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Sample records for motor control recovery

  1. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-09-01

    In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor

  2. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  3. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Chollet, François; Tardy, Jean; Albucher, Jean-François; Thalamas, Claire; Berard, Emilie; Lamy, Catherine; Bejot, Yannick; Deltour, Sandrine; Jaillard, Assia; Niclot, Philippe; Guillon, Benoit; Moulin, Thierry; Marque, Philippe; Pariente, Jérémie; Arnaud, Catherine; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2011-02-01

    Hemiplegia and hemiparesis are the most common deficits caused by stroke. A few small clinical trials suggest that fluoxetine enhances motor recovery but its clinical efficacy is unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate whether fluoxetine would enhance motor recovery if given soon after an ischaemic stroke to patients who have motor deficits. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients from nine stroke centres in France who had ischaemic stroke and hemiplegia or hemiparesis, had Fugl-Meyer motor scale (FMMS) scores of 55 or less, and were aged between 18 years and 85 years were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned, using a computer random-number generator, in a 1:1 ratio to fluoxetine (20 mg once per day, orally) or placebo for 3 months starting 5-10 days after the onset of stroke. All patients had physiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the change on the FMMS between day 0 and day 90 after the start of the study drug. Participants, carers, and physicians assessing the outcome were masked to group assignment. Analysis was of all patients for whom data were available (full analysis set). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00657163. 118 patients were randomly assigned to fluoxetine (n=59) or placebo (n=59), and 113 were included in the analysis (57 in the fluoxetine group and 56 in the placebo group). Two patients died before day 90 and three withdrew from the study. FMMS improvement at day 90 was significantly greater in the fluoxetine group (adjusted mean 34·0 points [95% CI 29·7-38·4]) than in the placebo group (24·3 points [19·9-28·7]; p=0·003). The main adverse events in the fluoxetine and placebo groups were hyponatraemia (two [4%] vs two [4%]), transient digestive disorders including nausea, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain (14 [25%] vs six [11%]), hepatic enzyme disorders (five [9%] vs ten [18%]), psychiatric disorders (three [5%] vs four [7%]), insomnia (19 [33%] vs 20 [36%]), and partial

  4. Task-Based Mirror Therapy Augmenting Motor Recovery in Poststroke Hemiparesis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta; Kumar, Dharmendra; Puri, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    To establish the effect of the task-based mirror therapy (TBMT) on the upper limb recovery in stroke. A pilot, randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial was conducted in a rehabilitation institute. A convenience sample of 33 poststroke (mean duration, 12.5 months) hemiparetic subjects was randomized into 2 groups (experimental, 17; control, 16). The subjects were allocated to receive either TBMT or standard motor rehabilitation-40 sessions (5/week) for a period of 8 weeks. The TBMT group received movements using various goal-directed tasks and a mirror box. The movements were performed by the less-affected side superimposed on the affected side. The main outcome measures were Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA)-FMA of upper extremity (FMA-UE), including upper arm (FMA-UA) and wrist-hand (FMA-WH). The TBMT group exhibited highly significant improvement on mean scores of FMA-WH (P hemiparesis. MT using tasks may be used as an adjunct in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation. Copyright © 2016 Hanley

  6. ‎ Late Recovery from Stuttering: The Role of Hand ‎Dominancy, Fine Motor and ‎Inhibition Control

    Hiwa Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are controversial reports about factors that affect recovery from stuttering. In the ‎present study, the effect of hand dominancy, fine motor and inhibition control on late ‎recovery from stuttering was investigated among a group of Kurdish-Persian children who ‎stuttered in Iran.‎Method: Twenty-two Kurdish-Persian children aged 7-14 years who stuttered were followed for 6 ‎years. Based on the evaluation of three experienced speech therapists and parental judgments, ‎these children were classified into recovered or persistent groups. Data about fine motorcontrol of hand and inhibition control were obtained, using Purdue Pegboard and Victoria ‎Strop Color Word Tests, respectively. Risk factors including sex, age, and family history of ‎stuttering, handedness, inhibitory control and fine motor control of hand were compared ‎between the groups and modeled to predict recovery from stuttering using logistic regression.‎Results: From the 22 participants, 5 (22.7% recovered from stuttering. The recovered and persistent ‎groups did not show significant differences in the interference effect. By dividing the scores ‎of the Purdue Pegboard tests to the right and left hand, we created a new Handedness Index ‎‎(HI. HI was significantly higher in the recovered group. The score of right hand was higher ‎than the left in the recovered group, but no difference was found between the two hands in ‎the persistent group. Among the investigated risk factors, only HI could predict the recovery ‎from or persistency of stuttering with 94% sensitivity and 84% specificity.‎Conclusion: Handedness Index can predict the recovery from stuttering significantly among children who ‎stutter.‎

  7. An intelligent active force control algorithm to control an upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery

    Hasbullah Mohd Isa, Wan; Taha, Zahari; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Fikri Muhammad, Khairul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mahmud, Jamaluddin; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton by means of an intelligent active force control (AFC) mechanism. The Newton-Euler formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometry based human upper extremity as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives. An intelligent AFC algorithm is also incorporated into the PD to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. The Mamdani Fuzzy based rule is employed to approximate the estimated inertial properties of the system to ensure the AFC loop responds efficiently. It is found that the IAFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system as compared to the conventional PD control architecture in performing the desired trajectory tracking.

