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Sample records for motor coordination strength

  1. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

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    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  2. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children.

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    Lopes, Vítor P; Stodden, David F; Bianchi, Mafalda M; Maia, Jose A R; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. This study is cross-sectional. Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n=3616, girls n=3559), ages 6-14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m(2))]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling's body coordination test (KTK). Spearman's rank correlation was used to study the association between BMI and MC. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the differences in MC between children of normal weight, overweight and obese children. Correlations between MC and BMI were negative and varied between 0.05 and 0.49. The highest negative correlations for both boys and girls was at 11 years of age. There was a general pattern of increasing negative correlations in both genders from 6 to 11 years of age and then a decrease in correlation strengths through 14 years of age. In both boys (χ(2)((2))=324.01; p<0.001) and girls (χ(2)((2))=291.20; p<0.001) there were significant differences in MC between the three groups' weight status. Normal weight children of both sexes demonstrated significantly higher MC scores than overweight. Obese children in both sexes had the lowest MC scores among all three groups. Motor coordination demonstrated an inverse relationship with BMI across childhood and into early adolescence. The strength of the inverse relation increased during childhood, but decreased through early adolescence. Overweight and obese children of both sexes demonstrated significantly lower MC than normal weight children. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Knockout of Secretin in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Impairs Mouse Motor Coordination and Motor Learning

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    Zhang, Li; Chung, Sookja Kim; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2014-01-01

    Secretin (SCT) was first considered to be a gut hormone regulating gastrointestinal functions when discovered. Recently, however, central actions of SCT have drawn intense research interest and are supported by the broad distribution of SCT in specific neuronal populations and by in vivo physiological studies regarding its role in water homeostasis and food intake. The direct action of SCT on a central neuron was first discovered in cerebellar Purkinje cells in which SCT from cerebellar Purkinje cells was found to potentiate GABAergic inhibitory transmission from presynaptic basket cells. Because Purkinje neurons have a major role in motor coordination and learning functions, we hypothesize a behavioral modulatory function for SCT. In this study, we successfully generated a mouse model in which the SCT gene was deleted specifically in Purkinje cells. This mouse line was tested together with SCT knockout and SCT receptor knockout mice in a full battery of behavioral tasks. We found that the knockout of SCT in Purkinje neurons did not affect general motor ability or the anxiety level in open field tests. However, knockout mice did exhibit impairments in neuromuscular strength, motor coordination, and motor learning abilities, as shown by wire hanging, vertical climbing, and rotarod tests. In addition, SCT knockout in Purkinje cells possibly led to the delayed development of motor neurons, as supported by the later occurrence of key neural reflexes. In summary, our data suggest a role in motor coordination and motor learning for SCT expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:24356714

  4. Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength

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    Çakir, Ergün; Yüksek, Selami; Asma, Bülent; Arslanoglu, Erkal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effects of different environment temperatures on motor characteristics and muscle strength. 15 athletes participated to study. Flexibility, vertical jump, hand grip-leg strength, 30m sprint, 20-meter shuttle run and coordination-agility tests were measured in five different environment temperatures. (22°C,…

  5. A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: pattern, strength, and dynamics of premotor synaptic input to leech heart motor neurons.

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    Norris, Brian J; Weaver, Adam L; Wenning, Angela; García, Paul S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2007-11-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) for heartbeat in medicinal leeches consists of seven identified pairs of segmental heart interneurons and one unidentified pair. Four of the identified pairs and the unidentified pair of interneurons make inhibitory synaptic connections with segmental heart motor neurons. The CPG produces a side-to-side asymmetric pattern of intersegmental coordination among ipsilateral premotor interneurons corresponding to a similarly asymmetric fictive motor pattern in heart motor neurons, and asymmetric constriction pattern of the two tubular hearts, synchronous and peristaltic. Using extracellular recordings from premotor interneurons and voltage-clamp recordings of ipsilateral segmental motor neurons in 69 isolated nerve cords, we assessed the strength and dynamics of premotor inhibitory synaptic output onto the entire ensemble of heart motor neurons and the associated conduction delays in both coordination modes. We conclude that premotor interneurons establish a stereotypical pattern of intersegmental synaptic connectivity, strengths, and dynamics that is invariant across coordination modes, despite wide variations among preparations. These data coupled with a previous description of the temporal pattern of premotor interneuron activity and relative phasing of motor neuron activity in the two coordination modes enable a direct assessment of how premotor interneurons through their temporal pattern of activity and their spatial pattern of synaptic connectivity, strengths, and dynamics coordinate segmental motor neurons into a functional pattern of activity.

  6. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

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    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

  7. Coordination Motor Skills of Military Pilots Subjected to Survival Training.

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    Tomczak, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.

  8. Selected Coordination Motor Abilities of Students of the University of Physical Education During Survival Training

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    Tomczak Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Taking up emergency actions when fighting various types of natural disasters requires appropriate psychophysical preparation. Thanks to the development of technique, coordination motor abilities have gained greater importance than physical strength and endurance in such activities. The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of 36 hours of survival activities and sleep deprivation on selected coordination motor abilities in students of the University of Physical Education. Material and methods. The study involved 12 male students of the University of Physical Education in Warsaw, specialising in “Physical Education in Uniformed Services”. The age of the participants was 21.0 ± 0.74 years, their body height was 179.5 ± 5.6 cm, and their body mass was 74.6 ± 8.0 kg. The assessment was performed based on the following coordination motor ability tests: a test measuring the differentiation of the use of forearm muscle strength, a running motor adjustment test, and a measurement of divided attention. A test involving shooting from a pneumatic gun and a measurement of the maximal force of the forearm were also carried out. Tests and trials were conducted before training (P1, after 24 hours of training (P2, after completing the training - that is after 36 hours of training (P3, and after 12 hours of rest (P4. During the training, the participants completed 12 km on foot, paddled for approximately 6 hours, rowed kayaks for about 4 hours, and performed survival tasks. Results. The analysis of the results of the study of maximal force and the ability to differentiate forearm muscle strength showed that the forearm muscle strength remained at the same level during the entire training. The ability to differentiate forearm muscle strength deteriorated after night training. There were no statistically significant differences in the results of the running motor adjustment tests and in shooting performance between individual

  9. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

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    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  10. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

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    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  11. Normalized Index of Synergy for Evaluating the Coordination of Motor Commands

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    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Humans perform various motor tasks by coordinating the redundant motor elements in their bodies. The coordination of motor outputs is produced by motor commands, as well properties of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to dissociate the coordination of motor commands from motor outputs. First, we conducted simulation experiments where the total elbow torque was generated by a model of a simple human right and left elbow with redundant muscles. The results demonstrated that muscle tension with signal-dependent noise formed a coordinated structure of trial-to-trial variability of muscle tension. Therefore, the removal of signal-dependent noise effects was required to evaluate the coordination of motor commands. We proposed a method to evaluate the coordination of motor commands, which removed signal-dependent noise from the measured variability of muscle tension. We used uncontrolled manifold analysis to calculate a normalized index of synergy. Simulation experiments confirmed that the proposed method could appropriately represent the coordinated structure of the variability of motor commands. We also conducted experiments in which subjects performed the same task as in the simulation experiments. The normalized index of synergy revealed that the subjects coordinated their motor commands to achieve the task. Finally, the normalized index of synergy was applied to a motor learning task to determine the utility of the proposed method. We hypothesized that a large part of the change in the coordination of motor outputs through learning was because of changes in motor commands. In a motor learning task, subjects tracked a target trajectory of the total torque. The change in the coordination of muscle tension through learning was dominated by that of motor commands, which supported the hypothesis. We conclude that the normalized index of synergy can be used to evaluate the coordination of motor commands independently from the properties of the

  12. Motor coordination defects in mice deficient for the Sam68 RNA-binding protein.

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    Lukong, Kiven E; Richard, Stéphane

    2008-06-03

    The role of RNA-binding proteins in the central nervous system and more specifically their role in motor coordination and learning are poorly understood. We previously reported that ablation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 in mice results in male sterility and delayed mammary gland development and protection against osteoporosis in females. Sam68 however is highly expressed in most regions of the brain especially the cerebellum and thus we investigated the cerebellar-related manifestations in Sam68-null mice. We analyzed the mice for motor function, sensory function, and learning and memory abilities. Herein, we report that Sam68-null mice have motor coordination defects as assessed by beam walking and rotorod performance. Forty-week-old Sam68-null mice (n=12) were compared to their wild-type littermates (n=12). The Sam68-null mice exhibited more hindpaw faults in beam walking tests and fell from the rotating drum at lower speeds and prematurely compared to the wild-type controls. The Sam68-null mice were, however, normal for forelimb strength, tail-hang reflex, balance test, grid walking, the Morris water task, recognition memory, visual discrimination, auditory stimulation and conditional taste aversion. Our findings support a role for Sam68 in the central nervous system in the regulation of motor coordination.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  14. Motor coordination and balance in rodents.

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    Carter, R J; Morton, J; Dunnett, S B

    2001-08-01

    Measurement of motor coordination and balance can be used not only to assess the effect of drugs or other experimental manipulations on mice and rats, but also to characterize the motor phenotype of transgenic or knock-out animals. Three well established and widely used protocols for measuring motor coordination and balance in mice and rats (rotarod, beam walking and footprint analysis) are described in this unit. The tests can be used equally well for rats and mice, and have been used both for the phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice and for evaluating the effects of lesions and aging in rats. The protocols are described in the primary context of testing mice, but modifications of the test apparatus or variations in the test parameters for assessment of rats are noted.

  15. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

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    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  16. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

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    Athos Trecroci, Luca Cavaggioni, Riccardo Caccia, Giampietro Alberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG, children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG, executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2 from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14. Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    MEMISEVIC Haris; HADZIC Selmir

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  18. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs.

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    Omabegho, Tosan; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-04-03

    A substantial challenge in engineering molecular motors is designing mechanisms to coordinate the motion between multiple domains of the motor so as to bias random thermal motion. For bipedal motors, this challenge takes the form of coordinating the movement of the biped's legs so that they can move in a synchronized fashion. To address this problem, we have constructed an autonomous DNA bipedal walker that coordinates the action of its two legs by cyclically catalyzing the hybridization of metastable DNA fuel strands. This process leads to a chemically ratcheted walk along a directionally polar DNA track. By covalently cross-linking aliquots of the walker to its track in successive walking states, we demonstrate that this Brownian motor can complete a full walking cycle on a track whose length could be extended for longer walks. We believe that this study helps to uncover principles behind the design of unidirectional devices that can function without intervention. This device should be able to fulfill roles that entail the performance of useful mechanical work on the nanometer scale.

  19. Relationship between muscle strength and motor function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    Milene F. Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measuring muscle strength and motor function is part of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD assessment. However, the relationship between these variables is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. Method Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM, in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. Results Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0.94; p 0.05. Strong and moderate relationships between partial muscle strength and motor function scores were found. Higher correlation coefficients were found between total scores and Dimensions 2 (axial/ proximal control and 3 (distal control of MFM. Conclusion Muscle strength and motor function are strongly correlated and seem to decrease proportionally in DMD.

  20. Bimanual motor coordination controlled by cooperative interactions in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

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    Sakurada, Takeshi; Ito, Koji; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Although strong motor coordination in intrinsic muscle coordinates has frequently been reported for bimanual movements, coordination in extrinsic visual coordinates is also crucial in various bimanual tasks. To explore the bimanual coordination mechanisms in terms of the frame of reference, here we characterized implicit bilateral interactions in visuomotor tasks. Visual perturbations (finger-cursor gain change) were applied while participants performed a rhythmic tracking task with both index fingers under an in-phase or anti-phase relationship in extrinsic coordinates. When they corrected the right finger's amplitude, the left finger's amplitude unintentionally also changed [motor interference (MI)], despite the instruction to keep its amplitude constant. Notably, we observed two specificities: one was large MI and low relative-phase variability (PV) under the intrinsic in-phase condition, and the other was large MI and high PV under the extrinsic in-phase condition. Additionally, using a multiple-interaction model, we successfully decomposed MI into intrinsic components caused by motor correction and extrinsic components caused by visual-cursor mismatch of the right finger's movements. This analysis revealed that the central nervous system facilitates MI by combining intrinsic and extrinsic components in the condition with in-phases in both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates, and that under-additivity of the effects is explained by the brain's preference for the intrinsic interaction over extrinsic interaction. In contrast, the PV was significantly correlated with the intrinsic component, suggesting that the intrinsic interaction dominantly contributed to bimanual movement stabilization. The inconsistent features of MI and PV suggest that the central nervous system regulates multiple levels of bilateral interactions for various bimanual tasks. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and

  1. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination and balance in rats.

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    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Ramos-Languren, Laura-Elisa; Ríos, Camilo; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates motor coordination, and its depletion, as in Parkinson's disease, produces motor impairment. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and cerebral cortex are interconnected, have functional roles in motor coordination, and possess dopamine D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs), which are expressed at a particularly high density in the basal ganglia. In this study, we examined whether the activation of D 1 Rs modulates motor coordination and balance in the rat using a beam-walking test that has previously been used to detect motor coordination deficits. The systemic administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 at 2, 3, or 4 mg/kg did not alter the beam-walking scores, but the subsequent administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 at 1 mg/kg did produce deficits in motor coordination, which were reversed by the full agonist SKF-82958. The co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 did not alter the beam-walking scores compared with the control group, but significantly prevented the increase in beam-walking scores induced by SCH-23390. The effect of the D 1 R agonist to prevent and reverse the effect of the D 1 R antagonist in beam-walking scores is an indicator that the function of D 1 Rs is necessary to maintain motor coordination and balance in rats. Our results support that D 1 Rs mediate the SCH-23390-induced deficit in motor coordination.

  2. Effect of hippotherapy in the global motor coordination in individuals with Down Syndrome

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    Valéria Sovat de Freitas Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Down syndrome (DS of all genetic syndromes is the most common. In Hippotherapy, three-dimensional movements, provided by horse walking, awaken in the body of children with DS a large amount of sensory and neuromuscular stimuli, which directly interfere with overall development and the acquisition of motor skills. Objective: To analyze the effects of an Hippotherapy program on global motor coordination variables in individuals with DS of both genders and to compare individuals with the same syndrome who do not practice Hippotherapy. Methods: 41 individuals participated in the study, 20 of them practicing Hippotherapy (EG and 21 who did not practice Hippotherapy (CG. The Körperkoordinations test für Kinder (KTK test was used, consisting of four tasks: Balance on beams, Single-lever jump, Side-jump and Transfer on platform for analysis of motor coordination for individuals. Results: Comparing the groups, a significant difference (p < 0.01 was observed for the Lateral Leap Motor Quotient, the EG presented a better score (114.10 than the CG (88.47, and also in the Total Motor Ratio (EG = 115.10, GC = 102.47. The individuals that practice Hippotherapy presented better results in the global motor coordination, with significant difference (p < 0.05. In EG, 5% had high global motor coordination, 40% good and 55% normal, whereas in CG only 10% had good global motor coordination and 90% normal global motor coordination. Conclusion: It can be emphasized that equine therapy presents benefits of improvement in global motor coordination. Specifically in tasks such as the balance beam, single jump and side jump, besides global motor coordination.

  3. Motor Coordination and Body Mass Index in Primary School Children

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    Ingrid Ruzbarska; Martin Zvonar; Piotr Oleśniewicz; Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska; Krzysztof Widawski; Daniel Puciato

    2016-01-01

    Obese children will probably become obese adults, consequently exposed to an increased risk of comorbidity and premature mortality. Body weight may be indirectly determined by continuous development of coordination and motor skills. The level of motor skills and abilities is an important factor that promotes physical activity since early childhood. The aim of the study is to thoroughly understand the internal relations between motor coordination abilities and the somatic development of prepub...

  4. The relationships between gross motor coordination and sport-specific skills in adolescent non-athletes

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    Chagas Daniel V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes has been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known about the extent to which gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent nonathletes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes. Methods. The total of 34 students (27 females and 7 males aged 13-14 years who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was indicated by two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills. Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02. Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2 = 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230, F = 10.836, p = 0.02. Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in the execution of specific volleyball tasks.

  5. The potential roles of T-type Ca2+ channels in motor coordination

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    Young-Gyun ePark

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific behavioral patterns are expressed by complex combinations of muscle coordination. Tremors are simple behavioral patterns and are the focus of studies investigating motor coordination mechanisms in the brain. T-type Ca2+ channels mediate intrinsic neuronal oscillations and rhythmic burst spiking, and facilitate the generation of tremor rhythms in motor circuits. Despite substantial evidence that T-type Ca2+ channels mediate pathological tremors, their roles in physiological motor coordination and behavior remain unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the roles that T-type Ca2+ channels play under pathological conditions, and discuss the potential relevance of these channels in mediating physiological motor coordination.

  6. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaul, David

    2016-09-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.

  7. Biocultural Predictors of Motor Coordination Among Prepubertal Boys and Girls.

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    Luz, Leonardo G O; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Sousa-E-Silva, Paulo; Duarte, João P; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Seabra, André; Santos, Rute; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M). Indicators of biological development included somatic maturation and body mass index. Among males, the best logistic regression model to explain motor coordination (Nagelkerke R 2   = 50.8; χ 2  = 41.166; p girls, the best logistic regression to explain motor coordination (Nagelkerke R 2   = 40.8; χ 2  = 29.933; p physical activity level (OR = 0.183). This sex-specific, ecological approach to motor coordination proficiency may help promote physical activity during prepubertal years through familiar determinants.

  8. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

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    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  10. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

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    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  11. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  12. Motor coordination and visual information processing in high school students at risk of developmental coordination disorder: Two year follow-up study

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    Rudolf Psotta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children is characterised by the execution being substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age. This deficit can negatively affect the psychological and social development of the children and their academic achievements. A few studies provided the evidences on the persistence of impaired motor coordination up to the middle and older adolescence. Although DCD is the heterogeneous syndrome, it seems to be associated with problems in visual information processing. AIMS: The first aim of the study was to examine how a below-average motor coordination in the adolescents can be associated with visual information processing ability. Second aim was to reveal the short-term pathway of impaired motor coordination during adolescence and whether their persistence and reduction, respectively, could be associated with a level of visual information processing. METHODS: In the first phase of the study the below average motor coordination identified by the MABC-2 test (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007 in the students of the high and vocational schools (n = 52 was analysed on its relation to the ability of visual information processing. This ability was assessed by the simple and choice reaction tests (FiTRO Reaction Check device. In the 2nd phase of the study the students with moderate and significant motor difficulties (n = 34 were reassessed two years after the initial testing to examine the changes in motor coordination and its potential association with a level of visual information processing. RESULTS: The below-average motor coordination correlated with the several measures of choice reaction with a determination of R2 9-15%, while a level of selective attention and physical growth of the adolescents were not the significant factors of motor skills. Of 34 adolescents 18 students demonstrated the reduction of motor difficulties in two years, and the persistence of the

  13. Motor development in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: strength, targeting, and fine motor skill.

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    Collaer, Marcia L; Brook, Charles G D; Conway, Gerard S; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hines, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated early androgen influence on the development of human motor and visuomotor characteristics. Participants, ages 12-45 years, were individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a disorder causing increased adrenal androgen production before birth (40 females, 29 males) and their unaffected relatives (29 females, 30 males). We investigated grip strength and visuomotor targeting tasks on which males generally outperform females, and fine motor pegboard tasks on which females generally outperform males. Physical characteristics (height and weight) were measured to explore whether body parameters could explain differences in motor skills. Females with CAH were stronger and showed better targeting than unaffected females and showed reduced fine visuomotor skill on one pegboard measure, with no difference on the other. Males with CAH were weaker than unaffected males in grip strength but did not differ on the targeting or pegboard measures. Correction for body size could not explain the findings for females, but suggests that the reduced strength of males with CAH may relate to their smaller stature. Further, the targeting advantage in females with CAH persisted following adjustment for their greater strength. Results in females support the hypothesis that androgen may masculinize, or promote, certain motor characteristics at which males excel, and contribute to defeminization of certain fine motor characteristics at which females excel. Thus, these data suggest that organizational effects of androgens on behavior during prenatal life may extend to motor characteristics and may contribute to general sex differences in motor-related behaviors; however, alternative explanations based on activational influences of androgen or altered experiential factors cannot be excluded without further study.

  14. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

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    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  15. The level of selected coordinative motor abilities of basketball players aged 16-18.

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    Popowczak, M; Struzik, A; Rokita, A; Pietraszewski, B

    2015-10-01

    Coordinative abilities play a very important role in sport. Unfortunately, researchers do not confine appropriate attention to this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study was an attempt at analysing results of the selected coordinative motor abilities: kinesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. It was intended to find out whether the results of trials determining manifestations of the particular coordinative abilities exhibit any mutual relationships. Forasmuch as a static torque is a parameter determining the level of force components of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, it would like to find out whether its maximum level influences the final result. Research was carried out on 20 young basketball players with the use of a torque meter and Fusion Smart Speed System. It was noticed a lack of statistically significant relationships between the results of trials assessing manifestations of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. However, it was noted statistically significant correlation between the maximum static torque and the accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque. The accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque ought to be classified as a comprehensive ability that comprises manifestations of strength abilities and kinaesthetic differentiation. Presented trials to evaluation manifestations of the selected coordinative abilities could be used by coaches during a training process. Coaches should also focus on the development of muscle strength of the upper body and upper limbs of basketball players.

  16. Comparison of Motor Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Normal Peers

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    Sahel Hemmati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.

  17. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

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    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  18. Fundamental Principles underlying Motor Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Zhou (Kuikui)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe cerebellum has been suggested to be involved in motor control ever since the early 19th century. The motor control ranges from timing and strength of simple reflexes to multiple joint/limb coordination and complex motor sequence acquisition. The current thesis discusses the

  19. Atypical within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connections in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Kevin R. McLeod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the motor network. The structure and function of the motor network in a typically developing brain exhibits hemispheric dominance. It is plausible that functional deficits observed in children with DCD and ADHD are associated with neurodevelopmental alterations in within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connection strength that disrupt this hemispheric dominance. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine functional connections of the left and right primary and sensory motor (SM1 cortices in children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD, relative to typically developing children. Our findings revealed that children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD exhibit atypical within- and between-hemisphere functional connection strength between SM1 and regions of the basal ganglia, as well as the cerebellum. Our findings further support the assertion that development of atypical motor network connections represents common and distinct neural mechanisms underlying DCD and ADHD. In children with DCD and DCD + ADHD (but not ADHD, a significant correlation was observed between clinical assessment of motor function and the strength of functional connections between right SM1 and anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and regions involved in visuospatial processing. This latter finding suggests that behavioral phenotypes associated with atypical motor network development differ between individuals with DCD and those with ADHD.

  20. Balance Training Enhances Motor Coordination During a Perturbed Sidestep Cutting Task.

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    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Silva, Priscila Brito; Lund, Morten Enemark; Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Balance training may improve motor coordination. However, little is known about the changes in motor coordination during unexpected perturbations to postural control following balance training. Objectives To study the effects of balance training on motor coordination and knee mechanics during perturbed sidestep cutting maneuvers in healthy adults. Methods Twenty-six healthy men were randomly assigned to a training group or a control group. Before balance training, subjects performed unperturbed, 90° sidestep cutting maneuvers and 1 unexpected perturbed cut (10-cm translation of a movable platform). Participants in the training group participated in a 6-week balance training program, while those in the control group followed their regular activity schedule. Both groups were retested after a 6-week period. Surface electromyography was recorded from 16 muscles of the supporting limb and trunk, as well as kinematics and ground reaction forces. Motor modules were extracted from electromyography by nonnegative matrix factorization. External knee abduction moments were calculated using inverse dynamics equations. Results Balance training reduced the external knee abduction moment (33% ± 25%, PBalance training also increased burst duration for the motor module related to landing early in the perturbation phase (23% ± 11%, PBalance training resulted in altered motor coordination and a reduction in knee abduction moment during an unexpected perturbation. The previously reported reduction in injury incidence following balance training may be linked to changes in dynamic postural stability and modular neuromuscular control. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(11):853-862. Epub 23 Sep 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6980.

  1. Two-phase strategy of controlling motor coordination determined by task performance optimality.

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    Shimansky, Yury P; Rand, Miya K

    2013-02-01

    A quantitative model of optimal coordination between hand transport and grip aperture has been derived in our previous studies of reach-to-grasp movements without utilizing explicit knowledge of the optimality criterion or motor plant dynamics. The model's utility for experimental data analysis has been demonstrated. Here we show how to generalize this model for a broad class of reaching-type, goal-directed movements. The model allows for measuring the variability of motor coordination and studying its dependence on movement phase. The experimentally found characteristics of that dependence imply that execution noise is low and does not affect motor coordination significantly. From those characteristics it is inferred that the cost of neural computations required for information acquisition and processing is included in the criterion of task performance optimality as a function of precision demand for state estimation and decision making. The precision demand is an additional optimized control variable that regulates the amount of neurocomputational resources activated dynamically. It is shown that an optimal control strategy in this case comprises two different phases. During the initial phase, the cost of neural computations is significantly reduced at the expense of reducing the demand for their precision, which results in speed-accuracy tradeoff violation and significant inter-trial variability of motor coordination. During the final phase, neural computations and thus motor coordination are considerably more precise to reduce the cost of errors in making a contact with the target object. The generality of the optimal coordination model and the two-phase control strategy is illustrated on several diverse examples.

  2. An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents

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    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

  3. Reliability of a New Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test

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    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Motor coordination is a basic motor ability necessary for daily life, which also allows athletes to win a sports rivalry and patients to assess their recovery progress after therapy and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new lower-extremity rate of movements test and testing apparatus.

  4. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination in injured rats but does not accelerate the recovery of the motor coordination deficit.

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    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Reyes-Legorreta, Celia; Garza-Montaño, Paloma; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    The sensorimotor cortex and the striatum are interconnected by the corticostriatal pathway, suggesting that cortical injury alters the striatal function that is associated with skilled movements and motor learning, which are functions that may be modulated by dopamine (DA). In this study, we explored motor coordination and balance in order to investigate whether the activation of D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs) modulates functional recovery after cortical injury. The results of the beam-walking test showed motor deficit in the injured group at 24, 48 and 96h post-injury, and the recovery time was observed at 192h after cortical injury. In the sham and injured rats, systemic administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 (1mg/kg) alone at 24, 48, 96 and 192h significantly (Pmotor deficit, while administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 alone (2, 3 and 4mg/kg) at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury did not produce a significant difference; however, the co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 prevented the antagonist-induced increase in the motor deficit. The cortical+striatal injury showed significantly increased the motor deficit at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury (Pmotor recovery, but the activation of D 1 Rs maintained motor coordination, confirming that an intact striatum may be necessary for achieving recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

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    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  6. Motor learning as a criterion for evaluating coordination motor abilities

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    Boraczynski Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of motor learning based on objective, metric criteria, in terms of pedagogical process aimed at improving the accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. A group of 77 students of physical education participated in the study. Within 8 months there were performed 11 measurement sessions. In each session, subjects performed 10 hits a golf ball to the target from a distance of 9 m. Accuracy of hits was recorded. Effect of motor learning has been demonstrated in the progress of 10 consecutive hits a golf ball to the target in each session (operational control; in the dynamics of performance improvement between sessions (current control; as well as in the total result of eight-month experiment (stage control. There were developed norms for quantitative and qualitative assessment of accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. Developed quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the speed of motor learning in various conditions of the educational process creates the possibility of organization the operational, current and stage control of the level of human coordination motor abilities, as required by leading process.

  7. Associations of motor co-ordination and attention with motor-perceptual development in 3-year-old preterm and full-term children who needed neonatal intensive care.

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    Hemgren, E; Persson, K

    2007-01-01

    Children who have needed neonatal intensive care (NIC) are considered to be at risk for deficits such as developmental co-ordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. By assessing motor-perceptual development, motor co-ordination and attention already at 3 years of age, it might be possible to identify such deficits earlier than they are today. To investigate the motor-perceptual development in a group of 202 NIC children but had no major impairments, to describe associations of deficits in co-ordination and attention with motor-perceptual delays, and to estimate the prevalence of NIC children with combined deficits together with a motor-perceptual delay. Co-ordination and attention in children born very preterm (n = 57), moderately preterm (n = 75) and full-term (n = 70) were observed according to a model for Combined Assessment of Motor Performance and Behaviour while they were assessed using a developmental scale, Motor-Perceptual Development, 0-7 years, MPU. In two out of 14 MPU areas, a larger proportion of very preterm than of moderately preterm and full-term children had marked developmental delay. Overall, the proportion of NIC children having a motor-perceptual delay increased with increasing incoordination and especially increasing lack of attention. Twenty-one (11%) of the NIC children had different motor-perceptual delays combined with pronounced incoordination and pronounced lack of attention. Deficits in co-ordination and attention were associated with motor-perceptual delays in areas important for daily living and development of academic skills. Therefore, to find children at risk for developmental co-ordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, assessments of co-ordination and attention should be added to assessments of motor-perceptual development in 3-year-old NIC children.

  8. Strength Testing in Motor Neuron Diseases.

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    Shefner, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of muscle strength is a cardinal feature of all motor neuron diseases. Functional loss over time, including respiratory dysfunction, inability to ambulate, loss of ability to perform activities of daily living, and others are due, in large part, to decline in strength. Thus, the accurate measurement of limb muscle strength is essential in therapeutic trials to best understand the impact of therapy on vital function. While qualitative strength measurements show declines over time, the lack of reproducibility and linearity of measurement make qualitative techniques inadequate. A variety of quantitative measures have been developed; all have both positive attributes and limitations. However, with careful training and reliability testing, quantitative measures have proven to be reliable and sensitive indicators of both disease progression and the impact of experimental therapy. Quantitative strength measurements have demonstrated potentially important therapeutic effects in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and have been shown feasible in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The spectrum of both qualitative and quantitative strength measurements are reviewed and their utility examined in this review.

  9. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

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    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Effects of two distinct group motor skill interventions in psychological and motor skills of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A pilot study.

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    Caçola, Priscila; Romero, Michael; Ibana, Melvin; Chuang, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have an increased risk for mental health difficulties. The present pilot study aimed to determine whether distinct group intervention programs improved several psychological variables (anxiety; adequacy and predilection for physical activity; participation, preferences, and enjoyment for activities) and motor skills from the perspective of a child with DCD as well as parental perceptions of motor skills, rate of function, and strengths and difficulties. Eleven children participated in Program A and thirteen in Program B. Both involved 10 sessions of 1 h each. Program A focused on task-oriented activities in a large group involving motor skill training and collaboration and cooperation among children, while Program B was composed of three groups with a direct goal-oriented approach for training of skills chosen by the children. Results indicated that children improved motor skills after both programs, but showed distinct results in regards to other variables - after Program A, children showed higher anxiety and lower levels of enjoyment, even though parents detected an improvement in rate of function and a decrease in peer problems. With Program B, children decreased anxiety levels, and parents noted a higher control of movement of their children. Regardless of the group approach, children were able to improve motor skills. However, it is possible that the differences between groups may have influenced parents' perception of their children's motor and psychological skills, as well as children's perception of anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prospective association between objective measures of childhood motor coordination and sedentary behaviour in adolescence and adulthood.

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    Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-06-10

    Higher levels of gross motor coordination are positively associated with physical activity in childhood, but little is known about how they relate to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal association between gross motor coordination at childhood and sedentary behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Data were from the 1970 British Cohort Study (the age 10, 16, and 42-year surveys). At age 10 the participant's mother provided information on how often participants watched TV and played sports and a health visitor administered several tests to assess gross motor coordination. At aged 16 and 42-years participants reported their daily screen and TV time, respectively, and physical activity status. We examined associations between gross motor coordination at age 10 with sedentary behaviour and physical activity at age 16 and 42, using logistic regression. In multivariable models, higher levels of gross motor coordination were associated with lower odds of high screen time (n = 3073; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64, 0.98) at 16-years although no associations with physical activity were observed (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.93, 1.44). Similar associations were observed with TV time in adulthood when participants were aged 42, and in addition high gross motor coordination was also associated with physical activity participation (n = 4879; OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.36). Intervention efforts to increase physical activity participation and reduce sedentary behaviour over the life course may be best targeted towards children with low gross motor coordination.

  12. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

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    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  13. Coordination of fictive motor activity in the larval zebrafish is generated by non-segmental mechanisms.

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    Timothy D Wiggin

    Full Text Available The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits.

  14. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

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    Huzhang Mao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate.

  15. RELIABILITY OF ANKLE-FOOT MORPHOLOGY, MOBILITY, STRENGTH, AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of foot posture, morphology, intersegmental mobility, strength and motor control of the ankle-foot complex are commonly used clinically, but measurement properties of many assessments are unclear. To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change of morphology, joint excursion and play, strength, and motor control of the ankle-foot complex. Reliability study. 24 healthy, recreationally-active young adults without history of ankle-foot injury were assessed by two clinicians on two occasions, three to ten days apart. Measurement properties were assessed for foot morphology (foot posture index, total and truncated length, width, arch height), joint excursion (weight-bearing dorsiflexion, rearfoot and hallux goniometry, forefoot inclinometry, 1 st metatarsal displacement) and joint play, strength (handheld dynamometry), and motor control rating during intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises. Clinician order was randomized using a Latin Square. The clinicians performed independent examinations and did not confer on the findings for the duration of the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability and agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,k ) and weighted kappa ( K w ). Test-retest reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .80-1.00, joint excursion: .58-.97, joint play: -.67-.84, strength: .67-.92, IFM motor rating: K W -.01-.71. Inter-rater reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .81-1.00, joint excursion: .32-.97, joint play: -1.06-1.00, strength: .53-.90, and IFM motor rating: K w .02-.56. Measures of ankle-foot posture, morphology, joint excursion, and strength demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability for rating of perceived difficulty and motor performance was good to excellent for short-foot, toe-spread-out, and hallux exercises and poor to fair for lesser toe extension. Joint play measures had

  16. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  17. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huzhang; Saha, Mitul; Reyes-Aldrete, Emilio; Sherman, Michael B; Woodson, Michael; Atz, Rockney; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Morais, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors affecting visual-motor coordination deficit among children residing near a petrochemical industrial estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungudornpukdee, P; Vichit-Vadakan, N

    2009-12-01

    Thailand has been changed to rapid urbanization and industrialization since 1980s. During 1992 through 1996, the number of industrial factories in Rayong province increased very sharply. The major types of industries are petrol-chemical and plastic production. However, after the petrochemical industry boomed, the higher demand led to an industrial area expansion. The establishment of factories in this area leads to serious environmental and health impacts. The study aims to investigate the factors that affect visual-motor coordination deficit among children, 6-13 years of age, residing near the Petrochemical Industrial Estate, Map Ta Phut, Rayong province. A population-based cross-sectional study was employed for collecting data on neurobehavioral effects using the Digit Symbol Test. The study found one-third of 2,956 children presented with visual-motor coordination deficits. Three factors were identified that caused children to have a higher risk of visual-motor coordination deficits: gender (adjusted OR 1.934), monthly parental income (range of adjusted OR 1.977 - 2.612), and household environmental tobacco smoke (adjusted OR 1.284), while age (adjusted OR 0.874) and living period (adjusted OR 0.954) in study areas were reversed effects on visual-motor coordination deficit among children. The finding indicated that children with visual-motor coordination deficit were affected by gender, monthly parental income, age of children, length of living period, and household environmental tobacco smoke.

  19. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight loss and improved gross motor coordination in children as a result of multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Gentier, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Tanghe, Ann; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program by describing changes in body weight, related measures, and gross motor co-ordination. Secondarily, it was examined to what extent the amount of relative weight loss achieved by overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants explained the projected improvement in gross motor co-ordination. Thirty-six OW/OB children (aged 10.5 ± 1.4 years, 12 girls and 24 boys) were recruited at the Zeepreventorium VZW (De Haan, Belgium), where they followed a specific program consisting of moderate dietary restriction, psychological support, and physical activity. For reference purposes, an additional group of 36 age- and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross motor co-ordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) on two occasions with an interval of 4 months. Regardless of the test moment, OW/OB participants displayed significantly poorer KTK performances (P motor co-ordination performance, with a greater increase in KTK score(s) from baseline to re-test as compared to HW peers (P motor co-ordination, which in turn may promote physical activity participation.

