. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  5. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  6. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  7. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  8. Efficiency of three-phase asynchronous motors. Energy loss reduction by means of overdimensioning; Efficientie van driefasen asynchrone motoren. SinuMEC beperkt energieverlies door overdimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, J.; Van Dorst, C. [Hyteps, Gemert (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    The three phase asynchronous motor has been applied in various installations since time immemorial. Although the motor is more efficient at full mechanical load, this is not always applied efficiently. Can the efficiency of low load motors be improved or is this a utopia? The Sinusoidal Motor Controller (SinuMEC) improves efficiency, saves energy and lengthens the life span. [mk]. [Dutch] De driefasen asynchrone motor wordt sinds mensenheugenis in uiteenlopende installaties toegepast. Hoewel de motor met een volle mechanische belasting efficient is, wordt deze niet altijd efficient toegepast. Kan de efficiency van laag belaste motoren worden verbeterd of is dit een utopie? De Sinusoidal Motor efficiency controller (SinuMEC) verbetert de efficiency, bespaart energie en verlengt de levensduur.

  9. The Impact of an Extensive Usage of Controlled Natural Ventilation in the Residential Sector on Large-Scale Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan

    The energy situation in the world is becoming alarming. The demand of electricity continues to grow whereas the means of production remain limited. In addition, the electricity generation in the world is mostly based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Only a small share of the total...... to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the efficiency of the end-use energy consumption is also fundamental to decrease the electricity production thus to lower the emission of greenhouse gases. Thereby, the building sector is a very important target because it consumes approximately one quarter of the total annual...... be reflected in the reduction of the electricity production. The objective of the thesis is to show realistic benefits of utilizing natural ventilation at an extensive manner onto large-scale scenarios such as a national scenario by using a model of natural ventilation developed here. To do so, a building...

  10. Bio-energies usages in electricity generation utility means through a modeling approach: an application to the French case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cadre, Elodie; Lantz, Frederic; Farnoosh, Arash

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of renewable energies target and CO 2 emissions trading systems make the investment decision more difficult and add an additional flow of expenditure for electricity producers. This challenge represents a double advantage for biomass, which is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, whose use in thermal coal can now reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Whereas renewable energy sources (RES-E) are now supported by various economic tools such as feed-in tariffs and call for tender, the use of biomass is also enhanced by the CO 2 emission price. However, the price evolution of emission allowance is uncertain. Taking into account these incentives, the scope of this work is to study the penetration of green electricity production from biomass and its impacts on the future electricity generation mix for France incorporating different scenarios of emission allowance prices. While the use of the power plant is organized according to their growing running costs in the short-term approach, in the long- term approach capacity expansion planning should be determined by using several optimization methods. So, we develop a model based on a linear dynamic programming approach for supporting the electricity generation management in which renewable energies, climate and energy policies are modeled. We apply the model to the French power market under consideration of the neighboring countries. We present the results of the initialization and the electricity price and production tests. Then the expected demands of fuel over 2020 are presented for di rent CO 2 prices as an example to illustrate how the model can be put to use in different contexts. (authors)

  11. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  12. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  13. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy “NANOMET®” cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nishiyama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys “NANOMET®” exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T, low coercivity (Hc < 10 A/m and low core loss (W1.7/50 ∼ 0.4 W/kg even in a ribbon form with a thickness of up to 40 μm. By utilize excellent magnetic softness, several products such as motors or transformers for electrical appliances are now under developing by industry-academia collaboration. In particular, it is found that a brushless DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  14. Cap-proximal nucleotides via differential eIF4E binding and alternative promoter usage mediate translational response to energy stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarkin-Ben-Harush, Ana; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Debart, Françoise; Ulitsky, Igor; Dikstein, Rivka

    2017-02-08

    Transcription start-site (TSS) selection and alternative promoter (AP) usage contribute to gene expression complexity but little is known about their impact on translation. Here we performed TSS mapping of the translatome following energy stress. Assessing the contribution of cap-proximal TSS nucleotides, we found dramatic effect on translation only upon stress. As eIF4E levels were reduced, we determined its binding to capped-RNAs with different initiating nucleotides and found the lowest affinity to 5'cytidine in correlation with the translational stress-response. In addition, the number of differentially translated APs was elevated following stress. These include novel glucose starvation-induced downstream transcripts for the translation regulators eIF4A and Pabp, which are also translationally-induced despite general translational inhibition. The resultant eIF4A protein is N-terminally truncated and acts as eIF4A inhibitor. The induced Pabp isoform has shorter 5'UTR removing an auto-inhibitory element. Our findings uncovered several levels of coordination of transcription and translation responses to energy stress.

  15. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Causes Deficits in Motor Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Li, Xue; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2015-11-01

    Adult protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) often occurs in combination with neurological disorders affecting hand use and walking ability. The independent effects of PEM on motor function are not well characterized and may be obscured by these comorbidities. Our goal was to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of sensorimotor function with the onset and progression of PEM in an adult male rat model. In Expt. 1 and Expt. 2, male Sprague-Dawley rats (14-15 wk old) were assigned ad libitum access for 4 wk to normal-protein (NP) or low-protein (LP) diets containing 12.5% and 0.5% protein, respectively. Expt. 1 assessed muscle strength, balance, and skilled walking ability on days 2, 8, and 27 by bar-holding, cylinder, and horizontal ladder walking tasks, respectively. In addition to food intake and body weight, nutritional status was determined on days 3, 9, and 28 by serum acute-phase reactant and corticosterone concentrations and liver lipids. Expt. 2 addressed the effect of an LP diet on hindlimb muscle size. PEM evolved over time in rats consuming the LP diet. Total food intake decreased by 24% compared with the NP group. On day 28, body weight and serum albumin decreased by 31% and 26%, respectively, and serum α2-macroglobulin increased by 445% (P malnutrition. This model can be used in combination with disease models of sensorimotor deficits to examine the interactions between nutritional status, other treatments, and disease progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  17. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  18. Micro-structure and Air-tightness of Squeeze Casting Motor housing for New Energy Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. F.; Kang, Z. Q.; Jiang, W. F.; Wang, K. W.; Sha, D. L.; Li, M. L.; Sun, J.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the performance of automobile parts, the influence of squeeze casting process parameters on casting defects, material structure and air-tightness of aluminum alloy motor housing for new energy vehicle was studied. The results show that the density of the castings increases with the increase in pressure and mold temperature. With increase in pouring temperature, it increases first and then decreases. Pressure has the greatest influence on the density of the castings. Under a certain pressure, with moderate increase in casting temperature and mold temperature, the grain growth begins to increase; the dendrites become less, the new α - Al grains are spherical and granular, the micro-structure is uniform. Also, with increase in pressure, this effect is more pronounced, the air-tightness of castings improve. In conclusion, when the pressure is 110MPa, pouring temperature is 680° C, mold temperature is 280° C, pressure holding for 30s, and punch speed of 0.1m/s, there is no clear shrinkage in the casting, the structure is uniform, the qualified rate of air-tightness of production reaches 86%, and the performance is excellent.

  19. Methods for efficient usage of energy and materials in high temperature metallurgical processes; Methoden zur Energie- und Stoffeffizienz in der metallurgischen Hochtemperaturtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Reinhard; Stuermer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-15

    Metallurgy belongs to the most energy intensive industries where the chain of processes, from materials production to materials recycling, proceeds typically at high temperatures. The higher the process temperature, the more valuable is energy recovery. In parallel with the current trends of improving energy efficiencies, one observes an increase of energy conversion costs in conversion processes of both fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The paper is concerned with methods of improving energy efficiencies, as well as, with establishing their maximum values determined by the thermodynamics of the metallurgical processes considered. In a number of processes, for example in the blast furnace process of pig iron production, these thermodynamic limits have been reached. Then, if the prices of raw materials and/or energy (electricity produced either from fossil fuels or from renewables) are on the rise, the industry does not have any other option but increasing the final product prices which obviously affect competitiveness. (orig.)

  20. Economic viability of geothermal energy usage in comparison to renewable and conventional energy systems; Wirtschaftlichkeit geothermischer Energiegewinnung im Rahmen regenerativer und konventioneller Energiesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, G

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive lecture given by Prof. Dr. Gunter Schaumann in Bad Duerkheim, Germany, discusses the use of geothermal energy in relationship to other forms of renewable energy sources and conventional energy technologies used to provide heat, power and motive force. The characteristics of geothermal energy from various sources and examples of its possible use are discussed. In particular, the paper deals with deep geothermal energy, which can provide heating energy for district heating schemes, if necessary with the help of heat pumps. The prospects of such a use of geothermal energy in the next 50 years in various suitable regions in Germany is discussed and the associated prerequisites are listed. The present situation concerning the use of geothermal energy in Germany is examined. An example of a geothermal heating power station that also features a gas-fired combined heat and power installation, a heat pump and a peak-load boiler is given. Also, the generation of electrical power using the Organic Rankine Cycle is discussed. The factors influencing the economic viability of geothermal power stations are discussed in detail and the resulting energy prices are compared with conventional plants. The paper gives details of the calculation of investment and energy costs for heat and power generation and presents figures based on exemplary installations.

  1. Walking the Torque: Proposed Work Plan for Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Electric motor-driven system is the largest single energy end use accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. This paper sets out an ambitious but achievable target with the global work plan to improve the energy efficiency of electric motor-driven system by 10% to 15% based on the finding of working paper ''Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems (Waide et al., 2011)''. If governments commit to the proposed work plan immediately and maintain resourcing levels, this could be achieved by 2030 and it would be equivalent to reducing total global electricity use by around 5%. The proposed work plan of this paper is to align regulatory settings within a globally applicable scheme. The IEA believes this target can only be achieved through global co-operation leading to aligned national policy settings that countries can unlock the economies of scale that will result from using more energy efficient EMDS.

  2. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  3. Developing motorization and effective use of energy. Present state in Europe and the U.S. and subjects and measures in Japan; Shintensuru motorization to energy no koritsuteki riyo. Obei no genjo to Nippon no kadai to taiosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The paper clarified subjects on energy conservation in the transportation sector in Japan, and at the same time, studied measures to be introduced for effective use of energy. Recently, unit requirement of energy consumption per GNP has been increasing. One of the factors for the increase is the development of motorization arising from changes in life style and the increase in energy demand in the transportation sector in association with the changes. When considering global warming, the environmental problem, and medium- and long-term energy security, the more effective energy utilization by promoting energy conservation as well as the promotion of introducing clean petroleum substitution fuel are requested in the transportation sector where oil dependence is 98%. An analysis was made of energy demand in the transportation sector in Japan, and the result was internationally compared. An survey was also made on energy policy on the transportation sector in Europe and the U.S. For the effective energy utilization, described were enhancement of unit requirement of energy consumption (increase in fuel consumption and transport efficiency), and measures taken to widely spread petroleum substitution fuel. The paper also stated the introduction of the TDM (transportation demand management) method as a means of making travel conditions better. 47 refs., 38 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Effects of economies of scale and experience on the costs of energy-efficient technologies. Case study of electric motors in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardot, D.; Eichhammer, W.; Fleiter, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing energy efficiency is discussed as an effective way to protect the climate, even though this is frequently associated with additional (investment) costs when compared to standard technologies. However, the investment costs of emerging energy-efficient technologies can be reduced by economies of scale and experience curve effects. This also brings about higher market penetration by lowering market barriers. Experience curves have already been analyzed in detail for renewable energy technologies, but are not as well documented for energy-efficient technologies despite their significance for energy and climate policy decisions. This work provides empirical evidence for effects of economies of scale and experience on the costs of energy-efficient electric motors. We apply a new methodology to the estimation of learning effects that is particularly promising for energy-efficient technologies where the very low data availability did not allow calculations of learning rates so far. Energy-efficient electric motors are a highly relevant energy technology that is responsible for about 55% of German electricity consumption. The analysis consists of three main steps. First, the calculation of composite price indices based on gross value added statistics for Germany which show the changes in cost components of electric motors over the period 1995 to 2006; second, an estimation of the corresponding learning rate which is, in a third step, compared with learning rates observed for other energy-efficient technologies in a literature review. Due to restrictions of data availability, it was not possible to calculate a learning rate for the differential costs of energy-efficient motors compared to standard motors. Still, we estimated a learning rate of 9% for 'Eff2' motors in a period when they penetrated the market and replaced the less efficient 'Eff3' motors. Furthermore, we showed the contribution of different effects to these cost reductions, like

  5. Energy efficiency in a drive system of induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em um sistema de acionamento de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Kawaphara, Mario Kiyoshi; Apolonio, Roberto; Annunciacao, Luiz de; Silva, Thiago Vieira da; Sao Jose, Bernardo Dias [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Industrial consumers are interested in reducing their monthly expenditure on electricity. Tackling the waste of electrical energy means improving the way you use it, without giving up the comfort and the advantages it provides. Means to reduce consumption, but without compromising safety, quality of product or process or production capacity. In this context, this study presents the results obtained by measurements in a drive system for elevator type pitchers in the laboratory by conventional means and by electronic devices, which simulates a system of operation of a grain transportation industry. We monitored voltages, currents, active power, active power consumption of the system triggered by the conventional method by starting directly and, through microprocessor controls with frequency converter and analyzed the power efficiency obtained with the two processes drive. This study aims at a possible reduction in electricity consumption for active power and active power demand for the automated activation with the frequency inverter. In a broader analysis, conservation of power ends up benefiting society in general, because its effects are felt in different ways. Encourage the reduction or even elimination of new investment to build power plants and power grids, reduce prices of products and services, and ensure availability of electricity supply and service to new consumers. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel tri-generation system based on compressed air energy storage and pneumatic motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Based on CAES (compressed air energy storage) and PM (pneumatic motor), a novel tri-generation system (heat energy, mechanical energy and cooling power) is proposed in this paper. Both the cheap electricity generated at night and the excess power from undelivered renewable energy due to instability, can be stored as compressed air and hot water by the proposed system. When energy is in great demand, the compressed air stored in this system is released to drive PM to generate mechanical power. The discharged air from PM can be further utilized as valuable cooling power. Compared to conventional CAES systems, the biggest characteristic of the proposed system is that the discharged air usually abandoned is used as cooling power. In order to study the performances of this system, a thermodynamic analysis and an experimental investigation are carried out. The thermodynamic model is validated by the experimental data. Using the validated thermodynamic model, the mechanical energy output, cooling capacity and temperature of discharged air, as well as the efficiency of the system are analyzed. The theoretical analysis indicates that the additional application of discharged air can improve total energy efficiency by 20–30%. Therefore, this system is very worthy of consideration and being popularized. - Highlights: • The proposed system can provide mechanical energy, heat energy and cooling power. • The exhaust air of pneumatic motor is used as cooling power instead of abandoned. • A thermodynamic model of the proposed system is constructed and validated. • The effects of several parameters on system performance are examined. • The proposed system can improve total energy efficiency of CAES system by 20–30%.

  7. Considerations for the selection of an applicable energy efficiency test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia: Lessons for other developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti, P.A.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Electric motors are a major energy-consuming appliance in the industrial sector. According to a survey, electric motors account for more than 70% of the total growth from 1991 to 2004 in electricity consumption in this sector in Malaysia. To reduce electricity consumption, Malaysia should consider resetting the minimum energy efficiency standards for electric motors sometime in the coming year. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is the creation of a procedure for testing and rating equipment. An energy test procedure is the technical foundation for all energy efficiency standards, energy labels and other related programs. The test conditions in the test procedure must represent the conditions of the country. This paper presents the process for the selection of an energy test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia based on the country's conditions and requirements. The adoption of test procedures for electric motors internationally by several countries is also discussed in this paper. Even though the paper only discusses the test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia, the methods can be directly applied in other countries without major modifications.

  8. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Chen, Kuo-Huey [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  9. Deletion of Gpr55 Results in Subtle Effects on Energy Metabolism, Motor Activity and Thermal Pain Sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid molecules and has been speculated to play a modulatory role in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in metabolically perturbed states. We therefore generated male mice deficient in the gene coding for the cannabinoid/lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI receptor Gpr55 and characterized them under normal dietary conditions as well as during high energy dense diet feeding followed by challenge with the CB1 receptor antagonist/GPR55 agonist rimonabant. Gpr55 deficient male mice (Gpr55 KO were phenotypically indistinguishable from their wild type (WT siblings for the most part. However, Gpr55 KO animals displayed an intriguing nocturnal pattern of motor activity and energy expenditure (EE. During the initial 6 hours of the night, motor activity was significantly elevated without any significant effect observed in EE. Interestingly, during the last 6 hours of the night motor activity was similar but EE was significantly decreased in the Gpr55 KO mice. No significant difference in motor activity was detected during daytime, but EE was lower in the Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. The aforementioned patterns were not associated with alterations in energy intake, daytime core body temperature, body weight (BW or composition, although a non-significant tendency to increased adiposity was seen in Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. Detailed analyses of daytime activity in the Open Field paradigm unveiled lower horizontal activity and rearing time for the Gpr55 KO mice. Moreover, the Gpr55 KO mice displayed significantly faster reaction time in the tail flick test, indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. The BW-decreasing effect of rimonabant in mice on long-term cafeteria diet did not differ between Gpr55 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, Gpr55 deficiency is associated with subtle effects on diurnal/nocturnal EE and motor activity behaviours but does not

  10. DEFINITION OF OUTPUT ENERGY PARAMETERS OF A VEHICLE WITH AIR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was made trailer-speed motion analysis of minibus GAZ-2217 with air motor instead of the internal combustion engine and recommendations allowing to determine the output power of the power plant parameters for vehicle movement at low speed in urban cycle.