  8. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere after chronic unilateral injury promotes recovery of skilled locomotion through ipsilateral control.

    Carmel, Jason B; Kimura, Hiroki; Martin, John H

    2014-01-08

    Partial injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) causes sprouting of intact axons at their targets, and this sprouting correlates with functional improvement. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex augments sprouting of intact CST axons and promotes functional recovery when applied soon after injury. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation of motor cortex in the intact hemisphere after chronic lesion of the CST in the other hemisphere would restore function through ipsilateral control. To test motor skill, rats were trained and tested to walk on a horizontal ladder with irregularly spaced rungs. Eight weeks after injury, produced by pyramidal tract transection, half of the rats received forelimb motor cortex stimulation of the intact hemisphere. Rats with injury and stimulation had significantly improved forelimb control compared with rats with injury alone and achieved a level of proficiency similar to uninjured rats. To test whether recovery of forelimb function was attributable to ipsilateral control, we selectively inactivated the stimulated motor cortex using the GABA agonist muscimol. The dose of muscimol we used produces strong contralateral but no ipsilateral impairments in naive rats. In rats with injury and stimulation, but not those with injury alone, inactivation caused worsening of forelimb function; the initial deficit was reinstated. These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation can promote recovery of motor function when applied late after injury and that motor control can be exerted from the ipsilateral motor cortex. These results suggest that the uninjured motor cortex could be targeted for brain stimulation in people with large unilateral CST lesions.

  9. Electrical Stimulation of Motor Cortex in the Uninjured Hemisphere after Chronic Unilateral Injury Promotes Recovery of Skilled Locomotion through Ipsilateral Control

    Carmel, Jason B.; Kimura, Hiroki; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Partial injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) causes sprouting of intact axons at their targets, and this sprouting correlates with functional improvement. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex augments sprouting of intact CST axons and promotes functional recovery when applied soon after injury. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation of motor cortex in the intact hemisphere after chronic lesion of the CST in the other hemisphere would restore function through ipsilateral control. To ...

  10. Fine motor control

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  11. [Arm Motor Function Recovery during Rehabilitation with the Use of Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface: a Patient with Severe Brain Damage].

    Biryukova, E V; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaya, M E; Bobrov, P D; Turbina, L G; Frolov, A A; Davydov, V I; Sil'tchenko, A V; Mokienko, O A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of motor function recovery in a patient with severe brain damage in the course of neurorehabilitation using hand exoskeleton controlled by brain-computer interface. For estimating the motor function of paretic arm, we used the biomechanical analysis of movements registered during the course of rehabilitation. After 15 weekly sessions of hand exoskeleton control, the following results were obtained: a) the velocity profile of goal-directed movements of paretic hand became bell-shaped, b) the patient began to extend and abduct the hand which was flexed and adducted in the beginning of rehabilitation, and c) the patient began to supinate the forearm which was pronated in the beginning of rehabilitation. The first result is an evidence of the general improvement of the quality of motor control, while the second and third results prove that the spasticity of paretic arm has decreased.

  12. Programmable dc motor controller

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  13. Principles of Motor Recovery in Post-Stroke Patients using Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by the Brain-Computer Interface Based on Motor Imagery

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Biryukova, E. V.; Bobrov, P.; Mokienko, O.; Alexandrov, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2017), s. 107-137 ISSN 1210-0552 Grant - others:Russian Ministry of Education and Science(RU) RFMEFI60715X0128 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain computer interface * motor imagery * post-stroke and post-traumatic patients * arm and hand exoskeleton * proportional derivative controller * motor synergy * clinical application Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  14. Neuropharmacology of Poststroke Motor and Speech Recovery.

    Keser, Zafer; Francisco, Gerard E

    2015-11-01

    Almost 7 million adult Americans have had a stroke. There is a growing need for more effective treatment options as add-ons to conventional therapies. This article summarizes the published literature for pharmacologic agents used for the enhancement of motor and speech recovery after stroke. Amphetamine, levodopa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and piracetam were the most commonly used drugs. Pharmacologic augmentation of stroke motor and speech recovery seems promising but systematic, adequately powered, randomized, and double-blind clinical trials are needed. At this point, the use of these pharmacologic agents is not supported by class I evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait.

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  16. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on upper extremity motor recovery and functional outcomes in chronic stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Aşkın, Ayhan; Tosun, Aliye; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil

    2017-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was suggested as a preconditioning method that would increase brain plasticity and that it would be optimal to combine rTMS with intensive rehabilitation. To assess the efficacy of inhibitory rTMS on upper extremity motor recovery and functional outcomes in chronic ischemic stroke patients. In this randomized controlled trial, experimental group received low-frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT), and control group received PT. No statistically significant difference was found in baseline demographical and clinical characteristics of the subjects including stroke severity or severity of paralysis prior to intervention. There were statistically significant improvements in all clinical outcome measures except for the Brunnstrom Recovery Stages. Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block test, motor and total scores of Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and Functional Ambulation Scale (FAS) scores were significantly increased in both groups, however, these changes were significantly greater in the rTMS group except for FAS score. FIM cognitive scores and standardized mini-mental test scores were significantly increased and distal and hand Modified Ashworth Scale scores were significantly decreased only in the rTMS group (p functional, and cognitive deficits in chronic stroke. Further studies with a larger number of patients with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish its effectiveness in stroke rehabilitation.