  1. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that…

  2. Motor hypertonia and lack of locomotor coordination in mutant mice lacking DSCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Maxime; Laflamme, Olivier D; Thiry, Louise; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Frenette, Jérôme; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Down syndrome cell adherence molecule (DSCAM) contributes to the normal establishment and maintenance of neural circuits. Whereas there is abundant literature regarding the role of DSCAM in the neural patterning of the mammalian retina, less is known about motor circuits. Recently, DSCAM mutation has been shown to impair bilateral motor coordination during respiration, thus causing death at birth. DSCAM mutants that survive through adulthood display a lack of locomotor endurance and coordination in the rotarod test, thus suggesting that the DSCAM mutation impairs motor control. We investigated the motor and locomotor functions of DSCAM(2J) mutant mice through a combination of anatomical, kinematic, force, and electromyographic recordings. With respect to wild-type mice, DSCAM(2J) mice displayed a longer swing phase with a limb hyperflexion at the expense of a shorter stance phase during locomotion. Furthermore, electromyographic activity in the flexor and extensor muscles was increased and coactivated over 20% of the step cycle over a wide range of walking speeds. In contrast to wild-type mice, which used lateral walk and trot at walking speed, DSCAM(2J) mice used preferentially less coordinated gaits, such as out-of-phase walk and pace. The neuromuscular junction and the contractile properties of muscles, as well as their muscle spindles, were normal, and no signs of motor rigidity or spasticity were observed during passive limb movements. Our study demonstrates that the DSCAM mutation induces dystonic hypertonia and a disruption of locomotor gaits. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Development of motor imagery and anticipatory action planning in children with developmental coordination disorder: A longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Children with impaired motor coordination (or Development Coordination Disorder - DCD) have difficulty with the predictive control of movements, evidenced by cross-sectional studies that show impaired motor imagery and action planning abilities. What remains unclear is whether this deficit in

  4. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  5. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H G; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  6. A test of motor (not executive) planning in developmental coordination disorder and autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, L.M.; van Bergen, E.; Williams, J.H.G.; Wilson, A.D.; Plumb, M.S.; Kent, S.W.; Mon-Williams, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  7. Inter-limb coordination, strength, jump, and sprint performances following a youth men's basketball game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, Cristina; Tessitore, Antonio; Lupo, Corrado; Pesce, Caterina; Fossile, Eugenio; Figura, Francesco; Capranica, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to verify whether basketball players are able to maintain strength (handgrip), jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]), sprint (10 m and 10 m bouncing the ball [10 mBB]), and interlimb coordination (i.e., synchronized hand and foot flexions and extensions at 80, 120, and 180 bpm) performances at the end of their game. Ten young (age 15.7 ± 0.2 years) male basketball players volunteered for this study. During the friendly game, heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and rate of muscle pain (RMP) were assessed to evaluate the exercise intensity. Overall, players spent 80% of the time playing at intensities higher than 85% HRmax. Main effects (p jump (pre = 35.2 ± 5.2 cm, post = 35.7 ± 5.2 cm), handgrip (pre = 437 ± 73 N, post = 427 ± 55 N), and coordinative performances at lower frequencies of executions (80 bpm: pre = 59.7 ± 1.3 seconds, post = 60.0 ± 0.0 seconds; 120 bpm: pre = 54.7 ± 12.3 seconds, post = 57.3 ± 6.7 seconds). These findings indicate that the heavy load of the game exerts beneficial effects on the efficiency of executive and attentive control functions involved in complex motor behaviors. Coaches should structure training sessions that couple intense physical exercises with complex coordination tasks to improve the attentional capabilities of the players.

  8. Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Jaworski, Janusz; Lyakh, Vladimir; Krawczyk, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects’ competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions. The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time. PMID:23486723

  9. PAIR MOTOR COORDINATION ACTION IN SPORTSMEN (ON THE EXAMPLE OF BALLROOM DANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kapilevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learn a special coordinating pair of motor actions in athletes engaged sport ballroom dancing, depending on gender and sportsmanship. The results suggest that beginners dominated coordination, performed individually, while the highly skilled dancers better developed coordination, carried out in pairs. Athletes average individual coordination disturbed by the emergence of sex differences build movements and coordination pair is not formed. The asymmetry of the coordination abilities manifested in the predominance of the deviation from equilibrium (to the right of men and to the left – in women. In this case, the athletes of low and medium level of skill to maintain the leading element of balance and coordination is the visual analyzer, while the skilled dancers defining role goes to the vestibular apparatus.

  10. Age-Dependent Relationship between Socio-Adaptability and Motor Coordination in High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Viviane; Huys, Raoul; Jas, Brunhilde; Kruck, Jeanne

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal perceptual-motor coordination is hypothesized here to be involved in social deficits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To test this hypothesis, high functioning children with ASD and typical controls, similar in age as well as verbal and perceptive performance, performed perceptual-motor coordination tasks and several social competence…

  11. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Ji; Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-21

    Although alkyl nitrites are used as recreational drugs, there is only little research data regarding their effects on the central nervous system including their neurotoxicity. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of three representative alkyl nitrites (isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite), and whether it affected learning/memory function and motor coordination in rodents. Morris water maze test was performed in mice after administrating the mice with varying doses of the substances in two different injection schedules of memory acquisition and memory retention. A rota-rod test was then performed in rats. All tested alkyl nitrites lowered the rodents' capacity for learning and memory, as assessed by both the acquisition and retention tests. The results of the rota-rod test showed that isobutyl nitrite in particular impaired motor coordination in chronically treated rats. The mice chronically injected with isoamyl nitrite also showed impaired function, while butyl nitrite had no significant effect. The results of the water maze test suggest that alkyl nitrites may impair learning and memory. Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between the behavior problems and motor skills of students with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangchool; Jeoung, Bogja

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at P Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically significant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statistically significant influence on social problems.

  13. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in Senior Phase learners in the Potchefstroom area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    2016-10-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in adolescent Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa. No literature exists on the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels among South African adolescents. Method: A total of 239 13- to 14-year-old learners were assessed using the Bruininkse Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2 for motor proficiency, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for physical activity levels. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation coefficients and effect sizes. Results: Statistically and practically significant correlations were found between the total BOT-2 score and the physical activity levels of the total group, as well as the boys and the girls respectively. Fine motor coordination correlated with physical activity levels in the girls, while manipulation coordination correlated with the physical activity levels of the total group and the boys. The body coordination skill of jumping in place and the strength test items showed strong correlations with physical activity in all the groups. Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.

  14. Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

  15. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  16. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Marstrand, Peter C.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Changes in corticospinal excitability induced by 4 wk of heavy strength training or visuomotor skill learning were investigated in 24 healthy human subjects. Measurements of the input-output relation for biceps brachii motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation...... decreased significantly at rest but not during contraction in the strength-trained subjects (P = 0.01). No significant changes were observed in a control group. A significant correlation between changes in neurophysiological parameters and motor performance was observed for skill learning but not strength...... were obtained at rest and during voluntary contraction in the course of the training. The training paradigms induced specific changes in the motor performance capacity of the subjects. The strength training group increased maximal dynamic and isometric muscle strength by 31% (P

  17. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  18. The influence of gymnastics in motor coordination and reaction time in urban public bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Paula Mezzomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of labour gymnastics (LG on bus drivers' basic skills such as reaction time and gross motor coordination. Sixty male bus drivers (37.06 ± 7.66 years old from two bus lines in the city of Santa Maria (RS took part of this study. The participants were split into two groups, experimental group (EG and control group (CG. Subjects that were part of the EG took part in a LG intervention program, 2-3 times a week, over a year. Gross motor coordination was assessed by BURPEE Protocol (Johnson & Nelson, 1979, whereas reaction time by software providing a visual stimulus. Data normality was checked through Shapiro-Wilk test, which pointed to normal distribution only for the variables simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT in the EG. Therefore the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was selected to compare differences between groups. A statistically significant difference for gross motor coordination was found (z= −2.525, p= 0.012, suggesting the effectiveness of LG to improve motor skills. As regards SRT and CRT, no significant difference was found, in spite of better outcomes having been recorded after the LG program.

  19. Speech motor coordination in Dutch-speaking children with DAS studied with EMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, L.; Maassen, B.A.M.; Hulstijn, W.; Peters, H.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) is generally classified as a 'speech motor' disorder. Direct measurement of articulatory movement is, however, virtually non-existent. In the present study we investigated the coordination between articulators in children with DAS using kinematic measurements.

  20. Association between physical activity and motor skills and coordination in Portuguese children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is growing evidence in literature that Health benefits from regular physical activity (PA. The variance in PA among children is caused by a number of factors including their motor abilities and coordination. The aim of the study was to analyse the relation between usual PA and gross motor abilities and motor coordination in children aged 6 to 7 years. The sample comprised 21 children, aged in average 6,38±0,50 years. Physical activity was accessed by accelerometry, gross motor abilities by using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and motor coordination by using the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (KTK. Subjects met the international recommendations for daily PA; in motor coordination 47,6% of children met normal coordination, nobody reach good or very good coordination, the majority (52,4% revelled disturbances or insufficiencies of coordination; in locomotion TGMD-2 76,2% of the children met percentile 50 or superior (P50, in object control TGMD-2 28,6% of the children reach P50 or superior, in total TGMD-2 38,1% of the children met P50 or superior. PA was positively correlated with TGMD-2 object control. Low performance attributed to the children in TGMD-2 and KTK tests could be an indicative of insufficient in the development of coordination and gross motor abilities; therefore we believe that this kind of intervention should be targeted at school children mainly in Physical Education classes.

  1. Comparing motor performance, praxis, coordination, and interpersonal synchrony between children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninderjit; M Srinivasan, Sudha; N Bhat, Anjana

    2018-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have basic motor impairments in balance, gait, and coordination as well as autism-specific impairments in praxis/motor planning and interpersonal synchrony. Majority of the current literature focuses on isolated motor behaviors or domains. Additionally, the relationship between cognition, symptom severity, and motor performance in ASD is unclear. We used a comprehensive set of measures to compare gross and fine motor, praxis/imitation, motor coordination, and interpersonal synchrony skills across three groups of children between 5 and 12 years of age: children with ASD with high IQ (HASD), children with ASD with low IQ (LASD), and typically developing (TD) children. We used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Bilateral Motor Coordination subtest of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests to assess motor performance and praxis skills respectively. Children were also examined while performing simple and complex rhythmic upper and lower limb actions on their own (solo context) and with a social partner (social context). Both ASD groups had lower gross and fine motor scores, greater praxis errors in total and within various error types, lower movement rates, greater movement variability, and weaker interpersonal synchrony compared to the TD group. In addition, the LASD group had lower gross motor scores and greater mirroring errors compared to the HASD group. Overall, a variety of motor impairments are present across the entire spectrum of children with ASD, regardless of their IQ scores. Both, fine and gross motor performance significantly correlated with IQ but not with autism severity; however, praxis errors (mainly, total, overflow, and rhythmicity) strongly correlated with autism severity and not IQ. Our study findings highlight the need for clinicians and therapists to include motor evaluations and interventions in the standard-of-care of children with ASD and for the broader autism community to

  2. Assessment of Motor Balance and Coordination in Mice using the Balance Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Tinh N.; Carlisle, Holly J.; Southwell, Amber; Patterson, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Brain injury, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological treatments can result in alterations of motor skills in mice. Fine motor coordination and balance can be assessed by the beam walking assay. The goal of this test is for the mouse to stay upright and walk across an elevated narrow beam to a safe platform. This test takes place over 3 consecutive days: 2 days of training and 1 day of testing. Performance on the beam is quantified by measuring the time it takes for the mouse to travers...

  3. Functional BOLD MRI: comparison of different field strengths in a motor task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, T.; Born, C.; Britsch, S.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the benefit of an increased field strength for functional magnetic resonance imaging in a motor task. Six right-handed volunteers were scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using a motor task. Each experiment consisted of two runs with four activation blocks, each with right- and left-hand tapping. Analysis was done using BrainVoyagerQX registered . Differences between both field strengths concerning signal to noise (SNR), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD contrast to noise (CNR) were tested using a paired t test. Delineation of activations and artifacts were graded by two independent readers. Results were further validated by means of a phantom study. The sensorimotor and premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, subcortical and cerebellar structures were activated at each field strength. Additional activations of the right premotor cortex and right superior temporal gyrus were found at 3.0 T. Signal-to-noise, percentage of BOLD signal change, BOLD CNR and functional sensitivity improved at 3.0 T by a factor of up to 2.4. Functional imaging at 3.0 T results in detection of additional activated areas, increased SNR, BOLD signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD CNR. (orig.)

  4. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  5. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  6. Is severity of motor coordination difficulties related to co-morbidity in children at risk for developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Marina M; Lingam, Raghu; Jongmans, Marian J; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Emond, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N=6959) from a population based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were divided into three groups based on their scores on the ALSPAC Coordination Test at age 7: control children (scores above 15th centile; N=5719 [82.1%]); children with moderate (between 5th and 15th centile; N=951 [13.7%]); and children with severe motor difficulties (below 5th centile N=289 [4.2%]). Children with neurological disorders or an IQactivities of daily living (ADL); academic skills (reading, spelling and handwriting); attention; social skills (social cognition and nonverbal skills). Children with severe motor difficulties demonstrated a higher risk of difficulties in ADL, handwriting, attention, reading, and social cognition than children with moderate motor difficulties, who in turn had a higher risk of difficulties than control children in five out of seven domains. Screening and intervention of co-morbid problems is recommended for children with both moderate and severe motor difficulties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of motor balance and coordination in mice using the balance beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Tinh N; Carlisle, Holly J; Southwell, Amber; Patterson, Paul H

    2011-03-10

    Brain injury, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological treatments can result in alterations of motor skills in mice. Fine motor coordination and balance can be assessed by the beam walking assay. The goal of this test is for the mouse to stay upright and walk across an elevated narrow beam to a safe platform. This test takes place over 3 consecutive days: 2 days of training and 1 day of testing. Performance on the beam is quantified by measuring the time it takes for the mouse to traverse the beam and the number of paw slips that occur in the process. Here we report the protocol used in our laboratory, and representative results from a cohort of C57BL/6 mice. This task is particularly useful for detecting subtle deficits in motor skills and balance that may not be detected by other motor tests, such as the Rotarod.

  8. Interactive metronome training for a 9-year-old boy with attention and motor coordination difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscherer, Melinda L; Dole, Robin L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a new intervention, the Interactive Metronome, for improving timing and coordination. A nine-year-old boy, with difficulties in attention and developmental delay of unspecified origin underwent a seven-week training program with the Interactive Metronome. Before, during, and after training timing, accuracy was assessed with testing procedures consistent with the Interactive Metronome training protocol. Before and after training, his gross and fine motor skills were examined with the Bruininiks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The child exhibited marked change in scores on both timing accuracy and several BOTMP subtests. Additionally his mother relayed anecdotal reports of changes in behavior at home. This child's participation in a new intervention for improving timing and coordination was associated with changes in timing accuracy, gross and fine motor abilities, and parent reported behaviors. These findings warrant further study.

  9. Coordinate Representations for Interference Reduction in Motor Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Yeo

    Full Text Available When opposing force fields are presented alternately or randomly across trials for identical reaching movements, subjects learn neither force field, a behavior termed 'interference'. Studies have shown that a small difference in the endpoint posture of the limb reduces this interference. However, any difference in the limb's endpoint location typically changes the hand position, joint angles and the hand orientation making it ambiguous as to which of these changes underlies the ability to learn dynamics that normally interfere. Here we examine the extent to which each of these three possible coordinate systems--Cartesian hand position, shoulder and elbow joint angles, or hand orientation--underlies the reduction in interference. Subjects performed goal-directed reaching movements in five different limb configurations designed so that different pairs of these configurations involved a change in only one coordinate system. By specifically assigning clockwise and counter-clockwise force fields to the configurations we could create three different conditions in which the direction of the force field could only be uniquely distinguished in one of the three coordinate systems. We examined the ability to learn the two fields based on each of the coordinate systems. The largest reduction of interference was observed when the field direction was linked to the hand orientation with smaller reductions in the other two conditions. This result demonstrates that the strongest reduction in interference occurred with changes in the hand orientation, suggesting that hand orientation may have a privileged role in reducing motor interference for changes in the endpoint posture of the limb.

  10. Muscular coordination and strength training. Implications for injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, O M

    1988-03-01

    Strength training is commonly used in the rehabilitation of muscles atrophied as a result of injury and/or disuse. Studies on the effects of conventional leg extension training in healthy subjects have shown the changes to be very task-specific to the training manoeuvre itself. After conventional leg extension training for the quadriceps muscle the major improvement was in weightlifting ability with only small increases in isometric strength. The maximum dynamic force and power output during sprint cycling showed no improvement. These results suggest that the major benefit of this type of training is learning to coordinate the different muscle groups involved in the training movement rather than intrinsic increases in strength of the muscle group being trained. Other studies have shown changes in strength to be specific to the length and speed at which the muscle has been trained. The implication for rehabilitation is that strength training for isolated muscle groups may not be the most effective way of increasing functional ability. As the major changes are task-specific it may be better to incorporate the training into task-related practice. This would have the advantage of strengthening the muscle groups affected whilst increasing performance in those activities which are required in daily life.

  11. ASPECTS OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Žgur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Child’s motor development is not an isolated process but it rather involves numerous other developmental aspects, such as cognitive and conative. The research is focused on defining the developmental principles of motor abilities and skills in children with prominent motor deficits who were diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP. The research compares the motor maturity between two groups of children with CP; the younger group (up to 10 years of age and the older group (10 – 16 years of age. The research included 78 primary school children with different forms of CP (diplegia, hemiplegia, mixed forms, aged between 6 and 16. The discriminant analysis used in the research showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between age and motor maturity in children with CP. The structural matrix confirmed the different hierarchical representation of the motor components (strength, coordination, precision and graphomotor skills for the selected motor model, in relation to children’s age. The function of explosive strength showed significant differences between younger and older children as regards their motor maturity. We can conclude that there is a significant developmental difference between the groups of younger and older children with CP, in relation to their motor maturity (different hierarchical representation, with the most obvious difference in motor ability of explosive strength.

  12. Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Luís; Póvoas, S.; Mota, Jorge; Okely, A.D.; Coelho-e-Silva, M.J.; Cliff, D.P.; Lopes, Vítor P.; Santos, Rute

    2017-01-01

    Available data on the associations between motor competence (MC) and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Korperkoordination Test fur Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push-up tests)...

  13. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Longitudinal Changes in Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor peripheral nerve function is common in older adults and may be a risk factor for strength decline, although this has not been assessed longitudinally. Methods. We assessed whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function predicts strength longitudinally in 1,830 participants (age...... was assessed with 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments and average vibration detection threshold at the toe. Lower-extremity neuropathy symptoms were self-reported. Results. Worse vibration detection threshold predicted 2.4% lower strength in men and worse motor amplitude and two symptoms predicted 2.5% and 8.1% lower...

  14. Does Physical Self-Concept Mediate the Relationship between Motor Abilities and Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11–17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity. PMID:28045914

  15. Motor coordination during gait after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of art about motor coordination during gait in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. Searches were carried out, limited from 1980 to 2010, in various databases with keywords related to motor coordination, gait and ACL injury. From the analysis of titles and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria 24 studies were initially selected and, after reading the abstract, eight studies remained in the final analysis. ACL deficient patients tend to have a more rigid and less variable gait, while injured patients with ACL reconstruction have less rigid and more variable gait with respect to healthy individuals. The overall results suggest the existence of differences in motor coordination between the segments with intact and those with injured knee, regardless of ligament reconstruction. ACL injured patients present aspects related to the impairment of the capability to adapt the gait pattern to different environmental conditions, possibly leading to premature knee degeneration. However, the techniques used for biomechanical gait data processing are limited with respect to obtaining information that leads to the development of intervention strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of that injury, since it is not possible to identify the location within the gait cycle where the differences could be explained.

  16. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  17. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance.

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, an umbrella term for motor impairments in children: nature and co-morbid disorders

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    Laurence eVaivre-Douret

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD defines a heterogeneous class of children exhibiting marked impairment in motor coordination as a general group of deficits in fine and gross motricity (subtype mixed group common to all research studies, and with a variety of other motor disorders that have been little investigated. No consensus about symptoms and aetiology has been established. Methods: Data from 58 children aged 6 to 13 years with DCD were collected on DSM-IV criteria, similar to DSM- 5 criteria. They had no other medical condition and inclusion criteria were strict (born full-term, no medication, no occupational /physical therapy. Multivariate statistical methods were used to evidence relevant interactions between discriminant features in a general DCD subtype group and to highlight specific co-morbidities. The study examined age-calibrated standardized scores from completed assessments of psychological, neuropsychological and neuropsychomotor functions, and more specifically the presence of minor neurological dysfunctions (MND including neurological soft signs (NSS, without evidence of focal neurological brain involvement. These were not considered in most previous studies. Results: Findings show the salient DCD markers for the mixed subtype (imitation of gestures, digital perception, digital praxia, manual dexterity, upper and lower limb coordination, versus surprising co-morbidities, with 33% of MND with mild spasticity from phasic stretch reflex (PSR, not associated with the above impairments but rather with sitting tone (p= .004 and dysdiadochokinesia (p= .011. PSR was not specific to a DCD subtype but was related to increased impairment of coordination between upper and lower limbs and manual dexterity. Our results highlight the major contribution of an extensive neuro-developmental assessment (mental and physical. Discussion: The present study provides important new evidence in favour of a complete physical

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

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    Jadranka Kocić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of basketball game, just like up-to-date sports results represent the stimulus for further fundamental researches in the aim of improvement scientific and methodological basis of a training work and all other factors connected to the improvement of a training process and top sports creativity. The research was conducted with the aim to determine the specifics of motor abilities in basketball players of the junior rank of competition. All the examinees were male, 16 (+/-6 months years old, 132 in total, all of them were basketball players of the basketball club ”Student” from Nis. The batery of tests for the evaluation of motor abilities included tests for the evaluation of coordination, strength (explosive, repetitive and static, flexibility and stamina and it consisted of 13 motor tests in total. The gained results were processed by the program system for multivariant analysis of data, especially made by Popovic D. for personal computers. The gained results are shown in tables and they give insight into the structure of latent dimensions of basketball players. The motor structure of basketball players is explained by 72.3% of common variance. From the matrix of intercorrelations, four main components were gained. The fist defines tests of static strength, flexibility and repetitive strength; the second is saturated by the test for the evaluation of explosive strength, balance and two tests for the evaluation of repetitive strength. The third is the best explained by the test for the evaluation of balance, flexibility and coordination. The fourth main component is defined by explosive strength. Then, the rotation of components into the oblimin solution is conducted and some better structure of latent dimensions is gained that way. In basketball and other popular sports games in our country, scientific and expert methods and possibilities of scientific fundation of the trainig work are very slowly but surely accepted.The trend

  20. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  1. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  2. iPad applications that required a range of motor skills promoted motor coordination in children commencing primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Caitlin; Joosten, Annette V; Harris, Courtenay

    2018-04-01

    Children are reported to spend less time engaged in outdoor activity and object-related play than in the past. The increased use and mobility of technology, and the ease of use of tablet devices are some of the factors that have contributed to these changes. Concern has been raised that the use of such screen and surface devices in very young children is reducing their fine motor skill development. We examined the effectiveness of iPad applications that required specific motor skills designed to improve fine motor skills. We conducted a two-group non-randomised controlled trial with two pre-primary classrooms (53 children; 5-6 years) in an Australian co-educational school, using a pre- and post-test design. The effectiveness of 30 minutes daily use of specific iPad applications for 9 weeks was compared with a control class. Children completed the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and observation checklist, the Shore Handwriting Screen, and self-care items from the Hawaii Early Learning Profile. On post testing, the experimental group made a statistically and clinically significant improvement on the VMI motor coordination standard scores with a moderate clinical effect size (P motor skill-specific applications as an intervention in occupational therapy practice and as part of at home or school play. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  4. Evaluating fine motor coordination in children who are not ready for handwriting : which test should we take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Liesbeth; van Hartingsveldt, Margo J.; Cup, Edith H.C.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W.G.; de Groot, Imelda J.M.

    2015-01-01

    When children are not ready to write, assessment of fine motor coordination may be indicated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which fine motor test, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) or the newly developed Timed Test of In-Hand Manipulation (Timed-TIHM), correlates best with handwriting

  5. Evaluating fine motor coordination in children who are not ready for handwriting: which test should we take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, L. de; Hartingsveldt, M.J. van; Cup, E.H.C.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2015-01-01

    When children are not ready to write, assessment of fine motor coordination may be indicated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which fine motor test, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) or the newly developed Timed Test of In-Hand Manipulation (Timed-TIHM), correlates best with handwriting

  6. Low motor performance scores among overweight children: poor coordination or morphological constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether lower motor performance scores can be full attributed to poor coordination, or whether weight related morphological constraints may also affect motor performance. Data for 666 children and adolescents from the longitudinal Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were grouped into normal weight, overweight and obese categories based on the International Obesity Task Force cut points. Participants completed the 10-item McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) at the 10 and 14 year follow-up. The prevalence of overweight and obese participants classified with mild or moderate motor difficulties was not different from the normal weight group at 10 years (χ2 = 5.8 p = .215), but higher at 14 years (χ2 = 11.3 p = .023). There were no significant differences in overall motor performance scores between weight status groups at 10 years, but at 14 years, the normal weight group achieved better scores than the obese group (pobese groups on the jump task at 10 (pmotor competence are appropriate for an increasingly overweight and obese population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of exercise intervention on improving fundamental movement skills and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ahreum; Fu, Allan; Cobley, Stephen; Sanders, Ross H

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity is negatively associated with fundamental movement skill and motor coordination, which in turn constrains physical activity participation and adherence thereby forming a 'vicious cycle'. However, developing motor skill and coordination in childhood could help to break the vicious cycle to reduce childhood obesity. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on improving fundamental movement skill and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents. A systematic review with quality assessment. A comprehensive systematic search was conducted from MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE without date restriction for randomized control trials, interventions or longitudinal studies of movement skill/motor skill/motor coordination in overweight/obese participants between 0-18 years of age. A total of 3944 publications were screened, and 17 published studies were included. Altogether 38 tests for locomotor, object-control, balance and complex task tests were examined in selected studies, with 33 reporting increases after interventions, while only five tests indicated no change. The evidence strongly suggests that exercise/physical activity interventions were effective in improving locomotor skill, object-control skill and complex tasks in overweight/obese peers. However, the results for balance were equivocal. Results from existing studies suggest overweight/obese peers have lower levels of fundamental movement skill than their healthy weight peers. However, exercise/physical activity interventions are effective in improving their skills. To maximize skill improvement, we recommend focused fundamental movement skill and motor coordination activities for skill development. These progressions in interventions may help break the vicious cycle of childhood obesity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Effect of the Power Balance® hologram on balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Merino Marban, Daniel Mayorga Vega, Emilio Fernández Rodríguez, Francisco José Santana Pérez, Oscar Romero Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the body’s energy field, the inventors of Power Balance® have created a hologram that theoretically runs through frequencies that are in our natural environment. Its creators say that people may experience improve balance, strength, flexibility, endurance, concentration, coordination and recovery time, among others. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of Power Balance® hologram on balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination in university students. A sample of 105 young volunteers’ physical education students (age 20.91 ± 3.36 years, mass 69.69 ± 11.35 kg, height 171.70 ± 8.07 cm was used. A between-group experimental design with double-blind control group was used to evaluate the possible effects of the Power Balance ® on the dynamic balance, flexibility, abdominal strength, endurance and speed-coordination measured with the Dynamic Balance Test, Sit and Reach, Sit-ups in 30 seconds and Race 10 x 5 m, respectively. A t of Student for independent and dependent samples was used to assess the potential effects between-group and intra-group, respectively. Power Balance®’s hologram produces no significant effects on the balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination among university students

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN MOTOR DIMENSIONS AND NEUROTICISM OF BOYS 7 TO 11 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to establish the correlation between selected motor dimensions and personal dimension of neuroticism of children between seven and eleven years of age. The subject sample consisted of 92 schoolboys, attending the first five grades of the elementary school Kette-Murn in Ljubljana. Motor abilities were measured with a battery of 20 motor tasks (flexibility, speed, balance, strength and co-ordination and neuroticism with the Big Five Questionnaire. The association between variables was analysed with correlation analysis. Personal dimension of neuroticism showed high correlation with the tests of coordination and speed in case of the children in lower classes and with the motor tests of flexibility in case of the children in higher classes of primary school.

  10. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in Senior Phase learners in the Potchefstroom area

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    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.

  11. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  12. A crossover randomised and controlled trial of the impact of active video games on motor coordination and perceptions of physical ability in children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, L; Howie, E; Smith, A; Jensen, L; Piek, J; Campbell, A

    2015-08-01

    Impaired motor development can significantly affect a child's life and may result in an increased risk of a range of physical and psychological disorders. Active video game (AVG) interventions have been demonstrated to enhance motor skills in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD); however a home-based intervention has not been assessed. The primary aim of this study was to compare the changes in motor coordination between a 16 week period of AVG use, with 16 weeks of normal activities (NAG). The secondary aim was to compare the child and parent perceptions of their physical performance between the AVG and NAG conditions. Twenty-one 9-12 year olds (10 males) were confirmed to be at risk of DCD (⩽ 16th percentile Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and ⩽ 15th percentile Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)) and participated in this crossover randomised and controlled trial. Data was collected at study entry, after the first 16 week condition and following the final 16 week condition, including; (1) the MABC-2, (2) three-dimensional motion analysis of single leg balance and finger-nose tasks, and (3) parent perception of physical skills. Participant perception of physical skills was collected only after the first and second conditions. There was no significant difference between AVG and NAG for any of the primary variables including the MABC-2, balance centre-of-mass path distance and finger-nose path distance. There was no significant intervention effect for secondary measures of motor coordination; however the children perceived their motor skills to be significantly enhanced as a result of the AVG intervention in comparison to the period of no intervention. A 16 week home based AVG intervention did not enhance motor skills in children with DCD, although they perceived their physical skills to be significantly improved. Australia and New Zealand Clinical trials Registry (ACTRN 12611000400965

  13. Motor and Cognitive Performance Differences between Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas; Charitou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The current study adopts the PASS theory of information processing to investigate the probable differences in specific motor and cognitive abilities between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants were 108 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers (54 children with DCD and 54 children without DCD). The Movement…

  14. Executive functions, visual-motor coordination, physical fitness and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2018-04-01

    The present longitudinal study included different school readiness factors measured in kindergarten with the aim to predict later academic achievement in second grade. Based on data of N = 134 children, the predictive power of executive functions, visual-motor coordination and physical fitness on later academic achievement was estimated using a latent variable approach. By entering all three predictors simultaneously into the model to predict later academic achievement, significant effects of executive functions and visual-motor coordination on later academic achievement were found. The influence of physical fitness was found to be substantial but indirect via executive functions. The cognitive stimulation hypothesis as well as the automaticity hypothesis are discussed as an explanation for the reported relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in gross grasp strength and fine motor skills in adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Mary; Ray, Sharon; Milazzo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gross grasp strength and fine motor dexterity of adolescents, who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total sample size of 72 participants between the ages of 13 to 17 was studied. Thirty six with a diagnosis of pediatric relapse remitting MS and 36 matched control participants were selected from various local youth groups. Data on hand strength and dexterity was collected using a dynamometer, nine hole peg board and Purdue pegboard on both groups. Utilizing ANCOVA to describe the differences across the two groups by diagnosis, controlling for age and gender, it was found that the MS group demonstrated significantly decreased dexterity when compared to age and gender matched controls. There was no significant difference in gross grasp strength by diagnostic group. This preliminary study showed that children with a diagnosis of pediatric MS may have differences in fine motor dexterity, but not gross grasp strength from their peers who do not have the diagnosis. Further study is indicated to examine this phenomenon.

  16. Visuo-motor coordination and internal models for object interception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; McIntyre, Joseph; Senot, Patrice; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    Intercepting and avoiding collisions with moving objects are fundamental skills in daily life. Anticipatory behavior is required because of significant delays in transforming sensory information about target and body motion into a timed motor response. The ability to predict the kinematics and kinetics of interception or avoidance hundreds of milliseconds before the event may depend on several different sources of information and on different strategies of sensory-motor coordination. What are exactly the sources of spatio-temporal information and what are the control strategies remain controversial issues. Indeed, these topics have been the battlefield of contrasting views on how the brain interprets visual information to guide movement. Here we attempt a synthetic overview of the vast literature on interception. We discuss in detail the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of interception of targets falling under gravity, as this topic has received special attention in recent years. We show that visual cues alone are insufficient to predict the time and place of interception or avoidance, and they need to be supplemented by prior knowledge (or internal models) about several features of the dynamic interaction with the moving object.

  17. Relationship between children's performance-based motor skills and child, parent, and teacher perceptions of children's motor abilities using self/informant-report questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Aislinn; Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2016-04-01

    Occupational therapists often assess the motor skill performance of children referred to them as part of the assessment process. This study investigated whether children's, parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's motor skills using valid and reliable self/informant-report questionnaires were associated with and predictive of children's actual motor performance, as measured by a standardised performance-based motor skill assessment. Fifty-five typically developing children (8-12 years of age), their parents and classroom teachers were recruited to participate in the study. The children completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The parents completed the Developmental Profile III (DP-III) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, whereas the teachers completed the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Children's motor performance composite scores were determined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to identify if significant correlations existed and multiple linear regression was used to identify whether self/informant report data were significant predictors of children's motor skill performance. The child self-report scores had the largest number of significant correlations with the BOT-2 composites. Regression analysis found that the parent report DP-III Physical subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Manual Coordination composite and the child-report questionnaire PSDQ. Endurance subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Strength and Agility composite. The findings support the use of top-down assessment methods from a variety of sources when evaluating children's motor abilities. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Campbell, Amity C; Jensen, Lyn M; Metcalf, Deborah R; Smith, Anne J; Abbott, Rebecca A; Pollock, Clare M; Piek, Jan P

    2011-08-18

    A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR) game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5). This is the first trial to examine the impact of new virtual reality games on

  19. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  20. Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: The mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current findings suggest that physical activity of children with developmental difficulties may be limited by low level of motor coordination. Motor difficulties are often connected with children suffering from attention deficit disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out the level of physical activity (PA in older school-age children with motor difficulties (MD in comparison with children without MD and to reveal possible mediate impact on attention between the level of motor skills and PA in children of this age. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: 15 children with MD (age 13.7 ± 1.6 years and 27 children without MD (age 13.3 ± 1.4 years. Motor functions were assessed by means of test battery MABC-2, weekly physical activity by means of Actigraph accelerometer and attention by both d2 and numeric square tests. To estimate the mediation of the attention level we have used Baron's & Kenny's (1986 analysis. RESULTS: In most of the indicators of PA, children with MD reached lower value than those without MD. The differences of statistical significance were found in the number of steps per week and weekdays (d = 0.50 and 0.64 respectively and in PA of a very high intensity (d =2 .00 in boys with and without MD. In girls with MD we have found out significantly less time spent in vigorous intensity PA (d = 0.86. The study results support the hypothesis of developmental motor deficits to be a risk factor for PA in older school-age children. Significant mediation effect of concentration of attention in the relationship between the level of motor skills and PA was observed in three cases - in the relationship between gross motor skills on the one hand, and energy expenditure per week and weekdays, and vigorous intensity PA per week on the other. The amount of mediation effect of attention concentration ranged between 12-22%. CONCLUSION: The study has indicated that children's participation in PA can be

  1. Increase in impaired motor coordination in six-year-old German children between 1990 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelaender, J.; Fidler, V.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    Aim To evaluate changes in prevalence of impaired motor coordination among 6-year-olds of a geographically defined area in Germany between the years 1990 and 2007. Methods Data from the obligatory school entrance examinations in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia between the years 1990 and

  2. Robotics and gaming to improve ankle strength, motor control, and function in children with cerebral palsy--a case study series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Kale, Angad; Janes, William E; Ross, Sandy A; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of game-based robotic training of the ankle in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The design was a case study, 12 weeks intervention, with no follow-up. The setting was a university research laboratory. The participants were a referred sample of three children with cerebral palsy, age 7-12, all male. All completed the intervention. Participants trained on the Rutgers Ankle CP system for 36 rehabilitation sessions (12 weeks, three times/week), playing two custom virtual reality games. The games were played while participants were seated, and trained one ankle at-a-time for strength, motor control, and coordination. The primary study outcome measures were for impairment (DF/PF torques, DF initial contact angle and gait speed), function (GMFM), and quality of life (Peds QL). Secondary outcome measures relate to game performance (game scores as reflective of ankle motor control and endurance). Gait function improved substantially in ankle kinematics, speed and endurance. Overall function (GMFM) indicated improvements that were typical of other ankle strength training programs. Quality of life increased beyond what would be considered a minimal clinical important difference. Game performance improved in both games during the intervention. This feasibility study supports the assumption that game-based robotic training of the ankle benefits gait in children with CP. Game technology is appropriate for the age group and was well accepted by the participants. Additional studies are needed however, to quantify the level of benefit and compare the approach presented here to traditional methods of therapy.