  11. The Effects of the Introduction of Prepayment Meters on the Energy Usage Behaviour of Different Housing Consumer Groups in Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on research conducted in Kitwe, Zambia on the effects of the introduction of prepayment meters on the energy usage behaviour of domestic consumers in the Low, Medium and High Income categories. The research was motivated by the fact that there is very little information that exists on the subject not just in Zambia but world-wide. The paper has identified some key issue vis-a-viz: behavioral change as a result of the introduction of the prepayment meters, debt recovery and reduction of pilferage, disconnection of consumers and alternative energy sources and feedback. The data was collected in Kwacha (Low Income, Ndeke (Medium Income and Parklands (High Income. This was both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected through structured questionnaires of which 151 were collected in total as follows: 59 (Kwacha; 50 (Ndeke and 42 (Parklands. The qualitative data was collected through detailed interviews conducted with four households in each of the three household categories.The major findings are that there is general satisfaction from the households on the introduction of the prepayment meters citing control over expenditure and no disputes on bills as the main reasons. Many of the households also reported an improvement in their budgeting for electricity and there seems to have been a drop in the numbers of households with historical debt. Many households in Ndeke and Kwacha reported spending less on electricity after the introduction of the prepayment meters which has been attributed to the fact that they are no longer on flat tariffs and also they are now able to conserve electricity as they are more conscious about expenditure on the same. Many households in Ndeke and Kwacha also reported being disconnected because they run out of credit due to lack of money. Rationing was also reported to be actively being used by households in Ndeke and Kwacha as a way of extending their credit in times when they

  12. A local initiative for energy efficiency improvements in motor driven systems in public and private companies - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, G. [Behoerde fuer Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In the free and hanseatic town Hamburg reduction potentials in public buildings are developed systematically in the context of the energy management by standardised efficiency programs. The City has had special means ready for financing energy saving measures for many years, because the investments amortize themselves by the operation cost reduction. Examples of efficient electrical motor systems in public buildings: ventilation facilities and air conditioning, heating pumps energy saving program. The city of Hamburg also offers a promotional program ''enterprises for resource protection'' for private investors from the Hamburg economy. With this program voluntary investment measures are initiated in private enterprises by financial subsidies to conserving resources. Examples of efficient electrical motor driven systems in enterprises: mill: speed controlled exhauster drives, spice mill: speed controlled mill drives, printer: efficient ventilation techniques at a paper exhaust system, wastewater treatment: adjustable fans for pressure aerators, hazardous waste incineration plant: optimisation of the SO{sub 2}-gas scrubbing system by mass flow controlled pumps. With these programs efforts to climate protection can be realised more economically. (orig.)

  13. Differences in smartphone usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustarini, Mattia; Scipioni, Marcello Paolo; Fanourakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the users’ intimacy to investigate the differences in smartphone usage, considering the user’s location and number and kind of people physically around the user. With a first user study we (1) validate the intimacy concept, (2) evaluate its correlation to smartphone usage features and ...

  14. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  15. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  16. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  17. Electric Motors Everywhere: Most Forms of Energy Go through Some Conversion Process to Do Useful Work for Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses electric motors and the many ways in which they are used. Selecting the most appropriate miniature DC electric motor wisely will contribute toward success and satisfaction in designing and building motorized projects and activities. Typical parts suppliers stock a variety of miniature DC motors and provide sufficient…

  18. Cost benefit analysis of energy conservation measures on the motor car traffic sector. Nutzen-Kosten-Analyse fuer Energiesparmassnahmen auf dem Sektor Kraftwagenverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner-Newton, I.; Lenz, H.P.; Vecernik, P.; Biberschick, D.; Wailzer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The book consists of 6 chapters and an introduction. The following subjects are discussed: Chapter 2: Search for relevant publications. Chapter 3: Austria's energy situation and its influence on individual motor car traffic. Chapter 4: Ways to reduce fuel consumption. Chapter 5: Cost benefit analyses. Chapter 6: Evaluation of the possible energy conservation measures.

  19. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  20. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James William; Khajeh-Hosseini, Ali; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incen...

  1. Heat management in motor cars VIII. Energy management; Waermemanagement des Kraftfahrzeugs VIII. Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Peter (ed.) [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Fahrzeugtechnik

    2012-11-01

    The heat management and energy management play a key role in the intelligent organization of the growing energy demand while simultaneously energy supply in the vehicle decreases. In the book under consideration, experts from industry and research report on new methods and current developments. The book guarantees an interesting insight into solutions of heat management. Improved and novel components as well as optimization strategies are presented. Finally, the book reports on calculation methods and calculation applications.

  2. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs. This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.

  3. Contra-rotating homopolar motor-generator for energy storage and return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for receiving electrical energy in amounts of the order of hundreds of megajoules, converting the electrical energy to mechanical energy for storage, and delivering the stored energy as electrical energy in times of the order of a second. It consists of a sequence of stacked electrically conducting cylindrical shells having a common axis. The conducting shells are free to rotate and are separated by stationary insulating cylindrical shells. Adjacent conducting shells are connected electrically by brushes at the edges and a radial magnetic field is caused to pass through the conductors. The apparatus permits the reversal in a plasma heating coil of electric currents of amplitudes up to 100,000 amperes in a time of the order of a second

  4. Frequency converters increase the energy efficiency of electric motors in refrigerators; Frequenzumrichter steigern die Energieeffizienz von Elektromotoren in Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Alexander [Ziehl-Abegg AG Produktmanagement System- und Regeltechnik, Kuenzelsau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Refrigerators have vast potential for energy conservation. Blowers mounted on condensers and recirculation coolers are commonly controlled via phase angle control. It is shown how modern frequency converters can improve the energy balance of existing systems. The advantages of a combination of frequency converter and sinus filter are explained by the example of the Fcontrol frequency converter, which has an integrated all-phase sinus filter. Retrofitting is easy, and the payback period will be short. An example is presented to show that more than 50 % of the energy cost can be saved this way. In addition to blower control, also the compressor motor can be controlled by frequency converters, with advantages for the whole refrigerating system. The paper shows how retrofitting of modern frequency converters will reduce the energy cost and operating cost of existing refrigeration systems. [German] Kaelteanlagen, insbesondere bestehende Kaelteanlagen, bieten grosses Potenzial Energie einzusparen. Ventilatoren, die auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern montiert sind, werden ueberwiegend mit Regelgeraeten betrieben, die die Drehzahl ueber die Spannung variieren (Phasenanschnittregelung). Es wird aufgezeigt, dass durch moderne Frequenzumrichter auf einfache Art und Weise bestehende Anlagen energetisch verbessert werden koennen. Am Beispiel des Frequenzumrichters Fcontrol, der einen allpolig wirksamen Sinusfilter integriert hat, werden die Vorteile durch die Kombination von Frequenzumrichter und Sinusfilter erklaert. Die nachtraegliche Installation in bestehende Anlagen ist einfach. Die Investition in eine solche Umruestung rechnet sich in der Regel sehr schnell. Beispielhaft wird gezeigt, dass beim Ersetzen der Phasenanschnittregelung gegen einen Frequenzumrichter mehr als 50 % der Energiekosten an den Ventilatoren eingespart werden koennen. Neben der energiesparenden Regelung der Ventilatoren auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern, kann auch der Verdichtermotor durch

  5. Design and testing of a coaxial linear magnetic spring with integral linear motor. [for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a coaxial linear magnetic spring which incorporates a linear motor to control axial motion and overcome system damping is presented, and the results of static and dynamic tests are reported. The system has nominal stiffness 25,000 N/m and is designed to oscillate a 900-g component over a 4.6-mm stroke in a Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerator being developed for long-service (5-10-yr) space applications (Stolfi et al., 1983). Mosaics of 10 radially magnetized high-coercivity SmCO5 segments enclosed in Ti cans are employed, and the device is found to have quality factor 70-100, corresponding to energy-storage efficiency 91-94 percent. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs are provided.

  6. Methods for measurements of energy and emissions related to motor vehicles: Identification of needs for improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl-Erik Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Technology; Karlsson, Hua L. [MTC AB, Haninge (Sweden); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The official methods in use today for emission testing of vehicles and engines were primarily developed for the characterisation of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles fuelled with petrol or diesel oil. The setting of new lower emission standards will make it difficult to obtain sufficient accuracy, using the present systems, for the quantification of exhaust emissions in the future. Development of new emission control technology and improved fuels has made it possible to meet these more stringent standards. Consequently new emission standards will lead to a need for new and improved methodologies and new instrumentation for the characterisation of the emissions from vehicles/engines/fuels. The present report comprises a discussion and comments on questions related to improved methods for emission measurements. The report is based on a study of the literature, site visits to laboratories and research institutes etc in the US and a meeting with representatives of the EU Commission, carried out during the spring of 2001. The conclusions and recommendations in the pre-study report are summarised in sub titles: General, regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, greenhouse gases and fuel consumption. Since the questions and problems discussed have an international connection they should be discussed in an international forum. However, before such discussions can be organised the problems related to measurement of emissions and fuel consumption must be more extensively studied than in this pre-study.

  7. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  8. HTS flywheel energy storage system with rotor shaft stabilized by feed-back control of armature currents of motor-generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Utsunomiya, A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an HTS bulk bearing flywheel energy system (FWES) with rotor shaft stabilization system using feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator. In the proposed system the rotor shift has a pivot bearing at one end of the shaft and an HTS bulk bearing (SMB) at the other end. The fluctuation of the rotor shaft with SMB is damped by feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator sensing the position of the rotor shaft. The method has merits that the fluctuations are damped without active control magnet bearings and extra devices which may deteriorate the energy storage efficiency and need additional costs. The principle of the method was demonstrated by an experiment using a model permanent magnet motor

  9. HTS flywheel energy storage system with rotor shaft stabilized by feed-back control of armature currents of motor-generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Utsunomiya, A.

    2007-10-01

    We propose an HTS bulk bearing flywheel energy system (FWES) with rotor shaft stabilization system using feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator. In the proposed system the rotor shift has a pivot bearing at one end of the shaft and an HTS bulk bearing (SMB) at the other end. The fluctuation of the rotor shaft with SMB is damped by feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator sensing the position of the rotor shaft. The method has merits that the fluctuations are damped without active control magnet bearings and extra devices which may deteriorate the energy storage efficiency and need additional costs. The principle of the method was demonstrated by an experiment using a model permanent magnet motor.

  10. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  11. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  12. 77 FR 43015 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... following seven factors: 1. The economic impact of the standard on manufacturers and customers of equipment... evaluating. This relationship serves as the basis for cost-benefit calculations for individual customers... Period Analyses E. National Impact Analysis IV. Public Participation I. Statutory Authority The Energy...

  13. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  14. Effect on energy use and greenhouse micro climate through fan motor control by variable frequency drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitel, Meir; Zhao Yun; Barak, Moti; Bar-lev, Eli; Shmuel, David

    2004-01-01

    A comparison was conducted between ON-OFF and variable frequency drive (VFD) systems to control greenhouse ventilation fans. The study aimed to determine the effect of each system on the energy consumption and resulting greenhouse micro climate. The experiments were conducted in a commercial size greenhouse in which pepper was grown. To check the performance of the fan that was controlled by a VFD system, it was installed in a test facility and operated under several rotation speeds. At each speed of rotation, the static pressure on the fan was changed and parameters, such as electricity consumption and air flow rate, were measured. Reducing the fan speed with the VFD system resulted in reductions in the air flow rate through the greenhouse and energy consumption, the latter being much more significant. The study showed that VFD control can reduce electricity consumption compared with ON-OFF operation by an amount that depends on the weather. In the present study, the average energy consumption with the VFD control system over a period of one month, was about 0.64 of that with an ON-OFF system. The average greenhouse daily air temperatures and humidity ratios obtained with each control system between 0700 and 1800 were nearly equal during that month. The results obtained in the greenhouse further show that the VFD system has a greater potential than the ON-OFF to reduce the range of amplitude variations in the air temperature and humidity ratio within the greenhouse

  15. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse.

  16. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  17. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  18. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  19. A study on the integration of contactless energy transfer in the end teeth of a PM synchronous linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, D.C.J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Jansen, J.W.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Linear motors find their utilization in an increasing number of industrial applications. Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs) are favorable in many applications due to their servo characteristics, robustness, and high force density. The major disadvantage of moving coil type PMLSMs is

  20. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  1. Mobility - the motor of energy consumption. Swiss National Committee in the World Energy Council: Report on the 16th world energy congress in Tokyo in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Two events at the 16th World Energy Congress focussed on the subject of mobility, which is a determining factor of worldwide mineral oil consumption. The study 'Global transport sector energy demand towards 2020', written by a working group led by the Norwegian Statoil company, served as a basis for the debates. (orig.) [de

  2. Definition of Static Voltage Characteristics of the Motor Load for the Purpose of Increase in Energy Efficiency of Coal Mines of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepsha, Fedor; Efremenko, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    The task of determining the static load characteristics is one of the most important tasks, the solution of which is necessary for the correct development of measures to increase the energy efficiency of the Kuzbass coal mines. At present, the influence of electric receivers on the level of consumption of active and reactive power is not taken into account, therefore, the proposed measures to increase the energy efficiency are not optimal. The article analyzes the L-shaped and T-shaped circuit for the replacement of an asynchronous motor (AM), according to the results of which it is determined that the T-shaped replacement scheme is the most accurate for determination of static load characteristics. The authors proposed and implemented in the MATLAB Simulink environment an algorithm for determining the static voltage characteristics of the motor load.

  3. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 2. enl. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [Berkeley Univ., CA (United States)]|[Paris Univ. (France)]|[Pisa Univ. (Italy)]|[Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[Westsaechsischen Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The implementation possibilities of future drive concepts - from hybrid systems comprising an electric motor and an internal combustion engine to fuel cells to alternative fuels like hydrogen or alcohol - will depend largely on quality criteria, e.g. power density, rotary momentum, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption, emissions of chemical substances, and noise. The boundary criteria for the introduction of realizeable concepts of alternative drives for motor cars will be defined by the availability and storability of the envisaged fuels, technical complexity, cost, safety, infrastructure and service. The book presents and analyzes the processes, drives and energy sources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for motor cars in accordance with the aforementioned criteria. Knowledge about these facts is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The 2nd edition describes many new developments in car propulsion systems as well as their combinations, new energy sources, energy converters and energy stores. All contents and literature reflect the latest state of science and technology. (orig.) [German] Ueber die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von Hybridsystemen Elektro-/Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden fundierte Kriterien der Qualitaet eines Antriebs entscheiden. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind dafuer wichtige Merkmale zur Qualitaetsbeurteilung. Die Verfuegbarkeit und die Speicherfaehigkeit vorgesehener Energietraeger, die technische Komplexitaet, Kosten, Sicherheit, Infrastruktur und Service werden die Randbedingungen fuer die Einfuehrung realisierbarer Konzepte alternativer Antriebe fuer Automobile stellen. Die Uebersicht und die Analyse der Prozesse, Antriebsmaschinen und Energietraeger, die

  4. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  5. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G

    1996-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  6. Energy Calibration of a Silicon-Strip Detector for Photon-Counting Spectral CT by Direct Usage of the X-ray Tube Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2015-02-01

    The variation among energy thresholds in a multibin detector for photon-counting spectral CT can lead to ring artefacts in the reconstructed images. Calibration of the energy thresholds can be used to achieve homogeneous threshold settings or to develop compensation methods to reduce the artefacts. We have developed an energy-calibration method for the different comparator thresholds employed in a photon-counting silicon-strip detector. In our case, this corresponds to specifying the linear relation between the threshold positions in units of mV and the actual deposited photon energies in units of keV. This relation is determined by gain and offset values that differ for different detector channels due to variations in the manufacturing process. Typically, the calibration is accomplished by correlating the peak positions of obtained pulse-height spectra to known photon energies, e.g. with the aid of mono-energetic x rays from synchrotron radiation, radioactive isotopes or fluorescence materials. Instead of mono-energetic x rays, the calibration method presented in this paper makes use of a broad x-ray spectrum provided by commercial x-ray tubes. Gain and offset as the calibration parameters are obtained by a regression analysis that adjusts a simulated spectrum of deposited energies to a measured pulse-height spectrum. Besides the basic photon interactions such as Rayleigh scattering, Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption, the simulation takes into account the effect of pulse pileup, charge sharing and the electronic noise of the detector channels. We verify the method for different detector channels with the aid of a table-top setup, where we find the uncertainty of the keV-value of a calibrated threshold to be between 0.1 and 0.2 keV.