  17. Efficacy of Bobath versus orthopaedic approach on impairment and function at different motor recovery stages after stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Wang, Ray-Yau; Chen, Hsiu-I; Chen, Chen-Yin; Yang, Yea-Ru

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Bobath on stroke patients at different motor stages by comparing their treatment with orthopaedic treatment. A single-blind study, with random assignment to Bobath or orthopaedic group. Physical therapy department of a medical centre. Twenty-one patients with stroke with spasticity and 23 patients with stroke at relative recovery stages participated. Twenty sessions of Bobath programme or orthopaedic treatment programme given in four weeks. Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), Motor Assessment Scale (MAS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) for impairment and functional limitation level. Participants with spasticity showed greater improvement in tone control (change score: 1.20 +/- 1.03 versus 0.08 +/- 0.67, p = 0.006), MAS (change score: 7.64 +/- 4.03 versus 4.00 +/- 1.95, p = 0.011), and SIS (change score: 7.30 +/- 6.24 versus 1.25 +/- 5.33, p = 0.023) after 20 sessions of Bobath treatment than with orthopaedic treatment. Participants with relative recovery receiving Bobath treatment showed greater improvement in MAS (change score: 6.14 +/- 5.55 versus 2.77 +/- 9.89, p = 0.007), BBS (change score: 19.18 +/- 15.94 versus 6.85 +/- 5.23, p = 0.015), and SIS scores (change score: 8.50 +/- 3.41 versus 3.62 +/- 4.07, p = 0.006) than those with orthopaedic treatment. Bobath or orthopaedic treatment paired with spontaneous recovery resulted in improvements in impairment and functional levels for patient with stroke. Patients benefit more from the Bobath treatment in MAS and SIS scores than from the orthopaedic treatment programme regardless of their motor recovery stages.

  18. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  19. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  20. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  1. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  2. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  3. Human spinal motor control

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  4. Control of synchronous motors

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  5. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  6. ON THE ROLE OF THE TECHNIQUES FACILITATING MOTOR RECOVERY

    Corneliu BOTEZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement created a differentiated aparatus – the loco‐ motory one – the basic component of which is the kinetic unit, formed of joint‐movement‐nerves, each one playing a well‐established role, motivated only within an interde‐ pendence relation of the whole kinetic unit. Activation of the motor unit, considered as the smallest functional neu‐ romuscular unit described in 1925 by Liddel and Sher‐ rington, involves a series of complex processes, developed at the level of the three components (pericarion‐cylindrax‐ muscular fibers, the result being muscular contraction. The control of motricity, of the voluntary movements we perform so easily, sometimes wholly automatically, repre‐ sents a real computer performance, the organism organ‐ izing this type of control on successive levels, continuously enriching the phylogenetic scale, along the evolution of species, with new neuronal levels of integration, control and command. The scope of the present study was to evi‐ dence the efficiency of the facilitation techniques as to the following aspects of neuromotor recovery: recovery of the muscular tonus, recovery of the muscular power, increased joint mobility and recovery of movements coordination, by means of facilitation techniques. Materials and method. During January 2010‐January 2012, in the Military Hospital of Iaşi there have been hospitalized 120 patients with ages between 23‐64 years, with various etiologies of functional deficit: lumbosciatica with prolongued muscular contrac‐ tion in 52 cases – 43.33%, hemiplegia + arthroses 8 cases – 6.66%, systemic eritematous lupus 4 cases – 3.34%, post‐ fracture algoneurosistrophy (blocked knee 4 cases – 3.34%, rheumatoid polyarthritis – 24 cases – 20.00%, scapulo‐ humeral periarthritis 28 cases – 23.33%. Results and dis‐ cussion. The highest frequency of patients with neuro‐motor pathology requiring the application of some techniques facilitating

  7. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  9. 'Motor control center obsolescence'

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of motor control center (MCC) components. MCC's have a very important role in the safety and critical to generation requirements of a nuclear power plant. Although many OEM's MCC's such as ITE/Telemechanique, GE, Westinghouse, Cutler Hammer, Klockner Moeller, etc. have been used throughout the global nuclear industry, they all have one common aspect obsolescence. Obsolescence of various components within the MCC's such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, contactors, etc. are impacting the reliability of the MCC to serve its intended function. The paper will discuss the options which the nuclear industry is faced with to increase the reliability of the MCC's while maintaining design control, qualification and meeting budget constraints. The options as listed below shall be discussed in detail with examples to enhance the readers understanding of the situation: 1) Component by component replacement: The hurdles associated with trying to find equivalent components to replace the obsolete components while still worki (mechanically and electrically) in the original cubicle will be presented. 2) Complete MCC cubicle with new internal components replacement: The process of supplying a replacement cubicle, with all new internal components and new door to replace the original cubicle will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of the advantages and dis-advantages of the two methods to bring the MCC to an as new condition with the overall goal of increasing reliability. (author)

  10. Non-invasive brain stimulation to promote motor and functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    Aysegul Gunduz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review of studies using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as a research and clinical tool aimed at improving motor and functional recovery or spasticity in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI under the assumption that if the residual corticospinal circuits could be stimulated appropriately, the changes might be accompanied by functional recovery or an improvement in spasticity. This review summarizes the literature on the changes induced by NIBS in the motor and functional recovery and spasticity control of the upper and lower extremities following SCI.