  3. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three

  5. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  6. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  7. Gender-Specific Peculiarities of Motor Preparedness of Children Aged 6-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Іващенко

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to determine the gender-specific peculiarities of motor preparedness of children aged 6-10.  Materials and methods: the participants in the study were girls aged 6 (n = 36, aged 7 (n = 48, aged 8 (n = 57, aged 9 (n = 38, aged 10 (n = 46; boys aged 6 (n = 48, aged 7 (n = 45, aged 8 (n = 60, aged 9 (n = 47, aged 10 (n = 40. To achieve the tasks set, the study relied on the following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, pedagogical testing and methods of mathematical statistics of research data reduction. The study used discriminant analysis as the modeling method. Results: the classification results of motor preparedness of girls and boys aged 6-10 indicate that the study has correctly classified 81.9-100% of the initial observations. The graphic material demonstrates the density of objects within each class and a clear distinction between the classes. This allows to maintain that there is a significant difference between girls and boys aged 6-10 in their motor preparedness. Conclusions. The girls aged 6-10 show the best results in movement coordination related to combinations of movements of arms and legs, as well as flexibility. The girls aged 10 show the best results in test No. 10 “300-m Race”. The boys aged 6-10, unlike the girls, show the best results in the development of general coordination of movements, strength, speed strength, strength and general endurance. It is possible to argue with a high level of reliability that by their classification characteristics girls and boys belong to different classes, and significantly differ in motor preparedness.

  8. Strength and fine dexterity recovery profiles after a primary motor cortex insult and effect of a neuronal cell graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, Laurence; Conchou, Fabrice; Demain, Boris; Davoust, Carole; Plas, Benjamin; Ruggieri, Cyrielle; Benkaddour, Mehdi; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to set up (a) a large primary motor cortex (M1) lesion in rodent and (b) the conditions for evaluating a long-lasting motor deficit in order to propose a valid model to test neuronal replacement therapies aimed at improving motor deficit recovery. A mitochondrial toxin, malonate, was injected to induce extensive destruction of the forelimb M1 cortex. Three key motor functions that are usually evaluated following cerebral lesion in the clinic-strength, target reaching, and fine dexterity-were assessed in rats by 2 tests, a forelimb grip strength test and a skilled reaching task (staircase) for reaching and dexterity. The potential enhancement of postlesion recovery induced by a neuronal cell transplantation was then explored and confirmed by histological analyses. Both tests showed a severe functional impairment 2 days post lesion, however, reaching remained intact. Deficits in forelimb strength were long lasting (up to 3 months) but spontaneously recovered despite the extensive lesion size. This natural grip strength recovery could be enhanced by cell therapy. Histological analyses confirmed the presence of grafted cells 3 months postgraft and showed partial tissue reconstruction with some living neuronal cells in the graft. In contrast, fine dexterity never recovered in the staircase test even after grafting. These results suggest that cell replacement was only partially effective and that the forelimb M1 area may be a node of the sensorimotor network, where compensation from secondary pathways could account for strength recovery but recovery of forelimb fine dexterity requires extensive tissue reconstruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor cortex synchronization influences the rhythm of motor performance in premanifest huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Elias P; Mayer, Isabella M S; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Rothwell, John C; Orth, Michael

    2018-03-01

    In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance. We examined synchronization in oscillatory activity of cortical motor areas in response to an external input produced by a pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation. We combined this with EEG to compare the response of 16 presymptomatic Huntington's disease participants with 16 age-matched healthy volunteers to test whether the strength of synchronization relates to the variability of motor performance at the following 2 tasks: a grip force task and a speeded-tapping task. Phase synchronization in response to M1 stimulation was lower in Huntington's disease than healthy volunteers (P synchronization (r = -0.356; P synchronization and desynchronization could be a physiological basis for some key clinical features of Huntington's disease. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  12. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value 60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role...

  13. Interlimb coordination and academic performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pacheco, Sheila Cristina; Gabbard, Carl; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy

    2016-10-01

    The specific mechanisms linking motor ability and cognitive performance, especially academic achievement, are still unclear. Whereas the literature provides an abundance of information on fine and visual-motor skill and cognitive attributes, much less has been reported on gross motor ability. This study examined interlimb coordination and its relationship to academic performance in children aged 8-11 years. Motor and academic skills were examined in 100 Brazilian children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Academic Performance Test. Participants were grouped into low (75%) academic achievers. There was a significant difference between groups for Total Motor Composite (P academic performance and Body Coordination. Of the subtests of Body Coordination (Bilateral Coordination and Balance), Bilateral Coordination accounted for the highest impact on academic performance. Of interest here, that subtest consists primarily of gross motor tasks involving interlimb coordination. Overall, there was a positive relationship between motor behavior, in particular activities involving interlimb coordination, and academic performance. Application of these findings in the area of early assessment may be useful in the identification of later academic problems. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Feedforward motor control in developmental dyslexia and developmental coordination disorder: Does comorbidity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Fontan, Aurelie; Jover, Marianne; Livet, Marie-Odile; Hugonenq, Catherine; Audic, Frédérique; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Feedforward and online controls are two facets of predictive motor control from internal models, which is suspected to be impaired in learning disorders. We examined whether the feedforward component is affected in children (8-12 years) with developmental dyslexia (DD) and/or with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. Children underwent a bimanual unloading paradigm during which a load supported to one arm, the postural arm, was either unexpectedly unloaded by a computer or voluntary unloaded by the subject with the other arm. All children showed a better stabilization (lower flexion) of the postural arm and an earlier inhibition of the arm flexors during voluntary unloading, indicating anticipation of unloading. Between-group comparisons of kinematics and electromyographic activity of the postural arm revealed that the difference during voluntary unloading was between DD-DCD children and the other groups, with the former showing a delayed inhibition of the flexor muscles. Deficit of the feedforward component of motor control may particularly apply to comorbid subtypes, here the DD-DCD subtype. The development of a comprehensive framework for motor performance deficits in children with learning disorders will be achieved only by dissociating key components of motor prediction and focusing on subtypes and comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  16. A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.

  17. Neuromusculoskeletal models based on the muscle synergy hypothesis for the investigation of adaptive motor control in locomotion via sensory-motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro

    2016-03-01

    Humans and animals walk adaptively in diverse situations by skillfully manipulating their complicated and redundant musculoskeletal systems. From an analysis of measured electromyographic (EMG) data, it appears that despite complicated spatiotemporal properties, muscle activation patterns can be explained by a low dimensional spatiotemporal structure. More specifically, they can be accounted for by the combination of a small number of basic activation patterns. The basic patterns and distribution weights indicate temporal and spatial structures, respectively, and the weights show the muscle sets that are activated synchronously. In addition, various locomotor behaviors have similar low dimensional structures and major differences appear in the basic patterns. These analysis results suggest that neural systems use muscle group combinations to solve motor control redundancy problems (muscle synergy hypothesis) and manipulate those basic patterns to create various locomotor functions. However, it remains unclear how the neural system controls such muscle groups and basic patterns through neuromechanical interactions in order to achieve adaptive locomotor behavior. This paper reviews simulation studies that explored adaptive motor control in locomotion via sensory-motor coordination using neuromusculoskeletal models based on the muscle synergy hypothesis. Herein, the neural mechanism in motor control related to the muscle synergy for adaptive locomotion and a potential muscle synergy analysis method including neuromusculoskeletal modeling for motor impairments and rehabilitation are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of an intervention directed to the development of balance and gross and fine motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Carrillo Maronesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s motor skills evolve according to age and the continuing influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause variations from one child to another; this makes the course of development unique in each child. Objective: To develop an intervention for a child with delays in fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination and balance and analyze its impact on the child’s development. Methods: Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was the Motor Development Scale applied to a 4 year old child. An intervention plan was developed based on the results obtained throught the tests. The plan consists of activities designed to stimulate the aforementioned acquisitions. The implementation of the intervention plan lasted two months. The child was tested at the beginning and at the end of the intervention to determine whether there was gain in the stimulated acquisitions. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of occurrence of reliable and clinically relevant positive changes. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that reliable positive changes occurred with respect to the psychomotor items that underwent stimulation. Conclusion: It is possible to infer that this intervention had a positive effect on the child’s development . Hence, this study contributes to improve the care provided to children with delayed psychomotor development, illustrating possibilities of strategies and activities. It also allows the recognition of the action of occupational therapists as one of the professionals who compose the multidisciplinary team focused on early intervention.

  19. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  20. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children's Basic Motor Skills Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effect of the movement education program through a 12-week-coordination on the development of basic motor movements of pre-school children. A total of 78 students of pre-school period, 38 of whom were in the experimental group and 40 of whom were in the control group, were incorporated…

  1. Motor simulation and the coordination of self and other in real-time joint action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novembre, Giacomo; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Keller, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    Joint actions require the integration of simultaneous self- and other-related behaviour. Here, we investigated whether this function is underpinned by motor simulation, that is the capacity to represent a perceived action in terms of the neural resources required to execute it. This was tested in a music performance experiment wherein on-line brain stimulation (double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, dTMS) was employed to interfere with motor simulation. Pianists played the right-hand part of piano pieces in synchrony with a recording of the left-hand part, which had (Trained) or had not (Untrained) been practiced beforehand. Training was assumed to enhance motor simulation. The task required adaptation to tempo changes in the left-hand part that, in critical conditions, were preceded by dTMS delivered over the right primary motor cortex. Accuracy of tempo adaptation following dTMS or sham stimulations was compared across Trained and Untrained conditions. Results indicate that dTMS impaired tempo adaptation accuracy only during the perception of trained actions. The magnitude of this interference was greater in empathic individuals possessing a strong tendency to adopt others' perspectives. These findings suggest that motor simulation provides a functional resource for the temporal coordination of one's own behaviour with others in dynamic social contexts. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Decline in measured glomerular filtration rate is associated with a decrease in endurance, strength, balance and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Matthias; Höglund, Peter; Svensson, Philippa; Abdulahi, Huda; Clyne, Naomi

    2017-07-01

    Physical performance in chronic kidney disease affects morbidity and mortality. The aim was to find out which measures of physical performance are important in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and if there are associations with declining measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Endurance was assessed by 6 min walk test (6-MWT) and stair climbing, muscular endurance by 30 s sit to stand, heel rises and toe lifts, strength by quadriceps- and handgrip-strength, balance by functional reach and Berg's balance scale, and fine motor skills by Moberg's picking-up test. GFR was measured by Iohexol clearance. The study comprised 101 patients with CKD 3b-5 not started dialysis, 40 women and 61 men, with a mean age of 67 ± 13 (range: 22 - 87) years. All measures of physical performance were impaired. A decrease in GFR of 10 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 corresponded to a 35 metre shorter walking distance in the 6-MWT. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant relationships between decline in GFR and the 6-MWT (P = 0.04), isometric quadriceps strength left (P = 0.04), balance measured as functional reach (P = 0.02) and fine motor skills in the left hand as measured by Moberg's picking-up test (P = 0.01), respectively, after sex, age, comorbidity and the interaction between sex and age had been taken into account. Endurance, muscular endurance, strength, balance and fine motor skills were impaired in patients with CKD 3b-5. Walking capacity, isometric quadriceps strength, balance, and fine motor skills were associated with declining GFR. The left extremities were more susceptible to GFR, ageing and comorbidities and seem thus to be more sensitive. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. The Effect of Coordinated Teaching Method Practices on Some Motor Skills of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the effects of Coordinated Teaching Method activities applied for 10 weeks on 6-year-old children, and to examine the effects of these activities on the development of some motor skills in children. Research Methods: The "Experimental Research Model with Pre-test and Post-test Control Group"…

  4. Evaluar la Coordinación Motriz Global en Educación Secundaria: El Test Motor SportComp. [Motor co-ordination assessment in Secondary Education: The SportComp Test].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Ruiz-Perez

    2017-07-01

    coordination of adolescents. There are currently no valid tools to assess motor coordination in physical education classes useful for teachers. Many instruments are very expensive, time consuming and difficult to apply in P.E. contexts. The SportComp test was developed based in a review of motor tests for children 12 to 17 years old, Content validity was evaluated by experts and motor tasks selected was applied to 5732 students of this age range. Principal components analysis yielded one component relating to gross motor function. Findings suggested satisfactory criterial validity with the MABC-2 Test and test-retest reliability (ICC 0,91 [95% CI 0,88-0,94]. Psychometric properties of this test were good and its possibilities to be applied in P.E. context high cause its low cost, low time consuming, norms and its possibilities to detect students with low motor coordination. This motor test has the potential to aid P.E. teachers in their assessment of student’s motor coordination and therefore contribute to improved P.E. programs.

  5. RELATIONS BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC BASKETBALL SKILLS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milenković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of  ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.

  6. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348

  7. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  8. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Schmidt

    Full Text Available Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination, core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting, and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling. Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  9. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  10. TRANSFORMED MOTORIC CHARACTERISTICS AFTER RECEIVED PROGRAMMED TRAINING PROCESS ON SUPERIOR KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is made on intentional sample of participants, members of Macedonian Karate Representation, in the period of preparing to qualify for the world championship in Tokyo 2008. Within the research, were used 19 (nineteen variables for evaluation the following motorics areas: tests for evaluate muscles strength, explosive strength, movement frequency of lower extremity, rhythmic and coordination. Basic purpose of the research was to establish difference within the variables to evaluate motorics abilities between male karate athletes on the age of 18 to 28 (seniors, after a nine-day programmed training in the period of preparing. Using comparative method the results from the both measures, whereby there were evident numerical improvement in the whole motorist abilities, but no difference in the levels of statistic significances.

  11. Motor coordination uses external spatial coordinates independent of developmental vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    The constraints that guide bimanual movement coordination are informative about the processing principles underlying movement planning in humans. For example, symmetry relative to the body midline benefits finger and hand movements independent of hand posture. This symmetry constraint has been interpreted to indicate that movement coordination is guided by a perceptual code. Although it has been assumed implicitly that the perceptual system at the heart of this constraint is vision, this relationship has not been tested. Here, congenitally blind and sighted participants made symmetrical and non-symmetrical (that is, parallel) bimanual tapping and finger oscillation movements. For both groups, symmetrical movements were executed more correctly than parallel movements, independent of anatomical constraints like finger homology and hand posture. For the blind, the reliance on external spatial factors in movement coordination stands in stark contrast to their use of an anatomical reference frame in perceptual processing. Thus, the externally coded symmetry constraint evident in bimanual coordination can develop in the absence of the visual system, suggesting that the visual system is not critical for the establishment of an external-spatial reference frame in movement coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): effects of diazepam, chlorpromazine, pentobarbital and d-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, G D; Duffy, E A; Miles, S S

    1985-01-01

    A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset is described. Animals are motivated by apple, a preferred food, under a state of minimal food deprivation. The apparatus used was designed to test animals within their home cages and not restrained in any way, thus avoiding possible confounding factors associated with restraint stress. Stable baseline levels of performance were reached by all animals in a median of 24 sessions. Performance was shown to be differentially sensitive to the effects of four psychoactive drugs. Moderate doses of diazepam, chlorpromazine and pentobarbital disrupted visuo-motor coordination in a dose-related manner. The possibility that disruption of performance observed at higher doses may have resulted from non-specific actions of these drugs such as decreases in feeding motivation were not supported by results from ancillary experiments. Changes in performance characteristic of high dose effects were similar in nature to changes observed when the degree of task difficulty was increased. Doses of d-amphetamine up to and including those reported to produce signs of stereotypy failed to influence performance. The potential of the conveyor belt task for measuring visuo-motor coordination in both primate and rodent species is discussed.

  13. A Lag in Speech Motor Coordination during Sentence Production Is Associated with Stuttering Persistence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usler, Evan; Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if indices of speech motor coordination during the production of sentences varying in sentence length and syntactic complexity were associated with stuttering persistence versus recovery in 5- to 7-year-old children. Methods: We compared children with persistent stuttering (CWS-Per) with children…

  14. Moving attractive virtual agent improves interpersonal coordination stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong; Salesse, Robin N; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Schmidt, Richard C; Marin, Ludovic; Bardy, Benoît G

    2015-06-01

    Interpersonal motor coordination is influenced not only by biomechanical factors such as coordination pattern, oscillating frequency, and individual differences, but also by psychosocial factor such as likability and social competences. Based on the social stereotype of "what is beautiful is good", the present study aimed at investigating whether people coordinate differently with physically attractive people compared to less attractive people. 34 participants were engaged in an interpersonal coordination task with different looking (virtual) agents while performing at the same time a reaction time task. Results showed that participants had more stable motor coordination with the moving attractive than with the less attractive agent, and that the difference in motor coordination could not be interpreted by a specific attention allocation strategy. Our findings provide the evidence that physical attractiveness genuinely affects how people interact with another person, and that the temporal-spatial coordinated movement varies with the partner's psychosocial characteristics. The study broadens the perspective of exploring the effect of additional psychosocial factors on social motor coordination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MOTOR STRUCTURE AND BASIC MOVEMENT COMPETENCES IN EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Pišot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.

  16. Deficits in Visuo-Motor Temporal Integration Impacts Manual Dexterity in Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobusako, Satoshi; Sakai, Ayami; Tsujimoto, Taeko; Shuto, Takashi; Nishi, Yuki; Asano, Daiki; Furukawa, Emi; Zama, Takuro; Osumi, Michihiro; Shimada, Sotaro; Morioka, Shu; Nakai, Akio

    2018-01-01

    The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group. The former was comprised of 29 children with clumsy manual dexterity, while the latter consisted of 42 children with normal manual dexterity. Visuo-motor temporal integration ability and automatic-imitation function were measured using the delayed visual feedback detection task and motor interference task, respectively. Further, the current study investigated whether autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) traits, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits, and depressive symptoms differed among the two groups, since these symptoms are frequent comorbidities of DCD. In addition, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to extract factors affecting clumsy manual dexterity. In the results, the delay-detection threshold (DDT) and steepness of the delay-detection probability curve, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration ability, were significantly prolonged and decreased, respectively, in children with pDCD. The interference effect, which indicated automatic-imitation function, was also significantly reduced in this group. These results highlighted that children with clumsy manual dexterity have deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration and automatic-imitation function. There was a significant correlation between manual dexterity, and measures of visuo-motor temporal integration, and ASD traits and ADHD traits and

  17. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia eKomulainen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  18. Motor performance is impaired following vestibular stimulation in ageing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria W.K. Tung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5-6, 8-9 and 27-28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod and newly-developed behavioural tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus. In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2-3 Hz and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27-28 months that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13, and 27-28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13, and 27-28 months. Conclusion: This study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioural changes in task performance were observed.

  19. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W K; Burton, Thomas J; Quail, Stephanie L; Mathews, Miranda A; Camp, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5-6, 8-9 and 27-28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2-3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27-28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27-28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27-28 months. this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed.

  20. Comparison between two motor tests used for muscular strength/endurance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare motor performance in modified pull-up (MPUand flexed knee push-up (FKPU tests in young women. Thirty-five apparently healthy women (20.1±2.2 years were submitted to each one of the tests at an interval of48 hours in a random balanced design. Most individuals performed between 0 an d 10 repetitions (86% of the MPU test, and approximately 17% did not perform even one repetitions. On the other hand, the highest prevalence of outcomes for the FKPUtest was between 16 and 35 repetitions (71%. The Wilcoxon test identified statistically significant differences (p MPU. A moderate agreement (kappa =0.40 was found between the performance in both tests. Negative correlations of low magnitude (r=-0.23 to 0.46 were found between morphological variables (body weight,height, fat mass, and lean body mass and motor performance in both tests. The results suggest that the FKPU test is presented as a better indicator ofmuscular endurance levels, where as the MPU test seems to better discriminate muscular strength in young women.

  1. Sialorrhoea: How to Manage a Frequent Complication of Motor Neuron Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pellegrini; Christian Lunetta; Carlo Ferrarese; Lucio Tremolizzo

    2015-01-01

    Sialorrhoea, the unintentional loss of saliva through the mouth, is the frequent complication of neurological disorders affecting strength or coordination of oropharyngeal muscles, such as motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS) or Parkinson’s disease. Sialorrhoea might affect up to 42% of ALS patients, with almost half of them having poorly managed symptoms. Sialorrhoea can impair patients’ social life, while dermatological complications, such as skin rashes, may arise d...

  2. Goal scoring in soccer: A polar coordinate analysis of motor skills used by Lionel Messi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eCastañer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74, Copa del Rey (n = 8, and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21. We used an ad hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move towards the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.

  3. Effects of ionic strength on the coordination of Eu(III) and Cm(III) to a Gram-negative bacterium, Paracoccus denitrificans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Kimura, T.; Francis, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionic strength on the interactions of Europium(III) and Curium(III) with a Gram-negative bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. Bacterial cells grown in 0.5-, 3.5-, and 5.0% NaCl were used in adsorption experiments and laser experiments that were performed at the same ionic strengths as those in the original growth media. The distribution ratio (log K d ) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) was determined at pHs 3-5. To elucidate the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on P. denitrificans, we estimated the number of water molecules in the inner sphere and strength of the ligand field by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at pHs 4-6. The log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) increased with an increase of pH at all ionic strengths because there was less competition for ligands in cells with H + at higher pHs, wherein less H + was present in solution: cation adsorption generally occurs through an exchange with H + on the functional groups of coordination sites. No significant differences were observed in the log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) at each pH in 0.5-, 3.5-, and 5.0% NaCl solutions, though competition for ligands with Na + would be expected to increase at higher NaCl concentrations. The log K d of Eu(III) was almost equivalent to that of Cm(III) under all the experimental conditions. TRLFS showed that the coordination environments of Eu(III) did not differ from each other at 0.5-, 3.5-, and 5.0% NaCl at pHs 4-6. TRLFS also showed that the characteristic of the coordination environment of Eu(III) on P. denitrificans was similar to that on a halophile, Nesterenkonia halobia, while it significantly differed from that on a non-halophile, Pseudomonas putida. These findings indicate that the number of coordination sites for Eu(III) on P. denitrificans, whose cell surface may have similar structures to that of halophiles, increased with increasing ionic strength, though their structure remained unchanged. (orig.)

  4. The relationship between joint mobility and motor performance in children with and without the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint; Klerks, M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether joint mobility is associated with motor performance in children referred for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD-group) in contrast to a randomly selected group of children between 3-16 years of age (Random-Group). Methods: 36

  5. Correlates of Gross Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    correlate of skill composite and motor coordination, we also found indeterminate evidence for physical activity being a correlate of object control or locomotor skill competence. Few studies investigated cognitive, emotional and psychological factors, cultural and social factors or physical environment factors as correlates of motor competence. This systematic review is the first that has investigated correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents. A strength is that we categorized correlates according to the specific ways motor competence has been defined and operationalized (object control, motor coordination, etc.), which enables us to have an understanding of what correlates assist what types of motor competence. Indeed our findings do suggest that evidence for some correlates differs according to how motor competence is operationalized.

  6. Can balance trampoline training promote motor coordination and balance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Mitsiou, Maria; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine movement difficulties among typically developing 8- to 9-year-old elementary students in Greece and to investigate the possible effects of a balance training program to those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The Body Coordination Test for Children (BCTC; Körperkoordinationstest fur Kinder, KTK, Kiphard & Schilling, 1974) was chosen for the purposes of this study and 20 children out of the total number of 200, exhibited motor difficulties indicating a probable DCD disorder. The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were equally separated into two groups where each individual of the experimental group was paired with an individual of the control group. The intervention group attended a 12-week balance training program while students of the second - control group followed the regular school schedule. All participants were tested prior to the start and after the end of the 12-week period by performing static balance control tasks while standing on an EPS pressure platform and structured observation of trampoline exercises while videotaping. The results indicated that after a 12-week balance training circuit including a trampoline station program, the intervention group improved both factors that were examined. In conclusion, balance training with the use of attractive equipment such as trampoline can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for worsened muscle strength after the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the eloquent motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fuxin; Zhao, Bing; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Case selection for the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the eloquent motor area remains challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for worsened muscle strength after surgery in patients with this disorder. METHODS At their hospital the authors retrospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with AVMs involving motor cortex and/or the descending pathway. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed with respect to the change in muscle strength. Functional factors included lesion-to-corticospinal tract distance (LCD) on DTI and lesion-to-activation area distance (LAD) and cortical reorganization on fMRI. Based on preoperative muscle strength, the changes in muscle strength at 1 week and 6 months after surgery were defined as short-term and long-term surgical outcomes, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS (version 20.0.0, IBM Corp.). RESULTS Twenty-one patients (43.8%) had worsened muscle strength 1 week after surgery. However, only 10 patients (20.8%) suffered from muscle strength worsening 6 months after surgery. The LCD was significantly correlated with short-term (p 0 mm (p = 0.009) and LCD > 5 mm (p 0 mm group and LCD > 5 mm group (p = 0.116). Nidus size was the other significant predictor of short-term (p = 0.021) and long-term (p = 0.016) outcomes. For long-term outcomes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.728, and the cutoff point was 3.6 cm. Spetzler-Martin grade was not associated with short-term surgical outcomes (0.143), although it was correlated with long-term outcomes (0.038). CONCLUSIONS An AVM with a nidus in contact with tracked eloquent fibers (LCD = 0) and having a large size is more likely to be associated with worsened muscle strength after surgery in patients with eloquent motor area AVMs. Surgical

  8. RELATIONS BETWEEN BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC PRECISENESS OF FOOTBALLERS AGED 10-12

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    Miroslav Smajić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the research on the sample of 256 footballers aged 10-12 and the battery including 20 tests for evaluation of the basic motor abilities and the battery of 24 tests for evaluation of specifi c preciseness, and as per canonic-correlation analysis, a general conclusion can be reached that the boys were rather different in their basic motor abilities. The differences were especially high in explosive strength, coordination, aerobic endurance and balance. One could also conclude that the sample treated in this manner (10-12 years of age is very heterogeneous with respect to basic motor abilities. The subjects showed the highest homogeneity in the tests of specifi c preciseness. They also achieved particularly good results in the tests of vertical target hitting by leg and head. Considering the relations of the basic motor abilities and specifi c preciseness, it was concluded that the structure-based basic motor-canonic factor might be interpreted as FACTOR OF SPEED ENDURANCE AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH, whereas structurebased canonic factor of specifi c preciseness might be interpreted as the FACTOR OF SPECIFIC PRECISENESS OF VERTICAL TARGET HITTING BY LEG AND HEAD. The structure of the relations of the fi rst pair of canonic factors indicates that footballers with lower speed endurance and lower explosive strength achieved poorer results in the tests of specifi c preciseness of vertical target hitting by leg and head, and vice versa. Structure of the relations of the second canonic factor indicates quite clearly that the footballers with lower repetitive strength achieved lower results in the tests of specifi c preciseness of horizontal and vertical target by leg and head in a newly created situation. Here of course, the opposite was true, i.e. footballers with higher repetitive strength were better in these tests too.

  9. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham

    2015-12-01

    As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (pdifferences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of 10-11 Years Old Athletes participating in Interscholastic Competitions and Non-Athletes Children’s Fundamental Motor Skills

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    Sinan Akın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doing regular sports in the sportive competitions may effect motor development of contestant children positively. The aim of research was to investigate the effect of the regular sportive exercise on the development of 10-11 years old children’s motor skills. Participants were chosen from the children competing in interscholastic basketball (n=30 and badminton (n=30 competitions and sedentary children (n=30 in the education year 2012- 2013 in Kutahya. In research, the measurements of children’s motor proficiency was assessed by using the BOTMP-2 Short Form (Bruiniks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition. The BOTMP2-SF involves only 14 of the 46 items of the full test battery. The evaluation was done in 8 sub-tests (Fine Motor Precision, Fine Motor İntegration, Manual Dexterity, Bilateral Coordination, Balance, Running Speed and Agility, Upper-Limb Coordination, Strength. Collected data was analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post doc analysis was performed using Tukey’s multiple range test. According to test results, significant differences were found between the groups in 8 sub-tests. Consequently, it was found that doing regular exercise effects positively motor development of 10-11 years children.

  12. Research reveals co-ordination and collaboration strengths and weaknesses in population education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of population education programs in Sri Lanka, Nepal, and the Maldives, based on descriptive research studies, are identified. The research topics were devised at a Subregional Meeting on Joint Research studies in Population Education for South Asia Subregion in 1990, as well as motivational strategies for promoting the small family norm in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Results were presented at a 1991 meeting held in UNESCO PROAP. The results were that 3 very different collaborative modalities operate in these countries. Sri Lanka had a formal national population committee for coordinating functions. The Maldives had no national formal structures, but there were linkages between population programs. Nepal had a formal structure but had failures in coordination. The Sri Lanka Population Committee, which began in 1972, established population education when the entire educational system was being reformed. The curriculum development committee consisted of representatives from a variety of disciplines and worked as a cohesive unit. As a consequence, junior secondary schools taught population education in such courses as social studies and science. Regional departments of education provided inservice training to the junior secondary school teachers. At the policy level, the education plan of 1972/73-77 was implemented within the National 5 Year Plan and the Population Committee functioned under a senior government Minister, which provided greater credibility and implementation. It also ensured linkage with other departments, agencies, and development programs. In the Maldives, the linkage was between the Population Education Program of the Educational Development Center (EDC) and the Allied Health Service Training Center's (AHSTC) child-spacing program. The small scale size may be a factor in the coordination and resource sharing and effective linkages without a formal national committee umbrella. The weakness was in multiplicity of effort

  13. THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF MOTOR SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hasanbegovic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the latent space of motor skills and knowledge of the female students of the first year of secondary school. This study included 120 girls, and it was conducted at the end of the school year, after the realization of the regular physical education classes. According to nine tests aimed to evaluate motor skills and 16 more to assess motor knowledge, factors that define the latent space of motor skills of the test group were isolated by factor analysis, which shows in what way this program influenced the development of the test area. The agility and frequency of movement factor, as well as the factor of explosive strength were isolated in the motor skills area, which indicates that the standard program does not provide the development of fine motor skills in subjects. There were also isolated factors such as: the factor of average motor skills in the manipulation of the ball, the random factor of motor coordination, manual manipulation factor with the ball and the factor of insufficient movement coordination, from which it can be concluded that there is no logical development dimension in this area, nor proper development of motor skills.

  14. Effect of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Kevin D.; Pfister, James A.; Lima, Flavia G.; Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  15. Gender differentiations of cognitive-motor functioning in prepubertal and pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav; Barović, Zdenka

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cognitive and motor status factors in female and male children aged 10-14, as well as developmental and/or integration functions according to gender. The study included 162 girls and 134 boys aged 10-14, divided into four groups: 84 girls aged 10-12 (mean age 11.26, SD 0.68), 84 boys aged 10-12 (mean age 11.41, SD 0.50), 78 girls aged 13-14 (mean age 13.52, SD 0.63) and 50 boys aged 13-14 (mean age 13.21, SD 0.53). The significance of quantitative differences between boys and girls in the overall system of variables was defined based on the results of canonic discriminant analysis of variance, and within each variable based on the results on univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the younger age group (10-12 years), girls were superior to boys in a test assessing flexibility (Seated straddle stretch), whereas, compared to girls, boys had greater strength of the trunk (Crossed-arm sit-ups), greater explosive strength ofjump and sprint type (Standing broad jump and 20 m dash), and coordination (Obstacle course backwards and Steps laterally). In the older age group (13-14 years) differences in flexibility were even more prominent in favor of girls, whereas the differences in explosive strength increased in favor of boys, especially of the throwing type with better agility (Steps laterally), balance (Board balance) and greater static strength of arms and shoulders (Bent-arm hang). In order to determine qualitative differences between pubertal and prepubertal girls and boys, the matrix of variable inter-correlations was factorized by the procedure of principal components procedure, that were then transformed to promax solution. The results showed that cognitive functioning had a significant role in the motor efficacy of girls and boys aged 10 to 14. In the age group of 10-12 years, in females, cognitive functioning is related to the motor system which integrates the regulation of muscle tone with agility/coordination, whereas

  16. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  17. Copying you copying me: interpersonal motor co-ordination influences automatic imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Joel Shaw

    Full Text Available Moving in a co-ordinated fashion with another individual changes our behaviour towards them; we tend to like them more, find them more attractive, and are more willing to co-operate with them. It is generally assumed that this effect on behaviour results from alterations in representations of self and others. Specifically, through neurophysiological perception-action matching mechanisms, interpersonal motor co-ordination (IMC is believed to forge a neural coupling between actor and observer, which serves to blur boundaries in conceptual self-other representations and causes positive views of the self to be projected onto others. An investigation into this potential neural mechanism is lacking, however. Moreover, the specific components of IMC that might influence this mechanism have not yet been specified. In the present study we exploited a robust behavioural phenomenon--automatic imitation--to assess the degree to which IMC influences neural action observation-execution matching mechanisms. This revealed that automatic imitation is reduced when the actions of another individual are perceived to be synchronised in time, but are spatially incongruent, with our own. We interpret our findings as evidence that IMC does indeed exert an effect on neural perception-action matching mechanisms, but this serves to promote better self-other distinction. Our findings demonstrate that further investigation is required to understand the complex relationship between neural perception-action coupling, conceptual self-other representations, and social behaviour.

  18. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  19. The Effects of a Motorized Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and clinical function in Subacute Stroke Patients -- a Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Im, Sang Hee

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Cardiopulmonary fitness was evaluated using a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test and by measuring brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. Moreover, motor function(Fugl-Meyer Assessment[FMA] and FMA-lower limb[FMA-LL]), balance(Berg Balance Scale[BBS]), Activities of daily living(Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and Quality of life(EQ-5D index) were examined. There were no inter-group differences between demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline(p>0.05). The results shows significant improvements in peak oxygen consumption (p=0.02), maximal isometric strength of the bilateral knee extensors (paquatic therapy group. However, only significant improvements in maximal isometric strength in the knee extensors (p=0.03) and flexors (p=0.04) were found within the aquatic therapy group and control group. Water-based aerobic exercise performed on a motorized aquatic treadmill had beneficial effect on isometric muscle strength in the lower limb.

  20. Promotion and co-ordination in Switzerland within the framework of the EU Motor Challenge Program - Final report; Promotion und Koordination in der Schweiz zum Motor Challenge Programm der EU - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J. [Arena, Zuerich (Switzerland); Tanner, R. [Semafor, Basel (Switzerland); Gloor, R. [Gloor Engineering, Sufers (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of the Motor Challenge Promotion project was to establish information on the European Motor Challenge Programme to users of electric motor driven systems, and to encourage them to start activities on energy efficient drives in their plants and sites. The promotion project served also as National Contact Point of the European Motor Challenge Programme in Switzerland and coordinated information transfer of national activities on drives efficiency. Dissemination of Motor Challenge information and know-how was achieved mainly by these means: Internet (www.motorchallenge.ch), electronic newsletter twice a year, articles in technical publications, presentations at events on energy efficiency and in training courses at technical universities. Communication with the EU-Motor Challenge Programme was provided by e-mail exchange and by attending conferences and workshops, e.g. EEMODS 2005 (Heidelberg), Motor Challenge Workshop 2007 (Paris). Queries and the attendance at information events showed a growing interest in efficiency of electric drives. The Swiss Motor Challenge team was involved in the preparation of the SwissEnergy implementation programme on drives efficiency. The Swiss agency for efficient energy use S.A.F.E. launched the programme named 'Topmotors' in autumn 2007. The Motor Challenge activities will pass over to Topmotors; the web site will be linked to www.topmotors.ch and a Topmotors newsletter will be launched. (author)

  1. Effect of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Kevin D., E-mail: kevin.welch@ars.usda.gov [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Pfister, James A. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Lima, Flavia G. [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil); Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  2. Analysis of the Strength on the Rotor Punching Sheet of Nuclear Reactor Cooling Medium Driving Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Bao-jun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A strong stress is withstood by the rotor punching sheet during the running of nuclear reactor cooling medium driving motor. In order to study the strength on the rotor punching sheet and the influential factor of its stress,the rotor of driving motor was the research object, the three-dimensional rotor model of driving motor is established by the finite element method to obtain the Mires equivalent stress nephogram and check the rotor’s strength with setting parameters and constraints. According to different rotor speeds,the different average temperatures of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the different static magnitude of interference between rotor punching sheet and shaft,the research about how the contact pressure of matching surface between rotor punching sheet and shaft and the Mires equivalent stress are impacted is carried on. The results show that the maximum Miser equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet emerges on the axial vents,the stress value is beyond the tensile limit of the materialand. The greater the static magnitude of interference and the smaller temperature difference of rotor punching sheet and shaft lead to the greater interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater maximum Mires equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet. The higher the rotor speed lead to the smaller interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet.