  7. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid samples from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. Estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitter using the imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    We want to establish a system of volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid wastes from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. We have been performing experiments using an experimental incineration system to examine the distribution of radionuclides during incineration and to collect basic data. To reproduce the realistic conditions of incineration of low-level radioactive wastes in an experimental system, we adopted new incineration methods in this study. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) were set up in a mesh container of stainless steel and incinerated at high temperature (over 800 degC) generated by two sets of high calorie gas burners. Low energy β-emitters 35 S, 45 Ca, 33 P, and a high energy β-emitter 32 P were used for the experiment. Their translocation percentages in exhaust air and dust were estimated using the Imaging Plate. Distribution of radionuclides during the incineration was similar to that estimated by conventional methods by our study or to that reported in incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste. We concluded that the use of the Imaging Plates is a simple and reliable method for estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitters in incineration gas and ash. (author)

  9. High efficiency motor selection handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  10. Effect of low-energy extracorporeal shock wave on vascular regeneration after spinal cord injury and the recovery of motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yuquan; Jiang, Zheng; Han, Lizhang

    2016-01-01

    Latest studies show that low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) can upregulate levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF can ease nervous tissue harm after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aims to explore whether low-energy ESWT can promote expression of VEGF, protect nervous tissue after SCI, and improve motor function. Ninety adult female rats were divided into the following groups: Group A (simple laminectomy), Group B (laminectomy and low-energy ESWT), Group C (spinal cord injury), and Group D (spinal cord injury and low-energy ESWT). Impinger was used to cause thoracic spinal cord injury. Low-energy ESWT was applied as treatment after injury three times a week, for 3 weeks. After SCI, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale was used to evaluate motor function over a period of 42 days at different time points. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate nerve tissue injury. Neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) staining was also used to evaluate loss of neurons. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of VEGF and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1). Immunostaining was used to evaluate VEGF protein expression level in myeloid tissue. BBB scores of Groups A and B showed no significant result related to dyskinesia. HE and NeuN staining indicated that only using low-energy ESWT could not cause damage of nervous tissue in Group B. Recovery of motor function at 7, 35, and 42 days after SCI in Group D was better than that in Group C (Pfunction. It can be regarded as one mode of clinical routine adjunctive therapy for spinal injury.

  11. Rivet usage at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radziej, Markus; Hebbeker, Thomas; Sonnenschein, Lars [III. Phys. Inst. A, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In this talk an overview of Rivet and its usage at the CMS experiment is presented. Rivet stands for ''Robust Independent Validation of Experiment and Theory'' and is used for optimizing and validating Monte Carlo event generators. By using the results of published analyses, distributions of the simulation can be compared to experimental measurements (corrected for detector effects). This gives insight into the agreement on the particle-level. Starting off with an introduction to the Rivet environment, the purpose of this tool in modern particle physics is explained. Before taking a closer look at the analysis structure, the software necessary to get comparisons is outlined. Analysis implementations are discussed using code examples, showcasing the powerful framework that Rivet provides. A few selected final distributions displaying both Monte Carlo generated events and recorded data are presented, showing the potential to perform particle-level comparisons.

  12. Motores sincrónicos de reluctancia controlados con variadores de frecuencia: una aplicación para ahorrar energía ;Synchronous reluctance motors controlled by variable frequency converters: an application to save energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Rafael Viego Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre aplicaciones de los motores sincrónicos de reluctancia (MSR controlados por accionamientos de frecuencia variable (AFV, que posibilitan el ahorro de energía. Se realizó una comparación entre las características constructivas de los MSR y los motores asincrónicos de jaula (MA, evaluando las ventajas y limitaciones que aquellos presentan. Una ventaja notable del MSR es que las pérdidas en el rotor se eliminan prácticamente. Una comparación experimental evidenció que para igual momento, el MSR presenta una mayor eficiencia; y que para igual incremento de temperatura, con las mismas dimensiones IEC, se logra más potencia. Por comparaciones entre datos de un fabricante, se demostró las ventajas de utilizar, con el mismo AFV y para cargas centrífugas, un MSR de mayor clase de eficiencia que la de un MA. Un análisis económico con técnicas de descuento, evidenció una atractiva recuperación de la inversión cuando se opera todo el año. A study on applications of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM controlled by variable frequency drives (VFD for energy saving is presented. A comparison between the basic construction elements of the SynRM and the squirrel cage induction motor (IM is carried out, evaluating advantages and disadvantages. A nearly complete elimination of rotor losses is a significant asset of the SynRM. An experimental comparison showed that at the same torque, the SynRM presents a higher efficiency than the IM; and that at the same temperature rise, more power is obtained with the same IEC frame for both motor types. Comparing data from a manufacturer, the advantages of using, with the same VFD and for centrifugal loads, a higher efficiency class SynRM than that of a lower efficiency IM was demonstrated. An economical study using discount techniques, made evident an attractive pay back when operating all year around.

  13. [Smartphone usage among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmendi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Among our technological gadgets smartphones play the most important role, new generation devices offer other functions beyond calling (internet availability, computer games, music player, camera functions etc.) In everydays can be experienced that youth spend more and more time with their smartphones and despite the actuality of this issue there are no studies on the excessive smartphone usage in Hungary and we can find only a few international studies. Our goal is to examine smartphone usage in primary and secondary schools in Hajdu-Bihar county, Hungary and its relationship with personality traits. Our sample consist of 263 youth from primary and secondary schools. We measured the characteristics of smartphone using and attitudes with a Mobilephone Using Questionnare. Personality traits are measured with Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy Scale. The Child Behavior Checklist gives information about peer relationships, mental state and emotions. Average phone using time is 4,48 hours per day regarding the whole sample. This mean for boys is 3,40 hour for girls 5,39 hour. Average phone using time is higher at 16 (6,35 hour per day). The most frequent used applications are calling and visiting community sites. There is no connection between phone using and grades. The smartphone using time per day shows a significant positive relationship with Impulsivity, Anxiety and Depression, Attention deficits and Somatic problems within 17-19 ages. One of the explanation of excessive smartphone using may be the frequent visiting of community sites. Mobile phones in this case raise the availability of addictive object (community site) therefore contribute to the development of community site addiction. The connection with impulsivity, somatic problems and attention deficits refer to the anxiety reducing role of smartphones within 17-19 ages.

  14. The role of knowledge about user behaviour in demand response management of domestic hot water usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Amin; Klein, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Load balancing is an important topic in smart grid systems. Dynamic pricing is a common approach to achieve a better balance between renewable energy production and energy usage. This assumes that individual households adapt their energy usage patterns based on energy prices. However, the actual

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. Development of the linear motor system for realization of energy conservation and commercialization; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shoeneka to jitsuyoka wo jitsugensuru linear motor system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the drive system of machine tools widely used as production facilities for automobiles, home electric appliances, etc., the R and D were made of a high efficiency linear motor system of which attention was paid to energy rationalization and environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the study of the development of the system, studies were made not only on the lowering of heating, cost reduction and heightening of speed, but on the mechanism and control by which machine natural vibration can relatively be cut off, technology of damping for cutting vibration, technology to meet the deformation, etc. by cutting loads, sliding loads, and acceleration of accelerating/decelerating, technology to reduce the machine weight, etc. In the study of the basic technology of linear motor, the finite element method analysis was conducted on the typical linear motor. Concerning the control system, specs were studied which can deal with natural vibration and cutting vibration of the machine system. As to the development of the steel scale type linear encoder, scale sample for evaluation of basic characteristics was designed/trially manufactured. In the study of the detection optical system, the design/trial manufacture of photodiode array were made. (NEDO)

  16. Seatbelt usage: is there an association with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, B; King, D M; Jacobson, S H

    2014-09-01

    Wearing a seatbelt can prevent motor vehicle crash deaths. While primary seatbelt laws are designed to encourage vehicle passengers to wear seatbelts by allowing law enforcement officers to issue tickets when passengers do not wear seatbelts, discomfort may discourage obese individuals from wearing a seatbelt. The objective of this study is to assess the association between state-level obesity and seatbelt usage rates in the US, and to examine the possible role played by seatbelt laws in these associations. The strength of the association between obesity rates, seatbelt usage, and primary seatbelt laws at the state level is investigated using data from 2006 to 2011. Linear regression analysis is employed. This model estimates that increasing the obesity rate by 1% in a state where a primary seatbelt law (by which law enforcement officers can issue a ticket when seatbelts are not worn) is in effect is associated with a 0.06% decrease in seatbelt usage. However the same percentage of increase in the obesity rate in a state where no primary seatbelt law is in effect is associated with a 0.55% decrease in seatbelt usage. The magnitude of the statistical association between state obesity rates and state-level seatbelt usage is related to the existence of a primary seatbelt law, such that obesity has less impact on seatbelt usage in states where primary seatbelt laws are in effect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A chinese puzzle for the chinese government - how is it possible to increase the consumption of motor vehicles while at the same time discouraging energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese automotive market has enjoyed a major upturn over the last few years. This breathtaking growth in the number of motor vehicles brings with it numerous challenges in the energy and climatic fields. In this article, we will examine the various dynamics of the Chinese automotive market since the year 2000. We will seek to present the institutional framework developed by the Chinese authorities for the automotive sector in addition to explaining changes in the marketplace. Finally, we will look at energy questions raised as a result of the rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles in China. Although the Chinese authorities wish to increase the number of vehicles in circulation, at the same time they also wish to limit the energy consumption of the road transport sector. The increased prevalence of diesel engines among the Chinese vehicle fleet has already significantly reduced the energy intensity of Chinese vehicles, but although the central government is demanding low consumption vehicles, obstacles still remain such as the quality of fuel. Finally, we propose a range of forward-looking data or this sector, covering the period up to 2010. (author)

  18. The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Gökhan Yetgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.

  19. Contract Report for Usage Inspection of KN-12 Transport Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K

    2007-03-15

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse.

  20. Usage Inspection of KN-12 Spent Fuel Transport Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K

    2007-03-15

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse.

  1. Contract Report for Usage Inspection of KN-12 Transport Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K.

    2007-03-01

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse

  2. Usage Inspection of KN-12 Spent Fuel Transport Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K.

    2007-03-01

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse

  3. Sparing carbapenem usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Peter R

    2017-09-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report. Older agents remain active against some of the pathogens, although expectations of broad-spectrum cover for empirical treatment have risen. Education, expert advice on treatment and antimicrobial stewardship can produce significant reductions in use. More agents may need to be introduced onto the antibiotic formulary of the hospital, despite the poor quality of scientific studies in some cases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Driving Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motors with Visible Light by Intra- And Intermolecular Energy Transfer from Palladium Porphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Arjen; Hou, Lili; Pollard, Michael M.; Wesenhagen, Philana V.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving molecular rotary motors using visible light (530-550 nm) instead of UV light was achieved using palladium tetraphenylporphyrin as a triplet sensitizer. Visible light driven rotation was confirmed by UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism and H-1 NMR spectroscopy and the rotation was confirmed

  5. Energy Efficiency of Induction Motors Running Off Frequency Converters with Pulse-Width Voltage Modulation{sup 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvetsov, N. K., E-mail: elmash@em.ispu.ru [V. I. Lenin Ivanovo State Power University (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The results of calculations of the increase in losses in an induction motor with frequency control and different forms of the supply voltage are presented. The calculations were performed by an analytic method based on harmonic analysis of the supply voltage as well as numerical calculation of the electromagnetic processes by the finite-element method.

  6. Domestic Electricity Usage Regulation Using µCHP Appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    Energy saving is a hot topic. People are getting more and more aware of their energy usage because of continuously rising energy prices and awareness of the greenhouse problem. One of the most important causes of the greenhouse effect is the massive emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is produced

  7. Assessment of potential energy savings following the replacement of gear-motor-driven systems by frequency-converter-fed direct drives; Energiesparpotential bei Ersatz von Getriebemotoren durch FU-Antriebe. Potentialanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.; Riesen, H. J.

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the energy saving potential that can be achieved by replacing gear motor driven systems by frequency converter fed direct drives. Estimates have shown that due to the high percentage of gear motor installations, which amounts to approximately 10% of all motor driven systems, a significant amount of energy could be saved. However, several barriers impose major restrictions to the broad application of such actions: With the exception of worm gears that reach about 20% of all gear drives, todays' gears already offer a high efficiency of 97-98%. Gear motors are often included in OEM integrated solutions. Many processes require complex adaptations that can complicate replacements or make it even impractical. For low speed or high torque requirements, gear motors may have a dominant advantage concerning the compactness. Our investigations have shown, that in spite of such barriers the replacement of gear motors by direct motors can sum up to a significant amount of energy savings in many cases. Looking at the worm gear systems and the restricted speed and torque ranges that are covered by the direct drives from several suppliers we assume a total saving potential of about 78 GWh per year for Switzerland. (author)

  8. Study 3: Energy, alimentation and competition for soils use: problematic and safety principles; Etude 3: energie, alimentation et concurrence d'usage des sols: problematique et principes de prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monot, C. [Solagral (France)

    2000-07-01

    For long-dated, the development of energies resulting from the biomass should aggravate the risks of soils use competition. On one hand the energy crops increase on fertile soils will limit the surfaces devoted to the alimentation and on the other hand intensive energy crops will risk to degrade the soils (erosion, pollution). The energy policies have to preserve from now onwards, the fossil energies resources, to limit the greenhouse effect and the nuclear wastes proliferation, but also to manage the soils resources to produce the bio-energies. This study tries to answer the following questions: Is there enough soils to produce the bio-energies in substitution to the fossil energies and food the humanity? Which is the policy that will participate to a good soils management, in order to preserve the alimentary potential? (A.L.B.)

  9. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  10. Analisa Perbandingan Efisiensi Motor Dc Kompon Pendek Dengan Motor Dc Kompon Panjang Akibat Penambahan Kutub

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Fuad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Motor listrik merupakan perangkat elekromagnetis yang mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi mekanik. Motor DC memerlukan tegangan searah pada kumparan medan untuk diubah menjadi energi mekanik. Energi mekanik ini digunakan sebagai penggerak peralatan listrik seperti pompa,penggerak kipas angin, lift dan lain-lain. Karena penggunaannya yang cukup luas maka kinerjanya harus baik. Kinerja suatu motor DC dikatakan baik jika efisiensi motor tersebut tinggi. Hal itu dapat dicapai dengan mengatur b...

  11. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  12. Monitoring transient elastic energy storage within the rotary motors of single FoF1-ATP synthase by DCO-ALEX FRET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G.; Zarrabi, Nawid; Börsch, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase provides the 'chemical energy currency' adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for living cells. Catalysis is driven by mechanochemical coupling of subunit rotation within the enzyme with conformational changes in the three ATP binding sites. Proton translocation through the membrane-bound Fo part of ATP synthase powers a 10-step rotary motion of the ring of c subunits. This rotation is transmitted to the γ and ɛ subunits of the F1 part. Because γ and ɛ subunits rotate in 120° steps, we aim to unravel this symmetry mismatch by real time monitoring subunit rotation using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). One fluorophore is attached specifically to the F1 motor, another one to the Fo motor of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme. Photophysical artifacts due to spectral fluctuations of the single fluorophores are minimized by a previously developed duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation scheme (DCO-ALEX). We report the detection of reversible elastic deformations between the rotor parts of Fo and F1 and estimate the maximum angular displacement during the load-free rotation using Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Energy, Pollutant Emissions and Other Negative Externality Savings from Curbing Individual Motorized Transportation (IMT: A Low Cost, Low Technology Scenario Analysis in Brazilian Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the inefficient use of resources in the Brazilian transportation system. The energy use growth and external cost generation in this essential economic sector are considerable, and the trend is towards an increasing problem in the coming years. The continued expansion of Brazilian cities and the increase in demand for mobility is a result of a substantial growth in the number of road transport users, as increased earnings enable lower income groups to acquire and use individual motorized means of transport. The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential gains from reducing individual motorized transport by the year 2020. This investigation concludes that in a conservationist scenario, by prioritizing low cost, low technology public policies—which include operation of Bus Rapid Transit systems, walking and cycling facilities and congestion charges, among others—it should be possible to save over USD 30 billion and USD 26 billion in external transportation and infrastructure costs, respectively, up to 2020. In addition, these public policies can save more than 35 million Tons of Oil Equivalents in energy consumption and avoid almost 4,000 thousand tons of local pollution emissions and 37,500 thousand tons of GHG emissions in the same period.

  14. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  15. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  16. Pengaruh Penambahan Kutub Bantu Pada Motor Arus Searah Penguatan Seri Dan Shunt Untuk Memperkecil Rugi-Rugi (Aplikasi pada Laboratorium Konversi Energi Listrik FT-USU)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahni, Al Magrizi

    2015-01-01

    Penggunaan motor DC akhir-akhir ini mengalami perkembangan, khususnya dalam pemakaiannya sebagai motor penggerak. Terutama untuk menggerakkan beban yang berat dan bervarisasi. Oleh sebab itu, diharapkan motor DC dapat bekerja secara efisien. Pada saat motor DC dibebani, akan mengalir arus jangkar yang mengakibatkan terjadinya reaksi jangkar. Arus jangkar yang terlalu besar akan mengakibat timbulnya rugi-rugi daya pada motor DC, salah satu cara untuk memperkecil rugi-rugi day...