  11. Parietal operculum and motor cortex activities predict motor recovery in moderate to severe stroke

    Firdaus Fabrice Hannanu

    2017-01-01

    In subacute stroke, fMRI brain activity related to passive movement measured in a sensorimotor network defined by activity during voluntary movement predicted motor recovery better than baseline motor-FMS alone. Furthermore, fMRI sensorimotor network activity measures considered alone allowed excellent clinical recovery prediction and may provide reliable biomarkers for assessing new therapies in clinical trial contexts. Our findings suggest that neural reorganization related to motor recovery from moderate to severe stroke results from balanced changes in ipsilesional MI (BA4a and a set of phylogenetically more archaic sensorimotor regions in the ventral sensorimotor trend, in which OP1 and OP4 processes may complement the ipsilesional dorsal motor cortex in achieving compensatory sensorimotor recovery.

  12. Torque control for electric motors

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  13. Recovery of motor function after stroke.

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2012-04-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribute to motor disability after stroke and, based on this information, possible interventional approaches to motor stroke disability. New information now points to the involvement of non-primary motor areas and their interaction with the primary motor cortex as areas of interest. The emergence of this new information is likely to impact new efforts to develop more effective neurorehabilitative interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that may be relevant to other neurological disorders such as amblyopia. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spatial cognitive rehabilitation and motor recovery after stroke

    Barrett, A.M.; Muzaffar, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Stroke rehabilitation needs to take major steps forward to reduce functional disability for survivors. In this article, we suggest that spatial retraining might greatly increase the efficiency and efficacy of motor rehabilitation, directly addressing the burden and cost of paralysis after stroke. Recent findings Combining motor and cognitive treatment may be practical, as well as addressing needs after moderate–to-severe stroke. Spatial neglect could suppress motor recovery and reduce motor learning, even when patients receive appropriate rehabilitation to build strength, dexterity, and endurance. Spatial neglect rehabilitation acts to promote motor as well as visual-perceptual recovery. These findings, and previous underemphasized studies, make a strong case for combining spatial neglect treatment with traditional exercise training. Spatial neglect therapies might also help people who cannot participate in intensive movement therapies because of limited strength and endurance after stroke. Summary Spatial retraining, currently used selectively after right brain stroke, may be broadly useful after stroke to promote rapid motor recovery. PMID:25364954

  15. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Evaluation of Motor Recovery in Adult Patients with Hemiplegic stroke

    Background: Assessment of treatment efficacy through outcomes evaluation is an established practice in stroke rehabilitation. The evaluation of motor recovery is a cornerstone of the assessment of patients with stroke; and an integral component of stroke rehabilitation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ...

  17. Hand Rehabilitation Robotics on Poststroke Motor Recovery

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of hand function is one of the most challenging topics in stroke rehabilitation. Although the robot-assisted therapy has got some good results in the latest decades, the development of hand rehabilitation robotics is left behind. Existing reviews of hand rehabilitation robotics focus either on the mechanical design on designers' view or on the training paradigms on the clinicians' view, while these two parts are interconnected and both important for designers and clinicians. In this review, we explore the current literature surrounding hand rehabilitation robots, to help designers make better choices among varied components and thus promoting the application of hand rehabilitation robots. An overview of hand rehabilitation robotics is provided in this paper firstly, to give a general view of the relationship between subjects, rehabilitation theories, hand rehabilitation robots, and its evaluation. Secondly, the state of the art hand rehabilitation robotics is introduced in detail according to the classification of the hardware system and the training paradigm. As a result, the discussion gives available arguments behind the classification and comprehensive overview of hand rehabilitation robotics. PMID:29230081

  18. Long-term administration of fluoxetine to improve motor recovery after stroke

    Berends, Hanneke I.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Movig, Kris L.L.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of: Chollet F. Tardy J., Albucher J.F. et al. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 10(2), 123–130 (2011). In this study, the authors examined the effects of administration of fluoxetine for 90 days on the

  19. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise

    Macgregor, Lewis J.