  3. Twelve Weeks of Plyometric Training Improves Motor Performance of 7- to 9-Year-Old Boys Who Were Overweight/Obese: A Randomized Controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Gabriela G; de Almeida, Marcelus B; Nobre, Isabele G; Dos Santos, Fernanda K; Brinco, Raphael A; Arruda-Lima, Thalison R; de-Vasconcelos, Kenya L; de-Lima, Jociellen G; Borba-Neto, Manoel E; Damasceno-Rodrigues, Emmanuel M; Santos-Silva, Steve M; Leandro, Carol G; Moura-Dos-Santos, Marcos A

    2017-08-01

    Nobre, GG, de Almeida, MB, Nobre, IG, dos Santos, FK, Brinco, RA, Arruda-Lima, TR, de-Vasconcelos, KL, de-Lima, JG, Borba-Neto, ME, Damasceno-Rodrigues, EM, Santos-Silva, SM, Leandro, CG, and Moura-dos-Santos, MA. Twelve weeks of plyometric training improves motor performance of 7- to 9-year-old boys who were overweight/obese: a randomized controlled intervention. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2091-2099, 2017-The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased, and physical training at school may to be effective to combat this scenario. We analyzed the effects of a protocol of plyometric training on body composition and motor performance of boys who were overweight/obese aged 7-9 years. The sample was randomly assigned into 2 groups: plyometric training group (T, n = 40) and control group (C, n = 19). Training consisted of 20 min·d (twice a week, during 12 weeks) of lower extremity plyometric exercise. Health-related physical fitness was measured by handgrip strength, standing long jump (SLJ), curl-ups, sit and reach, square test, running speed, and mile run test. Gross motor coordination was evaluated by means of the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK) tests. Baseline and postintervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen's d coefficient. Both groups showed increased body weight, height, and sitting height after intervention with a negligible effect size. Only T group showed increased fat-free mass (p = 0.011) compared with baseline values with small effect size. Plyometric training improved handgrip strength (d = 0.23), sit and reach (d = 0.18), curl-ups (d = 0.39), SLJ (d = 0.80), agility (d = 0.48), and time in the mile run test (d = 0.38). For gross motor coordination results, T group showed better performance in all tests after plyometric training with moderate/large effect size. Thus, 12 weeks of PT improved health-related physical fitness components and motor coordination acquisition of 7- to 9-year

  4. Methodology for the motor coordination through the adapted table tennis in boys and girl with Down´s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Govea Macía

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research approaches the application of a pre experiment with the objective of elaborating a methodology that stimulates the development of the motor coordination, adapting the table tennis to the necessities and characteristics of the boys and girls with Downs Syndrome diagnose. To elaborate it was started from the deficiencies and contradictions found in the adapted sport for patients with Down’s Syndrome, as well as the potentialities and deficiencies in their motor coordination; there are used methods and techniques of theoretical character (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, hypothetical, deductive, systemic structural functional and modeling; of empiric-experimental character (observation, measurement, documental analysis, experts' approach, pre pedagogic experiment, study case; and as techniques: the survey and instruments; and of mathematical-statistical character, descriptive statistic and inferential. The use of the experts’ criterion is used to verify the theoretical validity elements of the designed methodology. The results analysis allows accepting the proposal as valid after having obtained the theoretical and practical results validation with a case study implementation.

  5. Does motor expertise facilitate amplitude differentiation of lower limb-movements in an asymmetrical bipedal coordination task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen, Eefje G J; Brown, Derrick D; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Staal, J Bart; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

    2018-04-30

    The motor system's natural tendency is to move the limbs over equal amplitudes, for example in walking. However, in many situations in which people must perform complex movements, a certain degree of amplitude differentiation of the limbs is required. Visual and haptic feedback have recently been shown to facilitate such independence of limb movements. However, it is unknown whether motor expertise moderates the extent to which individuals are able to differentiate the amplitudes of their limb-movements while being supported with visual and haptic feedback. To answer this question 14 pre-professional dancers were compared to 14 non-dancers on simultaneously generating a small displacement with one foot, and a larger one with the other foot, in four different feedback conditions. In two conditions, haptic guidance was offered, either in a passive or active mode. In the other two conditions, veridical and enhanced visual feedback were provided. Surprisingly, no group differences were found regarding the degree to which the visual or haptic feedback assisted the generation of the different target amplitudes of the feet (mean amplitude difference between the feet). The correlation between the displacements of the feet and the standard deviation of the continuous relative phase between the feet, reflecting the degree of independence of the feet movements, also failed to show between-group differences. Sample entropy measures, indicating the predictability of the foot movements, did show a group difference. In the haptically-assisted conditions, the dancers demonstrated more predictable coordination patterns than the non-dancers as reflected by lower sample entropy values whereas the reverse was true in the visual-feedback conditions. The results demonstrate that motor expertise does not moderate the extent to which haptic tracking facilitates the differentiation of the amplitudes of the lower limb movements in an asymmetrical bipedal coordination task. Copyright © 2018

  6. Can stereotype threat affect motor performance in the absence of explicit monitoring processes? Evidence using a strength task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, Aïna; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Radel, Rémi; Coombes, Stephen A; Easthope, Christopher; Clément-Guillotin, Corentin

    2013-04-01

    Previous evidence shows that stereotype threat impairs complex motor skills through increased conscious monitoring of task performance. Given that one-step motor skills may not be susceptible to these processes, we examined whether performance on a simple strength task may be reduced under stereotype threat. Forty females and males performed maximum voluntary contractions under stereotypical or nullified-stereotype conditions. Results showed that the velocity of force production within the first milliseconds of the contraction decreased in females when the negative stereotype was induced, whereas maximal force did not change. In males, the stereotype induction only increased maximal force. These findings suggest that stereotype threat may impair motor skills in the absence of explicit monitoring processes, by influencing the planning stage of force production.

  7. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Quail, Stephanie L.; Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5–6, 8–9 and 27–28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2–3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27–28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27–28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27–28 months. Conclusion: this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed. PMID:26869921

  8. Overlapping Phenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Motor and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Leonard, Hayley C.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor and social difficulties are often found in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), to varying degrees. This study investigated the extent of overlap of these problems in children aged 7-10 years who had a diagnosis of either ASD or DCD, compared to typically-developing controls.…

  9. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Age-Related Differences in Motor Coordination during Simultaneous Leg Flexion and Finger Extension: Influence of Temporal Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference b...

  11. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  12. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  14. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstoel, Katrijn; Pion, Johan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles

  15. AN INFLUENCE OF THE PROGRAM OF THE UNIVERSAL SPORTS SCHOOL DUBROVNIK ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES DEVELOPMENT OF SIXTH YEAR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the effects of the diverse kinesiology program on the motor abilities development on a random sample of an unselected population of six-year old boys and girls, i.e. 34 regular attendants of the Universal Sports School Dubrovnik, within the period of 8 months (initial and final state. The variable sample consisted of 8 motor ability evaluation tests. Seriously changes positively established of tests of explosive and repetitive strength, coordination and frequency of movement hand.

  16. Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Brickner, Orit; Lerman, Hedva; Greemland, Mazal; Bloch, Miki; Lester, Hava; Chisin, Roland; Mechoulam, Raphael; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Freedman, Nanette; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2008-01-01

    Twelve regular users of marijuana underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), one while subject to the effects of 17 mg THC, the other without THC. In both sessions, a virtual reality maze task was performed during the FDG uptake period. When subject to the effects of 17 mg THC, regular marijuana smokers hit the walls more often on the virtual maze task than without THC. Compared to results without THC, 17 mg THC increased brain metabolism during task performance in areas that are associated with motor coordination and attention in the middle and medial frontal cortices and anterior cingulate, and reduced metabolism in areas that are related to visual integration of motion in the occipital lobes. These findings suggest that in regular marijuana users, the immediate effects of marijuana may impact on cognitive-motor skills and brain mechanisms that modulate coordinated movement and driving.

  17. Effect of methanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Tahira; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-04-01

    Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding. Effect on anxiety was assessed by Hole board test and Light and Dark transition models.Phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and Rota rod test were performed to assess effect on sedation and motor coordination. In Hole board test, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds decreased the number of head dips in mice at all the three doses. In Light and Dark transition model, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds increased the period spent in the light box and the number of moves among the two compartments at 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control animals. In phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds did not reveal any sedative effect. In Rota rod test, extract exhibited significant skeletal muscle relaxant effect at 200 mg/kg (at 90 min) as compared to the control animals. Results of our study shows significant antianxiety effects of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds and may also recommend improved adverse effect profile as compared to diazepam.

  18. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-04-01

    regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5-11, "Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l'Et à Evolutiva": Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p attention and executive functions. karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children.

  19. Analysis of activity and motor coordination in rats undergoing stereotactic surgery and implantation of a cannula into the dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, F; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Puga-Olguín, A; Germán-Ponciano, L J; Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Bernal-Morales, B

    Stereotactic surgery is used to place electrodes or cannulas in the brain in order to study the function of several brain structures in preclinical research. The hippocampus has been extensively studied with this methodology due to its involvement in a wide range of neurological, cognitive, emotional, and affective disorders. However, the effects of stereotactic surgery on coordination and motor activity should be evaluated in order to determine whether this surgical procedure causes any neurological alterations that may bias the results of studies incorporating this technique. We evaluated the effects of stereotactic surgery and implantation of a cannula into the hippocampus of female Wistar rats on the motor activity, forced swim, and rotarod tests. The stage of the oestrous cycle was included in the statistical analysis. Stereotactic surgery had no impact on any of the motor activity variables assessed in the open field (squares crossed, time spent in grooming, and rearing), forced swim (turning behaviour, lateral swimming, latency to first immobility, and time spent immobile), and rotarod (latency to fall) tests, compared with intact rats. Regardless of surgical manipulation, rats in the metestrus and diestrus stages crossed a greater number of squares and displayed longer immobility times than those in the proestrus and estrus stages. Stereotactic surgery for cannula placement in the dorsal hippocampus does not affect coordination and motor activity in rats. We can therefore conclude that this procedure has no neurological complications that may interfere in the interpretation of results of studies applying this technique. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Restauration of age related motor impairment: Role of IGF-1 based gene therapy and microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Falomir Lockhart

    2015-05-01

    In the current study we implemented ICV IGF-I gene therapy in very old rats (28 months and assessed the motor performance pre and 17-days after surgery. Glial immunoreactivity in striatum was evaluated by Iba1 and GFAP markers. Results: As we previously reported, IGF-I restored motor coordination and forelimb grip strength in aged rats (Sanchez et al., 2008. We found that microglia immunoreactivity (Iba-1+ was significantly increased for at least 17 days after treatment with IGF-I (Xm-senil-IGF-I=8.370±0.3297 vs Xm-senil-DsRed= 5.557±0.2553; p<0.0001, astrocytes (GFAP+ showed not changes. Our results identify a novel function of microglia in the maintenance of motor permormance and suggest an original approach for reversing age-associated motor and exploratory performance recorded in rats.

  1. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition. PMID:28278267

  2. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  3. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  4. Periodic modulation of motor-unit activity in extrinsic hand muscles during multidigit grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A; Winges, Sara A; Santello, Marco

    2005-07-01

    We recently examined the extent to which motor units of digit flexor muscles receive common input during multidigit grasping. This task elicited moderate to strong motor-unit synchrony (common input strength, CIS) across muscles (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP, and flexor pollicis longus, FPL) and across FDP muscle compartments, although the strength of this common input was not uniform across digit pairs. To further characterize the neural mechanisms underlying the control of multidigit grasping, we analyzed the relationship between firing of single motor units from these hand muscles in the frequency domain by computing coherence. We report three primary findings. First, in contrast to what has been reported in intrinsic hand muscles, motor units belonging to different muscles and muscle compartments of extrinsic digit flexors exhibited significant coherence in the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-Hz frequency ranges and much weaker coherence in the higher 10-20 Hz range (maximum 0.0025 and 0.0008, respectively, pooled across all FDP compartment pairs). Second, the strength and incidence of coherence differed considerably across digit pairs. Third, contrary to what has been reported in the literature, across-muscle coherence can be stronger and more prevalent than within-muscle coherence, as FPL-FDP2 (thumb-index digit pair) exhibited the strongest and most prevalent coherence in our data (0.010 and 43% at 3 Hz, respectively). The heterogeneous organization of common input to these muscles and muscle compartments is discussed in relation to the functional role of individual digit pairs in the coordination of multiple digit forces in grasping.

  5. Motor Deficits of Girls with Down Syndrome in Comparing with Girls with Intellectual Disability in the School Ages Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Daftari-Anbardan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor function in children with Down syndrome is similar to mentally retarded children. But the movements are slower and have lower quality. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in motor function in children with Down syndrome, by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty six children with intellectual disability, 18 girls with Down syndrome and 18 girls without Down syndrome, with chronological aged 8-13 years were investigated. The subjects of Down syndrome were selected by available sampling. The subjects of intellectual disability were selected by simple random sampling. Two groups of participants were matched for chronological age and IQ level. The measurement was BOTMP. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test and t-test. Results: The children with Down syndrome scored significantly lower than the mentally retarded children in the areas of gross motor skill composite (P<0.014 balance (P<0.029, response time (P<0.034 and visual motor control (P<0.048, but the fine motor and overlay motor skill composite, and subtests of bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination scores were no significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Motor rehabilitation is appropriate for children with intellectual disability, especially for children with Down syndrome, in throughout their adolescence. Key words: Motor skill/ Intellectual Disability/ Down syndrome/ BOTMP

  6. Motor Unit Number Estimate and Isometric Hand Grip Strength in Military Veterans with or Without Muscular Complaints: Reference Values for Longitudinal Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Yao, Wenguo; Sundahl, Cynthia

    2018-03-26

    It remains unclear if Gulf War (GW) veterans have a higher risk of developing motor neuron disorder. We intended to establish baseline neurophysiological values, including thenar motor unit number estimate (MUNE) and isometric hand grip (IHG) strength, to compare future follow-ups of deployed GW veterans with or without muscular complaints. We evaluated 19 GW veterans with self-reported weakness, cramps, or excessive muscle fatigue (Ill-19) and compared them with 18 controls without such muscular complaints (C-18). We performed MUNE on hand thenar muscles using adapted multipoint stimulation method for Ill-19 and 15 controls (C-15). We measured IHG strength (maximum force, endurance, and fatigue level) on Ill-19 and C-18 with a hand dynamometer. We performed nerve conduction studies on all study participants to determine which subjects had mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We compared the MUNE and IHG strength measures between Ill group and controls and between those with CTS and those without CTS. We obtained thenar MUNE of Ill-19 (95% CI of mean: 143-215; mean age: 46 yr) and compared it with that of C-15 (95% CI of mean: 161-230; mean age: 45 yr), and 95% of CI of mean among IHG strength variables (maximum force: 324-381 Newton; endurance: 32-42 s; fatigue level: 24%-33%) compared with C-18 (maximum force: 349-408 Newton; endurance: 35-46 s; fatigue level: 21%-27%). There was no significant difference in either MUNE or IHG strength between Ill-19 group and controls. The MUNE and IHG maximum forces were significantly lower in those with CTS compared with those without CTS. As a surrogate of mild CTS, the median versus ulnar distal sensory latency on nerve conduction study was only weakly associated with MUNE, maximum force, and fatigue level, respectively. To our knowledge, no published study on MUNE reference values of military veteran population has been available. The quantifiable values of both thenar MUNE and IHG strength of military veterans serve as

  7. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast's Talent Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz's battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p talent identification and selection procedures it is better to include the evaluation of coordination and motor learning ability.Motor learning assessment concerns performance improvement and the ability to develop it, rather than evaluating the athlete's current performance.In this manner talent identification processes should be focused on the future performance capabilities of athletes.

  8. Dissociating variability and effort as determinants of coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O'Sullivan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When coordinating movements, the nervous system often has to decide how to distribute work across a number of redundant effectors. Here, we show that humans solve this problem by trying to minimize both the variability of motor output and the effort involved. In previous studies that investigated the temporal shape of movements, these two selective pressures, despite having very different theoretical implications, could not be distinguished; because noise in the motor system increases with the motor commands, minimization of effort or variability leads to very similar predictions. When multiple effectors with different noise and effort characteristics have to be combined, however, these two cost terms can be dissociated. Here, we measure the importance of variability and effort in coordination by studying how humans share force production between two fingers. To capture variability, we identified the coefficient of variation of the index and little fingers. For effort, we used the sum of squared forces and the sum of squared forces normalized by the maximum strength of each effector. These terms were then used to predict the optimal force distribution for a task in which participants had to produce a target total force of 4-16 N, by pressing onto two isometric transducers using different combinations of fingers. By comparing the predicted distribution across fingers to the actual distribution chosen by participants, we were able to estimate the relative importance of variability and effort of 1:7, with the unnormalized effort being most important. Our results indicate that the nervous system uses multi-effector redundancy to minimize both the variability of the produced output and effort, although effort costs clearly outweighed variability costs.

  9. Research and simulation of the decoupling transformation in AC motor vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Zhongjie; Liu, Ken; Zhang, Yongping; Yao, Tuozhong

    2018-04-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a nonlinear, strong coupling, multivariable complex object, and transformation decoupling can solve the coupling problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor. This paper gives a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) mathematical model, introduces the permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control coordinate transformation in the process of modal matrix inductance matrix transform through the matrix related knowledge of different coordinates of diagonalization, which makes the coupling between the independent, realize the control of motor current and excitation the torque current coupling separation, and derived the coordinate transformation matrix, the thought to solve the coupling problem of AC motor. Finally, in the Matlab/Simulink environment, through the establishment and combination between the PMSM ontology, coordinate conversion module, built the simulation model of permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control, introduces the model of each part, and analyzed the simulation results.

  10. Evaluation of freshmen coordination abilities on practical training in gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Tereschenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measured coordination abilities (baseline to the static and dynamic equilibrium of the body, the space-time orientation on the support and in unsupported position, proprioception sense, vestibular stability, vestibular sensitivity, coordination limbs symmetrical and asymmetrical. Coordination abilities were also measured under difficult conditions. The study involved 238 students aged 17 - 18 years. Registered a positive trend of improving performance motor tests, development of educational material. Students who specialize in difficult to coordinate sports had significantly better performance. Found that the content of the material work programs of sports and educational disciplines helps improve sensorimotor coordination tasks students. It is noted that the content of the training material is the basis for efficient formation of motor skills and motor skills development of gymnastic exercises. Recommended ways to increase sports and technical and professional skills of students.

  11. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and motor coordination of 9 to 11 year old children participating in a wide range of sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstoel, Katrijn; Pion, Johan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks' Λ = .137 and p sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport.

  12. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  13. Drawing from Memory: Hand-Eye Coordination at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes move to gather visual information for the purpose of guiding behavior. This guidance takes the form of perceptual-motor interactions on short timescales for behaviors like locomotion and hand-eye coordination. More complex behaviors require perceptual-motor interactions on longer timescales mediated by memory, such as navigation, or designing and building artifacts. In the present study, the task of sketching images of natural scenes from memory was used to examine and compare perceptual-motor interactions on shorter and longer timescales. Eye and pen trajectories were found to be coordinated in time on shorter timescales during drawing, and also on longer timescales spanning study and drawing periods. The latter type of coordination was found by developing a purely spatial analysis that yielded measures of similarity between images, eye trajectories, and pen trajectories. These results challenge the notion that coordination only unfolds on short timescales. Rather, the task of drawing from memory evokes perceptual-motor encodings of visual images that preserve coarse-grained spatial information over relatively long timescales as well. PMID:23554894

  14. Updating Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. 1st Research Coordination Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Dimitriou, P.

    2016-07-01

    A summary is given of the 1 st Research Coordination Meeting of the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Updating the Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. Participants presented their work, reviewed the current status of the field with regards to measurements, theoretical models and evaluations, discussed the scope of the work to be undertaken and agreed on a list of priorities and task assignments necessary to achieve the goals of the CRP. A summary of the presentations and discussions is presented in this report. (author)

  15. Alcohol hangover: type and time-extension of motor function impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayian, Analía G; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol hangover is defined as the unpleasant next-day state following an evening of excessive alcohol consumption. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. During hangover cognitive functions and subjective capacities are affected along with inefficiency, reduced productivity, absenteeism, driving impairments, poor academic achievement and reductions in motor coordination. The aim of this work was to study the type and length of motor and exploratory functions from the beginning to the end of the alcohol hangover. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Motor performance, walking deficiency, motor strength, locomotion and exploratory activity were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2 h up to 20 h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Motor performance was 80% decreased at the onset of hangover (pwalking deficiencies from the beginning to 16 h after hangover onset (popen field test and the exploratory activity on T-maze and hole board tests were reduced during 16 h after hangover onset (ptime-extension between 16 to 20 h for hangover motor and exploratory impairments. As a whole, this study shows the long lasting effects of alcohol hangover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Essink, Marlou; van der Burgt, Ineke; Draaisma, Jos M; Noordam, Cees; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-09-01

    Although problems with motor performance in daily life are frequently mentioned in Noonan syndrome, the motor performance profile has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether a specific profile in motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome was seen using valid norm-referenced tests. The study assessed motor performance in 19 children with Noonan syndrome (12 females, mean age 9 years 4 months, range 6 years 1 month to 11 years and 11 months, SDS 1 year and 11 months). More than 60% of the parents of the children reported pain, decreased muscle strength, reduced endurance, and/or clumsiness in daily functioning. The mean standard scores on the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test and Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, Dutch version (MABC-2-NL) items differed significantly from the reference scores. Grip strength, muscle force, and 6 min Walking Test (6 MWT) walking distance were significantly lower, and the presence of generalized hypermobility was significantly higher. All MABC-2-NL scores (except manual dexterity) correlated significantly with almost all muscle strength tests, VMI total score, and VMI visual perception score. The 6 MWT was only significantly correlated to grip strength. This is the first study that confirms that motor performance, strength, and endurance are significantly impaired in children with Noonan syndrome. Decreased functional motor performance seems to be related to decreased visual perception and reduced muscle strength. Research on causal relationships and the effectiveness of interventions is needed. Physical and/or occupational therapy guidance should be considered to enhance participation in daily life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  18. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  19. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2009-09-01

    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  20. Sinusoidal error perturbation reveals multiple coordinate systems for sensorymotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Todd E; Landy, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    A coordinate system is composed of an encoding, defining the dimensions of the space, and an origin. We examine the coordinate encoding used to update motor plans during sensory-motor adaptation to center-out reaches. Adaptation is induced using a novel paradigm in which feedback of reach endpoints is perturbed following a sinewave pattern over trials; the perturbed dimensions of the feedback were the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system in one session and a polar coordinate system in another session. For center-out reaches to randomly chosen target locations, reach errors observed at one target will require different corrections at other targets within Cartesian- and polar-coded systems. The sinewave adaptation technique allowed us to simultaneously adapt both dimensions of each coordinate system (x-y, or reach gain and angle), and identify the contributions of each perturbed dimension by adapting each at a distinct temporal frequency. The efficiency of this technique further allowed us to employ perturbations that were a fraction the size normally used, which avoids confounding automatic adaptive processes with deliberate adjustments made in response to obvious experimental manipulations. Subjects independently corrected errors in each coordinate in both sessions, suggesting that the nervous system encodes both a Cartesian- and polar-coordinate-based internal representation for motor adaptation. The gains and phase lags of the adaptive responses are not readily explained by current theories of sensory-motor adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  2. Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.

  3. Structural equation modeling of motor impairment, gross motor function, and the functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study confirmed the construct of motor impairment and performed structural equation modeling (SEM) between motor impairment, gross motor function, and functional outcomes of regarding activities of daily living in children with CP. 98 children (59 boys, 39 girls) with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean age was 11 y 5 mo (SD 1 y 9 mo). The Manual Muscle Test (MMT), the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) measurement, and the selective motor control (SMC) scale were used to assess motor impairments. Gross motor function and functional outcomes were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) respectively. Measurement of motor impairment was consisted of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC. The construct of motor impairment was confirmed though an examination of a measurement model. The proposed SEM model showed good fit indices. Motor impairment effected gross motor function (β=-.0869). Gross motor function and motor impairment affected functional outcomes directly (β=0.890) and indirectly (β=-0.773) respectively. We confirmed that the construct of motor impairment consist of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC and it was identified through measurement model analysis. Functional outcomes are best predicted by gross motor function and motor impairments have indirect effects on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parkinson's disease severity and motor subtype influence physical capacity components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The severity of Parkinson's disease (PD and PD's motor subtypes influence the components of physical capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of both PD severity and motor subtype in the performance of these components. Thirty-six PD patients were assigned into four groups: Tremor (TD initial and TD mild, akinetic-rigid (AR initial, and AR mild. Patients' strength, balance, coordination, mobility and aerobic capacity were evaluated and groups were compared using a two-way ANOVA (severity and subtype as factors. AR presents a poorer performance than TD in almost all tests. Also this performance was worsened with the advance of the disease in AR, contrary to TD. We conclude that AR and TD subgroups are different about their performance on physical capacity components, moreover, this performance worsens with the advance of the disease of the AR group, but not for TD.

  5. The inflation of ion strength in the formation of co-ordination compounds in system of the Fe(III)-Fe(II)-benzimidazole-water in the 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, Kh.D.; Rajabov, U.R.; Yusupov, Z.N.

    2005-01-01

    With the Method of Oxredmatrion with application of the Oxidation Function in the Temperature 298 K and ion strength 0.1; 0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 in the Water solution of Benzimidazole been obtained the Formation Constants of the Coordination and their dependence with ion strength

  6. Evaluating the evidence for motor-based interventions in developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Vinçon, Sabine; Blank, Rainer; Quadrado, Virgínia H; Polatajko, Helene; Wilson, Peter H

    2018-03-01

    As part of the process of creating an update of the clinical practice guidelines for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) (Blank, Smits-Engelsman, Polatajko, & Wilson, 2012), a systematic review of intervention studies, published since the last guidelines statement was conducted. The aim of this study was to 1) systematically review the evidence published from January 2012 to February 2017 regarding the effectiveness of motor based interventions in individuals with DCD, 2) quantify treatment effects using a meta-analysis, 3) examine the available information on different aspects of delivery including use of group intervention, duration and frequency of therapy, and 4) identify gaps in the literature and make recommendations for future intervention research. An electronic search of 5 databases (PubMed, Embase, Pedro, Scopus and Cochrane) was conducted for studies that evaluated motor-based interventions to improve performance for individuals with DCD. Thirty studies covering 25 datasets were included, 19 of which provided outcomes on standardized measures of motor performance. The overall effect size (Cohen's d) across intervention studies was large (1.06), but the range was wide: for 11 interventions, the observed effect was large (>0.80), in eight studies moderate (>0.50), and in five it was small or negligible (video games, and small group programs. Results showed that activity-oriented and body function oriented interventions can have a positive effect on motor function and skills. However, given the varied methodological quality and the large confidence intervals of some studies, the results should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conservative nature of oestradiol signalling pathways in the brain lobes of octopus vulgaris involved in reproduction, learning and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisa, E; Paolucci, M; Di Cosmo, A

    2012-02-01

    Oestradiol plays crucial roles in the mammalian brain by modulating reproductive behaviour, neural plasticity and pain perception. The cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is considered, along with its relatives, to be the most behaviourally advanced invertebrate, although the neurophysiological basis of its behaviours, including pain perception, remain largely unknown. In the present study, using a combination of molecular and imaging techniques, we found that oestradiol up-regulated O. vulgaris gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (Oct-GnRH) and O. vulgaris oestrogen receptor (Oct-ER) mRNA levels in the olfactory lobes; in turn, Oct-ER mRNA was regulated by NMDA in lobes involved in learning and motor coordination. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis revealed that oestradiol binds Oct-ER causing conformational modifications and nuclear translocation consistent with the classical genomic mechanism of the oestrogen receptor. Moreover, oestradiol triggered a calcium influx and cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation via membrane receptors, providing evidence for a rapid nongenomic action of oestradiol in O. vulgaris. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the physiological role of oestradiol in the brain lobes of O. vulgaris involved in reproduction, learning and motor coordination. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Dynamical Methods for Evaluating the Time-Dependent Unfolding of Social Coordination in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eFitzpatrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD suffer from numerous impairments in social interaction that affect both their mental and bodily coordination with others. We explored here whether interpersonal motor coordination may be an important key for understanding the profound social problems of children with ASD. We employed a set of experimental techniques to evaluate not only traditional cognitive measures of social competence but also the dynamical structure of social coordination by using dynamical measures of social motor coordination and analyzing the time series records of behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that children with ASD were equivalent to typically developing children on many social performance outcome measures. However, significant relationships were found between cognitive social measures (e.g., intentionality and dynamical social motor measures. In addition, we found that more perceptually-based measures of social coordination were not associated with social motor coordination. These findings suggest that social coordination may not be a unitary construct and point to the promise of this multi-method and process-oriented approach to analyzing social coordination as an important pathway for understanding ASD-specific social deficits.

  9. Disorganization of Oligodendrocyte Development in the Layer II/III of the Sensorimotor Cortex Causes Motor Coordination Dysfunction in a Model of White Matter Injury in Neonatal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshitomo; Misumi, Sachiyo; Suzuki, Mina; Ogawa, Shino; Nishigaki, Ruriko; Ishida, Akimasa; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Hida, Hideki

    2018-01-01

    We previously established neonatal white matter injury (WMI) model rat that is made by right common carotid artery dissection at postnatal day 3, followed by 6% hypoxia for 60 min. This model has fewer oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and reduced myelin basic protein (MBP) positive areas in the sensorimotor cortex, but shows no apparent neuronal loss. However, how motor deficits are induced in this model is unclear. To elucidate the relationship between myelination disturbance and concomitant motor deficits, we first performed motor function tests (gait analysis, grip test, horizontal ladder test) and then analyzed myelination patterns in the sensorimotor cortex using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Contactin associated protein 1 (Caspr) staining in the neonatal WMI rats in adulthood. Behavioral tests revealed imbalanced motor coordination in this model. Motor deficit scores were higher in the neonatal WMI model, while hindlimb ladder stepping scores and forelimb grasping force were comparable to controls. Prolonged forelimb swing times and decreased hindlimb paw angles on the injured side were revealed by gait analysis. TEM revealed no change in myelinated axon number and the area g-ratio in the layer II/III of the cortex. Electromyographical durations and latencies in the gluteus maximus in response to electrical stimulation of the brain area were unchanged in the model. Caspr staining revealed fewer positive dots in layers II/III of the WMI cortex, indicating fewer and/or longer myelin sheath. These data suggest that disorganization of oligodendrocyte development in layers II/III of the sensorimotor cortex relates to imbalanced motor coordination in the neonatal WMI model rat.

  10. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport. PMID:25978313

  11. Common input to motor units of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles during two-digit object hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Sara A; Kornatz, Kurt W; Santello, Marco

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsic-extrinsic muscle pairs. To address this void in the literature, we quantified the incidence and strength of near-simultaneous discharges of motor units residing in either the same or different intrinsic hand muscles (m. first dorsal, FDI, and m. first palmar interosseus, FPI) during two-digit object hold. To extend the characterization of common input to pairs of extrinsic muscles (previous work) and pairs of intrinsic muscles (present work), we also recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from an extrinsic thumb muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus, FPL). Motor-unit synchrony across FDI and FPI was weak (common input strength, CIS, mean +/- SE: 0.17 +/- 0.02). Similarly, motor units from extrinsic-intrinsic muscle pairs were characterized by weak synchrony (FPL-FDI: 0.25 +/- 0.02; FPL-FPI: 0.29 +/- 0.03) although stronger than FDI-FPI. Last, CIS from within FDI and FPI was more than three times stronger (0.70 +/- 0.06 and 0.66 +/- 0.06, respectively) than across these muscles. We discuss present and previous findings within the framework of muscle-pair specific distribution of common input to hand muscles based on their functional role in grasping.

  12. Cognitive-motor interference during fine and gross motor tasks in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Nadja; El-Rajab, Inaam; Klotzbier, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    While typically developing children produce relatively automatized postural control processes, children with DCD seem to exhibit an automatization deficit. Dual tasks with various cognitive loads seem to be an effective way to assess the automatic deficit hypothesis. The aims of the study were: (1) to examine the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on fine and gross motor tasks in children with DCD, and (2) to determine whether the effect varied with different difficulty levels of the concurrent task. We examined dual-task performance (Trail-Making-Test, Trail-Walking-Test) in 20 children with DCD and 39 typically developing children. Based on the idea of the Trail-Making-Test, participants walked along a fixed pathway, following a prescribed path, delineated by target markers of (1) increasing sequential numbers, and (2) increasing sequential numbers and letters. The motor and cognitive dual-task effects (DTE) were calculated for each task. Regardless of the cognitive task, children with DCD performed equally well in fine and gross motor tasks, and were slower in the dual task conditions than under single task-conditions, compared with children without DCD. Increased cognitive task complexity resulted in slow trail walking as well as slower trail tracing. The motor interference for the gross motor tasks was least for the simplest conditions and greatest for the complex conditions and was more pronounced in children with DCD. Cognitive interference was low irrespective of the motor task. Children with DCD show a different approach to allocation of cognitive resources, and have difficulties making motor skills automatic. The latter notion is consistent with impaired cerebellar function and the "automatization deficit hypothesis", suggesting that any deficit in the automatization process will appear if conscious monitoring of the motor skill is made more difficult by integrating another task requiring attentional resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. A new neural net approach to robot 3D perception and visuo-motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1992-01-01

    A novel neural network approach to robot hand-eye coordination is presented. The approach provides a true sense of visual error servoing, redundant arm configuration control for collision avoidance, and invariant visuo-motor learning under gazing control. A 3-D perception network is introduced to represent the robot internal 3-D metric space in which visual error servoing and arm configuration control are performed. The arm kinematic network performs the bidirectional association between 3-D space arm configurations and joint angles, and enforces the legitimate arm configurations. The arm kinematic net is structured by a radial-based competitive and cooperative network with hierarchical self-organizing learning. The main goal of the present work is to demonstrate that the neural net representation of the robot 3-D perception net serves as an important intermediate functional block connecting robot eyes and arms.

  14. Functional brain correlates of motor response inhibition in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Siobhan; Bray, Signe; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Dewey, Deborah

    2018-06-01

    Motor impairment is associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and to a lesser extent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous functional imaging studies investigated children with DCD or ADHD only; however, these two disorders co-occur in up to 50% of cases, suggesting that similar neural correlates are associated with these disorders. This study compared functional brain activation in children and adolescents (age range 8-17, M = 11.73, SD = 2.88) with DCD (n = 9), ADHD (n = 20), co-occurring DCD and ADHD (n = 18) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 20). When compared to TD controls, children with co-occurring DCD/ADHD showed decreased activation during response inhibition in primary motor and sensory cortices. These findings suggest that children with co-occurring DCD and ADHD display significant functional changes in brain activation that could interfere with inhibition of erroneous motor responses. In contrast to previous studies, significant alterations in brain activation relative to TD controls, were not found in children with isolated DCD or ADHD. These findings highlight the importance of considering co-occurring disorders when investigating brain function in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Daytime sleep enhances consolidation of the spatial but not motoric representation of motor sequence memory.

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    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available Motor sequence learning is known to rely on more than a single process. As the skill develops with practice, two different representations of the sequence are formed: a goal representation built under spatial allocentric coordinates and a movement representation mediated through egocentric motor coordinates. This study aimed to explore the influence of daytime sleep (nap on consolidation of these two representations. Through the manipulation of an explicit finger sequence learning task and a transfer protocol, we show that both allocentric (spatial and egocentric (motor representations of the sequence can be isolated after initial training. Our results also demonstrate that nap favors the emergence of offline gains in performance for the allocentric, but not the egocentric representation, even after accounting for fatigue effects. Furthermore, sleep-dependent gains in performance observed for the allocentric representation are correlated with spindle density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep of the post-training nap. In contrast, performance on the egocentric representation is only maintained, but not improved, regardless of the sleep/wake condition. These results suggest that motor sequence memory acquisition and consolidation involve distinct mechanisms that rely on sleep (and specifically, spindle or simple passage of time, depending respectively on whether the sequence is performed under allocentric or egocentric coordinates.

  16. Strategies to Accommodate Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Physical Education Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila; Romero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects 2-7 percent of school-age children and is characterized by low motor proficiency associated with poor balance, coordination and handwriting skills. Because of their motor difficulties, children with DCD suffer from anxiety, low self-esteem and are often less sociable than typically developing…

  17. Bidirectional transport of organelles: unity and struggle of opposing motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryantseva, Sofiya A; Zhapparova, Olga N

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional transport along microtubules is ensured by opposing motor proteins: cytoplasmic dynein that drives cargo to the minus-ends and various kinesins that generally move to the plus-ends of microtubules. Regulation of motor proteins that are simultaneously bound to the same organelle is required to maintain directional transport and prevent pausing of cargo pulled away by motors of opposite polarity. Debates of the recent decade have been focused on two possible mechanisms of such regulation: (i) coordination, which implies that only one type of motors is active at a given time, and (ii) tug-of-war, which assumes that both motors are active at the same time and that direction of transport depends on the outcome of motor's confrontation. The initial idea of coordination has been challenged by observations of simultaneous activity of plus- and minus-end-directed motors applied to the same cargo. Analysis of the available data indicates that coordination and tug-of-war theories rather complement than contradict each other: cargo interacts with two teams of active motors, the resulting direction and the winner team are determined by coordination complexes, but the activity of the loser team is never completely inhibited and remains at some background level. Such persisting activity might enhance the overall efficiency of transport by increasing processivity or helping to overcome the obstacles on microtubule track. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  18. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast’s Talent Indicator

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    Alessandra di Cagno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr. and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years, competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz’s battery (1985, and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p < 0.01 and ranking (p < 0.05 of elite cadet athletes. Precision, in skill acquisition test results, was positively and significantly associated with scores in 2013 (adj. R2 = 0.26, p < 0.01. Gymnasts with the best results in coordination and motor learning tests went on to achieve better competition results in three- year time.