  17. Continuous Steering Stability Control Based on an Energy-Saving Torque Distribution Algorithm for a Four in-Wheel-Motor Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a continuous steering stability controller based on an energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is proposed for a four in-wheel-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV to improve the energy consumption efficiency while maintaining the stability in steering maneuvers. The controller is designed as a hierarchical structure, including the reference model level, the upper-level controller, and the lower-level controller. The upper-level controller adopts the direct yaw moment control (DYC, which is designed to work continuously during the steering maneuver to better ensure steering stability in extreme situations, rather than working only after the vehicle is judged to be unstable. An adaptive two-hierarchy energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is developed in the lower-level controller with the friction ellipse constraint as a basis for judging whether the algorithm needs to be switched, so as to achieve a more stable and energy-efficient steering operation. The proposed stability controller was validated in a co-simulation of CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different steering maneuvers indicate that the proposed controller, compared with the conventional servo controller and the ordinary continuous controller, can reduce energy consumption up to 23.68% and improve the vehicle steering stability.

  18. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H. Jr. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)], E-mail: jhmiller@uh.edu; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Claycomb, James R. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Houston Baptist University, 7502 Fondren Road, Houston, TX 77074-3298 (United States); Palanisami, Akilan; Fang Jie; Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors.

  20. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John H. Jr.; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.; Palanisami, Akilan; Fang Jie; Mercier, George T.

    2009-01-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors

  1. Impact of operational factors on fossil energy inputs in motor-manual tree felling and processing: results of two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ignea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases tree felling and processing operations are carried out motor-manually and knowledge about fossil fuel consumption and direct energy inputs when using such equipment is required for different purposes starting with operational costing and ending with environmental assessment of forest operations. In this study, fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs were evaluated for two chainsaws which were used to fell and process trees in two silvicultural systems. The results of this study suggest that there is a strong dependence relation between selected tree size variables such as the diameter at breast height and tree volume on one hand and the fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs when felling and processing broadleaved hardwood and resinous softwood trees on the other hand. For the broadleaved trees (mean tree volume of 1.50 m3 × tree-1, DBH of 45.5 cm and tree height of 21.84 m the mean direct fossil energy input was of 3.86 MJ m-3 while for resinous trees (mean tree volume of 1.77 m3 tree-1, DBH of 39.28 cm and tree height of 32.49 m it was of 3.93 MJ m-3. Other variables, including but not limited to the technology used, work experience and procedural pattern, may influence the mentioned figures and extensive studies are required to clarify their effects.

  2. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  3. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  4. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  5. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qingnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  6. Optimal energy management strategy for battery powered electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Jiaqi; Li, Mian; Xu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The power usage for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors is maximized. • The battery and motor dynamics are examined emphasized on the power conversion and utilization. • The optimal control strategy is derived and verified by simulations. • An analytic expression of the optimal operating point is obtained. - Abstract: Due to limited energy density of batteries, energy management has always played a critical role in improving the overall energy efficiency of electric vehicles. In this paper, a key issue within the energy management problem will be carefully tackled, i.e., maximizing the power usage of batteries for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors. To this end, the battery and motor dynamics will be thoroughly examined with particular emphasis on the power conversion and power utilization. The optimal control strategy will then be derived based on the analysis. One significant contribution of this work is that an analytic expression for the optimal operating point in terms of the component and environment parameters can be obtained. Owing to this finding, the derived control strategy is also rendered a simple structure for real-time implementation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy works both adaptively and robustly under different driving scenarios

  7. A contribution to the energy conservation and to the three-phase induction motors rotor in cage maintenance; Uma contribuicao a conservacao de energia e a manutencao de motores de inducao trifasicos de rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Antonio Tadeu Lyrio de

    1993-11-01

    The thesis introduces two methods for three-phase rotor in cage induction motors. These methods evaluate performance with reliability and rapidity with seen to the application in electric power conservation and in maintenance. The first method it bases in tests executed in machine with free rotor and with locked rotor. The second method it bases in the motor characteristic greatnesses values treatment from manufacturers catalogs data. They are both methods where the equivalent circuit parameters in T are identified from a statistical optimization process in every motor operation band, including the departure. The performance from both methods was going evaluated in tests executed in 40 motors using the method B of the norm IEEE-112 and 54 motors using the norm IEC-34-2 after the adequate numeric treatment.

  8. A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water and of ATP Hydrolysis Energy in the Power Strokes of Molecular Motors in Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred F. Widdas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick’s work, energetics were revised by Joule’s experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration.

  9. Improving the Transparency of an Exoskeleton Knee Joint Based on the Understanding of Motor Intent Using Energy Kernel Method of EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zeng, Yan; Yin, Yuehong

    2017-06-01

    Transparent control is still highly challenging for robotic exoskeletons, especially when a simple strategy is expected for a large-impedance device. To improve the transparency for late-phase rehabilitation when "patient-in-charge" mode is necessary, this paper aims at adaptive identification of human motor intent, and proposed an iterative prediction-compensation motion control scheme for an exoskeleton knee joint. Based on the analysis of human-machine interactive mechanism (HMIM) and the semiphenomenological biomechanical model of muscle, an online adaptive predicting controller is designed using a focused time-delay neural network (FTDNN) with the inputs of electromyography (EMG), position and interactive force, where the activation level of muscle is estimated from EMG using a novel energy kernel method. The compensating controller is designed using the normative force-position control paradigm. Initial experiments on the human-machine integrated knee system validated the effectiveness and ease of use of the proposed control scheme.

  10. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  11. End-use energy analysis in the Malaysian industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahim, N.A.; Mekhilef, S.; Ping, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.F. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Head Office, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    The industrial sector is the second largest consumer of energy in Malaysia. In this energy audit, the most important parameters that have been collected are as follows: power rating and operation time of energy-consuming equipments/machineries; fossil fuel and other sources of energy use; production figure; peak and off-peak tariff usage behavior and power factor. These data were then analyzed to investigate the breakdown of end-use equipments/machineries energy use, the peak and off-peak usage behavior, power factor trend and specific energy use. The results of the energy audit showed that the highest electrical energy-using equipment was an electric motor followed by pumps and air compressors. The specific energy use has been estimated and compared with four Indonesian industries and it was found that three Malaysian industries were more efficient than the Indonesian counterpart. The study also found that about 64% electrical energy was used in peak hours by the industries and the average power factor ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. The study also estimated energy and bill savings using highly efficient electrical motors along with the payback period. (author)

  12. Manufacturer Usage Description Specification Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturer Usage Description Specification (MUDS) is aframework under RFC development that aims to automate Internet access control rules for IoT devices . These access controls prevent malicious IoT devices from attacking other devices and also protect the IoT devices from being attacked by other devices.We are implementing this framework and trying to improve its security.

  13. Video personalization for usage environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Lin, Ching-Yung; Smith, John R.

    2002-07-01

    A video personalization and summarization system is designed and implemented incorporating usage environment to dynamically generate a personalized video summary. The personalization system adopts the three-tier server-middleware-client architecture in order to select, adapt, and deliver rich media content to the user. The server stores the content sources along with their corresponding MPEG-7 metadata descriptions. Our semantic metadata is provided through the use of the VideoAnnEx MPEG-7 Video Annotation Tool. When the user initiates a request for content, the client communicates the MPEG-21 usage environment description along with the user query to the middleware. The middleware is powered by the personalization engine and the content adaptation engine. Our personalization engine includes the VideoSue Summarization on Usage Environment engine that selects the optimal set of desired contents according to user preferences. Afterwards, the adaptation engine performs the required transformations and compositions of the selected contents for the specific usage environment using our VideoEd Editing and Composition Tool. Finally, two personalization and summarization systems are demonstrated for the IBM Websphere Portal Server and for the pervasive PDA devices.

  14. Effect of IOP based infusion system with and without balanced phaco tip on cumulative dissipated energy and estimated fluid usage in comparison to gravity fed infusion in torsional phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Praveen K; Dewan, Taru; Patidar, Arun Kr; Sain, Ekta

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of three different combinations of tip designs and infusion systems in torsional phacoemulsification (INFINITI and CENTURION) in patients with cataract. According to the manufacturer, two unique improvements in the Centurion are: active fluid dynamic management system and use of an intrepid balanced tip. The study specifically aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects, if any, of change in tip design and infusion system individually and in combination on both per-operative parameters as well as endothelial health over 6 months. One hundred and twenty six consenting patients of grade 4.0-6.9 senile cataract were randomized into three groups for phacoemulsification: Group A ( n  = 42): Gravity fed infusion system and 45 0 Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group B ( n  = 42): intraocular pressure (IOP) based infusion system and 45 0 Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group C ( n  = 42): IOP based infusion system and 45 0 Intrepid balanced phaco tip. The cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), estimated fluid usage (EFU) and total aspiration time (TAT) were compared peroperatively. The endothelial parameters were followed up postoperatively for six months. The three arms were matched for age ( p  = 0.525), gender ( p  = 0.96) and grade of cataract ( p  = 0.177). Group C was associated with significant reductions in CDE ( p  = 0.001), EFU ( p  < 0.0005) as well as TAT ( p  = 0.001) in comparison to the other groups. All three groups had comparable baseline endothelial cell density ( p  = 0.876) and central corneal thickness ( p  = 0.561). On post-operative evaluation, although all groups were comparable till 3 months, by 6 months, the percentage losses in endothelial cell density were significantly lower in group C as compared to the other groups. Use of an IOP based phacoemulsification system in association with use of the Intrepid balanced tip reduces the CDE, EFU and TAT in comparison to a gravity fed system with a mini flared

  15. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  16. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  17. Ultrafast Excited State Dynamics in Molecular Motors : Coupling of Motor Length to Medium Viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conyard, Jamie; Stacko, Peter; Chen, Jiawen; McDonagh, Sophie; Hall, Christopher R.; Laptenok, Sergey P.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Meech, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Photochemically driven molecular motors convert the energy of incident radiation to intramolecular rotational motion. The motor molecules considered here execute four step unidirectional rotational motion. This comprises a pair of successive light induced isomerizations to a metastable state

  18. Electrodynamic ratchet motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiufu; Sader, John E; Mulvaney, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Brownian ratchets produce directed motion through rectification of thermal fluctuations and have been used for separation processes and colloidal transport. We propose a flashing ratchet motor that enables the transduction of electrical energy into rotary micromechanical work. This is achieved through torque generation provided by boundary shaping of equipotential surfaces. The present device contrasts to previous implementations that focus on translational motion. Stochastic simulations elucidate the performance characteristics of this device as a function of its geometry. Miniaturization to nanoscale dimensions yields rotational speeds in excess of 1 kHz, which is comparable to biomolecular motors of similar size.

  19. Experimental thermodynamics of single molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2013-01-01

    Molecular motor is a nano-sized chemical engine that converts chemical free energy to mechanical motions. Hence, the energetics is as important as kinetics in order to understand its operation principle. We review experiments to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of a rotational F1-ATPase motor (F1-motor) at a single-molecule level. We show that the F1-motor achieves 100% thermo dynamic efficiency at the stalled state. Furthermore, the motor reduces the internal irreversible heat inside the motor to almost zero and achieves a highly-efficient free energy transduction close to 100% during rotations far from quasistatic process. We discuss the mechanism of how the F1-motor achieves such a high efficiency, which highlights the remarkable property of the nano-sized engine F1-motor.

  20. Survey of energy efficiency programs for motor systems in the industry and the main results of PROCEL Info; Levantamento dos programas de eficiencia energetica para sistemas motrizes na industria e os principais resultados do PROCEL Info

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (GPESE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Hidricos, Energeticos e Ambientais. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos; Menezes, Taciana de V.; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Lepetitgaland, Karla Kwiatkowski [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article has as objective to compare the actual energy efficiency programs for the motor driven systems of Brazil, United States and European Community. This comparison will be restricted to the action of each program, considering that the countries present distinct economical, political and social aspects. The main results of PROCEL Info will be presented. (author)

  1. Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Wang, Michael; Zhang Xiliang; He Kebin; Gong Huiming; Jiang Kejun; Jin Yuefu; Shi Yaodong; Yu Xin

    2012-01-01

    We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model ( (http://www.feeimodel.org/)). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and (4) fuel diversification, with plausible policy scenarios. Under the business-as-usual scenario, road transport in China would create 410–520 million metric tons (MMT) of oil-equivalent of TTW oil demand (three to four times the current level), 28–36 billion GJ of WTW energy demand, and 1900–2300 MMT of CO 2 -equivalent of WTW GHG emissions by 2050. The policies (in the same order as above) are projected to reduce the TTW oil demand by 35%, 10%, 29%, and 44%, and reduce WTW GHG emissions by 34%, 5%, 12%, and 13%, respectively, by 2050. This evaluation reveals that the fuel-consumption improvement policy could achieve greater benefit in reducing oil use, fossil-energy use, and GHG emissions. Implications of each policy option are discussed and the uncertainties associated with the policy scenarios are analyzed. - Highlights: ► Fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of vehicles in China are projected up to 2050. ► Various policies are evaluated with the fuel economy and environmental impacts model. ► Fuel economy standards have greatest benefit in saving energy use and GHG emissions. ► Electrification is effective. Benefit of dieselization and fuel blending is limited.

  2. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  3. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... and reflecting. The paper will explore the various cultural issues and explicate how the social context plays a major role in the use of Internet even if there is sufficient access. These issues will be addressed from an empowerment perspective. The paper ends by recommending the methods to be adopted for more......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been widely recognized as a tool for human development (UNDP 2001). The rate at which ICT are growing is changing the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. (Tongia, et al. 2005) Internet is one of the Information & Communication...

  4. Understanding Mobile Social Media Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chunmei; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity and growing trend of mobile social media in China, factors affecting users’ continued usage behavior remains unclear and deserves further scholarly attention. Synthesizing theories of expectation confirmation as well as uses and gratification, we advance a uses...... and gratification expectancy model that depicts how confirmation, perceived usability and gratification affect users’ continuance intention towards mobile social media. Empirical findings from an online survey of 247 respondents reveal that continuance intention is determined by a range of gratifications, including...... information sharing, media appeal and perceived enjoyment. In addition, confirmation of expectations and perceptions of usefulness gleaned through prior usage of mobile social media have significant effects on gratifications of information sharing, perceived enjoyment, social interaction, passing time...

  5. Opportunistic resource usage in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D; Gutsche, O; Tadel, M; Sfiligoi, I; Letts, J; Wuerthwein, F; McCrea, A; Bockelman, B; Fajardo, E; Linares, L; Wagner, R; Konstantinov, P; Blumenfeld, B; Bradley, D

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  6. Facebook usage by students in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, N.F.; de la Poza, Elena; Dormènech, Jozep; Lloret, Jaime; Vincent Vela, M. Cinta; Zuriaga Agustí, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I measure first year student Facebook usage as part of a broader PhD study into the influence of social media usage on the success of students in higher education. A total of 906 students were asked to complete 3 surveys on Facebook usage with their peers, for two consecutive years

  7. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for electric motors. Specifically, DOE seeks information to assist DOE in determining whether to develop energy conservation standards for certain types of electric motors that are currently...

  8. ECONOMIC QUESTIONS OF LAND USAGE – SCARCITY, SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Magda, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic importance of land usage. This topic is important because land is the basis of industrial and agricultural production, as well as energy and environmental security. The focus of the analysis is the relationship between land usage and scarcity and sustainability.

  9. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  10. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.; Ellingson, D.; Scott, M.; Schade, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy orders and guidance. In particular, the Hanford Site approach to designating a suitable facility open-quotes Usage Category,close quotes is presented. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on the consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components

  11. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  12. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  13. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor may...

  14. TFTR Motor Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.; Horton, M.

    1977-01-01

    A general description is given of 475 MVA pulsed motor generators for TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Two identical generators operating in parallel are capable of supplying 950 MVA for an equivalent square pulse of 6.77 seconds and 4,500 MJ at 0.7 power factor to provide the energy for the pulsed electrical coils and heating system for TFTR. The description includes the operational features of the 15,000 HP wound rotor motors driving each generator with its starting equipment and cycloconverter for controlling speed, power factor, and regulating line voltage during load pulsing where the generator speed changes from 87.5 to 60 Hz frequency variation to provide the 4,500 MJ or energy. The special design characteristics such as fatigue stress calculations for 10 6 cycles of operation, forcing factor on exciter to provide regulation, and low generator impedance are reviewed

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Policy Statement for Electric Motors Covered Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Generators,” prescribed by EPCA, does not address how to test a motor with seals installed. The efficiency..., Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 1J-018, Washington, DC 20585-0121. The Department..., DC 20585-0121. Examples of Many Common Features or Motor Modifications To Illustrate How the EPCA...