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pmotor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures. PMID:29630622

  1. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

    Zareen, N; Shinozaki, M; Ryan, D; Alexander, H; Amer, A; Truong, D Q; Khadka, N; Sarkar, A; Naeem, S; Bikson, M; Martin, J H

    2017-11-01

    Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement. Combined iTBS-tsDCS was delivered for 30min daily for 10days. We compared the effect of stimulation on performance in the horizontal ladder and the Irvine Beattie and Bresnahan forepaw manipulation tasks and CST axonal sprouting in injury-only and injury+stimulation animals. The contusion eliminated the dorsal CST in all animals. tsDCS significantly enhanced motor cortex evoked responses after C4 injury. Using this combined spinal-M1 neuromodulatory approach, we found significant recovery of skilled locomotion and forepaw manipulation skills compared with injury-only controls. The spared CST axons caudal to the lesion in both animal groups derived mostly from lateral CST axons that populated the contralateral intermediate zone. Stimulation enhanced injury-dependent CST axonal outgrowth below and above the level of the injury. This dual neuromodulatory approach produced partial recovery of skilled motor behaviors that normally require integration of posture, upper limb sensory information, and intent for performance. We propose that the motor systems use these new CST projections to control movements better after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapy induces widespread reorganization of motor cortex after complete spinal transection that supports motor recovery.

    Ganzer, Patrick D; Manohar, Anitha; Shumsky, Jed S; Moxon, Karen A

    2016-05-01

    Reorganization of the somatosensory system and its relationship to functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been well studied. However, little is known about the impact of SCI on organization of the motor system. Recent studies suggest that step-training paradigms in combination with spinal stimulation, either electrically or through pharmacology, are more effective than step training alone at inducing recovery and that reorganization of descending corticospinal circuits is necessary. However, simpler, passive exercise combined with pharmacotherapy has also shown functional improvement after SCI and reorganization of, at least, the sensory cortex. In this study we assessed the effect of passive exercise and serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacological therapies on behavioral recovery and organization of the motor cortex. We compared the effects of passive hindlimb bike exercise to bike exercise combined with daily injections of 5-HT agonists in a rat model of complete mid-thoracic transection. 5-HT pharmacotherapy combined with bike exercise allowed the animals to achieve unassisted weight support in the open field. This combination of therapies also produced extensive expansion of the axial trunk motor cortex into the deafferented hindlimb motor cortex and, surprisingly, reorganization within the caudal and even the rostral forelimb motor cortex areas. The extent of the axial trunk expansion was correlated to improvement in behavioral recovery of hindlimbs during open field locomotion, including weight support. From a translational perspective, these data suggest a rationale for developing and optimizing cost-effective, non-invasive, pharmacological and passive exercise regimes to promote plasticity that supports restoration of movement after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    CAI Qingnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  4. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  5. The micro-step motor controller

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  6. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise.

    Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p exercise. Mean motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pexercise. The firing rate of high-threshold motor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures.

  7. Conceptual design of stepper motor replacing servo motor for control rod controller

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    In PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, current control rod controller are using servo motor to control the movement. Control rod is a very important safety element and measure in every nuclear reactor. So, precision is very important in measurement of security in the nuclear reactor. In this case, there are a few disadvantages when using the servo motor is measurement of the motor is not precise. One solution to overcome this is by shifting servo motor with stepper motor. A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brush less, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. (author)

  8. Device for controlling gas recovery

    Ichioka, Atsushi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a controlling device for UF 6 gas recovery device, which can increase working efficiency and to discriminate normality and abnormality of the recovery device. Constitution: The gas recovery device comprises a plurality of traps, which are connected in series. The UF 6 gas is introduced into the first trap where adsorbing work is taken place to accumulate UF 6 gases, and the UF 6 gases partly flow into the succeeding trap. Even in this trap, when the adsorbing work begins, the succeeding trap is operated in series fashion. In this manner, two traps are continuously operated to recover the gases while performing the steps of adsorbing, waiting and regenerating in that order. The switching operation of the aforesaid steps is accomplished on the basis of concentration of the UF 6 detected between two traps, which are continuously driven. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Control of a superconducting synchronous motor

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Jiang, Q; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a control algorithm for starting up a high temperature superconducting synchronous motor. The mathematical model of the motor has been established in m-file in Matlab and the parameters have been identified by means of the finite-element analysis method. Different starting methods for the motor have been compared and discussed, and eventually a hybrid control algorithm is proposed.

  10. Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...

  11. Motor and Perceptual Recovery in Adult Patients with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Mariagiovanna Cantone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relationship between intellectual disability (ID and hand motor coordination and speed-accuracy, as well as the effect of aging on fine motor performance in patients with ID, has been previously investigated. However, only a few data are available on the impact of the nonpharmacological interventions in adult patients with long-term hand motor deficit. Methods. Fifty adults with mild ID were enrolled. A group of thirty patients underwent a two-month intensive ergotherapic treatment that included hand motor rehabilitation and visual-perceptual treatment (group A; twenty patients performing conventional motor rehabilitation alone (group B served as a control group. Data on attention, perceptual abilities, hand dexterity, and functional independence were collected by a blind operator, both at entry and at the end of the study. Results. After the interventions, group A showed significantly better performance than group B in all measures related to hand movement from both sides and to independence in activities of daily living. Discussion. Multimodal integrated interventions targeting visual-perceptual abilities and motor skills are an effective neurorehabilitative approach in adult patients with mild ID. Motor learning and memory-mediated mechanisms of neural plasticity might underlie the observed recovery, suggesting the presence of plastic adaptive changes even in the adult brain with ID.

  12. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...