  19. Compensatory molecular and functional mechanisms in nervous system of the Grm1(crv4) mouse lacking the mGlu1 receptor: a model for motor coordination deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Pia Irene Anna; Musante, Ilaria; Summa, Maria; Pittaluga, Anna; Emionite, Laura; Ikehata, Masami; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Puliti, Aldamaria

    2013-09-01

    The metabotropic glutamate type 1 (mGlu1) and type 5 (mGlu5) receptors, the only members of group I mGlu receptors, are implicated in synaptic plasticity and mechanisms of feedback control of glutamate release. They exhibit nearly complementary distributions throughout the central nervous system, well evident in the cerebellum, where mGlu1 receptor is most intensely expressed while mGlu5 receptor is not. Despite their different distribution, they show a similar subcellular localization and use common transducing pathways. We recently described the Grm1(crv4) mouse with motor coordination deficits and renal anomalies caused by a spontaneous mutation inactivating the mGlu1 receptor. To define the neuropathological mechanisms in these mice, we evaluated expression and function of the mGlu5 receptor in cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed mGlu5 receptor overexpression. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the up-regulation is already evident at RNA level. Functional studies confirmed an enhanced glutamate release from cortical cerebral and cerebellar synaptosomes when compared with wild-type that is abolished by the mGlu5 receptor-specific inhibitor, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP). Finally, acute MPEP treatment of Grm1(crv4/crv4) mice induced an evident although incomplete improvement of motor coordination, suggesting that mGlu5 receptors enhanced activity worsens, instead of improving, the motor-coordination defects in the Grm1(crv4/crv4) mice.

  20. Regional variation in interhemispheric coordination of intrinsic hemodynamic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, David E; Margulies, Daniel S; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Reiss, Philip; Kelly, A M Clare; Uddin, Lucina Q; Gee, Dylan G; Roy, Amy K; Banich, Marie T; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2008-12-17

    Electrophysiological studies have long demonstrated a high degree of correlated activity between the left and right hemispheres, however little is known about regional variation in this interhemispheric coordination. Whereas cognitive models and neuroanatomical evidence suggest differences in coordination across primary sensory-motor cortices versus higher-order association areas, these have not been characterized. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 62 healthy volunteers to examine interregional correlation in spontaneous low-frequency hemodynamic fluctuations. Using a probabilistic atlas, we correlated probability-weighted time series from 112 regions comprising the entire cerebrum. We then examined regional variation in correlated activity between homotopic regions, contrasting primary sensory-motor cortices, unimodal association areas, and heteromodal association areas. Consistent with previous studies, robustly correlated spontaneous activity was noted between all homotopic regions, which was significantly higher than that between nonhomotopic (heterotopic and intrahemispheric) regions. We further demonstrated substantial regional variation in homotopic interhemispheric correlations that was highly consistent across subjects. Specifically, there was a gradient of interhemispheric correlation, with highest correlations across primary sensory-motor cortices (0.758, SD=0.152), significantly lower correlations across unimodal association areas (0.597, SD=0.230) and still lower correlations across heteromodal association areas (0.517, SD=0.226). These results demonstrate functional differences in interhemispheric coordination related to the brain's hierarchical subdivisions. Synchrony across primary cortices may reflect networks engaged in bilateral sensory integration and motor coordination, whereas lower coordination across heteromodal association areas is consistent with functional lateralization of these regions

  1. Differential neurotoxic effects of in utero and lactational exposure to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB 106) on spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijima, Asahi; Lesmana, Ronny; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Amano, Izuki; Takatsuru, Yusuke; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether in utero or lactational exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (OH-PCB 106) affects spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice. For in utero exposure, pregnant C57BL/6J mice received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from gestational day 10 to 18. For lactational exposure, the different groups of dams received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from postpartum day 3 to 13. At 6-7 weeks of age, the spontaneous locomotor activities of male offspring were evaluated for a 24-hr continuous session in a home cage and in an open field for 30-min. Motor coordination function on an accelerating rotarod was also measured. Mice exposed prenatally to OH-PCB 106 showed increased spontaneous locomotor activities during the dark phase in the home cage and during the first 10-min in the open field compared with control mice. Mice exposed lactationally to OH-PCB 106, however, did not show a time-dependent decrease in locomotor activity in the open field. Instead, their locomotor activity increased significantly during the second 10-min block. In addition, mice exposed lactationally to OH-PCB 106 displayed impairments in motor coordination in the rotarod test. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to OH-PCB 106 affects motor behaviors in young adult male mice. Depending on the period of exposure, OH-PCB 106 may have different effects on neurobehavioral development.

  2. Difficulty leading interpersonal coordination: Towards an embodied signature of social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eVarlet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defined by a persistent fear of embarrassment or negative evaluation while engaged in social interaction or public performance, social anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most common psychiatric syndromes. Previous research has made a considerable effort to better understand and assess this mental disorder. However, little attention has been paid to social motor behavior of patients with SAD despite its crucial importance in daily social interactions. Previous research has shown that the coordination of arm, head or postural movements of interacting people can reflect their mental states or feelings such as social connectedness and social motives, suggesting that interpersonal movement coordination may be impaired in patients suffering from SAD. The current study was specifically aimed at determining whether SAD affects the dynamics of social motor coordination. We compared the unintentional and intentional rhythmic coordination of a SAD group (19 patients paired with control participants with the rhythmic coordination of a control group (19 control pairs in an interpersonal pendulum coordination task. The results demonstrated that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved with SAD while intentional coordination was impaired. More specifically, intentional coordination became impaired when patients with SAD had to lead the coordination as indicated by poorer (i.e., more variable coordination. These differences between intentional and unintentional coordination as well as between follower and leader roles reveal an impaired coordination dynamics that is specific to SAD, and thus, opens promising research directions to better understand, assess and treat this mental disorder.

  3. Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L; Póvoas, S; Mota, J; Okely, A D; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Cliff, D P; Lopes, V P; Santos, R

    2017-12-01

    Available data on the associations between motor competence (MC) and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7 ± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push-up tests), and flexibility (back-saver sit and reach and trunk-lift tests) were evaluated using the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Z-scores by age and gender for the physical fitness tests were constructed. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed. Participants in the healthy zone groups of both flexibility tests exhibited significantly better scores of MC than the participants under the healthy zone (P flexibility, as well as the other health-related physical fitness components in schoolchildren to reach adequate levels of MC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lack of connexin43-mediated Bergmann glial gap junctional coupling does not affect cerebellar long-term depression, motor coordination, or eyeblink conditioning

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    Mika Tanaka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bergmann glial cells are specialized astrocytes in the cerebellum. In the mature cerebellar molecular layer, Bergmann glial processes are closely associated with Purkinje cells, enclosing Purkinje cell dendritic synapses with a glial sheath. There is intensive gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial processes, but their significance in cerebellar functions is not known. Connexin43 (Cx43, a major component of astrocytic gap junction channels, is abundantly expressed in Bergmann glial cells. To examine the role of Cx43-mediated gap junctions between Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar functions, we generated Cx43 conditional knockout mice with the S100b-Cre transgenic line (Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre, which exhibited a significant loss of Cx43 in the Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum with a postnatal onset. The Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal cerebellar architecture. Although gap junctional coupling between the Bergmann glial cells measured by spreading of microinjected Lucifer yellow was virtually abolished in Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice, electrophysiologic analysis revealed that cerebellar long-term depression could be induced and maintained normally in thier cerebellar slices. In addition, at the behavioral level, Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal motor coordination in the rotarod task and normal conditioned eyelid response. Our findings suggest that Cx43-mediated gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial cells is not necessary for the neuron-glia interactions required for cerebellum-dependent motor coordination and motor learning.

  5. Structure of Coordination Motor Abilities in Male Basketball Players at Different Levels of Competition

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    Jerzy Sadowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the structure of coordination motor abilities (CMA in male basketball players at different levels of competition. Material and methods. The study included 183 male basketball players from 10 Polish sports clubs. The examined groups consisted of seniors (n=42 aged 24.5 (± 3.3, juniors (n=37 aged 16.8 (± 0.6, cadets (n=54 aged 14.5 (± 0.1 and children (n=50 aged 13.4 (± 0.2. A battery of motor tests was administered to assess the following CMA: kinesthetic differentiation of movements, spatio-temporal orientation, reaction time, movement coupling, sense of balance, sense of rhythm and adjustment of movements. The structure of CMA under investigation was determined based on the results of Hotelling's principal component analysis in Tucker's modification, completed with Kaiser's Varimax rotation [1, 2]. Results. The CMA structure of basketball players was composed of three or four factors. Most often these included rhythm, movement differentiation, movement coupling and adjustment of movements. Less frequently the structure consisted of spatio-temporal orientation, balance and reaction time. An in-depth analysis of the CMA structure revealed that factors ranged from heterogeneous (children and cadets to homogeneous ones (juniors and seniors. The distribution of identified factors in the common variance was the smallest in children and cadets (58.9% and 62.9%, respectively and the biggest in juniors and seniors (69.3% and 68.48%, respectively.

  6. Weight status is associated with cross-sectional trajectories of motor co-ordination across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V P; Stodden, D F; Rodrigues, L P

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates the development of motor co-ordination (MC) may be an important contributing factor to positive or negative weight trajectories across childhood. To analyse cross-sectional associations between MC and weight status in children (boys n = 3344 - girls n = 3281), aged 6-11 years and assess overweight/obese risk across different ages. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated [body mass (kg)/height (m(2))]. MC was evaluated using the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (KTK) and a motor quotient (MQ) was calculated. MQ distribution data were split into tertiles. The effect of age, sex and MQ tertiles on BMI and MC was tested with a factorial anova. A logistic regression also was performed to calculate odd ratios (OR) for being overweight/obese at each age. Children with higher MQ demonstrated lower BMI levels (F(2,6224) = 222.09; P < 0.001). Differences in BMI among MQ tertiles became larger across age (F(10,6224) = 4.53; P < 0.001). The OR of being overweight/obese in both sexes within the lowest MQ tertile increased in each age group from 6 to 11 years. Specifically, OR increased from 2.26 to 27.77 and from 1.87 to 6.81 in boys and girls respectively. Children with low levels of MC have a higher risk of being overweight/obese and this risk increases with age. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prospective associations between measures of gross and fine motor coordination in infants and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo F López; Williams, Genevieve; Aggio, Daniel; Vicinanza, Domenico; Stubbs, Brendon; Kerr, Catherine; Johnstone, James; Roberts, Justin; Smith, Lee

    2017-11-01

    One important determinant of childhood physical activity and sedentary behavior may be that of motor development in infancy. The present analyses aimed to investigate whether gross and fine motor delays in infants were associated with objective and self-reported activity in childhood. Data were from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study, involving UK children born on or around the millennium (September 2000 and January 2002). When children were 9 months old, parents reported children's fine and gross motor-coordination, and at 7 years, sports club attendance and daily TV viewing time. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometers at 7 years. Adjusted regression models were used to examine associations between delayed motor development and accelerometry measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior, and parent-reported sport club attendance and TV viewing time. In this sample (n = 13,021), gross motor delay in infancy was associated with less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (B -5.0 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.8, -3.2) and more time sedentary (B 13.5 95% CI 9.3, 17.8) in childhood. Gross and fine motor delays during infancy were associated with a reduced risk of having high attendance at sports clubs in childhood (both relative risk [RR] 0.7, 95% CI 0.6, 0.9). Fine motor delays, but not gross delays, were also associated with an increased risk of having high TV viewing time (RR 1.3 95% CI 1.0, 1.6). Findings from the present study suggest that delays in motor development in infancy are associated with physical activity and sedentary time in childhood.

  8. Analysis of the physical properties of trehalose-water-lithium iodide based on the bond strength coordination number fluctuation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahara; Jean L Ndeugueu; Masaru Aniya

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of trehalose-water-lithium iodide system has been investigated by the mean of the Bond Strength Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that by increasing the trehalose content, maintaining the content of LiI constant, the fragility decreases due to the increase of the connectivity between the structural units. Our analysis suggests also that the fragility of the system is controlled by the amount of water in the composition. By increasing the water content, the total bond strength decreases and its fluctuation increases, resulting in the increase of the fragility. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, a physical interpretation of the VFT parameters reported in a previous study has been given. (author)

  9. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) as group therapy for children living with motor coordination difficulties: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leanne; Wilson, Jessie; Williams, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate limited participation in daily occupations which negatively impacts their physical and psycho-social wellbeing. The CO-OP approach is strongly supported within the literature as an effective treatment for DCD when delivered as a one-on-one therapy. Group interventions have proven to be effective in increasing self-esteem, decreasing feelings of isolation and are a cost effective way of delivering therapy. The purpose of this review was to explore the evidence for the use of the CO-OP approach in a group format for children with motor coordination difficulties. Searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, Proquest, PsycINFO, ERIC and OTDBase, were conducted from 2000 through until September 30, 2015. Articles included were in English, peer reviewed articles, followed principals of CO-OP and were delivered through a group therapy approach. All articles were critically reviewed and thematically analysed. 192 studies were retrieved with a final number of six articles included in the review. Six themes were highlighted: achieving a new level of perceived competence; feeling a sense of belonging; children learning how the condition affected them and strategies to overcome these challenges; careful formation of intervention groups; the value of following the CO-OP protocols; and the significance of parental involvement. The findings of this review suggest that the CO-OP approach, when administered in a group format, has the potential to benefit children living with motor coordination difficulties in both physical and psycho-social domains. More research is required to confirm these findings and contribute to evidence-based practice. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Ivermectin reduces motor coordination, serum testosterone, and central neurotransmitter levels but does not affect sexual motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N; Sandini, T M; Reis-Silva, T M; Navas-Suáresz, P; Auada, A V V; Lebrun, I; Flório, J C; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S

    2017-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used for the treatment of parasitic infections and widely used in veterinary medicine as endectocide. In mammals, evidence indicates that IVM interacts with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. GABAergic system is involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior. We previously found that IVM at therapeutic doses did not alter sexual behavior in male rats, but at a higher dose, the appetitive phase of sexual behavior was impaired. Thus, we investigated whether the reduction of sexual behavior that was previously observed was a consequence of motor or motivational deficits that are induced by IVM. Data showed significant decrease in striatal dopaminergic system activity and lower testosterone levels but no effects on sexual motivation or penile erection. These findings suggest IVM may activate the GABAergic system and reduce testosterone levels, resulting in a reduction of motor coordination as consequence of the inhibition of striatal dopamine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Motor Skills in Boys and Girls First Grade Student in Tehran

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    Sepideh Nazi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the motor skills differences between girls and boys (aged 7 in Tehran in 2004. Materials & Methods: This research was analytical descriptive The subjects were 120 children includes 60 girls and 60 boys. those were selected by simple random sampling at the first grade of primary School. Each subject was individually assessed by Lincoln Oseretsky motor developmental scale. Results: The findings of this research after data analysis by spss soft ware and sample t Test indicated that: There is not any significant differences between total score of motor skills, total balance score, static and dynamic balance with open eyes, bilateral motor coordination, upper limbs coordination, upper and lower limbs coordination, velocity and dexterity of hand movements in boys and girls (P>0/005. The only Significant differences between boys and girls motor skills is eye hand coordination (P<0/03. Conclusion: The findings of this research is used to better planning and defining the theraputic and educational programs in the field of motor development.

  12. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

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    Nghi Ngoc Tran

    Full Text Available Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2. Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II. In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor

  13. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF COORDINATION ABILITIES OF SPECIAL MEDICAL GROUPS STUDENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Dotsenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the problem of motor abilities development and health of students of special medical group in the process of physical education in technical universities. Determine the major factors, characteristics, and the relationship of physical development, physical fitness and coordination abilities of female students in special medical group. Establish regularities in precise movements mastering of different coordination structure and develop model characteristics of the relationship of coordination abilities and motor characteristics of students in special medical group. To substantiate and verify efficiency of coordination abilities development method of female students with regard to their functional status in the course of physical education in higher school. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological argument, characteristic of the experimental program in physical education teaching process of students in special medical group was shown. Findings. Research is to develop the training content in special medical groups with the use of coordinating elements and exercises to enhance the motor abilities of female students. Their influence on the level of physical development, functional training, as well as regularities in mastering and movement control of different coordinating structure at the female students of special medical group was studied. The comparative characteristic of female students athletic ability in the dynamics of the educational process, differentiated into groups according to nosology was presented. The criterion of spare capacities upgrade of the motor system in controlling the movements of different coordination structure was determined. Originality. The method of coordination abilities development of female students in special medical group, that aims on the formation and correction of motor control system of different coordination structure, a sense of body position and its individual parts in space, improving

  15. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  16. REPETITIVE STRENGTH AMONG STUDENTS OF AGE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim Halilaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 82 male students of the primary school “Qamil Ilazi” in Kaçanik-Kosovo.Four movement tests, which test the repetitive strength, were conducted: 1. Pull-up, 2. Sit-Up, 3. Back extension, 4. Push-up.The main goal of this study was to verify the actual motor status, respectively the component of the repetitive strength among students of age 14 of masculine gender. In addition to verifying the actual motor status, another objective was to verify the relationship between the variables employed.Basic statistical parameters show a distribution which is not significantly different from the normal distribution, yielded highly correlative values among the repetitive strength tests. Space factorization resulted in extracting two latent squares defined as repetitive strength of arms factor, and repetitive strength of body factor.

  17. Morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Petra Mandić; Katić, Ratko; Jelaska, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the structure of morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players and their impact on the estimated quality of the players. According to the goal of the research, a sample consisted of 70 Croatian first league female football players. Participants were measured in 18 tests for assessing morphological characteristics, a set of 12 basic motor abilities tests and a set of 7 tests for assessing football-specific motor abilities. Exploratory factor analysis strategy was applied separately to all measured tests: morphological, basic motor abilities and football specific motor abilities. Factor analysis of morphological tests has shown existence of 3 significant latent dimensions that explain 64% of the total variability. Factors are defined as transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and voluminosity (35%), subcutaneous fat tissue (16%) and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton (13%). In the area of basic motor abilities, four factors were extracted. The first factor is responsible for the integration of agility and explosive power of legs, i.e. a factor of movement regulation (agility/lower body explosiveness) (23%), the second one defines muscle tone regulation (15%), the third one defines the frequency of leg movements (12%), while the fourth one is recognized as responsible for the manifestation of basic strength, particularly of basic core strength (19%). Two factors were isolated in the space of football-specific motor abilities: football-specific efficiency (53%) and situational football coordination (27%). Furthermore, by use of factor analysis on extracted latent dimensions (morphological, basic and football specific motor abilities) two higher order factors (explaining 87% of common variability) were extracted. They were named morphological-motor factor (54%) and football-specific motor abilities factor (33%). It is assumed that two extracted higher-order factors fully

  18. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  19. CANONICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN BASIC AND MOTOR - SITUATIONAL-MOTOR SKILLS IN SPORT GAMES

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    Bećir Šabotić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between the predictor-basic motor and situational-motor tests in sports games. On the sample of 62 subjects of the first year of high school was carried out measurements which covered 12 basic and 6 motor variables and situational tests in volleyball and basketball.Based on the results of the canonical correlation analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between the predictor variables and a set of criterion variables, situational-motor tests basketball and volleyball. These results are logical given the structure of movements from basketball and volleyball that require a high level of coordination and speed.

  20. Motor coordination and balance measurements reveal differential pathogenicity of currently spreading enterovirus 71 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Feng; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large-scale epidemics with neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. The C4a and B5 strains are the two major genotypes circulating in many countries recently. This study used a new protocol, a motor coordination task, to assess the differential pathogenicity of C4a and B5 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice. We found that the pathogenicity of C4a viruses was more severe than that of B5 viruses. Moreover, we discovered that an increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was positively correlated with severely deficient motor function. This study provides a new method for evaluating EV71 infection in mice and distinguishing the severity of the symptoms caused by different clinical strains, which would contribute to studies of pathogenesis and development of vaccines and antivirals in EV71 infections.

  1. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárez-López, Soledad; Bosch-García, Daniel; Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  2. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Bárez-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4 but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2. To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. AIM: This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. RESULTS: Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice. No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction and skeletal muscle (33% reduction, but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1 is expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  3. SUPERVISED PHYSICAL TRAINING IMPROVES FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF 5-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

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    Yugang Qi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Fine motor skills are important for children not only in the activities of daily living, but also for learning activities. In the present study, the effects of supervised physical training were investigated in normal children. Objective: To evaluate the effects of supervised training by combining full-body exercise and the eye-hand coordination activities to improve fine motor skills in a group of five-year-old normal children. Methods: Fifty-two children were selected and randomized in exercise and control groups. The exercise group participated in three 30-minute training sessions per week for 24 weeks. Results: The fine motor skills and hand grip strength of the exercise group were significantly increased, while there was no significant change in the control group during the experimental period. Conclusion: The results indicate that the current exercise training program is effective and can be applied to 5-year-old normal children to improve their fine motor skills. In addition, this program has simple physical activities that are appropriate to the physical and mental level of child development. The 30-minute training session would be easily implemented in the kindergarten program. Level of Evidence I; High quality randomized trial with statistically significant difference or no statistically significant difference but narrow confidence intervals.

  4. Development of an evaluation function for eye-hand coordination robotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernalete, N; Tang, F; Chang, S M; Cheng, F Y; Vetter, P; Stegemann, M; Grantner, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of a work presented at ICORR 07, in which we discussed the possibility of improving eye-hand coordination in children diagnosed with this problem, using a robotic mapping from a haptic user interface to a virtual environment. Our goal is to develop, implement and refine a system that will assess and improve the eye-hand coordination and grip strength in children diagnosed with poor graphomotor skills. A detailed analysis of patters (e.g., labyrinths, letters and angles) was conducted in order to select three very distinguishable levels of difficulty that could be included in the system, and which would yield the greatest benefit in terms of assessment of coordination and strength issues as well as in training. Support algorithms (position, force, velocity, inertia and viscosity) were also developed and incorporated into the tasks in order to introduce general computer assistance to the mapping of the user's movements to the computer screen without overriding the user's commands to the robotic device. In order to evaluate performance (given by %accuracy and time) of the executed tasks, a sophisticated evaluation function was designed based on image analysis and edge detection algorithms. This paper presents the development of the haptic tasks, the various assistance algorithms, the description of the evaluation function and the results of a study implemented at the Motor Development Clinic at Cal Poly Pomona. The results (Accuracy and Time) of this function are currently being used as inputs to an Intelligent Decision Support System (described in), which in turn, suggests the next task to be executed by the subject based on his/her performance. © 2011 IEEE

  5. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENT GYMNASTICS TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON STATIC STRENGTH OF 3TH & 4TH GRADE PUPILS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Aleksić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the subject of the research is only one segment of the anthropological area, which refers to the appearance of appropriate motor abilities-coordination. Static strength Static strength is ability to retain in nonmetrics contraction of muscle that body is preserved in certain position. Static work as physical work doesn’t exist in static strength, because development doesn’t exist, but quality of static work the muscle should start with physiology’s opinion of work. Static work is used for demonstration the power during that last.The battery for the evaluation of static strength consists of the following tests: MVIS, MIPR, MINS. During the 2005/06 academic year, a research was conducted so as to determine the effects of current program of physical education teaching on motor abilities coordination of female pupils. The research involved a total sample of 102 girls from the 3th and 4th grade of elementary school. The subjects were classified in one experimental and one control group. The experimental group was made of 54 studentsand they were practicing according to planning instruction where the artistic gymnastics had the primary part. The control group of 48 students was practicing according to official instructional plan and program for P.E. of the Republic of Serbia. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. The multi-variant procedures were used in this research ant those were: the multi-variant analysis of the variable (MANCOVA, MANOVA. Also, the mono-variant procedures were used and those were: the variable analysis (ANCOVA, ANOVA and the interval of entrust. After the experimental treatment, i.e. at the final testing, significant differences were found with female pupils in the experimental and control groups concerning the one of three tests for the evaluation of static strength. The basic conclusion is

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATING THE ANTROPOMETRIC, MOTOR AND SPECIFIC MOTOR DIMENSIONS ON THE ELEMENTS OF THE ATTACK IN SPORT KARATE FIGHTING

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    Žarko Kostovski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research involved 48 participants - top male karate competitors, juniors from karate clubs from Republic of Macedonia. The subject of this research are the defining elements of karate attack in sports karate fighting, and the basic aim is to establish the influence of anthropometric, motor and specific motor dimensions on the karate elements that use in sport karate fighting. In the research were used 36 variables: 4 antropomotorical variables, 4 variables for estimate on the explosive strength, 4 variables for estimate on the segmentary speed (movement frequency, 12 variables of the specific karate elements used in the sport karate fighting and 12 variables for estimate on the specifically karate abilities in 3 motor space: 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate coordination, 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate precision and 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate balance, which are predictive system of variables. The criterion set of variables of this research are represented by 4 karate elements which define the attack in sports karate fighting. From the received results was determined existing of groups in the different spaces of the treated variables and influence of the predictive system of variables on the criterion set of variables

  7. A simplified tether model for molecular motor transporting cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang-Zhen, Li; Li-Chun, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins or protein complexes which function as transporting engines in biological cells. This paper models the tether between motor and its cargo as a symmetric linear potential. Different from Elston and Peskin's work for which performance of the system was discussed only in some limiting cases, this study produces analytic solutions of the problem for general cases by simplifying the transport system into two physical states, which makes it possible to discuss the dynamics of the motor–cargo system in detail. It turns out that the tether strength between motor and cargo should be greater than a threshold or the motor will fail to transport the cargo, which was not discussed by former researchers yet. Value of the threshold depends on the diffusion coefficients of cargo and motor and also on the strength of the Brownian ratchets dragging the system. The threshold approaches a finite constant when the strength of the ratchet tends to infinity. (general)

  8. Assessment of Body Composition Using Whole Body Air-Displacement Plethysmography in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by poor fine and/or gross motor coordination. Children with DCD are hypothesized to be at increased risk for overweight and obesity from inactivity due to their motor coordination problems. Although previous studies have found evidence to support this…

  9. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  10. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perfection of coordination with the help of jump exercises on trampoline

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    V.N. Boloban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic of sportsmen’s coordination perfection with the help of jumps on trampoline. Material: in the research 259 1st and 2nd year students (age 17-19 years participated. The students were representatives of game and cyclic kinds of sports, sport gymnastic and martial arts. Among them there were 99 sportsmen with sport degrees. Results: we gave the definition of the term - coordination training. The students’ sensor-motor coordination was confidently improved by means of the worked out methodic realization. The methodic included program of jump exercises on trampoline. We achieved positive dynamic of static-kinetic and static-dynamic balance as well as increased the quality of mastering of exercises with complex coordination. Conclusions: the methodic of sportsmen’s coordination training with the help of jump exercises on trampoline was worked out, considering specificity of kinds of sports and sportsmen’s qualification. This methodic improves sensor-motor coordination and is the basis of technical training and technical fitness.

  12. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  13. Body Build and the Level of Development of Muscle Strength Among Male Jiu-Jitsu Competitors and Strength-Trained Adults

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    Pietraszewska Jadwiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was to assess the morpho-functional characteristics of male jiu-jitsu practitioners against a sample of strength-trained university students. Methods. The all-male research sample included 49 jiu-jitsu competitors and 30 university students actively involved in strength training. Measures of body mass and height, lower extremity length, sitting height, arm span, trunk width, skeletal breadths, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities were collected. Body tissue composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Somatotype was classified according to the anthropometric method of Heath and Carter. Participants also performed three motor tests composed of the standing long jump, flexed arm hang, and sit-ups and two dynamometer tests measuring handgrip and back muscle strength. Differences between the measured characteristics in both samples were analyzed using Student’s t test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to the determine the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the results of the motor tests. Results. The jiu-jitsu sample was slightly smaller than the strength-training students. In contrast, body mass was almost identical in both groups. The remaining length, height, and skinfold characteristics also did not differ significantly between the groups. Only hip breadth was significantly larger in the jiu-jitsu sample. No between-group differences were noted in the levels of endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. The composite somatotype of the jiu-jitsu athletes (2.1-5.8-2.0 was very similar to that of the strength-trained students (2.1-5.9-2.4. Statistically significant differences were observed in the tests assessing muscle strength. Handgrip and back muscle strength was greater in the strength-training students, whereas the jiu-jitsu athletes performed better in all three motor tests. Conclusions. The minor morphological

  14. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Bjerre Høyer, Birgit; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2016-01-01

    and duration of breastfeeding. Data were stratified by country.ResultsNo statistically significant difference in age at motor milestones was found comparing children of smokers with children of non-smokers. Also, there was no statistically significant difference in motor score (Developmental Coordination...

  15. The mouse beam walking assay offers improved sensitivity over the mouse rotarod in determining motor coordination deficits induced by benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Joanna L; Lincoln, Rachael J; Brown, Terry A; McDonald, Louise M; Dawson, Gerard R; Reynolds, David S

    2005-05-01

    The mouse rotarod test of motor coordination/sedation is commonly used to predict clinical sedation caused by novel drugs. However, past experience suggests that it lacks the desired degree of sensitivity to be predictive of effects in humans. For example, the benzodiazepine, bretazenil, showed little impairment of mouse rotarod performance, but marked sedation in humans. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the mouse beam walking assay demonstrates: (i) an increased sensitivity over the rotarod and (ii) an increased ability to predict clinically sedative doses of benzodiazepines. The study compared the effects of the full benzodiazepine agonists, diazepam and lorazepam, and the partial agonist, bretazenil, on the mouse rotarod and beam walking assays. Diazepam and lorazepam significantly impaired rotarod performance, although relatively high GABA-A receptor occupancy was required (72% and 93%, respectively), whereas beam walking performance was significantly affected at approximately 30% receptor occupancy. Bretazenil produced significant deficits at 90% and 53% receptor occupancy on the rotarod and beam walking assays, respectively. The results suggest that the mouse beam walking assay is a more sensitive tool for determining benzodiazepine-induced motor coordination deficits than the rotarod. Furthermore, the GABA-A receptor occupancy values at which significant deficits were determined in the beam walking assay are comparable with those observed in clinical positron emission tomography studies using sedative doses of benzodiazepines. These data suggest that the beam walking assay may be able to more accurately predict the clinically sedative doses of novel benzodiazepine-like drugs.

  16. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2014-11-06

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OBESE CHILDREN IN RELATION TO MOTOR SKILLS A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Sundaram Subramanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and is associated with increased cardio vascular mortality and morbidity in adult life. In children, obesity correlates strongly with a progressive reduction in the level of physical activity and changes in food habits. Methods: This study is a qualitative research study. A secondary data collection technique was utilized and conducted through a search of articles published between 2005 and 2014 in PubMed and Google scholar databases. The objective of the present study is to provide a systemic review of the available literature and outline the factors in early life that are associated with an increased risk of obesity in children there by leading to poor gross motor skill performance with the help of Anthropometric assessment, Body composition and Motor skills proficiency. Results: Importantly recent studies have demonstrated that exercise training improves vascular endothelial function and stimulation of pressure receptors leading to increased vagal activity in obese children. The current literature highlights the importance of adding exercise programs to clinics, schools and families for the physical and psychological wellbeing of children. Conclusion: Overall findings from the present review showed that normal children with physical exercise are more superior in motor skills compared to other peers. Results of the previous studies indicated that normal children’s are more efficient in bilateral coordination in greater balancing, efficient upper limb coordination and greater strength

  18. Body mass index and motor coordination: Non-linear relationships in children 6-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V P; Malina, R M; Maia, J A R; Rodrigues, L P

    2018-05-01

    Given the concern for health-related consequences of an elevated body mass index (BMI; obesity), the potential consequences of a low BMI in children are often overlooked. The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between the BMI across its entire spectrum and motor coordination (MC) in children 6-10 years. Height, weight, and MC (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder, KTK test battery) were measured in 1,912 boys and 1,826 girls of 6-10 years of age. BMI (kg/m 2 ) was calculated. KTK scores for each of the four tests were also converted to a motor quotient (MQ). One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in the BMI, individual test items, and MQ among boys and girls within age groups. Sex-specific quadratic regressions of individual KTK items and the MQ on the BMI were calculated. Girls and boys were also classified into four weight status groups using International Obesity Task Force criteria: thin, normal, overweight, and obese. Differences in specific test items and MQ between weight status groups were evaluated by age group in each sex. Thirty-one percent of the sample was overweight or obese, whereas 5% was thin. On average, normal weight children had the highest MQ in both sexes across the age range with few exceptions. Overweight/obese children had a lower MQ than normal weight and thin children. The quadratic regression lines generally presented an inverted parabolic relationship between the BMI and MC and suggested a decrease in MC with an increase in the BMI. In general, BMI shows a curvilinear, inverted parabolic relationship with MC in children 6-10 years. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Motor and Coordination Difficulties in Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elisabeth; Pratt, Michelle L; Kanji, Zara; Bartoli, Alice Jones

    2017-01-01

    To date, very few studies have explored the incidence of motor impairment amongst children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (social, emotional and mental health (SEMH); formerly SEBD in England). Following research that suggests an increase in motor difficulties in young children and adolescents with SEMH difficulties, this…

  20. Fever during pregnancy and motor development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine how fever during pregnancy is associated with motor development in the child. METHOD: This cohort study was based on data from females and their children, from the Danish National Birth Cohort, who took part in an 18-month and/or 7-year follow-up study....... Information regarding fever (number of episodes, temperature, duration, and pregnancy week) was obtained around gestation week 12 and at the end of pregnancy. Assessments of motor development in early childhood were based on the ages at which the motor milestones 'sitting unsupported' (n=44 256) and 'walking...... unassisted' (n=53 959) were attained. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07) was used to identify children with indication of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at age 7 years (n=29 401). Any associations between the exposure to fever during pregnancy and motor...

  1. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  2. Relationships of muscle strength and bone mineral density in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-L; Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Ke, J-Y; Wang, C-J; Chen, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The knee extensor strength, but not motor function, was related to aBMD. Thus, muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, was more associated with aBMD in these children than motor function. Muscle strength is related to bone density in normal children. However, no studies have examined these relationships in ambulatory children with CP. This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and aBMD in ambulatory children with CP. Forty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP, aged 5-15 years, were classified into two groups based on Gross Motor Function Classification System levels: I (n = 28) and II (n = 20). Another 31 normal development (ND) children were recruited as the comparison group for the aBMD. Children with CP underwent assessments of growth, lumbar and distal femur aBMD, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), and muscle strength of knee extensor and flexor by isokinetic dynamometer. The distal femur aBMD, but not lumbar aBMD, was lower in children with CP than in ND children (p antigravity muscle strength, were more associated with the bone density of ambulatory children with CP than motor function. The data may allow clinicians for early identifying the ambulatory CP children of potential low bone density.

  3. Is severity of motor coordination difficulties related to co-morbidity in children at risk for developmental coordination disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marina M.; Lingam, Raghu; Jongmans, Marian J.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Emond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N = 6959) from a

  4. A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: phase relations of leech heart motor neurons with respect to premotor synaptic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J; Weaver, Adam L; Wenning, Angela; García, Paul S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2007-11-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) for heartbeat in leeches consists of seven identified pairs of segmental heart interneurons and one unidentified pair. Four of the identified pairs and the unidentified pair of interneurons make inhibitory synaptic connections with segmental heart motor neurons. The CPG produces a side-to-side asymmetric pattern of intersegmental coordination among ipsilateral premotor interneurons corresponding to a similarly asymmetric fictive motor pattern in heart motor neurons, and asymmetric constriction pattern of the two tubular hearts: synchronous and peristaltic. Using extracellular techniques, we recorded, in 61 isolated nerve cords, the activity of motor neurons in conjunction with the phase reference premotor heart interneuron, HN(4), and another premotor interneuron that allowed us to assess the coordination mode. These data were then coupled with a previous description of the temporal pattern of premotor interneuron activity in the two coordination modes to synthesize a global phase diagram for the known elements of the CPG and the entire motor neuron ensemble. These average data reveal the stereotypical side-to-side asymmetric patterns of intersegmental coordination among the motor neurons and show how this pattern meshes with the activity pattern of premotor interneurons. Analysis of animal-to-animal variability in this coordination indicates that the intersegmental phase progression of motor neuron activity in the midbody in the peristaltic coordination mode is the most stereotypical feature of the fictive motor pattern. Bilateral recordings from motor neurons corroborate the main features of the asymmetric motor pattern.