  16. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  17. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on operational research of human cooperative and coexisting (humanoid) robot system. Development of energy usage rationalizing technology; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system un'yo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 2000 in the operational research on the human cooperative and coexisting (humanoid) robot system to rationalize energy usage. Operational method and maintenance were studied on the platform hardware that has been developed in the previous fiscal year. Checks were given periodically on the robot platform hardware, and no anomalies were verified in all operation. Verifications were made on the fasteners, additional tightening, fitting of the connectors, battery checks, zero position and step response checks, and output checks on the force component sensor, gyro sensor and G sensor. For the virtual robot platform, discussions were given on the basic movement library for the geography complying three-dimensional walking. Such configurations were constituted that integrated use is possible with the simulator system by connecting the networks, and the user can instruct the CORBA server with the generation of walking movements according to the GUI by using the general purpose WWW browser to connect it to the HTTP server, whose result can be verified by three-dimensional graphics. A method to stabilize the all-axis movement servo model was made open to public. (NEDO)

  19. A pre-launch exploration of customer acceptance of usage based vehicle insurance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rejikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed against the backdrop of observations that the motor insurance pricing in India requires radical innovations to become more acceptable, fair, and affordable to customers. Customer perceptions about usage based pricing were collected using a structured questionnaire. The model containing critical variables was validated to identify statistically significant linkages among perceived individual benefits, perceived social benefits, perceived value, perceived easiness to understand and acceptance intentions. The perceived risk to privacy was not found to influence the acceptance intentions of the customer. The study concluded that customers are likely to accept the concept of usage based pricing once implemented.

  20. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  1. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  2. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  3. The Scope of Usage-based Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Paul eIbbotson

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highli...

  4. Report on achievements in fiscal 1996. International energy usage rationalization project (project to survey energy consumption efficiency improvement analyzing tools for Asia/data edition); 1996 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho shiryohen. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This paper is a collection of data on surveys for energy consumption efficiency improvement, taking Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines as the object countries. I. Industry related various value tables consist of the following: basic transaction table, throw-in coefficient table, final demand converter table, import coefficient table, added value coefficient table, inverse matrix coefficient table, sensitivity coefficient table, influence coefficient table, production inducing amount, production induction dependence, import inducing amount, import induction coefficient, import induction dependence, and inverse matrix coefficient table. II. Energy related various coefficient tables consist of the following: inherent unit quantity table, energy consumption table, CO2 table (1), CO2 table (2), unit requirement table, energy consumption induction table, energy consumption induction coefficient table, energy consumption induction dependence table, CO2 induction table (1), CO2 induction coefficient table (1), CO2 induction dependence table (1), CO2 induction table (2), CO2 induction coefficient table (2), and CO2 induction dependence table (2). Industries are classified into 34 kinds. III. The energy consumption table, CO2 table (1) and CO2 table (2) are shown as the simulation results for the four countries: Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines. (NEDO)

  5. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  6. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  7. Residential air-conditioner usage in China and efficiency standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianghong; Liu, Chaopeng; Li, Hongqi; Ouyang, Dong; Cheng, Jianhong; Wang, Yuanxia; You, Shaofang

    2017-01-01

    Determining the real energy consumption and usage pattern of a room air-conditioner (RAC) are important issues from the point of view of both RAC design and evaluation of its energy efficiency. An air-conditioner's running time is fundamental data for the calculation of SEER and APF values. Therefore, in 2010, a nationwide investigation of RAC usage was conducted and 400 selected air-conditioning-units were monitored for a full year to obtain data on their cooling and heating usage. Two running time curves (cooling and heating) were obtained for the air-conditioners as a function of outdoor air temperatures using statistical analysis. The results show that the 27–30 °C temperature range accounts for more than 52% of the cooling time. Conversely, the 0–8 °C temperature range is associated with more than 75% of the heating time. The research presented in this paper has significantly contributed to China's new variable-speed RAC efficiency standard (GB21455-2013). It also has far-reaching implications for both the air-conditioner industry and energy policy in China due to its different method of calculating energy efficiency. - Highlights: • A nationwide survey to realize China's residential air-conditions usage behaviors. • Air-conditioner running time-environment temperature curves are obtained. • The peak heating demand and peak cooling demand happen at 28 °C and 4 °C, respectively. • The temperature of 27 °C–30 °C accounts for over 52% refrigeration time. • The temperature of 0 °C–8 °C occupies more than 75% heating time.

  8. Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...

  9. MRI usage in a pediatric emergency department: an analysis of usage and usage trends over 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheinfeld, Meir H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Emergency Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Dan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Fagan, Michele J. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davoudzadeh, Reubin [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times. MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively). MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours. (orig.)

  10. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrich, D.D.; Ellingson, D.R.; Scott, M.A.; Schade, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy Orders and guidance. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on teh consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Problematic Internet Usage of ICT Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Semseddin

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected all area in a society. Human can learn quickly and accurately from the internet. The aim of this study was to investigate what the problematic internet usage of ICT teachers. Therefore, the present study investigated the problematic internet usage, who worked as an ICT teacher in…

  12. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  13. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  14. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  15. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  16. Interactive publications: creation and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn; Chung, Michael; Vasudevan, Kirankumar; Antani, Sameer

    2006-02-01

    As envisioned here, an "interactive publication" has similarities to multimedia documents that have been in existence for a decade or more, but possesses specific differentiating characteristics. In common usage, the latter refers to online entities that, in addition to text, consist of files of images and video clips residing separately in databases, rarely providing immediate context to the document text. While an interactive publication has many media objects as does the "traditional" multimedia document, it is a self-contained document, either as a single file with media files embedded within it, or as a "folder" containing tightly linked media files. The main characteristic that differentiates an interactive publication from a traditional multimedia document is that the reader would be able to reuse the media content for analysis and presentation, and to check the underlying data and possibly derive alternative conclusions leading, for example, to more in-depth peer reviews. We have created prototype publications containing paginated text and several media types encountered in the biomedical literature: 3D animations of anatomic structures; graphs, charts and tabular data; cell development images (video sequences); and clinical images such as CT, MRI and ultrasound in the DICOM format. This paper presents developments to date including: a tool to convert static tables or graphs into interactive entities, authoring procedures followed to create prototypes, and advantages and drawbacks of each of these platforms. It also outlines future work including meeting the challenge of network distribution for these large files.

  17. [Usage of antibiotics in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternák, G; Almási, I

    1996-12-29

    The authors publish the results of a survey conducted among hospital records of patients discharged from eight inpatient's institutes between 1-31st of January 1995 to gather information on the indications and usage of antibiotics. The institutes were selected from different part of the country to represent the hospital structure as much as possible. Data from the 13,719 documents were recorded and analysed by computer program. It was found that 27.6% of the patients (3749 cases) received antibiotic treatment. 407 different diagnosis and 365 different surgical procedures (as profilaxis) were considered as indications of antibiotic treatment (total: 4450 indications for 5849 antibiotic treatment). The largest group of patients receiving antibiotics was of antibiotic profilaxis (24.56%, 1093 cases), followed by lower respiratory tract infections (19.89%, 849 cases), uroinfections (10.53%, 469 cases) and upper respiratory tract infections. Relatively large group of patients belonged to those who had fever or subfebrility without known reason (7.35%, 327 cases) and to those who did not have any proof in their document indicating the reasons of antibiotic treatment (6.4%, 285 cases). We can not consider the antibiotic indications well founded in those groups of patients (every sixth or every fifth cases). The most frequently used antibiotics were of [2-nd] generation cefalosporins. The rate of nosocomial infections were found as 6.78% average. The results are demonstrated on diagrams and table.

  18. MESUR metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Sompel, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Usage data is increasingly regarded as a valuable resource in the assessment of scholarly communication items. However, the development of quantitative, usage-based indicators of scholarly impact is still in its infancy. The Digital Library Research & Prototyping Team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research library has therefore started a program to expand the set of usage-based tools for the assessment of scholarly communication items. The two-year MESUR project, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, aims to define and validate a range of usage-based impact metrics, and issue guidelines with regards to their characteristics and proper application. The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting c...

  19. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  20. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  1. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles. ...

  2. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  3. Immersion Suit Usage Within the RAAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS 202. in 12 Sizes, held by ALSS 492SQN REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE POLICY REFERENCE DIRAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C...held by ALSS 492SQN. REQUIREMENTS No comment ISACE POLICY REFERENCE DIIAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C Flight Manual) RAAF Supplement No 92 USAGE POUICY UVIC...TYPE P3C REFERENCE Telecon FLTLT Toft I I SQNfRESO AVMED Dated 22 Mar 91 IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS No comment REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE

  4. Defining net zero energy buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide increasing attention to energy consumption and associated environmental impacts thereof has resulted in a critical attitude towards energy usage of building. Increasing costs of energy and dependence on energy service providers add...

  5. Managing time-substitutable electricity usage using dynamic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Hosking, Jonathan R.; Natarajan, Ramesh; Subramaniam, Shivaram; Zhang, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-21

    A predictive-control approach allows an electricity provider to monitor and proactively manage peak and off-peak residential intra-day electricity usage in an emerging smart energy grid using time-dependent dynamic pricing incentives. The daily load is modeled as time-shifted, but cost-differentiated and substitutable, copies of the continuously-consumed electricity resource, and a consumer-choice prediction model is constructed to forecast the corresponding intra-day shares of total daily load according to this model. This is embedded within an optimization framework for managing the daily electricity usage. A series of transformations are employed, including the reformulation-linearization technique (RLT) to obtain a Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model representation of the resulting nonlinear optimization problem. In addition, various regulatory and pricing constraints are incorporated in conjunction with the specified profit and capacity utilization objectives.

  6. Using R and the Tidyverse to Generate Library Usage Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Meyer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gathering, analyzing, and communicating library usage data provides a foundation for thoughtful assessment. However, the amount of time and expertise required creates a barrier to actually using this data. By using the statistical programming language R and the tools and approach of the Tidyverse, the process of gathering, analyzing, and communicating data can be automated in ways that reduce the amount of time and energy required. At the same time, this approach increases staff capacity for other data science projects and creates a shareable model and framework for other libraries. This article focuses on electronic resource usage reports - especially Counter DB1 Reports - but this approach could be extended to other data sources and needs.

  7. Managing time-substitutable electricity usage using dynamic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Hosking, Jonathan R.; Natarajan, Ramesh; Subramaniam, Shivaram; Zhang, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-07

    A predictive-control approach allows an electricity provider to monitor and proactively manage peak and off-peak residential intra-day electricity usage in an emerging smart energy grid using time-dependent dynamic pricing incentives. The daily load is modeled as time-shifted, but cost-differentiated and substitutable, copies of the continuously-consumed electricity resource, and a consumer-choice prediction model is constructed to forecast the corresponding intra-day shares of total daily load according to this model. This is embedded within an optimization framework for managing the daily electricity usage. A series of transformations are employed, including the reformulation-linearization technique (RLT) to obtain a Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model representation of the resulting nonlinear optimization problem. In addition, various regulatory and pricing constraints are incorporated in conjunction with the specified profit and capacity utilization objectives.

  8. Chemical and mechanical efficiencies of molecular motors and implications for motor mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    Molecular motors operate in an environment dominated by viscous friction and thermal fluctuations. The chemical reaction in a motor may produce an active force at the reaction site to directly move the motor forward. Alternatively a molecular motor may generate a unidirectional motion by rectifying thermal fluctuations using free energy barriers established in the chemical reaction. The reaction cycle has many occupancy states, each having a different effect on the motor motion. The average effect of the chemical reaction on the motor motion can be characterized by the motor potential profile. The biggest advantage of studying the motor potential profile is that it can be reconstructed from the time series of motor positions measured in single-molecule experiments. In this paper, we use the motor potential profile to express the Stokes efficiency as the product of the chemical efficiency and the mechanical efficiency. We show that both the chemical and mechanical efficiencies are bounded by 100% and, thus, are properly defined efficiencies. We discuss implications of high efficiencies for motor mechanisms: a mechanical efficiency close to 100% implies that the motor potential profile is close to a constant slope; a chemical efficiency close to 100% implies that (i) the chemical transitions are not slower than the mechanical motion and (ii) the equilibrium constant of each chemical transition is close to one

  9. Selection of the motor train of vehicles of load and passengers service with energy efficiency; Seleccion del tren motriz de vehiculos del servicio de carga y pasajeros con eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Morales, Mercedes [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte (MExico)

    2003-07-01

    The companies of motor transport in Mexico are affected in their economy mainly by the low efficiency in the fuel consumption, specially the one dedicated to heavy service. Despite the outpost technology that is becoming available and adopted by the vehicular park to vehicular in relation to the energy efficiency, the cost per transported ton has not diminished in any substantial way. In this paper, a study is presented on the influence that it has within this problem, the selection of the components of the motor train in the fuel consumption and the capacity of ascent of the vehicle in relation to the weight of the transported load. As result of the study was developed in the Mexican Institute of Transport a computer program based on the real tests of performance that a vehicle can be subjected to, taking into consideration the optimum regime of the motor with the minimum fuel consumption. The program helps the carrier to select the most suitable motor train for the vehicle that is intended to acquire considering the operations to which it will be subjected to in a certain service, also evaluates the motor train of the existing vehicles in the vehicular fleet of the transport companies. [Spanish] Las empresas de autotransporte en Mexico se ven afectadas en su economia principalmente por la baja eficiencia en el consumo de combustible, especialmente las destinadas al servicio pesado. No obstante la avanzada tecnologia de que se va disponiendo y adoptando en el parque vehicular con relacion a la eficiencia energetica, el costo por tonelada transportada no ha disminuido de manera importante. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio sobre la influencia que tiene dentro de esta problematica, la seleccion de los componentes del tren motriz en el consumo de combustible y en la capacidad de ascenso del vehiculo en relacion con el peso de la carga transportada. Como resultado del estudio se desarrollo en el Instituto Mexicano del Transporte un programa de computo basado en

  10. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ancies in the contextual usage labelling in the dictionaries were established and are discussed. ..... Likewise, the noun vagrant meaning 'a person who has no job .... tions: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the American Translators ...

  11. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  12. Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in University of Ilorin, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... This study adopted descriptive survey method. Six faculties ...

  13. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  14. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Löschner, Katrin; Löf, D

    2011-01-01

    the particle sizes in tattoo inks in general usage. Methods The particle size was measured by laser diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results The size of the pigments could be divided into three main classes. The black pigments were the smallest, the white pigments the largest...... in general usage is new and may contribute to the understanding of tattoo ink kinetics. How the body responds to NP tattoo pigments should be examined further....

  15. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedingungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Authors of the conference reported on recent developments in utilization of renewable energy sources: resource potential of biomass, wood fuels, pollution limits, dedusting and purification of flue gas, heat recovery, straw combustion in small boilers, logistics and market of wood fuels, fluidized bed steam gasification, design of biomass-fueled power plants, organic Rankine cycle, operating experience in pilot plants. (uke)

  16. Feature Usage Explorer: Usage Monitoring and Visualization Tool in HTML5 Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunas Marciuska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Feature Usage Explorer is a JavaScript library, which automatically detects features in HTML5 based applications and monitors their usage. The collected information can be visualized in a Feature Usage Diagram, which is automatically generated from an input json file. Currently, the users of Feature Usage Explorer have to design their own tool in order to generate the json file from collected usage information. This option remains viable when using the library in order not to constraint the user’s choice of preferred data storage. Feature Usage Explorer can be reused in any HTML5 based applications where an understanding of how users interact with the system is required (i.e. user experience and usability studies, human computer interaction field, or requirement prioritization area.

  17. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  18. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Hyun Paik; Hyun Cho; Ji-Won Chun; Jo-Eun Jeong; Dai-Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smart...

  19. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  20. Reducing power usage on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  1. Towards a Residential Air-Conditioner Usage Model for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goldsworthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Realistic models of occupant behaviour in relation to air-conditioner (a/c use are fundamentally important for developing accurate building energy simulation tools. In Australia and elsewhere, such simulation tools are inextricably bound both in legislation and in the design of new technology, electricity infrastructure and regulatory schemes. An increasing number of studies in the literature confirm just how important occupants are in determining overall energy consumption, but obtaining the data on which to build behaviour models is a non-trivial task. Here data is presented on air-conditioner usage derived from three different types of case study analyses. These are: (i use of aggregate energy consumption data coupled with weather, demographic and building statistics across Australia to estimate key predictors of energy use at the aggregate level; (ii use of survey data to determine characteristic a/c switch on/off behaviours and usage frequencies; and (iii use of detailed household level sub-circuit monitoring from 140 households to determine a/c switch on/off probabilities and their dependence on different building and occupant parameters. These case studies are used to assess the difficulties associated with translation of different forms of individual, aggregate and survey based information into a/c behaviour simulation models. Finally a method of linking the data gathering methodologies with the model development is suggested. This method would combine whole-of-house “smart”-meter data measurements with linked targeted occupant surveying.