  13. Effect of rotor rectifier on motor performance in slip recovery drives

    Al Zahawi, B.A.T.; Jones, B.L.; Drury, W.

    1987-01-01

    The static Kramer system, comprising a slip-ring induction motor and a slip energy recovery circuit, is one of the simplest and most efficient forms of ac variable-speed drive. It is sometimes used to upgrade drives which had originally been designed for fixed speed operation, often with substantial energy savings. In such cases, it is important to know how the inclusion of a rectifier in the slip energy recovery circuit affects motor performance. A satisfactory model for the motor-rectifier combination is also needed to provide a sound basis for assessing alternative forms of recovery systems which aim to overcome the principal shortcomings of the drive, namely the magnitude and variability of its reactive power. Despite its simplicity, the Kramer drive presents a formidable analytical challenge. Rigorous analysis is particularly difficult and there is a need for a simpler form of analysis when calculating ratings and steady-state performance. The approach taken in this paper uses a transformer-type model for the motor, and largely analytical expressions for predicting torque, stator power, stator reactive power and rectifier output voltage. Motor resistances, diode characteristics, and the several possible rectifier overlap modes are included. It is shown that the rectifier has an adverse effect on stator reactive power, power factor, and peak torque, particularly at speeds well below synchronous, requiring some derating of motors designed for resistance control and also requiring additional power factor correction. While the analysis does not cater to variations caused by harmonics at some speeds, it does provide a quick, accurate method of predicting performance over most sections of the operating range. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  14. control of a dc motor using fuzzy logic control algorithm

    user

    controller in the control performance of an industrial type DC motor using MATLAB. The fuzzy logic .... controlled separately excited permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC). ... When the field current is constant, the flux induced by the field ...

  15. Cortical reorganization associated lower extremity motor recovery as evidenced by functional MRI and diffusion tensor tractography in a stroke patient.

    Jang, Sung Ho; You, Sung H; Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Hallett, Mark; Lee, Mi Young; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2005-01-01

    Recovery mechanisms supporting upper extremity motor recovery following stroke are well established, but cortical mechanism associated with lower extremity motor recovery is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess cortical reorganization associated with lower extremity motor recovery in a hemiparetic patient. Six control subjects and a 17 year-old woman with left intracerebral hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation rupture were evaluated. The motor function of the paretic (left) hip and knee had recovered slowly to the extent of her being able to overcome gravity for 10 months after the onset of stroke. However, her paretic upper extremity showed no significant motor recovery. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 1.5 Tesla was used to determine the acutual location of cortical activation in the predefined regions of interest. Concurrently, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in combination with a novel 3D-fiber reconstruction algorithm was utilized to investigate the pattern of the corticospinal pathway connectivity between the areas of the motor stream. All subjects' body parts were secured in the scanner and performed a sequential knee flexion-extension with a predetermined angle of 0-60 degrees at 0.5 Hz. Controls showed anticipated activation in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and the descending corticospinal fibers stemming from motor cortex. In contrast to control normal subjects, the stroke patient showed fMRI activation only in the unaffected (right) primary SM1 during either paretic or nonparetic knee movements. DTT fiber tracing data showed that the corticospinal tract fibers were found only in the unaffected hemisphere but not in the affected hemisphere. Our results indicate that an ipsilateral motor pathway from the unaffected (right) motor cortex to the paretic (right) leg was present in this patient. This study raises the potential that the contralesional (ipsilateral) SM1 is involved in cortical

  16. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    Odnokopylov, G; Bragin, A

    2014-01-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed

  17. Microcomputer-based stepping-motor controller

    Johnson, K.

    1983-04-01

    A microcomputer-controlled stepping motor is described. A Motorola MC68701 microcomputer unit is interfaced to a Cybernetic CY500 stored-program controller that outputs through Motorola input/output isolation modules to the stepping motor. A complex multifunction controller with enhanced capabilities is thus available with a minimum number of parts

  18. Motor control is decision-making.

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Landy, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    Motor behavior may be viewed as a problem of maximizing the utility of movement outcome in the face of sensory, motor and task uncertainty. Viewed in this way, and allowing for the availability of prior knowledge in the form of a probability distribution over possible states of the world, the choice of a movement plan and strategy for motor control becomes an application of statistical decision theory. This point of view has proven successful in recent years in accounting for movement under risk, inferring the loss function used in motor tasks, and explaining motor behavior in a wide variety of circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  20. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  1. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines

    Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  2. Emergence of Virtual Reality as a Tool for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: Incorporation of Motor Control and Motor Learning Principles

    Weiss, Patrice L.; Keshner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality–based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback–based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

  3. Motor Control Research Requires Nonlinear Dynamics

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The author comments on the original article "The Cinderella of psychology: The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behavior," by D. A. Rosenbaum. Rosenbaum draws attention to the study of motor control and evaluates seven possible explanations for why the topic has been relatively neglected. The point of this comment is that…

  4. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  5. Timing and motor control in drumming

    Dahl, Sofia; Grossbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart

    the stick movement becomes increasingly difficult, sometimes resulting in irregularities in timing and/or striking force. Timing irregularities can also be a revealing sign of motor control problems, such as focal dystonia (Jabusch, Vauth & Altenmüller, 2004). The "breakdown" in motor control can therefore...