  5. Spatial cognitive rehabilitation and motor recovery after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A.M.; Muzaffar, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Stroke rehabilitation needs to take major steps forward to reduce functional disability for survivors. In this article, we suggest that spatial retraining might greatly increase the efficiency and efficacy of motor rehabilitation, directly addressing the burden and cost of paralysis after stroke. Recent findings Combining motor and cognitive treatment may be practical, as well as addressing needs after moderate–to-severe stroke. Spatial neglect could suppress motor recovery and reduce motor learning, even when patients receive appropriate rehabilitation to build strength, dexterity, and endurance. Spatial neglect rehabilitation acts to promote motor as well as visual-perceptual recovery. These findings, and previous underemphasized studies, make a strong case for combining spatial neglect treatment with traditional exercise training. Spatial neglect therapies might also help people who cannot participate in intensive movement therapies because of limited strength and endurance after stroke. Summary Spatial retraining, currently used selectively after right brain stroke, may be broadly useful after stroke to promote rapid motor recovery. PMID:25364954

  6. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence in rats induces motor impairments and cerebral cortex damage associated with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Santana, Luana Nazaré da Silva; Bezerra, Fernando Romualdo; De Carvalho, Sabrina; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is common among adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we evaluated motor performance and tissue alterations in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to intermittent intoxication with ethanol from adolescence to adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) during 55 days by gavage to complete 90 days of age. The open field, inclined plane and the rotarod tests were used to assess the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination performance in adult animals. Following completion of behavioral tests, half of animals were submitted to immunohistochemical evaluation of NeuN (marker of neuronal bodies), GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) and Iba1 (microglia marker) in the cerebral cortex while the other half of the animals were subjected to analysis of oxidative stress markers by biochemical assays. Chronic ethanol intoxication in rats from adolescence to adulthood induced significant motor deficits including impaired spontaneous locomotion, coordination and muscle strength. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by marked changes in all cellular populations evaluated as well as increased levels of nitrite and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate that continuous ethanol intoxication from adolescence to adulthood is able to provide neurobehavioral and neurodegenerative damage to cerebral cortex.

  7. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...

  8. Pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl substances and offspring behaviour and motor development at age 5-9 years - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    ) and offspring behaviour and motor development at 5-9 years of age. METHODS: Maternal sera from the INUENDO cohort (2002-2004) comprising 1,106 mother-child pairs from Greenland, Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Warsaw (Poland) were analysed for PFOS and PFOA, using liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry. Exposures......BACKGROUND: In animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances affect growth and neuro-behavioural outcomes. Human epidemiological studies are sparse. The aim was to investigate the association between pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS...... were grouped into country specific as well as pooled tertiles as well as being used as continuous variables for statistical analyses. Child motor development and behaviour at follow-up (2010-2012) were measured by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ) and Strength...

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SOLDIERS IN BATTLE UNIT OF SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.

  10. Inter-limb coupling in bimanual rhythmic coordination in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, M.H.G.; Geuze, RH

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that rhythmic inter-limb coordination is disturbed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aims to investigate whether this coordination deficit is primarily the result of an impaired coupling, related to hypoactivation of the supplementary motor area

  11. Individualistic Aptitude and Biofeedback on Improvement of Coordination in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Srilekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports cognition encompasses the primary affective-motivational aspect related to primordial fight-or flight responses, which are essentially the precursors for both the BAS (behavioural activation system - the reward system and BIS (behavioural inhibition system- the punishment or fear-eliciting system. In Asian and especially South-Asian perspective, impulsivity and aggressive out-bursts are by and large considered as conduct disorders, thus more acceptable docile tendency in children and pre-adolescent lead them to a cognitive-motivational make-up of BIS orientation. With such a background the present study was carried out to identify the extent of cognitive-affective competence of the skilled competitive players in enhancing bilateral motor coordination required for high sport performance. Eighty-one high performing female ball game players matched with their performance-specific motor coordination ability, were categorised into three differential groups based on their psychobiological competence, viz; Group A- consisted of twenty-seven players diagnosed with moderate level of sympathovagal balance; Group B (N = 27 – consisted of twenty-seven players diagnosed with discordant sympathovagal balance, while Group C (n = 27 were identified as having high sympathovagal balance. Thereafter, players of Group B & C were introduced to training of skin-conductance biofeedback tailored for musculoskeletal enhancement (20 min.s/ day; three days/ week for twelve weeks. Mid-term analyses of motor coordination as well as the post-intervention analyses (carried out after the twelfth week revealed that players having higher sympathovagal balance had higher efficiency in modulation of muscle tension as well as in perceptual –motor adaptation, which have prompted them to have enhanced bilateral and visual-motor coordination compared to their counterparts.

  12. Induction of Neuron-Specific Degradation of Coenzyme A Models Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration by Reducing Motor Coordination in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Shumar

    Full Text Available Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, PKAN, is an inherited disorder characterized by progressive impairment in motor coordination and caused by mutations in PANK2, a human gene that encodes one of four pantothenate kinase (PanK isoforms. PanK initiates the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA, an essential cofactor that plays a key role in energy metabolism and lipid synthesis. Most of the mutations in PANK2 reduce or abolish the activity of the enzyme. This evidence has led to the hypothesis that lower CoA might be the underlying cause of the neurodegeneration in PKAN patients; however, no mouse model of the disease is currently available to investigate the connection between neuronal CoA levels and neurodegeneration. Indeed, genetic and/or dietary manipulations aimed at reducing whole-body CoA synthesis have not produced a desirable PKAN model, and this has greatly hindered the discovery of a treatment for the disease.Cellular CoA levels are tightly regulated by a balance between synthesis and degradation. CoA degradation is catalyzed by two peroxisomal nudix hydrolases, Nudt7 and Nudt19. In this study we sought to reduce neuronal CoA in mice through the alternative approach of increasing Nudt7-mediated CoA degradation. This was achieved by combining the use of an adeno-associated virus-based expression system with the synapsin (Syn promoter. We show that mice with neuronal overexpression of a cytosolic version of Nudt7 (scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt exhibit a significant decrease in brain CoA levels in conjunction with a reduction in motor coordination. These results strongly support the existence of a link between CoA levels and neuronal function and show that scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt mice can be used to model PKAN.

  13. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100% performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning. Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1 A measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e. a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability and (2 subject’s attentional impulsivity. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1 failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject the present predictors.

  14. The thermodynamic of complex formation in system of the Fe(III)-Fe(II)-benzimidazole-water in the inflation of ion strength in the formation of co-ordination compounds in the 288 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, Kh.D.; Rajabov, U.R.; Yusupov, Z.N.

    2005-01-01

    With the Method of Oxredmatrion with application of the Oxidation Function in the Temperature 288 K and ion strength 0.1; 0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 in the Water solution of Benzimidazole been obtained the Formation Constants of the Coordination and their dependence with ion strength

  15. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  16. INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM ON ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanovic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was designed specifically for young adolescent’s athletes. The program consisted of exercises for lower and upper body, abdominal and lower back muscles. The programs did not involve the maximal (1-3 repetitions maximum and other very hard intensity exercises that may had negative effect on young athletes. The results showed that strength training program had positive effects on maximal isometric muscle force (Fmax and motor skill. The increase presents the combined influence of strength training and growth.

  17. Physiological targets of artificial gravity: the sensory-motor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Clarke, A.; Bles, W.; Wuyts, F.; Paloski, W.; Clément, G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial

  18. Pacific Ciguatoxin Induces Excitotoxicity and Neurodegeneration in the Motor Cortex Via Caspase 3 Activation: Implication for Irreversible Motor Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Pallavi; Zhang, Ni; Kumar, Gajendra; Chine, Virendra Bhagawan; Singh, Kunal Kumar; Mak, Yim Ling; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2018-01-18

    Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1. We detected irreversible motor strength deficits accompanied by reduced EMG activity, demyelination, and slowing of motor nerve conduction, whereas control unexposed mice fully recovered in 1 month after peripheral nerve injury. Finally, to uncover the mechanism underlying CFP, we detected reduction of spontaneous firing rate of motor cortical neurons even 6 months after exposure and increased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes. Increased numbers of motor cortical neuron apoptosis were detected by dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay along with activation of caspase 3. Taken together, our study demonstrates that persistence of P-CTX-1 in the nervous system induces irreversible motor deficit that correlates well with excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration detected in the motor cortical neurons.

  19. Developmental coordination disorder: evaluation and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.

    2003-01-01

    A child's popularity is often related to his or her proficiency in sports and games, and children value physical competence highly. The movement difficulties of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often invite ridicule from their peers. Children with DCD have a poor motor

  20. Multifractal fluctuations in joint angles during infant spontaneous kicking reveal multiplicativity-driven coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Young, Diana; Saltzman, Elliot L.; Holt, Kenneth G.; Newman, Dava J.; Weinberg, Marc; Wood, Robert J.; Nagpal, Radhika; Goldfield, Eugene C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has considered infant spontaneous kicking as a form of exploration. According to this view, spontaneous kicking provides information about motor degrees of freedom and may shape multijoint coordinations for more complex movement patterns such as gait. Recent work has demonstrated that multifractal, multiplicative fluctuations in exploratory movements index energy flows underlying perceptual-motor information. If infant spontaneous kicking is exploratory and occasions an upstream flow of information from the motor periphery, we expected not only that multiplicativity of fluctuations at the hip should promote multiplicativity of fluctuations at more distal joints (i.e., reflecting downstream effects of neural control) but also that multiplicativity at more distal joints should promote multiplicativity at the hip. Multifractal analysis demonstrated that infant spontaneous kicking in four typically developing infants for evidence of multiplicative fluctuations in multiple joint angles along the leg (i.e., hip, knee, and ankle) exhibited multiplicativity. Vector autoregressive modeling demonstrated that only one leg exhibited downstream effects but that both legs exhibited upstream effects. These results confirm the exploratory aspect of infant spontaneous kicking and suggest chaotic dynamics in motor coordination. They also resonate with existing models of chaos-controlled robotics and noise-based interventions for rehabilitating motor coordination in atypically developing patients.

  1. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chou, Willy; Chow, Julie Chi; Lin, Chien-Ho; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2018-01-01

    We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]). Children's IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ - Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT), respectively. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual-motor coordination subtest ( F =3.37-4.38, p motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ - VIQ) had significant positive correlations with the fine motor domain and fine motor subtests of the CDIIT ( r =0.18-0.29, p motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. This study suggests important implications for clinicians, therapists, and researchers: discrepantly higher PIQ could be related to better visual-motor coordination, and discrepantly higher VIQ could be related to poor visual-motor coordination. Furthermore, the results support that when therapists are working with preschool-aged children with ASD who are developing fine motor skills or undertaking fine motor tasks related to visual-motor coordination, they may need to pay attention to the children's IQD.

  2. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods: In a sample of 196 subjects average age of 12.45 ± 0.03 years, made a comparison of motor abilities. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC "Red Star" from Belgrade and the other 114 primary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of 9 tests of motor abilities were: long jump from the place, running 20 m, 60 m running, bend straddle the gray, endurance in pull-ups, polygon backwards, slalom with three balls, hand tapping and lifting troops. Comparison of motor abilities of young players and pupils of primary schools was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: An analysis of motor abilities between young players and primary school pupils were found statistically significant differences in all tested variables. Discussion: The research has shown that speed, endurance, coordination and muscle strength of the lower leg predominantly responsible for the success of matching the target foot at a distance, which is an integral part of the training process (Smajic and Molnar, 2007. It is also proven that there is a statistically significant correlation between the explosive and repetitive strength as a predictor of outcome-success rate for jumping in the air at youth players (Stankovic, 2011. References: Kuleš, B., Jerkovic, S. Maric, J. (1991. Influence of running different intentiteta to success in football. Kinesiology, 23 (1-2, 60-65. Malacko, J. (2000. Fundamentals of sports training - a quarter-supplemented and

  3. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  4. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  5. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5±6.7 years underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice, and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0±6.7 years received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P=0.007 in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9% differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P=0.033. For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P=0.002. Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Genetic inactivation of mGlu5 receptor improves motor coordination in the Grm1crv4 mouse model of SCAR13 ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Simone; Musante, Ilaria; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Emionite, Laura; Cerminara, Maria; Cervetto, Chiara; Marcoli, Manuela; Bonanno, Giambattista; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pittaluga, Anna; Puliti, Aldamaria

    2018-01-01

    Deleterious mutations in the glutamate receptor metabotropic 1 gene (GRM1) cause a recessive form of cerebellar ataxia, SCAR13. GRM1 and GRM5 code for the metabotropic glutamate type 1 (mGlu1) and type 5 (mGlu5) receptors, respectively. Their different expression profiles suggest they could have distinct functional roles. In a previous study, homozygous mice lacking mGlu1 receptors (Grm1 crv4/crv4 ) and exhibiting ataxia presented cerebellar overexpression of mGlu5 receptors, that was proposed to contribute to the mouse phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we here crossed Grm1 crv4 and Grm5 ko mice to generate double mutants (Grm1 crv4/crv4 Grm5 ko/ko ) lacking both mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors. Double mutants and control mice were analyzed for spontaneous behavior and for motor activity by rotarod and footprint analyses. In the same mice, the release of glutamate from cerebellar nerve endings (synaptosomes) elicited by 12mM KCl or by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) was also evaluated. Motor coordination resulted improved in double mutants when compared to Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice. Furthermore, in in vitro studies, glutamate release elicited by both KCl depolarization and activation of AMPA autoreceptors resulted reduced in Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice compared to wild type mice, while it presented normal levels in double mutants. Moreover, we found that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice showed reduced expression of GluA2/3 AMPA receptor subunits in cerebellar synaptosomes, while it resulted restored to wild type level in double mutants. To conclude, blocking of mGlu5 receptor reduced the dysregulation of glutamate transmission and improved motor coordination in the Grm1 crv4 mouse model of SCAR13, thus suggesting the possible usefulness of pharmacological therapies based on modulation of mGlu5 receptor activity for the treatment of this type of ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  8. Evidence that a Motor Timing Deficit Is a Factor in the Development of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lindsey; Smith, Anne; Zelaznik, Howard N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether young children who stutter have a basic motor timing and/or a coordination deficit. Method: Between-hands coordination and variability of rhythmic motor timing were assessed in 17 children who stutter (4-6 years of age) and 13 age-matched controls. Children clapped in rhythm with a metronome with a 600-ms interbeat…

  9. Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Jelsma, Lemke Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D; Geuze, Reint H

    2015-01-01

    Although Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is often characterized as a skill acquisition deficit disorder, few studies have addressed the process of motor learning. This study examined learning of a novel motor task; the Wii Fit ski slalom game. The main objectives were to determine: 1) whether learning occurs over 100 trial runs of the game, 2) if the learning curve is different between children with and without DCD, 3) if learning is different in an easier or harder version of the task, 4) if learning transfers to other balance tasks. 17 children with DCD (6-10 years) and a matched control group of 17 typically developing (TD) children engaged in 20 minutes of gaming, twice a week for five weeks. Each training session comprised of alternating trial runs, with five runs at an easy level and five runs at a difficult level. Wii scores, which combine speed and accuracy per run, were recorded. Standardized balance tasks were used to measure transfer. Significant differences in initial performance were found between groups on the Wii score and balance tasks. Both groups improved their Wii score over the five weeks. Improvement in the easy and in the hard task did not differ between groups. Retention in the time between training sessions was not different between TD and DCD groups either. The DCD group improved significantly on all balance tasks. The findings in this study give a fairly coherent picture of the learning process over a medium time scale (5 weeks) in children novice to active computer games; they learn, retain and there is evidence of transfer to other balance tasks. The rate of motor learning is similar for those with and without DCD. Our results raise a number of questions about motor learning that need to be addressed in future research.

  10. The impact of development o f the special coordination abilities on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Gaber Radwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicates each of Muhama d Allawi (2002, Essam Abdul Khaliq (2003, and Walf Droge (2002 that the coordination abilities are closely related to the development of technical motor skills, and that pra ctitioner athletic activity which determines the quality of this abilities should be developed, where the player can not master the technical skills in the special activity in case lack of special coordination abilities for this activity. Both Manf red Must er (1986, Jürgen Schmicker (2000, Wolfgang and others (2000 and Wohlgefahrt, Karlheinz (2004 refers that the special coordination abilities for table tennis include each of: 1 - The motor adaptation and adjustment ability, 2 - The ability to differentiat e , 3 - reaction speed ability, 4 - orientation ability, 5 - balance ability, 6 - coupling ability, 7 - The ability to sense the rhythm. The aim of this study is design training program to development the special coordination abilities of table tennis and identi fies the impact of this program on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old. The researcher used the experimental method into two groups one experimental and the other control group the strength of each of them is 8 of table te nnis juniors in Ismailia city in Egypt. The duration of the program is three months, three training units a week the duration of each training unit is 90 minutes. The most important results of this study was the training program led to improvement the spec ial coordination abilities of table tennis for the experimental group, which led to high level of the general skill ability in table tennis for the experimental group more than the control group .

  11. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina ePesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1 explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2 examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in physical education, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task, or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System, CAS.Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance. The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched physical education on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium

  12. Adaption and Standardization of the Test of Visual-Motor Skills Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Farahbod

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research has been carried out with the aim of adaptation, standardization and finding the validity and reliability of Visual-Motor Skills-revised Test for children. Materials & Methods: A multi-stage sampling from the children of the city of Tehran resulted in a sample of 1281 subjects, ages 2,11 through 13,11.the test consisted of 23 geometric designs and each of the designs was assessed through a definite criteria and was scored as errors(weakness and accuracies(strength.For adaptation and standardization of this test, at first step the examiner`s manual and the test items were translated into Farsi. The final form of the test was obtained after performing the pre-tryout and tryout stages, and doing the data analysis by classic model of reliability. Internal consistency coefficients of the subtests were obtained by Cronbach`s Alpha time consistency of the subtests and compound scores were obtained by test-retest. Alpha coefficients for the compound scores were obtained by Guilford formula, which is designed for estimating the compound scores. To obtain the content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity of the subtests and compound scores, appropriate methods were used. Results: The results obtained ensure the applicability of this test for the evaluation of visual-motor skills of children of Tehran. Conclusion: According to the findings, this test can be used for the disorders in eye-hand coordination, the identification of children with disorders in visual – motor skills. It can also be used for the documentation of the development of fine – motor skills specially in visual – motor skills in 3-14 years – old children.

  13. Information for Parents and Teachers on the European Academy for Childhood Disability (EACD) Recommendations on Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition characterized by difficulty in the development of motor coordination and learning new motor skills. It impacts on a child's ability to carry out everyday tasks such as getting dressed, using cutlery, writing or drawing, running, and playing sport. It is not due to any intellectual difficulty…

  14. Impaired Interlimb Coordination of Voluntary Leg Movements in Poststroke Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate interlimb coordination of the lower extremities is particularly important for a variety of functional human motor behaviors such as jumping, kicking a ball, or simply walking. Specific interlimb coordination patterns may be especially impaired after a lesion to the motor system such as stroke, yet this has not been thoroughly examined to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor deficits in individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis when performing unilateral versus bilateral inphase versus bilateral antiphase voluntary cyclic ankle movements. We recorded ankle angular trajectories and muscle activity from the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors and compared these between subjects with stroke and a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. Results showed clear abnormalities in both the kinematics and EMG of the stroke subjects, with significant movement degradation during the antiphase task compared with either the unilateral or the inphase task. The abnormalities included prolonged cycle durations, reduced ankle excursions, decreased agonist EMG bursts, and reduced EMG modulation across movement phases. By comparison, the control group showed nearly identical performance across all task conditions. These findings suggest that stroke involving the corticospinal system projection to the leg specifically impairs one or more components of the neural circuitry involved in lower extremity interlimb coordination. The express susceptibility of the antiphase pattern to exaggerated motor deficits could contribute to functional deficits in a number of antiphase leg movement tasks, including walking. PMID:20463199

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDUCTIVE EDUCATION ON MOTOR SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Khoshvaght

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive neuro-developmental disorders that are caused by damage to the developing brain and affect movement and posture. Children with cerebral palsy suffer difficulty in motor function (coordination and control.The present inquiry investigated the impact of conductive education on motor skills in children having cerebral palsy. Methods: A quasi-experimental research was done using pretest-posttest and control group design. The study subjects consisted of all children with cerebral palsy in Shiraz. A sample of 30 subjects was randomly chosen to employ convenience sampling procedure and classified to two groups of treatment (15 subjects and control (15 subjects. The pretest was performed for both groups, and the experimental group received conductive education in 20 sessions. While the control subjects did not have this education, finally, the post-test was performed for both groups. The Lincoln-Oseretsky test was used to measure motor skills. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Results: The results showed that conductive education had a significant effect on motor skills (P<0.001 and its subscales such as speed of movement (P<0.001, general static coordination (P<0.001, general dynamic coordination (P<0.001, dynamic manual coordination (P<0.001, synchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001, and asynchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001 in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusion: The findings indicated the effectiveness of conductive education on cerebral palsy children’s motor skills. Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement a conductive education program to improve motor skills of cerebral palsy children.

  16. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  17. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  18. A coordinate-dependent superspace deformation from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, Leon G.; Schaposnik, Fidel A.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a type II superstring model defined on R 2,2 x CY 6 in a linear graviphoton background, we derive a coordinate dependent C-deformed N = 1, d = 2+2 superspace. The chiral fermionic coordinates θ satisfy a Clifford algebra, while the other coordinate algebra remains unchanged. We find a linear relation between the graviphoton field strength and the deformation parameter. The null coordinate dependence of the graviphoton background allows to extend the results to all orders in α'

  19. A finite element code for electric motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  20. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional aging impairs the role of feedback in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Cao, Chunmei; Yan, Jin H

    2013-10-01

    Optimal motor skill acquisition frequently requires augmented feedback or knowledge of results (KR). However, the effect of functional declines on the benefits of KR remains to be determined. The objective of this research was to examine how cognitive and motor deficits of older adults influence the use of KR for motor skill learning. A total of 57 older adults (mean 73.1 years; SD 4.2) received both cognitive and eye-hand coordination assessments, whereas 55 young controls (mean 25.8 years; SD 3.8) took only the eye-hand coordination test. All young and older participants learned a time-constrained arm movement through KR in three pre-KR and post-KR intervals. In the subsequent no-KR skill retests, absolute and variable time errors were not significantly reduced for the older learners who had KR during skill practice, especially for those with cognitive and motor dysfunctions. The finding suggests that KR results in no measureable improvement for older adults with cognitive and motor functional deficiencies. More importantly, for the older adults, longer post-KR intervals showed greater detrimental effects on feedback-based motor learning than shorter pauses after KR delivery. The findings support the hypothesis about the effects of cognitive and motor deficits on KR in motor skill learning of older adults. The dynamics of cognitive and motor aging, external feedback and internal control mechanisms collectively explain the deterioration in the sensory-motor learning of older adults. The theoretical implications and practical relevance of functional aging for motor skill learning are discussed. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Interactive Metronome Training in Children with Attention Deficit and Developmental Coordination Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosper, Sharon M.; Lee, Gregory P.; Peters, Susan Beth; Bishop, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of Interactive Metronome (Interactive Metronome, Sunrise, Florida, USA) training in a group of children with mixed attentional and motor coordination disorders to further explore which subcomponents of attentional control and motor functioning the training influences. Twelve children who had…

  3. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation with voluntary running exercise attenuates age-related motor dysfunction by suppressing neuromuscular junction abnormalities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu

    2017-10-15

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A coaches' perspective on the contribution of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination in racquet sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kamasha; Pion, Johan; Mostaert, Mireille; Norjali Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir; Kramer, Tamara; Faber, Irene Renate; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2018-02-21

    Differences and similarities between table tennis and other racquet sports exist, but are not well documented in the literature, in spite of the relevance for talent identification. In this study we aimed at identifying the key characteristics of table tennis in comparison with tennis and badminton based upon a survey in coaches. A total of 177 licensed coaches from all across the world and with diverse professional backgrounds completed a survey on anthropometric measures, physical performance, and motor coordination skills. On a scale from 1 to 10, coaches indicated to what extent a talent characteristic was important for their sport. MANOVA identified key differences as well as similarities between all three racquet sports and a subsequent discriminant analysis allocated coaches correctly for table tennis, tennis, and badminton 81.01%, 55.6%, and 71.4% respectively. Our results show that table tennis and other racquet sport coaches are well aware of differences between the racquet sports and also the importance and value of testing and assortment of skill components. These findings can assist coaches in future talent orientation and transfer in racquet sports.

  5. Coordenação motora fina de escolares com dislexia e transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade Fine motor coordination of students with dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with hiperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Martins Okuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever e comparar o desempenho da coordenação motora fina em escolares com dislexia e com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade utilizando parâmetros de desempenho motor e idade cronológica da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor. MÉTODO: participaram 22 escolaresdo ensino fundamental, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 6 a 11 anos de idade distribuídos em: GI: 11 escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e GII: 11 com dislexia. Como procedimento, provas de motricidade fina da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor foram aplicadas. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram diferença estatisticamente significante entre a idade motora fina e a idade cronológica de GI e GII. Conforme a classificação da Escala do Desenvolvimento Motor, 90% dos escolares de GI e GII apresentaram desenvolvimento motor fino muito inferior ao esperado para a idade e 10% dos escolares com dislexia apresentam desenvolvimento normal baixo ao esperado para a idade e 10% dos escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade apresentaram desenvolvimento inferior ao esperado para a idade. CONCLUSÃO: concluímos que tanto os escolares com dislexia como os com TDAH deste estudo apresentam atrasos na coordenação motora fina, demonstrando que os participantes desta pesquisa apresentam dificuldades em atividades que exijam destreza, quadro característico do transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação. Estudos complementares estão sendo conduzidos pelos autores deste estudo para poder verificar e comprovar se o perfil motor fino dos escolares encontrados neste estudo se assemelham ou se diferem de acordo com o quadro apresentado pelos mesmos.PURPOSE: to describe and compare the fine motor coordination performance of students with dyslexia and with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. METHOD: the study included 22 elementary school students of both genders, aged from 6 to 11-year old, divided into

  6. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jeferson J. de, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Tusset, Angelo M., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Janzen, Frederic C., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Piccirillo, Vinicius, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Nascimento, Claudinor B., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br [UTFPR-PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José M., E-mail: jmbaltha@rc.unesp.br [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca, E-mail: reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  7. Reciprocal inhibition between motor neurons of the tibialis anterior and triceps surae in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Diedrichs, Robin; Farina, Dario

    2018-05-01

    Motor neurons innervating antagonist muscles receive reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs to facilitate the joint movement in the two directions. The present study investigates the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs between the tibialis anterior (TA) and triceps surae (soleus and medial gastrocnemius) motor units. We assessed this mutual mechanism in large populations of motor units for building a statistical distribution of the inhibition amplitudes during standardized input to the motor neuron pools to minimize the effect of modulatory pathways. Single motor unit activities were identified using high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) recorded from the TA, soleus (Sol), and medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscles during isometric dorsi- and plantarflexion. Reciprocal inhibition on the antagonist muscle was elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial (TN) or common peroneal nerves (CPN). The probability density distributions of reflex strength for each muscle were estimated to examine the strength of mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory input. The results showed that the strength of reciprocal inhibition in the TA motor units was fourfold greater than for the GM and the Sol motor units. This suggests an asymmetric transmission of reciprocal inhibition between ankle extensor and flexor muscles. This asymmetry cannot be explained by differences in motor unit type composition between the investigated muscles since we sampled low-threshold motor units in all cases. Therefore, the differences observed for the strength of inhibition are presumably due to a differential reciprocal spindle afferent input and the relative contribution of nonreciprocal inhibitory pathways. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibition in large samples of motor units using a standardized input (electrical stimulation) to the motor neurons. The results demonstrated that the disynaptic reciprocal inhibition exerted

  8. Interhemispheric Cortical Inhibition Is Reduced in Young Adults With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jason L. He; Ian Fuelscher; Peter G. Enticott; Wei-peng Teo; Pamela Barhoun; Christian Hyde

    2018-01-01

    IntroductionWhile the etiology of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is yet to be established, brain-behavior modeling provides a cogent argument that neuropathology may subserve the motor difficulties typical of DCD. We argue that a number of the core behavioral features of the DCD profile (such as poor surround inhibition, compromised motor inhibition, and the presence of mirror movements) are consistent with difficulties regulating inhibition within the primary motor cortex (M1). Th...

  9. Interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Barbara R; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Coggan, Sarah; Pinto, Rafael Z; Jirikowic, Tracy; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Latimer, Jane

    2016-11-29

    Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, Cochrane Collaboration, Google Scholar databases and clinical trial registries were searched. Published randomised controlled trials including children 3 to ≤18 years with (i) Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or Cerebral Palsy (CP) (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level 1) or Developmental Delay or Minimal Acquired Brain Injury or Prematurity (gross motor outcomes obtained using a standardised assessment tool. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the pooled effect of intervention on gross motor function. Methodological quality and strength of meta-analysis recommendations were evaluated using PEDro and the GRADE approach respectively. Of 2513 papers, 9 met inclusion criteria including children with CP (n = 2) or DCD (n = 7) receiving 11 different interventions. Only two of 9 trials showed an effect for treatment. Using the least conservative trial outcomes a large beneficial effect of intervention was shown (SMD:-0.8; 95% CI:-1.1 to -0.5) with "very low quality" GRADE ratings. Using the most conservative trial outcomes there is no treatment effect (SMD:-0.1; 95% CI:-0.3 to 0.2) with "low quality" GRADE ratings. Study limitations included the small number and poor quality of the available trials. Although we found that some interventions with a task-orientated framework can improve gross motor outcomes in children with DCD or CP, these findings are limited by the very low quality of the available evidence. High quality intervention

  10. The effects of virtual reality-based bilateral arm training on hemiplegic children's upper limb motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae Yean

    2016-01-01

    Hemiplegic cerebral palsy is a neurological symptom appearing on the unilateral arm and leg of the body that causes affected upper/lower limb muscle weakening and dysesthesia and accompanies tetany and difficulties in postural control due to abnormal muscle tone, and difficulties in body coordination. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of virtual reality-based bilateral arm training on the motor skills of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, in terms of their upper limb motor skills on the affected side, as well as their bilateral coordination ability. The research subjects were three children who were diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The research followed an ABA design, which was a single-subject experimental design. The procedure consisted of a total of 20 sessions, including four during the baseline period (A1), 12 during the intervention period (B), and four during the baseline regression period (A2), For the independent variable bilateral arm training based on virtual reality, Nintendo Wii game was played for 30 minutes in each of the 12 sessions. For the dependent variables of upper limb motor skills on the affected side and bilateral coordination ability, a Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) was carried out for each session and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) was measured before and after the intervention, as well as after the baseline regression period. To test bilateral coordination ability, shooting baskets in basketball with both hands and moving large light boxes were carried out under operational definitions, with the number of shots and time needed to move boxes measured. The results were presented using visual graphs and bar graphs. The study's results indicated that after virtual reality-based bilateral arm training, improvement occurred in upper limb motor skills on the affected sides, and in bilateral coordination ability, for all of the research subjects. Measurements of the effects of sustained therapy after

  11. Age-Related Differences in Motor Coordination during Simultaneous Leg Flexion and Finger Extension: Influence of Temporal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the “extrapolated centre-of-mass”, remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to

  12. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hussein

    Full Text Available Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]. Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of

  13. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to deal

  14. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-10-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  16. Comparison of Health Outcomes Among Children with Different Levels of Motor Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While evidence suggests that children with the developmental coordination disorder (DCD have worse health outcomes than their typically developing peers, it remains unclear whether children with low motor competence but without DCD are also characterized by worse health outcomes than those with average motor competence. The main purpose of this study was to compare health outcomes between children with low motor competence without DCD and those with average motor competence.

  17. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  18. Motor vehicle injury, mortality, and hospital charges by strength of graduated driver licensing laws in 36 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joyce C; Benedicto, Camilla B; Trieu, Lisa; Kendig, Tiffany; Barlow, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    To assess the relation between strength of graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws and motor vehicle (MV) injury burden, this study examined injury mortality, hospitalizations and related charges for 15 year to 17 year olds in 36 states by strength of GDL legislation. Data sources include the CDC's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and the 2003 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Kids' Inpatient database (KID). Hospital admissions for injuries in 15 year to 17 year olds (n = 49,520) are unweighted. Injury severity was assessed using ICDMAP-90 and International Classification of Injury Severity Scores. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety rating system was used to categorize legislative strength: good, fair, marginal/poor, and none. Logistic regression was used to assess independent predictors of MV injury. MV injury accounted for 14.6% of all-cause injury-related hospital admissions with 47.7% classified as drivers. Total MV occupant mortality was 14.6% lower after enactment of GDL with greater improvement observed in the good law category (26.0%). In multivariate models for hospitalized injury, all GDL law categories were protective for MV driver injury in 16 year olds. Compared with whites, black and Hispanic teens were more frequently injured as passengers than drivers. The contribution of MV occupant to all-cause injury-related hospital charges was 16.0% lower in good versus no-GDL categories and 39.5% lower for MV drivers. These findings suggest that the presence of any GDL legislation is associated with a lower burden of MV-related injury and expenditures with the largest differences observed for 16-year-old drivers.

  19. Social Motor Synchronization: Insights for Understanding Social Behavior in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-07-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and assessments of ASD traits. We found (a) spontaneous social motor synchronization was associated with responding to joint attention, cooperation, and theory of mind while intentional social motor synchronization was associated with initiating joint attention and theory of mind; and (b) social motor synchronization was associated with ASD severity but not fully explained by motor problems. Findings suggest that objective measures of social motor synchronization may provide insights into understanding ASD traits.

  20. Optimized connectome architecture for sensory-motor integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob C. Worrell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The intricate connectivity patterns of neural circuits support a wide repertoire of communication processes and functional interactions. Here we systematically investigate how neural signaling is constrained by anatomical connectivity in the mesoscale Drosophila (fruit fly brain network. We use a spreading model that describes how local perturbations, such as external stimuli, trigger global signaling cascades that spread through the network. Through a series of simple biological scenarios we demonstrate that anatomical embedding potentiates sensory-motor integration. We find that signal spreading is faster from nodes associated with sensory transduction (sensors to nodes associated with motor output (effectors. Signal propagation was accelerated if sensor nodes were activated simultaneously, suggesting a topologically mediated synergy among sensors. In addition, the organization of the network increases the likelihood of convergence of multiple cascades towards effector nodes, thereby facilitating integration prior to motor output. Moreover, effector nodes tend to coactivate more frequently than other pairs of nodes, suggesting an anatomically enhanced coordination of motor output. Altogether, our results show that the organization of the mesoscale Drosophila connectome imparts privileged, behaviorally relevant communication patterns among sensors and effectors, shaping their capacity to collectively integrate information. The complex network spanned by neurons and their axonal projections promotes a diverse set of functions. In the present report, we study how the topological organization of the fruit fly brain supports sensory-motor integration. Using a simple communication model, we demonstrate that the topology of this network allows efficient coordination among sensory and motor neurons. Our results suggest that brain network organization may profoundly shape the functional repertoire of this simple organism.

  1. Effect of Hfe Deficiency on Memory Capacity and Motor Coordination after Manganese Exposure by Drinking Water in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-12-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic. Increased manganese stores in the brain are associated with a number of behavioral problems, including motor dysfunction, memory loss and psychiatric disorders. We previously showed that the transport and neurotoxicity of manganese after intranasal instillation of the metal are altered in Hfe-deficient mice, a mouse model of the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, it is not fully understood whether loss of Hfe function modifies Mn neurotoxicity after ingestion. To investigate the role of Hfe in oral Mn toxicity, we exposed Hfe-knockout (Hfe (-/-)) and their control wild-type (Hfe (+/+)) mice to MnCl2 in drinking water (5 mg/mL) for 5 weeks. Motor coordination and spatial memory capacity were determined by the rotarod test and the Barnes maze test, respectively. Brain and liver metal levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with the water-drinking group, mice drinking Mn significantly increased Mn concentrations in the liver and brain of both genotypes. Mn exposure decreased iron levels in the liver, but not in the brain. Neither Mn nor Hfe deficiency altered tissue concentrations of copper or zinc. The rotarod test showed that Mn exposure decreased motor skills in Hfe (+/+) mice, but not in Hfe (-/-) mice (p = 0.023). In the Barns maze test, latency to find the target hole was not altered in Mn-exposed Hfe (+/+) compared with water-drinking Hfe (+/+) mice. However, Mn-exposed Hfe (-/-) mice spent more time to find the target hole than Mn-drinking Hfe (+/+) mice (p = 0.028). These data indicate that loss of Hfe function impairs spatial memory upon Mn exposure in drinking water. Our results suggest that individuals with hemochromatosis could be more vulnerable to memory deficits induced by Mn ingestion from our environment. The pathophysiological role of HFE in manganese neurotoxicity should be carefully examined in patients with HFE-associated hemochromatosis and

  2. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odnokopylov, G; Bragin, A

    2014-01-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed

  3. CORRELATIONS OF MOTOR DIMENSIONS OF STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION WITH TEACHING CONTENTS OF SPORTS GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sports gymnastics, as a basic sport discipline, has been largely neglected through the work with young people in primary and secondary school. This is one of the key reasons for the multitude of problems, with which students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education face, when it comes to mastering the content of sports gymnastics. Development of strength, speed, coordination, balance and flexibility are very important and dominant factor in mastering gymnastic skills and program contents, especially when it comes to gymnastics parterre, where a greater degree of motor preparedness also affects the breaking of fear as the disruptive factor in the training process.