  2. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe - Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedinungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 14th international conference 'Energetical use of renewable fuels' at Freiberg (Federal Republic of Germany) at 11th and 12th September, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) State of the legislation procedure for the revision of the Renewable Energy Resources Act and Renewable Energy Resources Heat Act (Bernhard Dreher); (b) Power generation from biomass - A task of investigation? (Martin Kaltschmitt); (c) A physical-chemical online analysis of fine dust emissions from wood furnaces (Michael Sattler, Christian Gaegauf, Nicolas Meyer, Maaren Heringa); (d) Actual state of standardization of biogenic solid fuels (Andreas Neff, Frank Baur); (e) Combined heat and power coupling with thermal gasification of biomass - State of the art and actual developments (Juergen Karl); (f) Wood power generation in the practice - Possibilities and potentials (Michael Hoeffling); (g) Biological natural gas - An analysis and evaluation (Alexander Vogel, Stephan Ramesohl); (h) Digestion of biomass ensures a high yield of biogas (Thilo Lehmann, Christina Dornack); (i) Market for wood pellets in the Federal Republic of Germany - State of the art, development, perspectives (Martin Bentele); (j) Report on the expert opinion ''Utilization of biomass for power generation'' of the Scientific Advisory Council agrarian policy at BMELV (Thomas De Witte); (k) About the ecology of short rotation plants (Heino Wolf); (l) Generation of electricity and heat on the basis of straw - The first straw-fired heating plant in Germany (Rainer Knieper); (m) Standardization of liquid fuels in European context (Thomas Brehmer, Franz Heger); (n) Bio fuels of the second generation: Production, quantities of biomass and strategies of supply (Lutz Freytag); (o) Biomass-fired heating plant Simmering (Ludwig Gockner); (p) Industrial network Renewably Energy in the Free State of Saxony (Klaus Beumler); (q) Exemplary regional conversion of an intelligent, decentralised

  3. Techno-economic analysis of the deacetylation and disk refining process: characterizing the effect of refining energy and enzyme usage on minimum sugar selling price and minimum ethanol selling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P; Tao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128-468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme's CTec3) loading (11.6-28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme's HTec3) loading (0-5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL's 2011 design report. The DDR process is

  4. Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.

    1987-01-01

    Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.

  5. Example for electrical energy savings with the pump adjustable electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchevski, Slobodan; Andonov, Zdravko; Saracevic, Fahrudin; Micevski, Darko; Buchkoski, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Most used method of flow regulation is by throttling the pipeline. Development of power electronic gives opportunity for induction motor pump drives speed control. The common ways of pump flow control are throttling, reducing the working circle, usage of fore circle shovels rotating, by pass and pump speed control Only pump speed control is the most suitable for the energy possibilities. Intensive development of power electronic gives. opportunity to create devices - power converters, which can change the speed of induction motor. For that improvement the energy savings the measurements of power consumption with throttling and speed control have been made. Also, the MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the measured system has been made. The economic effects of saving energy using adjustable speed drives are analyzed for the measured values. The analysis shows that the money payback period of speed controller investment is short compared with the drive lifetime (20 years). (Author)

  6. Introduction to the permanent magnet motor market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshihiro; Hamada, Kaneyuki [Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Kyoto summit on global warming (COP3) in December 1997, the green-house gas emission level has to be reduced to 92-94% of the 1990 green-house gas level by the year 2014-2018. This would require conserving energy. An efficient means of achieving this voluntary goal is by employing high-efficiency drives, since motors consume 70% of all electricity for industrial use in Japan. As adjustable speed drives become popular, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors, lately, have been recognized for high-efficiency performance. Due to the progress in permanent magnet technology combined with modern control methods, especially vector control with and without speed-sensors, the IPM motor is gaining in popularity. Compact size and high-efficiency performance is furthering the IPM motor as the preferred motor in many applications. This paper describes the principle and operation of IPM motors and compares its performance with that of an induction motor. Important features and practical control methods for IPM motors are presented. Various application examples highlighting the advantages of employing an IPM motor system are discussed. The applications include, but are not limited to, machine tools, fans, pumps, elevators, cranes, etc. (orig.)

  7. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  8. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  9. Green gas as motor of the energy transition. Renaissance for feeding biomethane into the gas network?; Gruengas als Motor der Energiewende. Renaissance fuer die Einspeisung von Biomethan ins Gasnetz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, Ralph

    2017-04-15

    The energy transition is stagnating and needs urgently new impulses. This could be obtained by regenerative gases. Years of experience and studies have shown that biomethane and other regenerative gases, as well as the power-to-gas technology in cooperation with a sector coupling which is a connection of the infrastructures of natural gas, electric power, heat and mobility, could be the missing link, and therefore the new driver of the energy transition. As only 24/7 available renewable energy source with expandable capacities, green gas thereby plays a key role. [German] Die Energiewende ist ins Stocken geraten und braucht dringend neue Impulse. Diese koennte sie durch regenerative Gase bekommen. Jahrelange Erfahrungen und Studien belegen, dass Biomethan und andere Regenerativgase sowie die Power-to-Gas-Technologie im Zusammenwirken mit einer Sektorkopplung, in der die Infrastrukturen von Gas, Strom, Waerme und Mobilitaet verbunden werden, das fehlende Glied und damit der neue Treiber der Energiewende sein koennten. Als einzige 24/7 verfuegbare erneuerbare Energiequelle mit ausbaufaehigen Kapazitaeten kommt Gruengas dabei eine Schluesselrolle zu.

  10. FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

  11. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  12. Thermodynamics and kinetics of a molecular motor ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J E; Thomas, D D

    2000-10-01

    If, contrary to conventional models of muscle, it is assumed that molecular forces equilibrate among rather than within molecular motors, an equation of state and an expression for energy output can be obtained for a near-equilibrium, coworking ensemble of molecular motors. These equations predict clear, testable relationships between motor structure, motor biochemistry, and ensemble motor function, and we discuss these relationships in the context of various experimental studies. In this model, net work by molecular motors is performed with the relaxation of a near-equilibrium intermediate step in a motor-catalyzed reaction. The free energy available for work is localized to this step, and the rate at which this free energy is transferred to work is accelerated by the free energy of a motor-catalyzed reaction. This thermodynamic model implicitly deals with a motile cell system as a dynamic network (not a rigid lattice) of molecular motors within which the mechanochemistry of one motor influences and is influenced by the mechanochemistry of other motors in the ensemble.

  13. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  14. Zenn Motor Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, I. [Zenn Motor Company, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Zenn Motor company is a leader in the electric vehicle space and builds and markets a low speed vehicle known as the zero emission, no noise (ZENN). This presentation provided background information on the Zenn Motor Company as well as on EEStor, a company that develops four-wheeled vehicles and that is seeking partners to fund the development for a modified barium titanate-based ultracapacitor. In 2004, ZENN entered into a technology agreement with EEStor that secured certain exclusive and non-exclusive rights to purchase and deploy EEStor's EESU technology as part of its ZENNergy solutions in several markets, including exclusive rights for new four-passenger vehicles with a curb weight of up to 1,400 kilograms; exclusive rights for the neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV) and golf carts market; exclusive rights for utility vehicles; and exclusive rights for the aftermarket conversion to ZENNergy of any four-wheeled vehicles. The presentation also addressed ZENNergy and the art of integrating high energy drive solutions. Lessons learned and EEStor's technology attributes were discussed. A hypothetical case study was also offered. The presentation concluded with a discussion of EEStor technology status and opportunity horizons. It was concluded that a better battery is needed to enable the mass adoption of electric vehicles. tabs.

  15. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  16. ICT in University Education: Usage and Challenges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a survey which explored ICT usage and challenges among academic staff. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the areas of ICT usage among academic staff; identify the obstacles to their ICT usage and identify their areas of training need in ICT usage. Five research questions were posed ...

  17. Energy forecast for Germany, 2011 - 2030. Key issue: How much future is there in today's motor cars?; Energieprognose 2011 - 2030 Deutschland. Schwerpunkt: Wie viel Zukunft steckt im Auto von heute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    From 2030, primary energy consumption in Germany will decrease significantly as a result to better energy efficiency. Together with the use of energy sources with lower CO2 emissions, this will have a positive effect on the German climate balance. CO2 emissions of the power generation sector will be reduced by more than 40 percent by 2030. Petroleum and natural gas will continue to cover most of Germany's energy demand during the next 20 years. Natural gas, the least polluting of all fossil fuels, will ave a central role in power generation. Biogas will get greater importance; it is already being used together with natural gas in cogeneration plants. In all, renewable energy sources will cover about 20 percent of the total power generation in Germany by 2030. Emissions of the transportation sector will be reduced as well. Today's motor cars with their internal combustion engines have considerable potential for efficiency improvement. If this potential is used, a greater reduction of CO2 emissions will be possible than with electric-powered vehicles.

  18. Analysis of alternative fuels for power plant usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs, I.; Szemmelveisz, K.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetembaros (Hungary)

    2008-07-01

    Decision makers and researchers, mainly experts involved in energy production and environmental protection, are now in agreement that substitution of renewable energy sources for some portion of the fossil fuel usage is one of the potential solutions for mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions. Current firing experience has shown that biomass utilisation in power plants still entails a number of difficulties that need to be addressed. Plant experience shows that one of the most critical parts of biomass firing is the moisture content of the fuel. The purpose of our research was to examine the combustion characteristics of several alterative fuels (wood-chips, energy-grass, sunflower seed shell, help, SRF, coal, DDGS). 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  20. Review of Bison Usage in VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Russell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pawlowski, Roger P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Bison is being used in VERA in a variety of ways; this milestone will document an independent review of the current usage of Bison and provide guidance that will improve the accuracy, performance, and consistency in the ways that Bison is used. This task will entail running a suite of small, single and multi-cycle problems with VERA-CS, followed by Bison, and Tiamat (inline) and evaluating the usage. It will also entail performing several detailed ramp to full power solutions to compare the one-way coupled solver with the fully-coupled Tiamat. This will include at least one iteration with the PHI team to incorporate some of the feedback and improve the usage. This work will also be completed in conjunction with an FMC task to evaluate the ability of Bison to model load-follow in a PWR

  1. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  2. Motivations and usage patterns of Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixuan; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-06-01

    Referred to as "Weibo," microblogging in China has witnessed an exponential growth. In addition to the Twitter-like functionality, Weibo allows rich media uploads into user feeds, provides threaded comments, and offers applications, games, and Weibo medals. This expanded functionality, as well as the observed differences in trending content, suggests potentially different user motivations to join Weibo and their usage patterns compared to Twitter. This pioneering study identifies dominant Weibo user motivations and their effects on usage patterns. We discuss the findings of an online survey of 234 Weibo users and suggest managerial implications and future research directions.

  3. Power factor regulation for household usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Tarmizi, Muhammad Haziq Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Power factor regulator technology has recently drawn attention to the consumer and to power generation company in order for consumers to use electricity efficiently. Controlling of power factor for efficient usage can reduce the production of power in fulfilment demands hence reducing the greenhouse effect. This paper presents the design method of power factor controller for household usage. There are several methods to improve the power factor. The power factor controller used by this method is by using capacitors. Total harmonic distortion also has become a major problem for the reliability of the electrical appliances and techniques to control it will be discussed.

  4. TOWARDS A USAGE-BASED COGNITIVE PHONOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitten Kristiansen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage-based conception of language is a major tenet in Cognitive Linguistics, but cognitive phonology has not yet been developed sufficiently in this direction. Often, phonemic analysis is carried out at the high level of abstraction of `a language´, disregarding rich patterns of languageinternal variation. This paper first argues that cognitive phonology must aim at a higher degree of descriptive refinement, especially in the direction of social variation. Then it goes on to examine the implications of a usage-based and multi-faceted model for a theoretical discussion of the phoneme as a prototype category.

  5. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  6. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  7. Motor proteins and molecular motors: how to operate machines at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of biological molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical work are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. These nanometer-sized machines operate in noisy stochastic isothermal environments, strongly supporting fundamental cellular processes such as the transfer of genetic information, transport, organization and functioning. In the past two decades motor proteins have become a subject of intense research efforts, aimed at uncovering the fundamental principles and mechanisms of molecular motor dynamics. In this review, we critically discuss recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies on motor proteins. Our focus is on analyzing fundamental concepts and ideas that have been utilized to explain the non-equilibrium nature and mechanisms of molecular motors. (topical review)

  8. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  9. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  10. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  11. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  12. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  13. Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.

  14. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  15. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  16. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  17. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  18. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  19. Decay-usage scheduling in multiprocessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, D.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Decay-usage scheduling is a priority-aging time-sharing scheduling policy capable of dealing with a workload of both interactive and batch jobs by decreasing the priority of a job when it acquires CPU time, and by increasing its priority when it does not use the (a) CPU. In this article we deal with

  20. MESUR: metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...

  1. Aspiration Curettage and its Outpatient Usage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspiration Curettage and its Outpatient Usage. D. A. G. BARFORD, M, NOTELOVITZ. SUMMARY ... its use on a number of outpatients without anaesthesia is discussed. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 22 (1974). In order to ... plastic aspiration chamber and suction is applied centrally at the base of the chamber, a cylindrical filter within the.

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Campus Portal Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghapour, Mohsen; Iranmanesh, Mohammad; Zailani, Suhaiza; Goh, Gerald Guan Gan

    2018-01-01

    This study has determined the determinants of the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness and their influence on campus portal usage. A quantitative approach was employed, using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire, adapted from previous studies. Data were gathered through a survey conducted with 341 staff working in the University of…

  3. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  4. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atesh eKoul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, forty-two adult binumerate populations, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral intra-parietal sulcus, inferior and mid frontal gyri, fusiform gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (FDR p<0.005. Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Ng to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of the left intra-parietal sulcus in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight that of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates.

  5. Usage of cell nomenclature in biomedical literature

    KAUST Repository

    Kafkas, Senay; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    large scale for understanding the level of uptake of cell nomenclature in literature by scientists. In this study, we analyse the usage of cell nomenclature, both in Vivo, and in Vitro in biomedical literature by using text mining methods and present our

  6. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  7. Mobile Device Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcker, Jan; Honal, Andrea; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on mobile device usage of students in higher education. While more and more students embrace mobile devices in their daily life, institutions attempt to profit from those devices for educational purposes. It is therefore crucial for institutional development to identify students' needs and how mobile devices may facilitate these…

  8. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  9. The Scope of Usage-based Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eIbbotson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the ‘cognitive commitment’ of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure versus cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works.

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  12. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  13. Innovative Power Harvesting With Stepper Motor

    OpenAIRE

    N K Kaphungkui; Santanu Phukan; Sourav Mahanta; Sujata Mahanta; Anurag Kalita

    2016-01-01

    This paper present the innovative way of generating electricity using the principle of thermodynamics law. This law states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transform from one form to another. In this work, mechanical energy is converted into electricity using stepper motor which acts as a generator. Mechanical energy is freely generated and available such as in gym room and Children Park. The main aim of this work is the production of clean energy employing t...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... Efficiency of Electric Motors 1. Definitions. Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to...

  15. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  16. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  17. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  18. Design of a Hydraulic Motor System Driven by Compressed Air

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Dein; Yu, Jyun-Jhe; Chieh, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a highly efficient pneumatic motor system. The air engine is currently the most generally used device to convert potential energy of compressed air into mechanical energy. However, the efficiency of the air engines is too low to provide sufficient operating range for the vehicle. In this study, the energy contained in compressed air/pressurized hydraulic oil is transformed by a hydraulic motor to mechanical energy to enhance the efficiency of using air power....

  19. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Emily HM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of viral evolution and host adaptive responses might help control this disease. Results Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU values of the genes from segment 1 to segment 6 of avian and human influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1, were studied via Correspondence Analysis (CA. The codon usage patterns of seasonal human influenza viruses were distinct among their subtypes and different from those of avian viruses. Newly isolated viruses could be added to the CA results, creating a tool to investigate the host origin and evolution of viral genes. It was found that the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus contained genes with mammalian-like viral codon usage patterns, indicating that the introduction of this virus to humans was not through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus. Many human viral genes had directional changes in codon usage over time of viral isolation, indicating the effect of host selection pressures. These changes reduced the overall GC content and the usage of G at the third codon position in the viral genome. Limited evidence of translational selection pressure was found in a few viral genes. Conclusions Codon usage patterns from CA allowed identification of host origin and evolutionary trends in influenza viruses, providing an alternative method and a tool to understand the evolution of influenza viruses. Human influenza viruses are subject to selection pressure on codon usage which might assist in understanding the characteristics of newly emerging viruses.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first...

  1. Compressor motor for air conditioners realizing high efficiency and low cost; Kokoritsu tei cost wo jitsugenshita eakonyo asshukuki motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Imazawa, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The compressor motor accounts for most of the consumption of electric power in an air conditioner. To promote energy-saving, Toshiba has been progressively changing the compressor motors in its air conditioners to high-efficiency brushless DC motors. We have now developed a new compressor motor in order to achieve even greater energy-saving. A concentrated winding system was adopted featuring direct winding on the teeth of the stator core, for the first time in the industry. As a result, it was possible to realize a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight, and low-cost motor. Moreover, by constructing a new system for production, we were able to improve productivity and quality. The newly developed motor is expected to contribute to the further diffusion of energy-saving air conditioners. (author)

  2. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 3. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Pisa Univ. (Italy); Perugia Univ. (Italy); Kronstadt Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    This book describes and assesses on the basis of the latest research and development projects worldwide what the possibilities are for the realisation of future drive concepts, ranging from battery-driven electromotors to hybrid systems combining electromotor and combustion engine to alternative energy resources such as hydrogen or alcohol. Power density, torque band, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption and chemical and noise emissions are the most important criteria for assessing the quality of a drive configuration. The boundary conditions for the introduction of alternative automotive drives are determined by the availability or production characteristics and the storability of the energy resources in question as well as by the degree of technical complexity, costs, safety, infrastructure and service. This book provides an updated overview and analysis of the processes, prime movers and energy resources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for automobiles. Up-to-date information of this kind is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The contents in overview: current data and facts on the development of new concepts; compact overview and analysis of processes, prime movers and energy resources; methods and solutions in designing alternative drives. [German] Die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von batteriebetriebenen Elektromotoren und Hybridsystemen bestehend aus Elektro- und Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis hin zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden auf Basis neuesten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten weltweit praesentiert und bewertet. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind wichtige Merkmale zur Beurteilung der Qualitaet einer Antriebskonfiguration. Die Verfuegbarkeit oder die Herstellungsmerkmale sowie die Speicherfaehigkeit

  3. Heating great residential units with combustion-motor heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, W

    1982-10-01

    Economic usage of combustion-motor heat pumps requires: reliable technology and delivery of the heat pump; design and operation. The heat pump must be integrated perfectly into the heating system. This contributions is based on a three-year operational experience with over 150 heat pumps used mainly in residential and administrative buildings (plus commercial buildings, swimming pools, sport centres etc.). These are heat pumps operating on the compression principle with natural gas, liquid gas, or fuel oil.