  6. Fuzzy control of small servo motors

    Maor, Ron; Jani, Yashvant

    1993-01-01

    To explore the benefits of fuzzy logic and understand the differences between the classical control methods and fuzzy control methods, the Togai InfraLogic applications engineering staff developed and implemented a motor control system for small servo motors. The motor assembly for testing the fuzzy and conventional controllers consist of servo motor RA13M and an encoder with a range of 4096 counts. An interface card was designed and fabricated to interface the motor assembly and encoder to an IBM PC. The fuzzy logic based motor controller was developed using the TILShell and Fuzzy C Development System on an IBM PC. A Proportional-Derivative (PD) type conventional controller was also developed and implemented in the IBM PC to compare the performance with the fuzzy controller. Test cases were defined to include step inputs of 90 and 180 degrees rotation, sine and square wave profiles in 5 to 20 hertz frequency range, as well as ramp inputs. In this paper we describe our approach to develop a fuzzy as well as PH controller, provide details of hardware set-up and test cases, and discuss the performance results. In comparison, the fuzzy logic based controller handles the non-linearities of the motor assembly very well and provides excellent control over a broad range of parameters. Fuzzy technology, as indicated by our results, possesses inherent adaptive features.

  7. Functional motor recovery from motoneuron axotomy is compromised in mice with defective corticospinal projections.

    Yuetong Ding

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injury (BPI and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5-C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG, than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI.

  8. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

    Bolie, V.W.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

  9. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  10. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. F...

  11. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  12. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  13. DC motor speed control using fuzzy logic controller

    Ismail, N. L.; Zakaria, K. A.; Nazar, N. S. Moh; Syaripuddin, M.; Mokhtar, A. S. N.; Thanakodi, S.

    2018-02-01

    The automatic control has played a vital role in the advance of engineering and science. Nowadays in industries, the control of direct current (DC) motor is a common practice thus the implementation of DC motor controller speed is important. The main purpose of motor speed control is to keep the rotation of the motor at the present speed and to drive a system at the demand speed. The main purpose of this project is to control speed of DC Series Wound Motor using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The expectation of this project is the Fuzzy Logic Controller will get the best performance compared to dc motor without controller in terms of settling time (Ts), rise time (Tr), peak time (Tp) and percent overshoot (%OS).

  14. One day of motor training with amphetamine impairs motor recovery following spinal cord injury.

    Wong, Jamie K; Steward, Oswald

    2012-02-01

    It has previously been reported that a single dose of amphetamine paired with training on a beam walking task can enhance locomotor recovery following brain injury (Feeney et al., 1982). Here, we investigated whether this same drug/training regimen could enhance functional recovery following either thoracic (T9) or cervical (C5) spinal cord injury. Different groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a beam walking task, and in a straight alley for assessment of hindlimb locomotor recovery using the BBB locomotor scale. For rats that received C5 hemisections, forelimb grip strength was assessed using a grip strength meter. Three separate experiments assessed the consequences of training rats on the beam walking task 24 h following a thoracic lateral hemisection with administration of either amphetamine or saline. Beginning 1 h following drug administration, rats either received additional testing/retraining on the beam hourly for 6 h, or they were returned to their home cages without further testing/retraining. Rats with thoracic spinal cord injuries that received amphetamine in conjunction with testing/retraining on the beam at 1 day post injury (DPI) exhibited significantly impaired recovery on the beam walking task and BBB. Rats with cervical spinal cord injuries that received training with amphetamine also exhibited significant impairments in beam walking and locomotion, as well as impairments in gripping and reaching abilities. Even when administered at 14 DPI, the drug/training regimen significantly impaired reaching ability in cervical spinal cord injured rats. Impairments were not seen in rats that received amphetamine without training. Histological analyses revealed that rats that received training with amphetamine had significantly larger lesions than saline controls. These data indicate that an amphetamine/training regimen that improves recovery after cortical injury has the opposite effect of impairing recovery following spinal cord injury

  15. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Schubring-Giese Maximilian; Leemburg Susan; Luft Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of ...

  16. Two Archetypes of Motor Control Research.

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    This reply to the Commentaries is focused on two archetypes of motor control research, one based on physics and physiology and the other based on control theory and ideas of neural computations. The former approach, represented by the equilibrium-point hypothesis, strives to discover the physical laws and salient physiological variables that make purposeful coordinated movements possible. The latter approach, represented by the ideas of internal models and optimal control, tries to apply methods of control developed for man-made inanimate systems to the human body. Specific issues related to control with subthreshold membrane depolarization, motor redundancy, and the idea of synergies are briefly discussed.