  4. The correlation between sports results in swimming and general and special muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Lubkowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Swimming as a sport encompasses various styles and distances (from 50 up to 1,500 meters. The correlation between sports results and general/special muscle strength seems unquestionable. Aim. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question related to maintaining the proportion between muscle strength development (which depends mainly on land-based trainings and endurance trainings in water. Material and methods. The study covered 14 leading swimmers from MKP Szczecin who specialized mainly in short and medium distances; they were members of the national senior and junior teams in the 2013/14 training year. The general strength tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the winter and summer preparatory periods. The following tests were performed: bench-pressing, pull-ups and bar dips. At the end of the main research period, a thrust test was conducted on land (on a swim bench, as well as a thrust test in the water. Results. All participants demonstrated progress in results between the summer season and the winter season. The range of training loads was higher in the summer due to the length of preparation (by about 100%. The individual progress was, however, very varied. Conclusions. The level of sports progress achieved by individual swimmers was greatly diversified. The relatively high level of general and special strength in the tested swimmers was linked to their need to display these motor skills while swimming. Subjects who showed the greatest progress in the general and special strength trials, displayed the biggest improvement in their swimming performance during the competition season. Swimmers with a fairly high level of strength, but a moderate sports level should analyze and improve their swimming technique. Subjects whose progress in general and special strength tests was the least significant, should try and achieve progress by developing other technical and coordination skills.

  5. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Yah-Se K; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Schreiber, Rudy; Ellenbroek, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35) in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT) gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field) and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  6. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; de Hoog, Marieke L A; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between actual motor performance and perceived motor competence was examined. Motor performance was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children in 100 children and adolescents (age 6-17 years), including 32 children with ADHD combined type, 18 unaffected siblings, and 50 healthy control children. ADHD was diagnosed using Parent and Teacher questionnaires and a clinical interview. Perceived motor competence and interest in the motor domain were rated with the Dutch supplement scale to Harters' Self-Perception Profile for Children, especially focusing on the motor domain (m-CBSK). Children with ADHD had poorer motor performance than unaffected siblings and control children, especially in the field of manual dexterity. However, no relationship was found between motor performance and perceived motor competence. Only children with the very lowest motor performance had a significantly lowered perception of their motor competence. Interest in the motor domain and motor self-perception was positively correlated. Children with ADHD performed poorer on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, but generally overestimated their own motor competence.

  7. Improved ADRC for a Maglev planar motor with a concentric winding structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kou, Baoquan; Xing, Feng; Zhang, Chaoning; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Yiheng; Wang, Tiecheng

    2016-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, positioning accuracy and acceleration are critical parameters. To improve the acceleration speed of a motor, this paper proposes the moving-coil maglev planar motor with a concentric winding structure. The coordinate system has been built for the multiple degrees of

  8. Task-relevant cognitive and motor functions are prioritized during prolonged speed-accuracy motor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Satas, Andrius; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Cekanauskaite, Agne; Valanciene, Dovile; Majauskiene, Daiva; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of prolonged speed-accuracy motor task on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, psychomotor and motor function. Ten young men aged 21.1 ± 1.0 years performed a fast- and accurate-reaching movement task and a control task. Both tasks were performed for 2 h. Despite decreased motivation, and increased perception of effort as well as subjective feeling of fatigue, speed-accuracy motor task performance improved during the whole period of task execution. After the motor task, the increased working memory function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation at rest and during conflict detection, and the decreased efficiency of incorrect response inhibition and visuomotor tracking were observed. The speed-accuracy motor task increased the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials, while grip strength was not affected. These findings demonstrate that to sustain the performance of 2-h speed-accuracy task under conditions of self-reported fatigue, task-relevant functions are maintained or even improved, whereas less critical functions are impaired.

  9. The Influence of Motor Skills on Measurement Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Sadílek, Marek; Brychta, Josef

    2016-10-01

    This innovative study trying to do interdisciplinary interface at first view different ways fields: kinantropology and mechanical engineering. A motor skill is described as an action which involves the movement of muscles in a body. Gross motor skills permit functions as a running, jumping, walking, punching, lifting and throwing a ball, maintaining a body balance, coordinating etc. Fine motor skills captures smaller neuromuscular actions, such as holding an object between the thumb and a finger. In mechanical inspection, the accuracy of measurement is most important aspect. The accuracy of measurement to some extent is also dependent upon the sense of sight or sense of touch associated with fine motor skills. It is therefore clear that the level of motor skills will affect the precision and accuracy of measurement in metrology. Aim of this study is literature review to find out fine motor skills level of individuals and determine the potential effect of different fine motor skill performance on precision and accuracy of mechanical engineering measuring.

  10. Augmented effects of EMG biofeedback interfaced with virtual reality on neuromuscular control and movement coordination during reaching in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Dong Ryul; Cha, Young Joo; You, Sung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare therapeutic effects of an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback augmented by virtual reality (VR) and EMG biofeedback alone on the triceps and biceps (T:B) muscle activity imbalance and elbow joint movement coordination during a reaching motor taskOBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic effects of an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback augmented by virtual reality (VR) and EMG biofeedback alone on the triceps and biceps muscle activity imbalance and elbow joint movement coordination during a reaching motor task in normal children and children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). 18 children with spastic CP (2 females; mean±standard deviation = 9.5 ± 1.96 years) and 8 normal children (3 females; mean ± standard deviation = 9.75 ± 2.55 years) were recruited from a local community center. All children with CP first underwent one intensive session of EMG feedback (30 minutes), followed by one session of the EMG-VR feedback (30 minutes) after a 1-week washout period. Clinical tests included elbow extension range of motion (ROM), biceps muscle strength, and box and block test. EMG triceps and biceps (T:B) muscle activity imbalance and reaching movement acceleration coordination were concurrently determined by EMG and 3-axis accelerometer measurements respectively. Independent t-test and one-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed at p augmented by virtual reality exercise games in children with spastic CP. The augmented EMG and VR feedback produced better neuromuscular balance control in the elbow joint than the EMG biofeedback alone.

  11. Sequence for the Training of Eye-Hand Coordination Needed for the Organization of Handwriting Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trester, Mary Fran

    1971-01-01

    Suggested is a sequence of 11 class activities, progressing from gross to fine motor skills, to assist the development of skills required to perform handwriting tasks successfully, for use particularly with children who lack fine motor control and eye-hand coordination. (KW)

  12. Differences in motor abilities between dancers in professional and amateur folklore ansambles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in motor abilities between dancers in Serbinan professional folklore ansamble for dance and sing 'Kolo' in Belgrade and amateur folklore ansambles from coulture-arts society 'Vila' and 'Sonja Marinković' from Novi Sad had been tested on sample of 47 members. Motor area was examined by Provincial Governement Institute tests for Sport in Novi sad, and it was received 9 variables: single movement speed, explosivity below extremities (legs, endurance in jumping, absolutely strength backs' flexor muscule, relatively strength backs' flexor muscule, absolutely strength backs' extensor muscule, relatively strength backs' extensor muscule, absolutely strength backs' flexor muscule, relatively strength backs' flexor muscule. Relatively values obtained from absolutely values results using mathemathics. To determine differences between folklore dancers in whole variable system, it was used multivariante analysis variance (MANOVA. It was determined differences between sexes in motor abilities. Data was obtained by statistic packet SPSS 10.0. The aim was to find significant differences in nine mentioned variables between professional and amateur dancers and between sexes. Received results showed that there was not significant differences between professional and amateur dancers. Between sexes it was significant differences in man benefit, except one variable single movement speed. The conclusion is that for better, statisticaly significant results, professional dancers should enlarge contents and expend training intensity.

  13. BIOFEEDBACK: A NEW METHOD FOR CORRECTION OF MOTOR DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Pekker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major disabling factors in multiple sclerosis is motor disorders. Rehabilitation of such violations is one of the most important medical and social problems. Currently, most of the role given to the development of methods for correction of motor disorders based on accessing natural resources of the human body. One of these methods is the adaptive control with biofeedback (BFB. The aim of our study was the correction of motor disorders in multiple sclerosis patients using biofeedback training. In the study, we have developed scenarios for training rehabilitation program computer EMG biofeedback aimed at correction of motor disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The method was tested in the neurological clinic of SSMU. The study included 9 patients with definite diagnosis of MS with the presence of the clinical picture of combined pyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. Assessed the effectiveness of rehabilitation procedures biofeedback training using specialized scales (rating scale functional systems Kurtzke; questionnaire research quality of life – SF-36, evaluation of disease impact Profile – SIP and score on a scale fatigue – FSS. In the studied group of patients decreased score on a scale of fatigue (FSS, increased motor control (SIP2, the physical and mental components of health (SF-36. The tendency to reduce the amount of neurological deficit by reducing the points on the pyramidal Kurtske violations. Analysis of the exchange rate dynamics of biofeedback training on EMG for trained muscles indicates an increase in the recorded signal OEMG from session to session. Proved a tendency to increase strength and coordination trained muscles of patients studied.Positive results of biofeedback therapy in patients with MS can be recommended to use this method in the complex rehabilitation measures to correct motor and psycho-emotional disorders.

  14. Generation of novel motor sequences: the neural correlates of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    While some motor behavior is instinctive and stereotyped or learned and re-executed, much action is a spontaneous response to a novel set of environmental conditions. The neural correlates of both pre-learned and cued motor sequences have been previously studied, but novel motor behavior has thus far not been examined through brain imaging. In this paper, we report a study of musical improvisation in trained pianists with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using improvisation as a case study of novel action generation. We demonstrate that both rhythmic (temporal) and melodic (ordinal) motor sequence creation modulate activity in a network of brain regions comprised of the dorsal premotor cortex, the rostral cingulate zone of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are consistent with a role for the dorsal premotor cortex in movement coordination, the rostral cingulate zone in voluntary selection, and the inferior frontal gyrus in sequence generation. Thus, the invention of novel motor sequences in musical improvisation recruits a network of brain regions coordinated to generate possible sequences, select among them, and execute the decided-upon sequence.

  15. RELATIONS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND COORDINATION IN PEOPLE WITH ABOVE-AVERAGE MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sample of 149 male persons whose average age is 20.15 in decimal years (±0.83, and all of whom are students at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, underwent a battery of tests consisting of 17 anthropometric measures taken from the measures index of the International Biological Program and 4 tests designed to assess coordination as follows: Coordination with stick, Hand and leg drumming, Nonrhythmic drumming and Slalom with three balls. One statistically significant canonical correlation was determined by means of the canonical correlation analysis. The isolated canonical correlation from the space of coordination variables, was the one used for assessment of coordination of the whole body – Coordination with stick. On the other hand, out of the variables from the right array, the ones which covered longinality were singled out – Body height and Arm length, circular dimensionality – Circumference of stretched upper arm, Circumference of bent upper arm and Circumference of upper leg, as well as subcutaneous fat tissue – Skin fold of the back.

  16. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  17. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  18. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  19. Adaptive sensorless field oriented control of PM motors including zero speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple control method for controlling permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in a wide speed range without a shaft sensor. An adaptive observer is used for estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates...... for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaption structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different...... from zero. In order to verify the applicability of the method the controller has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....

  20. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd

    2018-06-01

    Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical

  1. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  2. Bimanual coordination positively predicts episodic memory: A combined behavioral and MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Dombroski, Brynn A; Faul, Leonard; Hopkins, Robin F; Naaz, Farah; Switala, Andrew E; Depue, Brendan E

    2017-11-01

    Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands. This research has relied on self-reports of behavior. It is unknown whether objective measures of motor behavior also predict memory performance. Here, we tested the predictive power of bimanual coordination, an important form of manual dexterity. Bimanual coordination, as measured objectively on the Purdue Pegboard Test, was positively related to correct recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II and negatively related to false recall. Furthermore, MRI data revealed that cortical surface area in right lateral prefrontal regions was positively related to correct recall. In one of these regions, cortical thickness was negatively related to bimanual coordination. These results suggest that individual differences in episodic memory may partially reflect morphological variation in right lateral prefrontal cortex and suggest a relationship between neural correlates of episodic memory and motor behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Coordination of Young Figure Skaters of Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaert, M; Deconinck, F; Pion, J; Lenoir, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify anthropometric, physical, coordinative and ice-skating specific characteristics that discriminate young elite ice skaters from non-elite skaters and their non-skating peers. 32 skaters aged 9-12 years old (11 elites and 21 non-elites) voluntarily participated in the study. They were submitted to 5 anthropometric, 7 physical, 3 coordination and 5 ice-skating specific tests. Reference values of a representative healthy non-skating sample were taken from the Flemish Sports Compass dataset. Figure skaters appeared to be predominantly average mature (93.8%), were lighter and leaner than the reference sample, and demonstrated better physical characteristics and motor coordination. There was no difference between the elite and non-elite group regarding maturity status and anthropometric or physical parameters. Still, elite skaters scored better than non-elites on the coordination tests jumping sideways and tended to do so on the moving sideways test. Profiles of figure skaters differ clearly from a reference population, while non-sport-specific motor coordination tests allow discrimination between elite and non-elite skaters. The relevance of these findings with respect to talent detection and identification in young ice skaters are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. DC Brushless Motor Control Design and Preliminary Testing for Independent 4-Wheel Drive Rev-11 Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design of control system for brushless DC motor using microcontroller ATMega 16 that will be applied to an independent 4-wheel drive Mobile Robot LIPI version 2 (REV-11. The control system consists of two parts which are brushless DC motor control module and supervisory control module that coordinates the desired command to the motor control module. To control the REV-11 platform, supervisory control transmit the reference data of speed and direction of motor to control the speed and direction of each actuator on the platform REV-11. From the test results it is concluded that the designed control system work properly to coordinate and control the speed and direction of motion of the actuator motor REV-11 platform. 

  5. Temporary Nerve Block at Selected Digits Revealed Hand Motor Deficits in Grasping Tasks

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    Aude Carteron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensory feedback plays a crucial role in ensuring correct motor execution throughout hand grasp control. Previous studies utilized local anesthesia to deprive somatosensory feedback in the digits or hand, observations included sensorimotor deficits at both corticospinal and peripheral levels. However, the questions of how the disturbed and intact sensory input integrate and interact with each other to assist the motor program execution, and whether the motor coordination based on motor output variability between affected and non-affected elements (e.g., digits becomes interfered by the local sensory deficiency, have not been answered. The current study aims to investigate the effect of peripheral deafferentation through digital nerve blocks at selective digits on motor performance and motor coordination in grasp control. Our results suggested that the absence of somatosensory information induced motor deficits in hand grasp control, as evidenced by reduced maximal force production ability in both local and non-local digits, impairment of force and moment control during object lift and hold, and attenuated motor synergies in stabilizing task performance variables, namely the tangential force and moment of force. These findings implied that individual sensory input is shared across all the digits and the disturbed signal from local sensory channel(s has a more comprehensive impact on the process of the motor output execution in the sensorimotor integration process. Additionally, a feedback control mechanism with a sensation-based component resides in the formation process for the motor covariation structure.

  6. The single- and double-particle properties and the current reversal of coupled Brownian motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen-Pu; Chen, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Hong; Shen, Wen-Mei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the directed transport of coupled Brownian motors composed of two identical particles which is individually subject to a time-symmetric rocking force in spatially-symmetric periodic potentials. We find that both the coupling free length and the coupling strength can induce the reversed motion of the coupled Brownian motors, the essence of which is the coupled Brownian motors can exhibit completely different single- or double-particle properties under certain conditions. Namely, the current reversal is the result of the mutual conversion between the single- and double-particle properties of the coupled Brownian motors. Moreover, the directed current of coupled Brownian motors can be optimized and manipulated by adjusting the strength, the period, the phase difference of the rocking forces, and the noise intensity. (paper)

  7. The Effect of Physical Exercise on the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kosari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on gross motor activities of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study out of 120 students with ADHD who were studying under supervision of Tehran Department of Education of Exceptional Children, a number of 20 children (8.8±0.7 years old with ADHD were selected randomly and based on pre-test. The measuring tool was the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. The selected motor program (SPARK physical education program including reinforcement activities, playing and sporting for children was repeated for 18 sessions by our subjects. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test was used to check normal data distribution and the correlative t-test and independent t-test were used to compare mean values. Results: Eighteen sessions of the selected motor activities for the experiment group made significant differences in all variables of the study, but it was not the case for the control group. The experiment group’s differences were running speed and agility (p=0.001, balance (p=0.001, bilateral coordination (p=0.001 and strength (p=0.001.Conclusion: With regard to results of the study, it can be claimed that the selected physical education program which has been inspired by Spark physical education program is able to improve gross motor skills in children with ADHD.

  8. Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Motor Unit According to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the upper extremities comprised 3 sets at 75%–85% intensity per 1 repetition maximum, 3 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. We measured isokinetic muscle function of the elbow joint with regard to strength (60°/s and endurance (180°/s by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis muscles were studied using surface electromyography with spike-triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP area. After resistance training, the SMUP of the BB increased significantly at 60°/s (p < 0.05, but no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. The SMUP of the BB at 180°/s increased significantly in the GG/AA genotype group compared with that in the GA genotype group (p < 0.05. The average power of the elbow flexor at 180°/s increased significantly after resistance training (p < 0.05, but again, no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. Thus, improvements in muscle strength and endurance may have resulted directly from resistance training rather than from genetic factors related to nerves in muscle tissue.

  9. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Hoog, M.L.A. de; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias."

  10. Deficits in fine motor skills in a genetic animal model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs, the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. Wistar (WIS rats were used as controls. Results Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity in a familiar, but not in a novel environment. They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most sensitive measure of skilled performance (i.e., single attempt success. In contrast, their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. Conclusion The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD.

  11. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, Ellen A.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this

  12. Model predictive control-based dynamic coordinate strategy for hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system of a heavy commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Li, Guanghan; Yin, Guodong; Song, Dafeng; Li, Sheng; Yang, Nannan

    2018-02-01

    Equipping a hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system (HHMAS), which mainly consists of a hydraulic variable pump, a hydraulic hub-motor, a hydraulic valve block and hydraulic accumulators, with part-time all-wheel-drive functions improves the power performance and fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles. The coordinated control problem that occurs when HHMAS operates in the auxiliary drive mode is addressed in this paper; the solution to this problem is the key to the maximization of HHMAS. To achieve a reasonable distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, a nonlinear control scheme based on model predictive control (MPC) is investigated. First, a nonlinear model of HHMAS with vehicle dynamics and tire slip characteristics is built, and a controller-design-oriented model is simplified. Then, a steady-state feedforward + dynamic MPC feedback controller (FMPC) is designed to calculate the control input sequence of engine torque and hydraulic variable pump displacement. Finally, the controller is tested in the MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim co-simulation platform and the hardware-in-the-loop experiment platform, and its performance is compared with that of the existing proportional-integral-derivative controller and the feedforward controller under the same conditions. Simulation results show that the designed FMPC has the best performance, and control performance can be guaranteed in a real-time environment. Compared with the tracking control error of the feedforward controller, that of the designed FMPC is decreased by 85% and the traction efficiency performance is improved by 23% under a low-friction-surface condition. Moreover, under common road conditions for heavy commercial vehicles, the traction force can increase up to 13.4-15.6%.

  13. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of esophageal motor function in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyawali, C. P.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Conklin, J. L.; Fox, M.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Peters, J. H.; Roman, S.; Staiano, A.; Vaezi, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal motor function is highly coordinated between central and enteric nervous systems and the esophageal musculature, which consists of proximal skeletal and distal smooth muscle in three functional regions, the upper and lower esophageal sphincters, and the esophageal body. While upper

  15. Motor assessment in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Palhares Campolina Diniz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate muscle force and motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD in a period of six months. METHOD: Twenty children and adolescents with diagnosis of DMD were evaluated trough: measurement of the strength of the flexors and extensors of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee and ankle through the Medical Research Council (MRC, and application of the Motor Function Measure (MFM. The patients were evaluated twice within a six-month interval. RESULTS: Loss of muscle strength was identified in the MRC score for upper proximal members (t=-2.17, p=0.04. In the MFM, it was noted significant loss in the dimension 1 (t=-3.06, p=0.006. Moderate and strong correlations were found between the scores for muscular strength and the MFM dimensions. CONCLUSION: The MFM scale was a useful instrument in the follow up of patients with DMD. Moreover, it is a more comprehensive scale to assess patients and very good for conducting trials to evaluate treatment.

  16. Reorganization of finger coordination patterns through motor exploration in individuals after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-11

    Impairment of hand and finger function after stroke is common and affects the ability to perform activities of daily living. Even though many of these coordination deficits such as finger individuation have been well characterized, it is critical to understand how stroke survivors learn to explore and reorganize their finger coordination patterns for optimizing rehabilitation. In this study, I examine the use of a body-machine interface to assess how participants explore their movement repertoire, and how this changes with continued practice. Ten participants with chronic stroke wore a data glove and the finger joint angles were mapped on to the position of a cursor on a screen. The task of the participants was to move the cursor back and forth between two specified targets on a screen. Critically, the map between the finger movements and cursor motion was altered so that participants sometimes had to generate coordination patterns that required finger individuation. There were two phases to the experiment - an initial assessment phase on day 1, followed by a learning phase (days 2-5) where participants trained to reorganize their coordination patterns. Participants showed difficulty in performing tasks which had maps that required finger individuation, and the degree to which they explored their movement repertoire was directly related to clinical tests of hand function. However, over four sessions of practice, participants were able to learn to reorganize their finger movement coordination pattern and improve their performance. Moreover, training also resulted in improvements in movement repertoire outside of the context of the specific task during free exploration. Stroke survivors show deficits in movement repertoire in their paretic hand, but facilitating movement exploration during training can increase the movement repertoire. This suggests that exploration may be an important element of rehabilitation to regain optimal function.

  17. Self-Regulatory Skill Among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster Jokić, Claire A; Whitebread, David

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty learning and performing everyday motor tasks due to poor motor coordination. Recent research applying a cognitive learning paradigm has argued that children with DCD have less effective cognitive and metacognitive skills with which to effectively acquire motor skills. However, there is currently limited research examining individual differences in children's use of self-regulatory and metacognitive skill during motor learning. This exploratory study aimed to compare the self-regulatory performance of children with and without DCD. Using a mixed methods approach, this study observed and compared the self-regulatory behavior of 15 children with and without DCD, aged between 7 and 9 years, during socially mediated motor practice. Observation was conducted using a quantitative coding scheme and qualitative analysis of video-recorded sessions. This paper will focus on the results of quantitative analysis, while data arising from the qualitative analysis will be used to support quantitative findings. In general, findings indicate that children with DCD exhibit less independent and more ineffective self-regulatory skill during motor learning than their typically developing peers. In addition, children with DCD rely more heavily on external support for effective regulation and are more likely to exhibit negative patterns of motivational regulation. These findings provide further support for the notion that children with DCD experience difficulty effectively self-regulating motor learning. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Analysis of a hysteresis motor on asynchronous speed using complex permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, T.; Yuge, N.; Wakui, G.

    1994-01-01

    Although hysteresis motors have a comparatively small output for their mechanical dimensions compared with other types of motor, they offer the advantages of extremely low vibration and noise levels, and so are widely used as driving motors in acoustic equipment and uranium gas centrifuges. This paper deals with a method for determining the complex permeability in analysis of hysteresis motors. The method assumes that the magnetic intensity distribution is sinusoidal in the direction of rotation. Analysis of the asynchronous speed of a hysteresis motor is then performed for cylindrical coordinates, using modified Bessel functions. The results of calculations are in good agreement with experimental results, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed model and method for determining the complex permeability

  19. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Plotkin, Joshua L.; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    2013-01-01

    The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks and excita...

  20. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  1. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Dutch Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Frouwien D.; Stuive, Ilse; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Holty, Lian; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; van Weert, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare components of health-related physical fitness between Dutch children with clinically diagnosed developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC), and to examine associations between motor performance problems and components of health-related

  2. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS WITH SINGLE-PHASE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Malyar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of a method for calculating mechanical characteristics of three-phase induction motors with single-phase power supply. Methods. The developed algorithm is based on the high-adequacy mathematical model of motor and projection method for solving the boundary problem for equations of electrical circuits balance presented in the three-phase coordinate system. As a result of asymmetry of power supply to the stator windings, in steady state, flux-linkage and current change according to the periodic law. They are determined by solving the boundary problem. Results. The developed mathematical model allows determining periodic dependence of coordinates as a function of slip and, based on them, mechanical characteristics of motors. Academic novelty. The developed method relies on a completely new mathematical approach to calculation of stationary modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which allows obtaining periodic solution in a timeless domain. Practical value. Using the developed calculation algorithm, one can select capacitance required to start an induction motor with single-phase power supply and calculate static mechanical characteristics at a given capacitance.

  3. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-21

    Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment. Children (n = 108, 7 to 9 years) were participants in a population-prevalence study of FASD in Western Australia. Fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, which provided a Fine Motor Composite score, and evaluated Fine Manual Control (Fine Motor Precision; Fine Motor Integration) and Manual Coordination (Manual Dexterity; Upper-Limb Coordination). Descriptive statistics were reported for the overall cohort; and comparisons made between children with and without PAE and/or FASD. The prevalence of severe (≤ 2nd percentile) and moderate (≤16th percentile) impairments was determined. Overall, Fine Motor Composite scores were 'average' (M = 48.6 ± 7.4), as were Manual Coordination (M = 55.7 ± 7.9) and Fine Manual Control scores (M = 42.5 ± 6.2). Children with FASD had significantly lower Fine Motor Composite (M = 45.2 ± 7.7 p = 0.046) and Manual Coordination scores (M = 51.8 ± 7.3, p = 0.027) than children without PAE (Fine Motor Composite M = 49.8 ± 7.2; Manual Coordination M = 57.0 ± 7.7). Few children had severe impairment, but rates of moderate impairment were very high. Different types of fine motor skills should be evaluated in children with PAE or FASD. The high prevalence of fine motor impairment in our

  4. The Impact of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Soleimani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/developmental coordination disorder (ADHD/DCD suffer from problems associated with gross and fine motor skills. There is no effective pharmacological therapy for such patients. We aimed to assess the impact of methylphenidate (MPH on motor performance of children with ADHD/DCD. Methods: In this double-blind placebo-controlled, 17 children (12 boys with ADHD/DCD with a mean age of 7 years 6 months were recruited in Shafa Hospital, Rasht, Iran. The response was defined as ≥25% reduction in the total score of ADHD rating scale-IV from the baseline. Sixteen boys entered phase 2 of the study in which the impact of MPH on motor function was determined through a crossover randomized clinical trial. Eligible individuals were scheduled for baseline and two assessment visits after a one-week period of intervention. We used the short form of Bruininks-Oseretsky test (BOT-2 to identify the disability of motor function. Children were randomly assigned to receive MPH or inert ingredients (placebo. In the second period, medication (MPH/placebo was crossed over. The effects of MPH were analyzed using χ2 test for related samples to compare the performance during baseline, placebo, and MPH trials. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The mean minimal effective dose of MPH per day was 17.3 mg (0.85 mg/kg. Children with higher ADHD rating scale had a significantly lower standard score in BOT-2 (P=0.03. Following MPH intake, 26.6% of the children showed clinically significant improvement in motor function. However, the improvement was not statistically different between the MPH and placebo. Conclusion: Although MPH improved ADHD symptoms, problems with motor performance still remained. Further work is required to determine the probable effects of MPH in a higher dosage or in different subtypes of ADHD. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107071483N2

  5. Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras

    2018-02-15

    The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ebselen protects against behavioral and biochemical toxicities induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: correlations between motor coordination, reactive species levels, and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Jesse, Cristiano R; Luchese, Cristiane

    2014-12-01

    The protective effect of ebselen was investigated against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioral and biochemical toxicities in rats. Ebselen (10 or 25 mg/kg, intragastrically) was administered to rats 30 min before 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once a day for a period of 4 days. Locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight gain were determined. The striatal content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), and protein carbonyl as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities was determined 24 h after the last dose of 3-NP. Na(+)/ K(+)-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and δ-aminolevulinic dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities were also determined. The results demonstrated that ebselen at a dose of 25 mg/kg, but not at 10 mg/kg, protected against (1) a decrease in locomotor activity, motor coordination impairment, and body weight loss; (2) striatal oxidative damage, which was characterized by an increase in ROS levels, protein carbonyl content, and GR activity, an inhibition of CAT and GPx activities, and a decrease in GSH levels; and (3) an inhibition of SDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, induced by 3-NP. GST activity and AA levels were not modified by ebselen or 3-NP. Ebselen was not effective against the inhibition of δ-ALA-D activity induced by 3-NP. The results revealed a significant correlation between SDH activity and ROS levels, and SDH activity and latency to fall (rotarod test). The present study highlighted the protective effect of ebselen against 3-NP-induced toxicity in rats.

  7. Desempenho coordenativo de crianças: construção de cartas percentílicas baseadas no método LMS de Cole e Green Motor coordination of children: construction of centiles charts with LMS method by Cole and Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nichele de Chaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os propósitos do estudo foram: 1 apresentar valores de referência percentílica às quatro provas da bateria de testes KTK; 2 comparar o desempenho coordenativo entre crianças vouzelenses e de outros estudos do país e exterior; e 3 apresentar pseudo-curvas de velocidade para cada prova. Foram avaliadas 811 crianças com idades entre os seis e os 10 anos. O desempenho coordenativo foi estimado por meio da bateria KTK. Cartas percentílicas e pseudo-curvas de velocidade foram construídas com base no método LMS, implementado no "software" LMSchartmarker Pro versão 2.54. Os valores de referência percentílicas expressam forte variabilidade interindividual do desempenho coordenativo. Em geral, os valores médios vouzelenses são inferiores aos belgas e alemães. O comportamento do percentil 50 das quatro provas do KTK é similar entre Vouzela, Peru e Açores. As pseudo-curvas de velocidade sugerem especificidade em cada prova e sexo, bem como diminuição dos ganhos coordenativos ao longo da idade.The purposes of this study were 1 to construct reference values to KTK test battery; 2 to compare Vouzela children’s motor coordination with those from other Portuguese sites and international references; 3 to present pseudo-velocity curves for each KTK test. The sample comprises 811 children aged six to 11 years. Motor coordination was assessed with the four tests of the KTK Battery. Centile charts were constructed using the LMS method implemented in LMSchartmarker Pro software. Pervasive interindividual differences were noted in all coordination tests. Mean values of Vouzela children’s motor coordination were lower than German and Belgian samples. 50th percentile was similar among Vouzela, Peruvian and Azorean samples. Pseudo-velocity curves suggested a marked specificity to each test and sex, as well as decreasing of the coordinative gains per year.

  8. Neuro-motor deficits in six- to eight-year old learners with ADHD and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the nature of coordination, visual-motor integration and neurological functioning in children diagnosed with ADHD and whether the likelihood of motor impairment will increase with the presence of co-occurring DCD (DAMP). Ninety-five learners (60 boys; 35 girls) with a mean age of 6.9 years ...

  9. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  10. Adolescentes com deficiência auditiva: a aprendizagem da dança e a coordenação motora Hearing impaired adolescents: dance learning and motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta L. Montezuma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de modificação da coordenação motora, atenção, participação, interação, autoestima e compreensão em adolescentes com deficiência auditiva, após a realização de aulas de dança do tipo jazz dance. Foi realizado estudo experimental intrassujeito do tipo AB, com cinco sujeitos do gênero feminino, com idade entre 13 e 18 anos, diagnóstico de surdez congênita ou adquirida e estudantes do Instituto Londrinense de Educação de Surdos (ILES. Para avaliação da coordenação motora foi aplicado o teste KTK, composto por quatro tarefas antes e após as aulas e, diário de campo, contendo informações que não foram registradas nos testes formais. Foram realizadas doze aulas de dança como intervenção. O resultado do KTK mostrou média da pontuação total de 171,8 inicialmente e 196,4 após a intervenção. Como resultado final todos os sujeitos do estudo apresentaram melhora da coodernação motora significante (P=0.01 após as aulas de dança. Observou-se também melhor atenção das alunas no decorrer das aulas e maior integração do grupo.The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of changes in motor coordination and attention, participation, interaction, self-esteem and understanding in adolescents with hearing loss, after conducting dance classes such as jazz. An experimental study of intra-subject AB, was done, with five female subjects, aged between 13 and 18 years and diagnosis of congenital or acquired deafness, students of the Institute of Deaf Education Londrinense (ILES. The KTK test was conducted to evaluate the motor coordination, consisting of four tasks before and after classes and a diary containing information not recorded in formal tests. Twelve dance classes were proposed as intervention. The result of KTK showed a total score average of 171,8 before the dance and an average of 196,4 after the classes. The results indicated that all subjects of

  11. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    AlSaif, Amer A.; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Method...

  12. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Maurice; Nann, Marius; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Eskofier, Bjoern; Nigg, Benno Maurus

    2015-01-01

    Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL). Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role. Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum. For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat. There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement task at hand.

  13. Use of mass spectrometry for study of coordination compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrbehlehu, N.V.; Indrichan, K.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review on mass-spectrometry of coordination compounds including the works published up to 1979 inclusive is provided. Mainly the products of metals with bi- and tetradentate ligands are considered using the method. Mo and Be carboxylates for which molecular ions lines are found in mass-spectra are studied. The study of mass-spectra for VO chelates with thiosemicarbazone of salicyl aldehyde is carried out. Application of the mass-spectrometry method permits to establish the mass of coordination compounds, the structure of complexes, dentate structure and the way of ligand coordination, the bond strength [ru

  14. Physical self-perception and motor performance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, M; Colella, D; Robazza, C; Bortoli, L; Capranica, L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical self-perception, body image and motor performance in Italian middle school students. Two hundred and sixty children were categorized into normal-weight (n=103), overweight (n=86) or obese (n=71) groups. Perceived coordination, body fat and sports competence were assessed using the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, while body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings. Individuals' perceptions of strength, speed and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Tests involving the standing long jump, 2 kg medicine-ball throw, 10 × 5 m shuttle-run and 20 and 30 m sprints were also administered. Girls, when compared with boys, and overweight and obese participants, when compared with normal-weight peers, reported lower perceived and actual physical competence, higher perceived body fat and greater body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction mediated all the associations between body mass index (BMI) and the different aspects of physical self-perception in boys, but not in girls. The same pattern of results was found for physical self-perception as a mediator of the relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction. In conclusion, obesity proved to have adverse effects on both motor performance and physical self-perception. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  16. Corrective response times in a coordinated eye-head-arm countermanding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Gordon; Khan, Aarlenne Z; Blohm, Gunnar

    2018-06-01

    Inhibition of motor responses has been described as a race between two competing decision processes of motor initiation and inhibition, which manifest as the reaction time (RT) and the stop signal reaction time (SSRT); in the case where motor initiation wins out over inhibition, an erroneous movement occurs that usually needs to be corrected, leading to corrective response times (CRTs). Here we used a combined eye-head-arm movement countermanding task to investigate the mechanisms governing multiple effector coordination and the timing of corrective responses. We found a high degree of correlation between effector response times for RT, SSRT, and CRT, suggesting that decision processes are strongly dependent across effectors. To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying CRTs, we tested multiple models to describe the distribution of RTs, SSRTs, and CRTs. The best-ranked model (according to 3 information criteria) extends the LATER race model governing RTs and SSRTs, whereby a second motor initiation process triggers the corrective response (CRT) only after the inhibition process completes in an expedited fashion. Our model suggests that the neural processing underpinning a failed decision has a residual effect on subsequent actions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Failure to inhibit erroneous movements typically results in corrective movements. For coordinated eye-head-hand movements we show that corrective movements are only initiated after the erroneous movement cancellation signal has reached a decision threshold in an accelerated fashion.