  4. Analytical computations and their usage in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Tarasov, O.V.

    1983-01-01

    Description of program systems for analytical calculations (SAC), presenting a packet of programs written in algorithmical language or in the language of machine commands, is presented. Depending on the purpose SAC are divided into two groups: specialized systems, intended for quite a certain field of application and systems of general use. It is shown that a considerable part of works is connected with SAC application in celestial mechanics, general relativistic theory and quantum field theory. Capabilities of the systems SCHOONSCHIP, REDUCE, ASHMEDAI, used in solution of quantum field theory tasks, permitting in a reasonable time to make calculations of 3-4-loop diagrams in gauge theories are described. Certain examples of SAC are considered. It is shown that calculations in supersymmetric theories in superfield formalism is one of the most interesting and perspective applications of the systems as well as calculations is lattice gauge theories

  5. To Estimation of Efficient Usage of Organic Fuel in the Cycle of Steam Power Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendencies of power engineering development in the world were shown in this article. There were carried out the thermodynamic Analysis of efficient usage of different types of fuel. This article shows the obtained result, which reflects that low-calorie fuel (from the point of thermodynamics is more efficient to use at steam power stations then high-energy fuel.

  6. Optimal usage of computing grid network in the fields of nuclear fusion computing task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenev, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the nuclear power becomes the main source of energy. To make its usage more efficient, the scientists created complicated simulation models, which require powerful computers. The grid computing is the answer to powerful and accessible computing resources. The article observes, and estimates the optimal configuration of the grid environment in the fields of the complicated nuclear fusion computing tasks. (author)

  7. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  8. Usage of Wifi Technology for PLC Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír ŠKUTA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes usage of WIFI technology for programming and parameterization of application in PLC. INSYS WLAN unit from the Microelectronics INSYS Corporation is the base of application. Software access point with using USB WIFI component WL167 is running in industrial PC. Particular PC clients are connecting into network infrastructure PLC by the help of this access point and INSYS WLAN unit. This connection allows configuring and uploading program into this PLC.

  9. Correlation matrix for quartet codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sorba, Paul

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that the sum of usage probabilities for codons, belonging to quartets, that have as third nucleotide C or A, is independent of the biological species for vertebrates. The comparison between the theoretical correlation matrix derived from these sum rules and the experimentally computed matrix for 26 species shows a satisfactory agreement. The Shannon entropy, weakly depending on the biological species, gives further support. Suppression of codons containing the dinucleotides CG or AU is put in evidence.

  10. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, P.; Vile, R.; Osborne, L.A.; Romano, M.; Truzoli, R.

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their ...

  11. Porflow Capabilities, Usage, History, and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1998-05-01

    To support closure of the Savannah River Site High Level Waste tanks, the PORFLOW computer program is being applied to predict long term movement of residual contaminants from the tanks. The PORFLOW program has greater capabilities than simpler programs that have been used previously, and PORFLOW results have been accepted by state and federal regulators throughout the United States. This document briefly discusses the PORFLOW capabilities and presents lists of reports showing PORFLOW's usage history and testing

  12. LHCb Computing Resource usage in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, Concezio

    2018-01-01

    This document reports the usage of computing resources by the LHCb collaboration during the period January 1st – December 31st 2017. The data in the following sections have been compiled from the EGI Accounting portal: https://accounting.egi.eu. For LHCb specific information, the data is taken from the DIRAC Accounting at the LHCb DIRAC Web portal: http://lhcb-portal-dirac.cern.ch.

  13. Cost Focussed Firms and Internet Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Loundes

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at Internet usage by Australian firms that have a cost focussed competitive strategy. The data source for this analysis is the Melbourne Institute Business Survey, conducted by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research. The survey was conducted in late 2001, and targeted large Australian firms. Instrumental variables estimation found that cost-focussed organizations utilised the Internet more intensively for both internal organizational activities and ex...

  14. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  15. Temporal and spatial variations in on-road energy use and CO2 emissions in China, 1978–2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Huo, Hong

    2013-01-01

    China is experiencing rapid motorization and each city has a unique motorization pathway owing to its different characteristics and development progress. The temporal and spatial variation trend in on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions need to be better understood in order to project the future growth and to support policy-making at both local and national levels. This study simulates the on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions of all of China's prefectural-level cities (and above) from 1978 through 2008, on the basis of the collected vehicle data from hundreds of national and local statistical yearbooks. The results show that China's on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions were 119 million metric tons (MMT) and 377 MMT in 2008, respectively—20 times the levels in 1978. The economically developed cities and heavy industrial cities had the highest on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions before the year 2000, but recently the spatial distribution has varied significantly as the uptake of motorization increases successively in these cities. Now and in the near future, the most important driving force of the on-road energy and CO 2 growth in China is the great number of average cities that have just started or will soon start the motorization. - Highlights: • China's cities have unique motorization pathways due to their unique characteristics. • We simulate on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions of all cities in China in 1978–2008. • China's on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions in 2008 were 20 times the levels in 1978. • Large cities had the highest on-road energy usage but the growth rate is declining. • Non-large cities are the main impetus of the growth in China's on-road energy use

  16. Nonlinear dynamics and control strategies: On a energy harvester vibrating system with a linear form to non-ideal motor torquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pontes B. R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the research of a vibrating model of an energy harvester device, including the nonlinearities in the model of the piezoelectric coupling and the non-ideal excitation. We show, using numerical simulations, in the analysis of the dynamic responses, that the harvested power is influenced by non-linear vibrations of the structure. Chaotic behavior was also observed, causing of the loss of energy throughout the simulation time. Using a perturbation technique, we find an approximate analytical solution for the non-ideal system. Then, we apply both two control techniques, to keep the considered system, into a stable condition. Both the State Dependent Ricatti Equation (SDRE control as the feedback control by changing the energy of the oscillator, were efficient in controlling of the considered non-ideal system.

  17. Perceived driving safety and seatbelt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, O; Fischhoff, B; MacGregor, D

    1985-04-01

    Swedish and U.S. subjects judged their own driving skills and safety in relation to other drivers. As in earlier studies, most subjects showed an optimism bias: a tendency to judge oneself as safer and more skillful than the average driver, with a smaller risk of getting involved and injured in an accident. Different measures of the optimism effect were strongly correlated with one another, with driving experience and with the judged importance of human factors (as opposed to technical and chance factors) in causing accidents. Degree of optimism was positively, but weakly, correlated with reported seatbelt usage and worry about traffic accidents. Seatbelt usage was positively related to the extent to which belts are judged to be convenient and popular, and more modestly related to the belt's perceived contributions to safety. These results suggest that providing more information about the effectiveness of seatbelts may not be as efficient a way of increasing seatbelt usage as emphasizing other factors, such as comfort and social norms, which cannot be outweighed by optimism.

  18. Usage of the cyclotron facility local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzmann, H.; Peters, J.; Thow, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage

  19. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  20. Review of research on AFPM hub motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo DAI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of new energy vehicles is an important way to promote the sustainable development of automobile industry, and it is also the key measure to solve the problems of energy and environment. As an important type of new energy vehicles, electric vehicles will play an important role in the future competition in the automotive industry, especially in the field of electric vehicle driven by wheel. With the advantages of compact structure, high power density, low working noise and good heat dissipation performance, the AFPM motor has gradually become the preferred object of the hub driving device. Based on the statement of the technical development and research status about AFPM motor, this paper mainly analyzes the engineering application and technical problems of AFPM motor in hub drive, especially the matching of AFPM motor with other systems and the problem of heat dissipation at high load conditions, and looks forward to the key role in the future development of the automotive industry. This paper will play a certain reference and guiding role in the application of AFPM motor in the field of new energy vehicles.

  1. Mechanical design of translocating motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Translocating motors generate force and move along a biofilament track to achieve diverse functions including gene transcription, translation, intracellular cargo transport, protein degradation, and muscle contraction. Advances in single molecule manipulation experiments, structural biology, and computational analysis are making it possible to consider common mechanical design principles of these diverse families of motors. Here, we propose a mechanical parts list that include track, energy conversion machinery, and moving parts. Energy is supplied not just by burning of a fuel molecule, but there are other sources or sinks of free energy, by binding and release of a fuel or products, or similarly between the motor and the track. Dynamic conformational changes of the motor domain can be regarded as controlling the flow of free energy to and from the surrounding heat reservoir. Multiple motor domains are organized in distinct ways to achieve motility under imposed physical constraints. Transcending amino acid sequence and structure, physically and functionally similar mechanical parts may have evolved as nature's design strategy for these molecular engines.

  2. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  3. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  4. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  7. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  8. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  9. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  11. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  12. DC motor operation controlled from a DC/DC power converter in pulse mode with low duty cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Kukuseva, Maja; Citkuseva Dimitrovska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper pulse mode of operation of DC motor controlled by DC/DC power converter is analyzed. DC motor operation with time intervals in which the motor operates without output load is of interest. In this mode it is possible the motor to restore energy. Also, in the paper are represented calculations for the amount of the restored energy in the pulse mode operation of the motor for different duty cycles.

  13. Enabling technologies for industrial energy demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Caroline H.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Jones, Craig I.; McKenna, Russell C.

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-science review sets out to provide an indicative assessment of enabling technologies for reducing UK industrial energy demand and carbon emissions to 2050. In the short term, i.e. the period that will rely on current or existing technologies, the road map and priorities are clear. A variety of available technologies will lead to energy demand reduction in industrial processes, boiler operation, compressed air usage, electric motor efficiency, heating and lighting, and ancillary uses such as transport. The prospects for the commercial exploitation of innovative technologies by the middle of the 21st century are more speculative. Emphasis is therefore placed on the range of technology assessment methods that are likely to provide policy makers with a guide to progress in the development of high-temperature processes, improved materials, process integration and intensification, and improved industrial process control and monitoring. Key among the appraisal methods applicable to the energy sector is thermodynamic analysis, making use of energy, exergy and 'exergoeconomic' techniques. Technical and economic barriers will limit the improvement potential to perhaps a 30% cut in industrial energy use, which would make a significant contribution to reducing energy demand and carbon emissions in UK industry. Non-technological drivers for, and barriers to, the take-up of innovative, low-carbon energy technologies for industry are also outlined

  14. Investigation of the influence of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel in the fuel economy, energy and environmental performance of motor diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpach А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to exhaustion of world energy reserves and significant environmental pollution by harmful substances, current research aimed at determining the effectiveness of alternative fuels. In the article compare two samples of biodiesel and studied their physical and chemical properties accordance with International Standard. Effect of different samples of biodiesel in fuel economy, energy and environmental performance automotive diesel determined by the bench tests of 4CH11,0/12.5 (D-241 diesel. The difference between physical and chemical properties of two biodiesel samples influenced to the fuel efficiency and environmental performance of the diesel. Operation on biodiesel with higher density and kinematic viscosity provide increases of maximum power and torque and increase fuel consumption. It also increases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases and it opacity. The results allow evaluate how the deviation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel could affect the operational performance of the engine.

  15. Does renewable energies’ usage act as a shield against oil price changes?

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Duarte Cortez dos Santos Vaz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to the existing literature on equity markets and energy prices by studying the impact of oil price changes on several American and European companies, taking into consideration their level of renewable energies’ usage within the total energy consumption. The results show that in fact there is an overall negative impact of oil price changes. However, when we split the oil price changes in positive and negative ones, it seems that their impact i...

  16. Increasing induction motors efficiency by reducing electromagnetic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of any device is a major problem today. The design and construction of high efficiency motors is strongly required from the viewpoint of reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. This paper deal with the problem of improving efficiency by reducing electrical and magnetic loads of these motors. Using the finite elements method (FEM, the authors will study the influence of these changes on the parameters and characteristics of the initial motor.

  17. Multi-usages of the Ilan geothermal field, NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Tseng, P.; Wang, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonics of Taiwan is very dynamic. The area produces more than 30,000 earthquakes/year; the mountains uplift 4-5 cm/year; the rainfall culminates 3,000 mm/year; there are some 4,000 hot spring operators. One of the two hot geothermal areas is located in NE Taiwan - the Ilan geothermal field. In order to develop the geothermal energy for the electricity need, the Ministry of Science and Technology have provided the fund to drill two 2,500 deep wells. The results are not so encourage for the need of an Enhanced Geothermal System. However, one of the wells has a bottom temperature of 160oC and the water up loading with 60 ton/hr. This can be combined with the near-by wells drilled by the private drilling company and the Cardinal Tien Junior College of Healthcare and Management to develop the multi-usages of the geothermal energy, such as 1 MW of electricity for the college and village, the long-term healthcare and hot spring medicare, aquaculture and agriculture need etc. The universities and private drilling company cooperate together to join the development. Hope this will provide a new model for the need of a self-sufficient community. The geothermal is a clean, renewable, and no pollution energy. Taiwan is in an initial stage of using this green energy.

  18. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  19. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  20. ICT applications for energy efficiency in buildings. Report from the KTH Centre for Sustainable Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, Anna H.; Svane, Oerjan

    2011-07-01

    The project 'ICT as a Motor of Transition' aims to examine how the innovative application of ICT can contribute to more energy-efficient transport habits and facilitate more sustainable ways of managing and using buildings, without the need for drastic changes in the city's physical structure. The project is an extended in-depth study and forms part of current research into urban sustainable development in the SitCit project at KTH Environmental Strategies Research (fms). The full title of the SitCit project is 'Situations of Opportunity in the Growth and Change of Three Stockholm City Districts - Everyday Life, Built Environment and Transport Explored as Energy Usage Systems and Governance Networks' (SitCit, 2010). It is an ongoing, cross-disciplinary, five-year project in collaboration with the Department of Energy Technology at KTH. An important part of the SitCit project is a methodological approach that integrates actors and measures in describing a process of change, in other words to look at 'What' can be transformed in parallel with transformation 'By Whom'? The 'ICT as a Motor of Transition' project focused on ICT solutions for energy-efficient and sustainable ways of managing and using buildings in the existing built environment. ICT could play a role as a key enabler for decreasing energy usage in buildings and at the same time create new business opportunities driven by the need for energy efficiency. Throughout the life cycle of a building, most energy ({approx}80%) is used during the operational stage (REEB, 2009a). The decisions made in the early design stages or in renovation stages for existing buildings thus influence about 80% of the total life cycle energy usage, while the impact of user behaviour and real-time control is in the range of 20% (REEB, 2009a). Therefore there is an urgent need to find new possibilities to decrease the energy usage in buildings. The overarching aim of this study

  1. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.

  2. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  3. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  4. Roflumilast Usage from 2010 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Øyvind Nicolay Ulland; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor, is marketed as add-on treatment to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations. Although marketed since 2010, usage pattern of roflumilast for an entire nation has not previously been explored. This study...... (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.80). The decreasing incidence and high level of early roflumilast discontinuation could be due to lack of benefit, a low awareness of romiflulast's indication among physicians, secondary to a challenging prescribing procedure, or to adverse effects. This article is protected...

  5. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  6. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    OpenAIRE

    Borini, Paulo; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Borini, Sabrina Bicalho

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Braz...

  7. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  8. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal

    2002-01-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  9. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  10. Quantifying the Impact of Vehicle and Motor Fuel Provisions from the Energy Policy Act on the Sustainability and Resilience of U.S. Cities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Darlene; Sears, Ted

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, with later amendments, was enacted with the goal of reducing U.S. petroleum consumption by building a core market for alternative fuels and vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy manages three federal programs related to EPAct; the Sustainable Federal Fleets Program, the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Program, and Clean Cities. Federal agencies and State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets are required to submit annual reports that document their compliance with the legislation. Clean Cities is a voluntary program aimed at building partnerships and providing technical expertise to encourage cities to reduce petroleum use in transportation. This study reviews the evolution of these three programs in relation to alternative fuel and vehicle markets and private sector adoption of alternative fueled vehicles to assess the impact of the programs on reduction in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions both within the regulated fleets and through development of alternative fuel and vehicle markets. The increased availability of alternative fuels and use of alternative fuels in regulated fleets is expected to improve cities' ability to respond to and quickly recover from both local disasters and short- and long-term regional or national fuel supply interruptions. Our analysis examines the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of alternative fuel use for the resiliency of U.S. cities.

  11. Driver characteristics associated with child safety seat usage in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Razak, Ahmad; Schenk, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    The rapidly motorizing environment in Malaysia has made child occupant safety a current public health concern. The usage of child safety seats (CSS) is a widely regarded intervention to enhance child occupant safety, yet no study has been conducted on CSS in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the CSS usage rates in Malaysia and to assess driver characteristics that are associated with CSS usage. Nine variables - urban versus rural study location, age, gender, marital status, educational status, monthly family income, number of children present in the vehicle, distance traveled to the study location, and attitude - were examined through a cross-sectional study of interviewing drivers of 230 vehicles transporting at least one child safety in Malaysia. The results indicate that interventional efforts should focus on educational programs geared toward drivers that are less educated or extended family members who inconsistently transport young children. Furthermore, any educational efforts could be strongly enhanced by legislation mandating the use of CSS. Every effort should be made to thoroughly assess the effectiveness of any educational or legislative activities that are implemented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  13. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of awareness on the usage of motor third party insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second in road fatality rates after Ethiopia; and Uganda. Police statistics ... associated health care costs. They are ... ist; and logistic regression analysis to determine factors .... strategies are: incorporating MTPI into the National cur- riculum ...

  15. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  16. Usage of cell nomenclature in biomedical literature

    KAUST Repository

    Kafkas, Senay

    2017-12-21

    Background Cell lines and cell types are extensively studied in biomedical research yielding to a significant amount of publications each year. Identifying cell lines and cell types precisely in publications is crucial for science reproducibility and knowledge integration. There are efforts for standardisation of the cell nomenclature based on ontology development to support FAIR principles of the cell knowledge. However, it is important to analyse the usage of cell nomenclature in publications at a large scale for understanding the level of uptake of cell nomenclature in literature by scientists. In this study, we analyse the usage of cell nomenclature, both in Vivo, and in Vitro in biomedical literature by using text mining methods and present our results. Results We identified 59% of the cell type classes in the Cell Ontology and 13% of the cell line classes in the Cell Line Ontology in the literature. Our analysis showed that cell line nomenclature is much more ambiguous compared to the cell type nomenclature. However, trends indicate that standardised nomenclature for cell lines and cell types are being increasingly used in publications by the scientists. Conclusions Our findings provide an insight to understand how experimental cells are described in publications and may allow for an improved standardisation of cell type and cell line nomenclature as well as can be utilised to develop efficient text mining applications on cell types and cell lines. All data generated in this study is available at https://github.com/shenay/CellNomenclatureStudy.

  17. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  18. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  19. Pedestrian protection integrated in the motor hood; Fussgaengerschutz bei Motorhauben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilfrich, E.; Roettger, R.; Zoernack, M.; Patberg, L. [Vertrieb/Engineering, Fahrzeugtechnik, ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    New legislation provides for better pedestrian protection in case of collision with motor cars. This is a great challenge in car design. ThyssenKrupp Steel are working on concepts for motor hoods that meet these requirements. Steel is the material of choice as it combines effective energy absorption with an excellent cost-benefit ration. (orig.)

  20. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3) individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4) individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5) individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers) (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579). Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD. PMID:29206183

  1. Cloud Usage Patterns : A Formalism for Description of Cloud Usage Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milenkoski, Aleksandar; Iosup, Alexandru; Kounev, Samuel; Sachs, Kai; Rygielski, Piotr; Ding, Jason; Cirne, Walfredo; Rosenberg, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming an increasingly lucrative branch of the existing information and communication technologies (ICT). Enabling a debate about cloud usage scenarios can help with attracting new customers, sharing best-practices, and designing new cloud services. In contrast to previous

  2. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-12-05

    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3) individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4) individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5) individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers) (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579). Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD.

  3. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Hyun Paik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD. Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1 individuals who played only computer games; (2 individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3 individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4 individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5 individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579. Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD.

  4. Exergy. Concept, challenges and usages for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The increasing pressure on natural resources makes reduction of energy consumption a critical stake. The exergy concept offers a global, standard and rigorous framework to energy systems analysis, and as such, contributes to tackle the energy challenge. ENEA has released a publication that popularizes the exergy concept, explains its application within the energy efficiency field, and highlights its value for industrial actors

  5. [Children and motor competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M

    2000-10-20

    Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.

  6. Piezoelectric/magnetostrictive resonant inchworm motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, John E.; Teter, Joseph P.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials were used to create a linear motor operating on the inchworm principle. This motor operates at an electrical resonance, switching power internally between inductive and capacitive components. Magnetic coils surrounding the two Terfenol-D rods which drive the inchworm's center expanding element form the inductive component. Piezoelectric stacks that control the end clamping action are the capacitive components. The normal electrical phase relationship between these components provides natural drive timing for the inchworm. The motor direction can be easily reversed by changing the magnetic bias on the Terfenol. A prototype motor was built that achieved a stall load of 26 lb and no-load speed of 1 inch/sec vs the design of 30 lb and 1.3 inch/sec. A new type of power supply that switches power from a dc source was built for the motor. This power supply uses a small number of components to exactly supply the energy used in each inchworm cycle. It tracks the motor circuit resonance and is not affected by frequency shifts.

  7. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  8. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert; Dubois, Authur; Derlaga, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of Electric Power: Reduced energy consumption, Lower emissions, Less noise. Traction motors: Permanent magnet, Synchronous, High torque at low rotational speeds, High power density, (High concentration of heat). Annular inlet: Very compatible with PM motors, (Provides cooling where needed, No need for complicated ducting, Leads to a larger motor diameter which is beneficial for motor torque) Effect of prop wash on heat transfer coefficients: Assumed propeller induced turbulence would increase heat transfer coefficients, Holmes, Obara Yip reported 'propeller slipstream showed little if any apparent effect of the slip stream', Derlaga @ LaRC also found little change in heat transfer in the wake of the propeller.

  9. Tell me your apps and I will tell you your mood: Correlation of apps usage with Bipolar Disorder State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez-Lozano, Jorge; Frost, Mads; Osmani, Venet

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar Disorder is a disease that is manifested with cycling periods of polar episodes, namely mania and depression. Depressive episodes are manifested through disturbed mood, psychomotor retardation, behaviour change, decrease in energy levels and length of sleep. Manic episodes are manifested...... be captured through the analysis of smartphone usage. We have analysed changes in smartphone usage, specifically app usage and how these changes correlate with the self-reported patient state. We also used psychiatric evaluation scores provided by the clinic to understand correlation of the patient smartphone...... behaviour before the psychiatric evaluation and after the psychiatric evaluation. The results show that patients have strong correlation of patterns of app usage with different aspects of their self-reported state including mood, sleep and irritability. While, on the other hand, the patients’ application...

  10. Petroleum: A Motor Challenge Success Story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, Erika

    1999-01-01

    By upgrading its motor systems at its Richmond, California, refinery, Chevron was able to realize cost savings of more than $700,000 per year, in addition to reduced energy consumption of approximately 1 million kilowatts per month and improved equipment reliability and process control. Order this fact sheet to find out how they did it

  11. Codon usage and expression level of human mitochondrial 13 protein coding genes across six continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Supriyo; Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Paul, Prosenjit; Halder, Binata; Deka, Himangshu; Mazumder, Gulshana Akthar; Barbhuiya, Riazul Ahmed; Barbhuiya, Masuk Ahmed; Devi, Warepam Jesmi

    2017-12-02

    The study of codon usage coupled with phylogenetic analysis is an important tool to understand the genetic and evolutionary relationship of a gene. The 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria are involved in electron transport chain for the generation of energy currency (ATP). However, no work has yet been reported on the codon usage of the mitochondrial protein coding genes across six continents. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes across six different continents, we used bioinformatic analyses to analyze the protein coding genes. The codon usage bias was low as revealed from high ENC value. Correlation between codon usage and GC3 suggested that all the codons ending with G/C were positively correlated with GC3 but vice versa for A/T ending codons with the exception of ND4L and ND5 genes. Neutrality plot revealed that for the genes ATP6, COI, COIII, CYB, ND4 and ND4L, natural selection might have played a major role while mutation pressure might have played a dominant role in the codon usage bias of ATP8, COII, ND1, ND2, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that evolutionary relationships in each of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria were different across six continents and further suggested that geographical distance was an important factor for the origin and evolution of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiaolong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic motors have the merits of high ratio of torque to volume, high positioning precision, intrinsic holding torque, etc., compared to the conventional electromagnetic motors. There have been several potential applications for this type of motor in aerospace exploration, but bearings and bonding mechanism of the piezoelectric ring in the motors limit the performance of them in the space operation conditions. It is known that the Langevin type transducer has excellent energy efficiency and reliability. Hence using the Langevin type transducer in ultrasonic motors may improve the reliability of piezoelectric motors for space applications. In this study, a novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The proposed motor operates in in-plane vibration mode which is excited by four Langevin-type bending vibrators separately placed around a ring-shaped stator. Two tapered rotors are assembled to the inner ring of the stator and clamped together by a screw nut. In order to make the motor more stable and convenient to fix, a thin cylindrical support is placed under the stator ring. Due to its no-bearing structure and Langevin transducer excitation, the prototype ultrasonic motor may operate well in aeronautic and astronautic environments.

  13. Do usage and scientific collaboration associate with citation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P.S.; Glänzel, W.

    2016-07-01

    In this study usage counts and times cited from Web of Science Core Collection (WoS) were collected for each article published in 2013 with Belgian, Israeli and Iranian addresses. We investigate the relations among three indicators related to citation impact, usage counts coauthorship, respectively. In addition, we apply the method of Characteristic Scores and Scal (CSS) to analyse the distributions of citations and usage counts. The results show that citations and usage counts in WoS correlate to each other significantly, especially in the social sciences. However, the increase of the number of co-authors does not increase usage counts or citations significantly. Furthermore, the stability of CSS-class distributions proves the availability of CSS in characterising both usage and citation distributions. (Author)

  14. Le Feu et ses Usages Militaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finó, J. F.

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available LE feu a toujours été une arme puissante. L'homme préhistorique, les Assyriens, les Grecs, les Byzantins, les Arabes, les bombes incendiaires de notre aviation, autant d'exemples de son usage militaire dans des pays et des temps fort divers. De plus, une de ses variantes, le feu grégeois pulvérulent, a été à l'origine de la poudre à canon. Il a donc paru intéressant de rassembler quelques données à ce sujet et de rappeler briévement la production des feux de guerre, leur lancement et la défense contre ses effets. Accessoirement, de dire quelques mots sur une autre branche de la chimie de guerre: les gaz asphyxiants.

  15. Medication usage in Majuro, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    To conduct a drug utilisation study to determine the top 50 drugs by prescription count, top 50 drugs by cost to government and the top 30 drugs by consumption for Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands for the year 2003. Data was collected from the Majuro Hospital computer dispensing system. All outpatient prescriptions dispensed in the year 2003 were included. The defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was employed. Drug consumption was presented as DDD/1000 population/day. The top 5 drugs by consumption in Majuro for 2003 were glibenclamide (glyburide), enalapril, ferrous sulphate, amoxycillin and ascorbic acid. Values for the DDD/1000 population/day were on average lower than many other countries. This is the first local study of medication usage in the Marshall Islands. It provided some useful baseline data.

  16. IceProd 2 Usage Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, D.; Schultz, D.; Diaz Velez, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    IceProd is a data processing and management framework developed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory for processing of Monte Carlo simulations, detector data, and data driven analysis. It runs as a separate layer on top of grid and batch systems. This is accomplished by a set of daemons which process job workflow, maintaining configuration and status information on the job before, during, and after processing. IceProd can also manage complex workflow DAGs across distributed computing grids in order to optimize usage of resources. IceProd has recently been rewritten to increase its scaling capabilities, handle user analysis workflows together with simulation production, and facilitate the integration with 3rd party scheduling tools. IceProd 2, the second generation of IceProd, has been running in production for several months now. We share our experience setting up the system and things we’ve learned along the way.

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  18. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  19. The development and testing of a linear induction motor being fed from the source with limited electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The report provides results of the research related to the tubular linear induction motors’ application. The motors’ design features, a calculation model, a description of test specimens for mining and electric power industry are introduced. The most attention is given to the single-phase motors for high voltage switches drives with the usage of inexpensive standard single-phase transformers for motors’ power supply. The method of the motor’s parameters determination, when the motor is being fed from the transformer, working in the overload mode, was described, and the results of it practical usage were good enough for the engineering practice.

  20. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  1. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  2. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  3. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  4. Estimating Usage Can Reduce the Stress of Social Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y.; Bird, J.; Cox, A. L.; Brumby, D.

    2013-01-01

    Social networks are increasingly popular and provide benefits such as easy peer group communication. However, there is evidence that they can have negative consequences, such as increased stress levels. For two weeks, we provided participants with an objective measure of their social network usage and also asked them for a daily estimate of their usage over the previous 24 hours. Although their social network usage did not significantly change, participants’ perception of this activity was tr...

  5. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”, “will...

  6. 50 CFR 600.810 - Definitions and word usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.810...) § 600.810 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the definitions in the Magnuson...-Stevens Act. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”, “will”, “could”, and...

  7. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 24. Energy Efficiency in Central Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windarto, Joko; Nugroho, Agung; Hastanto, Ari; Mahartoto, Gigih [Diponegoro University, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2012-01-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Energy has a very important role and has become a basic necessity in national sustainable development. Therefore, energy should be used sparingly and in a rational manner so that present and future energy demand can be met. Given the importance of using energy efficiently Government needs to devise a framework regulating the utilization of energy resources through the efficient application of technology and stimulating energy-saving behaviours. The purpose of this technical working group in CASINDO project is to research the steps and policy measures needed to improve the efficiency of electrical energy consumption in the household, industrial, and commercial buildings sector for Central Java. The government's efforts in promoting energy efficiency in Indonesia are still hampered by public awareness factor. This study exists to promote public awareness of energy efficiency by describing the financial benefits and possibilities of savings energies in order to support the government's energy saving program, replacement of old equipment that uses high power consumption with a new low-power one, reduction of unnecessary lighting, appreciation to the people who find and develop energy-efficient power utilization, persuade industries to uses the speed controller driver for production and fan motor to streamline the electrical energy usage.

  8. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  9. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  10. Modeling the effects of reformulated gasoline usages on ambient concentrations of ozone and five air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligocki, M.P.; Schulhof, R.R.; Jackson, R.E.; Jimenez, M.M.; Atkinson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of reformulated gasolines to reduce motor-vehicle-related hydrocarbon emissions has been mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for nine severely polluted urban areas. Using a version of the Urban Airshed Model that includes explicit representation of five motor-vehicle-related air toxics, the effects of reformulated gasoline usage on ambient ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated. Simulations were conducted for two urban areas. Baltimore-Washington and Houston, for the year 1995. Additional simulation were conducted for Baltimore-Washington including winter and 1999 scenarios. In the Baltimore-Washington areas, the 1995 Federal reformulated gasoline scenario produce reductions of 1.1 percent in simulated peak ozone and 2.7 percent in the areal extent of simulated ozone exceedances. Simulated ozone reductions were much smaller in Houston. In the reformulated gasoline simulations, secondary formulation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was reduced, and decreases in ambient benzene and polycyclic organic matter (POM) concentrations were simulated. Larger reductions in ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated for reformulated gasolines meeting California Phase II standards than for those meeting Federal standards. The effects of reductions in motor-vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions, alone and in combination with hydrocarbon reductions, were also examined

  11. Health-related behaviors and technology usage among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.

  12. Markov process of muscle motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pechersky, E; Pirogov, S

    2008-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing muscle molecular motor behaviour. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spends an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at a velocity proportional to the average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays in the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a nonlinear equation appearing in the limit of an infinite number of motors

  13. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  14. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basic model of an electric motor. (a) In the event that a model of an electric motor is determined non... a model of an electric motor to be in noncompliance, then the manufacturer or private labeler shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric...

  15. Standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of high efficiency motors and inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Hyun, Chang Soon [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Most of the power systems energy is consumed by electrical motors. This report proposes a method for the standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of the high efficiency motors and related inverters. The results of this report can be referred to the rebate program for promoting the use of high efficiency motors and inverters (author). 26 refs., 102 figs.

  16. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance – A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-01

    This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: (1) Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. (2) Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the key components of well-functioning motor and drive systems and opportunities for energy performance opportunities. (3) Motor System Economics: Offers recommendations on how to propose improvement projects based on corporate priorities, efficiency gains, and financial payback periods. (4) Where to Find Help: Provides a directory of organizations associated with motors and drives, as well as resources for additional information, tools, software, videos, and training opportunities.

  17. A Method to Determine Supply Voltage of Permanent Magnet Motor at Optimal Design Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matustomo, Shinya; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo; Tanimoto, Shigeya

    The permanent magnet motors (PM motors) are widely used in electrical machinery, such as air conditioner, refrigerator and so on. In recent years, from the point of view of energy saving, it is necessary to improve the efficiency of PM motor by optimization. However, in the efficiency optimization of PM motor, many design variables and many restrictions are required. In this paper, the efficiency optimization of PM motor with many design variables was performed by using the voltage driven finite element analysis with the rotating simulation of the motor and the genetic algorithm.

  18. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  19. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  20. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.