  17. Recycling of electrical motors by automatic disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Björn; Järrhed, Jan-Ove

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a robotized workstation for end-of-life treatment of electrical motors with an electrical effect of about 1 kW. These motors can, for example, be found in washing machines and in industry. There are two main steps in the work. The first step is an inspection whereby the functionality of the motor is checked and classification either for re-use or for disassembly is done. In the second step the motors classified for disassembly are disassembled in a robotized automatic station. In the initial step measurements are performed during a start-up sequence of about 1 s. By measuring the rotation speed and the current and voltage of the three phases of the motor classification for either reuse or disassembly can be done. During the disassembly work, vision data are fused in order to classify the motors according to their type. The vision system also feeds the control system of the robot with various object co-ordinates, to facilitate correct operation of the robot. Finally, tests with a vision system and eddy-current equipment are performed to decide whether all copper has been removed from the stator.

  18. Two Archetypes of Motor Control Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    This reply to the Commentaries is focused on two archetypes of motor control research, one based on physics and physiology and the other based on control theory and ideas of neural computations. The former approach, represented by the equilibrium-point hypothesis, strives to discover the physical laws and salient physiological variables that make purposeful coordinated movements possible. The latter approach, represented by the ideas of internal models and optimal control, tries to apply methods of control developed for man-made inanimate systems to the human body. Specific issues related to control with subthreshold membrane depolarization, motor redundancy, and the idea of synergies are briefly discussed.

  19. Research progress of motor function assessments and their clinical applications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, clinically featured as progressive skeletal muscle atrophy with gradual loss of muscle strength and activity abilities, is the most common genetic muscular disease in children throughout the world. The core and continuous characteristic of DMD is motor dysfunction. Motor function assessments of DMD are now focusing on muscle strength, walking ability, range of motion and ability of activities, still without unified standards. Confirming the comprehensive, scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation tools for DMD assessment is the premise of research in motor developmental rules of DMD, which will help to better understand the motor progress of DMD and to supply evidences for choosing treatment methods, confirming timing of intervention, assessing effect of treatments and designing rehabilitation plans. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.002

  20. Respiratory chain deficiency in aged spinal motor neurons☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygiel, Karolina A.; Grady, John P.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia, muscle wasting, and strength decline with age, is an important cause of loss of mobility in the elderly individuals. The underlying mechanisms are uncertain but likely to involve defects of motor nerve, neuromuscular junction, and muscle. Loss of motor neurons with age and subsequent denervation of skeletal muscle has been recognized as one of the contributing factors. This study investigated aspects of mitochondrial biology in spinal motor neurons from elderly subjects. We found that protein components of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain were reduced or absent in a proportion of aged motor neurons–a phenomenon not observed in fetal tissue. Further investigation showed that complex I-deficient cells had reduced mitochondrial DNA content and smaller soma size. We propose that mitochondrial dysfunction in these motor neurons could lead to the cell loss and ultimately denervation of muscle fibers. PMID:24684792

  1. Sensorimotor oscillations prior to speech onset reflect altered motor networks in adults who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Mersov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults who stutter (AWS have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Twelve AWS and twelve age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase. Controls were presented with the same word list as their matched AWS participant. Neural oscillatory activity was localized using minimum-variance beamforming during two time periods of interest: speech preparation (prior to speech onset and speech execution (following speech onset. Compared to controls, AWS showed stronger beta (15-25Hz suppression in the speech preparation stage, followed by stronger beta synchronization in the bilateral mouth motor cortex. AWS also recruited the right mouth motor cortex significantly earlier in the speech preparation stage compared to controls. Exaggerated motor preparation is discussed in the context of reduced coordination in the speech-motor network of AWS. It is further proposed that exaggerated beta synchronization may reflect a more strongly inhibited motor system that requires a stronger beta suppression to disengage prior to speech initiation. These novel findings highlight critical differences in the speech-motor network of AWS that occur prior to speech onset and emphasize the need to investigate further the speech-motor assembly in the stuttering population.

  2. A neural network-based exploratory learning and motor planning system for co-robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Galbraith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative robots, or co-robots, are semi-autonomous robotic agents designed to work alongside humans in shared workspaces. To be effective, co-robots require the ability to respond and adapt to dynamic scenarios encountered in natural environments. One way to achieve this is through exploratory learning, or learning by doing, an unsupervised method in which co-robots are able to build an internal model for motor planning and coordination based on real-time sensory inputs. In this paper, we present an adaptive neural network-based system for co-robot control that employs exploratory learning to achieve the coordinated motor planning needed to navigate toward, reach for, and grasp distant objects. To validate this system we used the 11-degrees-of-freedom RoPro Calliope mobile robot. Through motor babbling of its wheels and arm, the Calliope learned how to relate visual and proprioceptive information to achieve hand-eye-body coordination. By continually evaluating sensory inputs and externally provided goal directives, the Calliope was then able to autonomously select the appropriate wheel and joint velocities needed to perform its assigned task, such as following a moving target or retrieving an indicated object.

  3. A neural network-based exploratory learning and motor planning system for co-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Byron V; Guenther, Frank H; Versace, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative robots, or co-robots, are semi-autonomous robotic agents designed to work alongside humans in shared workspaces. To be effective, co-robots require the ability to respond and adapt to dynamic scenarios encountered in natural environments. One way to achieve this is through exploratory learning, or "learning by doing," an unsupervised method in which co-robots are able to build an internal model for motor planning and coordination based on real-time sensory inputs. In this paper, we present an adaptive neural network-based system for co-robot control that employs exploratory learning to achieve the coordinated motor planning needed to navigate toward, reach for, and grasp distant objects. To validate this system we used the 11-degrees-of-freedom RoPro Calliope mobile robot. Through motor babbling of its wheels and arm, the Calliope learned how to relate visual and proprioceptive information to achieve hand-eye-body coordination. By continually evaluating sensory inputs and externally provided goal directives, the Calliope was then able to autonomously select the appropriate wheel and joint velocities needed to perform its assigned task, such as following a moving target or retrieving an indicated object.

  4. COMPARISON OF SOME ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND MOTOR ABILITIES BETWEEN ALPINE AND SPORT CLIMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Burnik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to establish the differences in some anthropometric measures and motor abilities between mountaineers and sport climbers. Our sample consisted of 11 top mountaineers and 12 members of A and B national teams in sport climbing. The survey was carried out by means of a standard battery of tests. Anthropo- metric measures were represented by 5 variables, while motor abilities were represented by 14 variables. Motor ability tests were divided into two groups due to a large number of variables. Mobility was surveyed with 6 tests and strength with 8 tests. The data we- re processed with statistical programme package SPSS with the method of discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis was made separately of anthropometry, mobility and strength. Discriminant function statistically significantly divides mountaineers from sport climbers in anthropometric measures as well as mobility. In the field of strength, stati- stically significant differences between mountaineers and sport climbers were not indi- cated.

  5. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; St Aubin, J; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-05-01

    Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450 +/- 10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000 +/- 10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600 +/- 10 G. The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of

  6. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the

  7. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450±10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000±10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600±10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance

  8. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Willy Chou,2,3 Julie Chi Chow,4 Chien-Ho Lin,5 Li-Chen Tung,2,6 Kuan-Lin Chen7,8 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, 3Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Da Chien General Hospital, Miaoli, 7Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan Purpose: We investigated 1 the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; 2 the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81, discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points], and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]. Children’s IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT, respectively. Results: One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual–motor coordination subtest (F=3.37–4.38, p<0.05. Children with discrepantly higher PIQ were associated with better fine motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ

  9. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  10. JIGSAW PUZZLE IMPROVE FINE MOTOR ABILITIES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES IN POST-STROKE ISCHEMIC CLIENTS

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    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic stroke is a disease caused by focal cerebral ischemia, where is a decline in blood flow that needed for neuronal metabolism, leading to neurologic deficit include motor deficit such as fine motor skills impairment. Therapy of fine motor skills disorders is to improve motor function, prevent contractures and complications. These study aimed to identify the effect of playing Jigsaw Puzzle on muscle strength, extensive motion, and upper extremity fine motor skills in patients with ischemic stroke at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Methods: Experimental Quasi pre-posttest one group control. The number of samples were 34 respondents selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was 17 respondents who were given standard treatment hospital and played Jigsaw Puzzle 2 times a day for six days. Control group is one respondent given by hospital standard therapy without given additional Jigsaw Puzzle game. Evaluation of these research is done on the first and seventh day for those groups. Result: The results showed that muscle strength, the range of joint motion and fine motor skills of upper extremities increased (p = 0.001 significantly after being given the Jigsaw Puzzle games. These means playing Jigsaw Puzzle increase muscle strength, the range of joint motion and upper extremity fine motor skill of ischemic stroke patients. Discussion and conclusion: Jigsaw puzzle game administration as additional rehabilitation therapy in upper extremity fine motor to minimize the occurrence of contractures and motor disorders in patients with ischemic stroke. Jigsaw puzzle game therapy capable of creating repetitive motion as a key of neurological rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke. This study recommends using jigsaw puzzle game as one of intervention in the nursing care of Ischemic Stroke patients.

  11. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  12. Establishment of magnetic coordinates for a given magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    A method is given for expressing the magnetic field strength in magnetic coordinates for a given field. This expression is central to the study of equilibrium, stability, and transport in asymmetric plasmas

  13. Coordination under the Shadow of Career Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht

    To innovate, firms require their employees to develop novel ideas and to coordinate with each other to turn these ideas into products, services or business strategies. Because the quality of implemented designs that employees are associated with affects their labor market opportunities, career...... concerns arise that can both be ‘good’ (enhancing incentives for effort in developing ideas) and ‘bad’ (preventing voluntary coordination). Depending on the strength of career concerns, either group-based incentives or team production are optimal. This finding provides a possible link between the increased...

  14. Colorimetric assay for on-the-spot alcoholic strength sensing in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide coordination polymer particles with ratiometric fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jingjing; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric detection of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide infinite coordination polymer (Ln-ICP) particles with ratiometric fluorescence. The ICP used in this study are composed of two components: one is the supramolecular Ln-ICP network formed by the coordination between the ligand 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and central metal ion Eu"3"+; and the other is a fluorescent dye, i.e., coumarin 343 (C343), both as the cofactor ligand and as the sensitizer, doped into the Ln-ICP network through self-adaptive chemistry. Upon being excited at 300 nm, the red fluorescence of Ln-ICP network itself at 617 nm is highly enhanced due to the concomitant energy transfer from C343 to Eu"3"+, while the fluorescence of C343 at 495 nm is supressed. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed C343@Eu-TDA is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into ethanolic dispersion of C343@Eu-TDA destructs Eu-TDA network structure, resulting in the release of C343 from ICP network into the solvent. Consequently, the fluorescence of Eu-TDA turns off and the fluorescence of C343 turns on, leading to the fluorescent color change of the dispersion from red to blue, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could clearly distinguish the AS of different spirit samples within a wide linear range from 10% vol to 100% vol directly by “naked eye” with the help of UV-lamp (365 nm). This study not only offers a new method for on-the-spot visible detection of AS, but also provides a strategy for dual-responsive sensing mode by rational designing the optical properties of the Ln-ICP network and the guest, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual responsive lanthanide coordination polymer particles C343@Eu-TDA were synthesized. • The guest molecular coumarin 343 sensitized the luminescence of Eu-TDA network

  15. Colorimetric assay for on-the-spot alcoholic strength sensing in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide coordination polymer particles with ratiometric fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jingjing, E-mail: jjdeng@des.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Shi, Guoyue [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Zhou, Tianshu, E-mail: tszhou@des.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2016-10-26

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric detection of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide infinite coordination polymer (Ln-ICP) particles with ratiometric fluorescence. The ICP used in this study are composed of two components: one is the supramolecular Ln-ICP network formed by the coordination between the ligand 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and central metal ion Eu{sup 3+}; and the other is a fluorescent dye, i.e., coumarin 343 (C343), both as the cofactor ligand and as the sensitizer, doped into the Ln-ICP network through self-adaptive chemistry. Upon being excited at 300 nm, the red fluorescence of Ln-ICP network itself at 617 nm is highly enhanced due to the concomitant energy transfer from C343 to Eu{sup 3+}, while the fluorescence of C343 at 495 nm is supressed. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed C343@Eu-TDA is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into ethanolic dispersion of C343@Eu-TDA destructs Eu-TDA network structure, resulting in the release of C343 from ICP network into the solvent. Consequently, the fluorescence of Eu-TDA turns off and the fluorescence of C343 turns on, leading to the fluorescent color change of the dispersion from red to blue, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could clearly distinguish the AS of different spirit samples within a wide linear range from 10% vol to 100% vol directly by “naked eye” with the help of UV-lamp (365 nm). This study not only offers a new method for on-the-spot visible detection of AS, but also provides a strategy for dual-responsive sensing mode by rational designing the optical properties of the Ln-ICP network and the guest, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual responsive lanthanide coordination polymer particles C343@Eu-TDA were synthesized. • The guest molecular coumarin 343 sensitized the luminescence of Eu

  16. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  17. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  18. The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Russo, Cristina; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-04-11

    Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of sensory inputs with ongoing and planned motor activity. Neurological patients who have lost one or more of their senses may show profoundly affected motor functions, even if muscle strength remains unaffected. Following stroke, motor recovery can be dictated by the degree of sensory disruption. Consequently, a thorough account of sensory function might be both prognostic and prescriptive in neurorehabilitation. This review outlines the key sensory components of human voluntary movement, describes how sensory disruption can influence prognosis and expected outcomes in stroke patients, reports on current sensory-based approaches in post-stroke motor rehabilitation, and makes recommendations for optimizing rehabilitation programs based on sensory stimulation.

  19. Neural activation and functional connectivity during motor imagery of bimanual everyday actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J Szameitat

    Full Text Available Bimanual actions impose intermanual coordination demands not present during unimanual actions. We investigated the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these coordination demands in motor imagery (MI of everyday actions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. For this, 17 participants imagined unimanual actions with the left and right hand as well as bimanual actions while undergoing fMRI. A univariate fMRI analysis showed no reliable cortical activations specific to bimanual MI, indicating that intermanual coordination demands in MI are not associated with increased neural processing. A functional connectivity analysis based on psychophysiological interactions (PPI, however, revealed marked increases in connectivity between parietal and premotor areas within and between hemispheres. We conclude that in MI of everyday actions intermanual coordination demands are primarily met by changes in connectivity between areas and only moderately, if at all, by changes in the amount of neural activity. These results are the first characterization of the neuroanatomical correlates of bimanual coordination demands in MI. Our findings support the assumed equivalence of overt and imagined actions and highlight the differences between uni- and bimanual actions. The findings extent our understanding of the motor system and may aid the development of clinical neurorehabilitation approaches based on mental practice.

  20. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S S; Mohamad, M; Syazarina, S O; Nafisah, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain

  1. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S. S.; Mohamad, M.; Syazarina, S. O.; Nafisah, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain.

  2. The effect of vision on walking in children with different levels of motor competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Palomo Nieto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor coordination problems of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD have been frequently associated with poor visuospatial processing. Objective: The aim this study has been to investigate a role of the vision in the motor control of walking between typical developing children (TD and children at risk of DCD (DCDR. Methods: Participants included 16 TD (mean age 9.1, SD 1.0 years, and 16 DCDR, (mean age 8.7, SD 0.8 years who walked along a 10 meter walkway using the Optojump instrument to assess the spatio-temporal variables of the gait pattern in full vision (FV and non-vision (NV conditions. Data was analyzed in a two-way mixed-effect ANOVA (2 groups - TD vs. DCDR, 2 visual conditions - FV vs. NV with repeated measurement on the last factor (p ≤ .05. Results: The results demonstrated that DCDR children walked slower and with shorter steps than their TD peers. Also, withdrawing the vision affects some parameters of the gait cycle including the stance-phase, single-support, load-response and pre-swing regardless of the level of motor coordination of the children. Conclusions: A higher dependency on visual information or impaired utilization of proprioceptive inputs for execution of simple walk in the stable environment were not confirmed in the children with motor difficulties.

  3. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V

    2013-01-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...

  4. Importance of coordination skills essential psychophysical demonstrated competencies as a military specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Lisowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim - to identify the role and importance of coordination abilities in the manifestation of professionally important qualities of psychophysical military experts. It is established that the exercise of general, special and specific coordination abilities provides the most efficient and reliable psychophysical military readiness and suitability to the successful solution of the tasks of combat mission. It is noted that a professionally-applied physical training future military specialist should focus on the development of a certain amount of knowledge and skills. Also - on the formation of professionally important psychophysical qualities that ensure a high degree of readiness of the military to successfully complete the tasks in extreme conditions. Set of system- level structural relationships of mental and physical indicators of the motor and functional fitness, mental processes, and psychomotor ability to control motor actions in different conditions of military occupation.

  5. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual-Motor Integration in Children With Mild Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Djordjevic, Mirjana

    2018-01-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills, defined as the coordination of fine motor and visual perceptual abilities, are a very good indicator of a child's overall level of functioning. Research has clearly established that children with intellectual disability (ID) have deficits in VMI skills. This article presents a meta-analytic review of 10 research studies involving 652 children with mild ID for which a VMI skills assessment was also available. We measured the standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) between scores on VMI tests of these children with mild ID and either typically developing children's VMI test scores in these studies or normative mean values on VMI tests used by the studies. While mild ID is defined in part by intelligence scores that are two to three standard deviations below those of typically developing children, the standardized mean difference of VMI differences between typically developing children and children with mild ID in this meta-analysis was 1.75 (95% CI [1.11, 2.38]). Thus, the intellectual and adaptive skill deficits of children with mild ID may be greater (perhaps especially due to their abstract and conceptual reasoning deficits) than their relative VMI deficits. We discuss the possible meaning of this relative VMI strength among children with mild ID and suggest that their stronger VMI skills may be a target for intensive academic interventions as a means of attenuating problems in adaptive functioning.

  7. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  8. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mohr

    Full Text Available Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM and Lateralis (VL. Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role.Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum.For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat.There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement

  9. Variable training does not lead to better motor learning compared to repetitive training in children with DCD when exposed to video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonney, E.; Jelsma, Lemke; Ferguson, F; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    Background Little is known about the influence of practice schedules on motor learning and skills transfer in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Understanding how practice schedules affect motor learning is necessary for motor skills development and rehabilitation.

  10. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sorensen, Holger J; Maeda, Justin

    2009-01-01

    in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide further......-13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization...... for a nonpsychotic disorder (N=84); and children with no parental records of psychiatric hospitalization (N=66). Psychiatric outcomes of the offspring were assessed through psychiatric interviews in 1992 when participants were 31-33 years of age, as well as through a scan of national psychiatric registers completed...

  11. The effect of an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J; van der Net, Janjaap; Voerman, Lia; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children with DCD have lower self-perceptions and are less physically active than typically developing children. The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate whether an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention affects DCD children's motor

  12. RELATION BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY (PWC170 AND STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.

  13. Effects of blueberries on inflammation, motor performance and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor and cognitive function decrease with age, to include deficits in balance, coordination, gait, processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. Research ...

  14. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which substantiates respective early movement

  15. Mapping genetic influences on the corticospinal motor system in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheeran, B J; Ritter, C; Rothwell, J C

    2009-01-01

    of the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and variable number tandem repeats. In humans, the corticospinal motor system is essential to the acquisition of fine manual motor skills which require a finely tuned coordination of activity in distal forelimb muscles. Here we review recent brain mapping......It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic variations account for a certain amount of variance in the acquisition and maintenance of different skills. Until now, several levels of genetic influences were examined, ranging from global heritability estimates down to the analysis...... studies that have begun to explore the influence of functional genetic variation as well as mutations on function and structure of the human corticospinal motor system, and also the clinical implications of these studies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor hand area revealed...

  16. Strength training for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D

    2000-10-01

    The potential benefits of youth strength training extend beyond an increase in muscular strength and may include favorable changes in selected health- and fitness-related measures. If appropriate training guidelines are followed, regular participation in a youth strength-training program has the potential to increase bone mineral density, improve motor performance skills, enhance sports performance, and better prepare our young athletes for the demands of practice and competition. Despite earlier concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of youth strength training, current public health objectives now aim to increase the number of boys and girls age 6 and older who regularly participate in physical activities that enhance and maintain muscular fitness. Parents, teachers, coaches, and healthcare providers should realize that youth strength training is a specialized method of conditioning that can offer enormous benefit but at the same time can result in serious injury if established guidelines are not followed. With qualified instruction, competent supervision, and an appropriate progression of the volume and intensity of training, children and adolescents cannot only learn advanced strength training exercises but can feel good about their performances, and have fun. Additional clinical trails involving children and adolescents are needed to further explore the acute and chronic effects of strength training on a variety of anatomical, physiological, and psychological parameters.

  17. Motor development following in utero exposure to organochlorines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2015-01-01

    of child age at the first time of crawling, standing-up and walking. RESULTS: We saw no associations between tertiles of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE or log-transformed exposures and retrospective reports of the developmental milestones crawling, standing-up and walking in infancy or the motor skills measured...... as developmental coordination disorder at young school age. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to CB-153 and p,p'-DDE was not associated with parentally retrospectively assessed developmental milestones in infancy or parentally assessed motor skills at young school age. The use of a more sensitive outcome measure may......BACKGROUND: Prior studies on the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and child motor development have found contradicting results. Using data collected in the INUENDO cohort in Kharkiv (Ukraine), Warsaw (Poland...

  18. High-order motor cortex in rats receives somatosensory inputs from the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunori, Nobuo; Takashima, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb. This procedure was followed by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping to identify the motor representations in the imaged cortex. The combined use of VSD imaging and ICMS revealed that both the CFA and RFA received excitatory synaptic inputs after forelimb stimulation. Further evaluation of the sensory input pathway to the RFA revealed that the forelimb-evoked RFA response was abolished either by the pharmacological inactivation of the CFA or a cortical transection between the CFA and RFA. These results suggest that forelimb-related sensory inputs would be transmitted to the RFA from the CFA via the cortico-cortical pathway. Thus, the present findings imply that sensory information processed in the RFA may be used for the generation of coordinated forelimb movements, which would be similar to the function of the higher-order motor cortex in primates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; van der Net, Janjaap; Voerman, Lia; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Children with DCD have lower self-perceptions and are less physically active than typically developing children. The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate whether an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention affects DCD children's motor performance,

  20. RELATION BETWEEN LATENT SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND SITUATION MOTOR SKILLS WITH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AGED FROM 16 TO 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The game of volleyball with its dynamic character is present in the world of the sport with permanent development and growing popularity and fans. Volleyball is part of a pollystructural complex sports activities. It is performed on a ground of a relatively small size (18 x 9 meters and is a kind of game that requires of players a high level of advanced motoric abilities (speed, strength, endurance, a fast rate of visual reaction, explosivity, as well as specific motoric skills (precision etc.. Scientific conclusion as well as the growing number of conducted researches in the very game, have a real contribution to its modern development and level of popularity. Situation-motoric skills make a significant dimension in the structure of volleyball game. The subject of the research is specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills of 52 volleyball players aged from 16 to 17. The basic goal of the research is to establish the effect of specific-motoric abilities on situation-motoric skills of volleyball players in latent space. In order to assess the specific-motoric abilities 9 tests are used, and to assess the situation-motoric skills 3 precision tests are used. The results obtained from the 12 applied tests are worked out through the basic statistic parameters. Through component factor analysis 3 latent specific-motoric dimensions are isolated as well as one situation-motoric dimension. By regressive analysis there is established a low but statistically significant relation between the criterion and predictor latent dimensions. That confirms the dependence and relation between the specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills. Researches in the fi eld of similar questions have been conducted by the following authors: Jurko et al., 2013 and Nešić, et al., 2011.

  1. Motor deficits, impaired response inhibition, and blunted response to methylphenidate following neonatal exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Vincent P; Miller-Rhodes, Patrick; Cheung, Randy; Goeke, Calla; Pecoraro, Vincent; Cohen, Gideon; Small, Deena J

    2017-09-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is an applied brominated flame retardant that is widely-used in electronic equipment. After decades of use, decaBDE and other members of its polybrominated diphenyl ether class have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants that can be measured in the atmosphere, water bodies, wildlife, food staples and human breastmilk. Although it has been banned in Europe and voluntarily withdrawn from the U.S. market, it is still used in Asian countries. Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies indicate that decaBDE exposure targets brain development and produces behavioral impairments. The current study examined an array of motor and learning behaviors in a C57BL6/J mouse model to determine the breadth of the developmental neurotoxicity produced by decaBDE. Mouse pups were given a single daily oral dose of 0 or 20mg/kg decaBDE from postnatal day 1 to 21 and were tested in adulthood. Exposed male mice had impaired forelimb grip strength, altered motor output in a circadian wheel-running procedure, increased response errors during an operant differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) procedure and a blunted response to an acute methylphenidate challenge administered before DRL testing. With the exception of altered wheel-running output, exposed females were not affected. Neither sex had altered somatic growth, motor coordination impairments on the Rotarod, gross learning deficits during operant lever-press acquisition, or impaired food motivation. The overall pattern of effects suggests that males are more sensitive to developmental decaBDE exposure, especially when performing behaviors that require effortful motor output or when learning tasks that require sufficient response inhibition for their successful completion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of developmental coordination disorder in children aged 7 to 10 years. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Pereira dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s movements are initially characterized by inconsistent and imprecise actions. However, with practice and experience, the motor patterns become more refined and they present better coordination and control. However, it is not rare to observe children that manifest certain movement difficulties that might interfere in the children’s emotional, affectionate, school and social relationships. We investigated the prevalence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years and which motor tasks the children with probable DCD and risk of DCD present larger motor difficulty. The evaluation included 581 children registered regularly from the 2nd to the 5th grade of Elementary School of public schools of Maringá-PR was conducted through the battery II and III of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC test. The results indicated that 78,1% of the children present Typical Development (DT, 10,5% presented risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (Risk of DCD and 11,4% were diagnosed with potential Developmental Coordination Disorder (Potential DCD. Therefore, the results showed high prevalence of population for Risk of DCD and Potential DCD, predicting unfavorable levels in the acquisition and improvement of fundamental skills, which may harm the continuity of the process of the children’s motor development. Manual skills were the major motor difficulty found in children with DT while ball skills were the major motor difficulty in children with probable DCD and risk of DCD.

  3. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  4. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: o C1 = children at risk (having considerable difficulty with jumping and minor difficulty with manual dexterity and simultaneous coding); o C2 = children on the mean (all cognitive-motor scores close to the mean); o C3 = free from cognitive-motor problems (all scores above average); o C4 = manual dexterity, planning and simultaneous coding difficulties; o C5 = manual dexterity, dynamic balance, and planning difficulties; o C6 = generalized cognitive-motor dysfunction (all scores considerably below average). It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental Relations Among Motor and Cognitive Processes and Mathematics Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A K; Cameron, Claire E; Grissmer, David

    2018-03-01

    This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade. Implications of examining the hierarchical interrelations among processes underlying the development of children's mathematics skills are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on Learning Fine Motor Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahabi Kaseb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preparation of neuromuscular system prior to performing motor skills affects the learning of motor skills. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF on limb coordination and accuracy in dart throwing skill. Methods: Thirty two male students were randomly selected as study sample. Based on the pretest scores, the participants were divided into three groups: experimental (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, first control (without warm-up, and second control (specific warm-up. During the acquisition phase, the participants first performed the preparation training related to their own group, then all groups performed the exercise program of dart throwing consisting of 6 blocks of 9 trials in 4 training sessions. Finally, 20 days following the last exercise session, the subjects took the retention and transfer tests. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA test for coordination variable in acquisition test showed no significant difference between the groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding coordination variable in retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, the results of one-way ANOVA for the accuracy variable in acquisition and retention tests showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups for accuracy variable in transfer test. Conclusion: It seems that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, as a preparation method before performance, can enhance the efficacy of training to better learn the coordination pattern of fine motor skills.

  7. Effects of adenosine triphosphate concentration on motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Dong, C.; Chen, B.

    2017-04-01

    We employ a mechanical model of sarcomere to quantitatively investigate how adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration affects motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction. Our simulation indicates that there can be negative cross-bridges resisting contraction within the sarcomere and higher ATP concentration would decrease the resistance force from negative cross-bridges by promoting their timely detachment. It is revealed that the motor force is well regulated only when ATP concentration is above a certain level. These predictions may provide insights into the role of ATP in regulating coordination among multiple motors.

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Past work in the area of active convective cooling provided data on the average convective heat transfer coefficients of circular orifice automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets impinging on stationary targets intended to represent the wire bundle surface of the motor end-winding. Work during FY16 focused on the impact of alternative jet geometries that could lead to improved cooling over a larger surface of the motor winding. Results show that the planar jet heat transfer coefficients over a small (12.7-mm-diameter) target surface are not too much lower than for the circular orifice jet in which all of the ATF from the jet impinges on the target surface. The planar jet has the potential to achieve higher heat transfer over a larger area of the motor end winding. A new test apparatus was constructed to measure the spatial dependence of the heat transfer relative to the jet nozzle over a larger area representative of a motor end-winding. The tested planar flow geometry has the potential to provide more uniform cooling over the full end-winding surface versus the conventional jet configuration. The data will be used by motor designers to develop thermal management strategies to improve motor power density. Work on passive thermal design in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure the thermal conductivity of wire bundle samples representative of end-winding and slot-winding materials was completed. Multiple measurement techniques were compared to determine which was most suitable for measuring composite wire bundle samples. NREL used a steady-state thermal resistance technique to measure the direction-dependent thermal conductivity. The work supported new interactions with industry to test new materials and reduce passive-stack thermal resistance in motors, leading to motors with increased power density. NREL collaborated with Ames Laboratory in the area of material characterization. The work focused on measuring the transverse rupture strength of

  9. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  11. Motor competence in Czech children aged 11-15: What is the incidence of a risk of developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current findings suggest that the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD ranges widely between countries. A major reason for this wide range of prevalence is how cases of DCD are identified. Gender differences in level of motor competence in children with movement difficulties may play a key role in the choice of type of intervention. Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD in Czech children aged 11 to 15. At the same time we wanted to assess possible gender differences in different types of the movement difficulties. Methods: A total sample of 507 children (age 11-15 years, 262 boys, 245 girls from all Czech regions was included. The MABC-2 test was used for the identification of movement difficulties with different severity. Children whose total test score (TTS was ≤ 15th percentile were considered at risk for having DCD (children with rDCD. Children whose TTS was ≤ 5th percentile were considered as having significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. An analysis of gender differences of children with rDCD in MABC-2 motor components and tests were carried out. Results: From the entire sample, 33 participants (22 boys, 11 girls were identified as at risk of having DCD (rDCD. 1.4% of the total sample met the criterion for significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. 5.1% of the total sample met the criterion for identification of the risk for having movement difficulties. Almost twice as high predisposition for the occurrence of movement difficulties was revealed in boys as compared to girls in a population of children with rDCD (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-2.74. Girls with rDCD performed better in manual dexterity with a medium effect of the gender (Cohen's d = 0.58, whereas boys with rDCD achieved better results in aiming and catching also with a

  12. Comparison of two anisotropic layer models applied to induction motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Boynov, K.O.; Waarma, J.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    A general description of the Anisotropic Layer Theory, derived in the polar coordinate system, and applied to the analysis of squirrel-cage induction motors (IMs), is presented. The theory considers non-conductive layers, layer with predefined current density and layers with induced current density.

  13. Comparison of two anisotropic layer models applied to induction motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Boynov, K.O.; Lomonova, E.A.; Waarma, J.

    2014-01-01

    A general description of the Anisotropic Layer Theory, derived in the polar coordinate system, and applied to the analysis of squirrel-cage induction motors (IMs), is presented. The theory considers non-conductive layers, layer with predefined current density and layers with induced current density.

  14. Creative Motor Actions As Emerging from Movement Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; van der Kamp, John; Memmert, Daniel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2017-01-01

    In cognitive science, creative ideas are defined as original and feasible solutions in response to problems. A common proposal is that creative ideas are generated across dedicated cognitive pathways. Only after creative ideas have emerged, they can be enacted to solve the problem. We present an alternative viewpoint, based upon the dynamic systems approach to perception and action, that creative solutions emerge in the act rather than before . Creative actions, thus, are as much a product of individual constraints as they are of the task and environment constraints. Accordingly, we understand creative motor actions as functional movement patterns that are new to the individual and/or group and adapted to satisfy the constraints on the motor problem at hand. We argue that creative motor actions are promoted by practice interventions that promote exploration by manipulating constraints. Exploration enhances variability of functional movement patterns in terms of either coordination or control solutions. At both levels, creative motor actions can emerge from finding new and degenerate adaptive motor solutions. Generally speaking, we anticipate that in most cases, when exposed to variation in constraints, people are not looking for creative motor actions, but discover them while doing an effort to satisfy constraints. For future research, this paper achieves two important aspects: it delineates how adaptive (movement) variability is at the heart of (motor) creativity, and it sets out methodologies toward stimulating adaptive variability.

  15. Common Input to Motor Units of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscles During Two-Digit Object Hold

    OpenAIRE

    Winges, Sara A.; Kornatz, Kurt W.; Santello, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsi...

  16. Stability of bimanual coordination in Parkinson's disease and cognitive modulation of intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2001-01-01

    The functional integrity of the bimanual neuro-motor system of Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects (stage II) compared to controls (2 X n = 16) was evaluated by measures of coordination stability of tapping in in-phase, anti-phase, and 90 degrees -phase. Recently, intentional influence was modeled as

  17. The need for a coordinated development of electromobility and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    It is a declared goal of the Federal Government and almost all German parties to implement e-mobility by 2050 and to achieve the decarbonisation of the energy industry by the end of the century. Starting from these two premises, the motor vehicle industry and the electricity market will develop very dynamically. However, they must be coordinated by legal frameworks and, as far as possible, driven by market incentives for producers and purchasers of motor vehicles, electricity producers and consumers as well as network and storage system operators. Various approaches can be developed for this. [de

  18. Is Treating Motor Problems in DCD Just a Matter of Practice and More Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Marina M; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is often called a motor learning deficit. The question addressed in this paper is whether improvement of motor skills is just a matter of mere practice. Without any kind of intervention, children with DCD do not improve their motor skills generally, whereas they do improve after task-oriented intervention. Merely offering children the opportunity to practice motor skills, for instance by playing active video games, did lead to improved motor performance according to recent research findings, but to a lesser extent than task-oriented intervention. We argue that children with DCD lack the required motor problem-solving skills necessary to further improve their performance. Explicit motor teaching with an emphasis on developing these problem-solving skills is a necessary ingredient of intervention in DCD, leveraging the effectiveness of intervention above that of mere practicing.

  19. Bringing up the rear: new premotor interneurons add regional complexity to a segmentally distributed motor pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) pace and pattern many rhythmic activities. We have uncovered a new module in the heartbeat CPG of leeches that creates a regional difference in this segmentally distributed motor pattern. The core CPG consists of seven identified pairs and one unidentified pair of heart interneurons of which 5 pairs are premotor and inhibit 16 pairs of heart motor neurons. The heartbeat CPG produces a side-to-side asymmetric pattern of activity of the premotor heart interneurons corresponding to an asymmetric fictive motor pattern and an asymmetric constriction pattern of the hearts with regular switches between the two sides. The premotor pattern progresses from rear to front on one side and nearly synchronously on the other; the motor pattern shows corresponding intersegmental coordination, but only from segment 15 forward. In the rearmost segments the fictive motor pattern and the constriction pattern progress from front to rear on both sides and converge in phase. Modeling studies suggested that the known inhibitory inputs to the rearmost heart motor neurons were insufficient to account for this activity. We therefore reexamined the constriction pattern of intact leeches. We also identified electrophysiologically two additional pairs of heart interneurons in the rear. These new heart interneurons make inhibitory connections with the rear heart motor neurons, are coordinated with the core heartbeat CPG, and are dye-coupled to their contralateral homologs. Their strong inhibitory connections with the rearmost heart motor neurons and the small side-to-side phase difference of their bursting contribute to the different motor and beating pattern observed in the animal's rear. PMID:21775711

  20. Effects and Dose-Response Relationships of Motor Imagery Practice on Strength Development in Healthy Adult Populations: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravlic, Armin H; Slimani, Maamer; Tod, David; Marusic, Uros; Milanovic, Zoran; Pisot, Rado

    2018-05-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of a movement without overt muscle contraction, has been largely used to improve general motor tasks. However, the effects of MI practice on maximal voluntary strength (MVS) remain equivocal. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (1) estimate whether MI practice intervention can meaningfully improve MVS in healthy adults; (2) compare the effects of MI practice on MVS with its combination with physical practice (MI-C), and with physical practice (PP) training alone; and (3) investigate the dose-response relationships of MI practice. Seven electronic databases were searched up to April 2017. Initially 717 studies were identified; however, after evaluation of the study characteristics, data from 13 articles involving 370 participants were extracted. The meta-analysis was completed on MVS as the primary parameter. In addition, parameters associated with training volume, training intensity, and time spent training were used to investigate dose-response relationships. MI practice moderately improved MVS. When compared to conventional PP, effects were of small benefit in favour of PP. MI-C when compared to PP showed unclear effects. MI pract