  17. Combined rTMS and virtual reality brain-computer interface training for motor recovery after stroke

    Johnson, N. N.; Carey, J.; Edelman, B. J.; Doud, A.; Grande, A.; Lakshminarayan, K.; He, B.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with brain-computer interface (BCI) training can address motor impairment after stroke by down-regulating exaggerated inhibition from the contralesional hemisphere and encouraging ipsilesional activation. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of combined rTMS  +  BCI, compared to sham rTMS  +  BCI, on motor recovery after stroke in subjects with lasting motor paresis. Approach. Three stroke subjects approximately one year post-stroke participated in three weeks of combined rTMS (real or sham) and BCI, followed by three weeks of BCI alone. Behavioral and electrophysiological differences were evaluated at baseline, after three weeks, and after six weeks of treatment. Main results. Motor improvements were observed in both real rTMS  +  BCI and sham groups, but only the former showed significant alterations in inter-hemispheric inhibition in the desired direction and increased relative ipsilesional cortical activation from fMRI. In addition, significant improvements in BCI performance over time and adequate control of the virtual reality BCI paradigm were observed only in the former group. Significance. When combined, the results highlight the feasibility and efficacy of combined rTMS  +  BCI for motor recovery, demonstrated by increased ipsilesional motor activity and improvements in behavioral function for the real rTMS  +  BCI condition in particular. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of BCI training alone, as shown by behavioral improvements for the sham rTMS  +  BCI condition. This study is the first to evaluate combined rTMS and BCI training for motor rehabilitation and provides a foundation for continued work to evaluate the potential of both rTMS and virtual reality BCI training for motor recovery after stroke.

  18. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a s......Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...... with a simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  19. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  20. The neural optimal control hierarchy for motor control

    DeWolf, T.; Eliasmith, C.

    2011-10-01

    Our empirical, neuroscientific understanding of biological motor systems has been rapidly growing in recent years. However, this understanding has not been systematically mapped to a quantitative characterization of motor control based in control theory. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by describing the neural optimal control hierarchy (NOCH), which can serve as a foundation for biologically plausible models of neural motor control. The NOCH has been constructed by taking recent control theoretic models of motor control, analyzing the required processes, generating neurally plausible equivalent calculations and mapping them on to the neural structures that have been empirically identified to form the anatomical basis of motor control. We demonstrate the utility of the NOCH by constructing a simple model based on the identified principles and testing it in two ways. First, we perturb specific anatomical elements of the model and compare the resulting motor behavior with clinical data in which the corresponding area of the brain has been damaged. We show that damaging the assigned functions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum can cause the movement deficiencies seen in patients with Huntington's disease and cerebellar lesions. Second, we demonstrate that single spiking neuron data from our model's motor cortical areas explain major features of single-cell responses recorded from the same primate areas. We suggest that together these results show how NOCH-based models can be used to unify a broad range of data relevant to biological motor control in a quantitative, control theoretic framework.

  1. Examining Differences in Patterns of Sensory and Motor Recovery After Stroke With Robotics.

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2015-12-01

    Developing a better understanding of the trajectory and timing of stroke recovery is critical for developing patient-centered rehabilitation approaches. Here, we quantified proprioceptive and motor deficits using robotic technology during the first 6 months post stroke to characterize timing and patterns in recovery. We also make comparisons of robotic assessments to traditional clinical measures. One hundred sixteen subjects with unilateral stroke were studied at 4 time points: 1, 6, 12, and 26 weeks post stroke. Subjects performed robotic assessments of proprioceptive (position sense and kinesthesia) and motor function (unilateral reaching task and bimanual object hit task), as well as several clinical measures (Functional Independence Measure, Purdue Pegboard, and Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment). One week post stroke, many subjects displayed proprioceptive (48% position sense and 68% kinesthesia) and motor impairments (80% unilateral reaching and 85% bilateral movement). Interindividual recovery on robotic measures was highly variable. However, we characterized recovery as early (normal by 6 weeks post stroke), late (normal by 26 weeks post stroke), or incomplete (impaired at 26 weeks post stroke). Proprioceptive and motor recovery often followed different timelines. Across all time points, robotic measures were correlated with clinical measures. These results highlight the need for more sensitive, targeted identification of sensory and motor deficits to optimize rehabilitation after stroke. Furthermore, the trajectory of recovery for some individuals with mild to moderate stroke may be much longer than previously considered. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  3. Recovery-related indicators of motor network plasticity according to impairment severity after stroke.

    Lee, J; Park, E; Lee, A; Chang, W H; Kim, D-S; Kim, Y-H

    2017-10-01

    Brain connectivity analysis has been widely used to investigate brain plasticity and recovery-related indicators of patients with stroke. However, results remain controversial because of interindividual variability of initial impairment and subsequent recovery of function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in network plasticity and motor recovery-related indicators according to initial severity. We divided participants (16 males and 14 females, aged 54.2 ± 12.0 years) into groups of different severity by Fugl-Mayer Assessment score, i.e. moderate (50-84), severe (20-49) and extremely severe (impairment groups. Longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset. The differences in network plasticity and recovery-related indicators between groups were investigated using network distance and graph measurements. As the level of impairment increased, the network balance was more disrupted. Network balance, interhemispheric connectivity and network efficiency were recovered at 3 months only in the moderate impairment group. However, this was not the case in the extremely severe impairment group. A single connection strength between the ipsilesional primary motor cortex and ventral premotor cortex was implicated in the recovery of motor function for the extremely severe impairment group. The connections of the ipsilesional primary motor cortex-ventral premotor cortex were positively associated with motor recovery as the patients were more severely impaired. Differences in plasticity and recovery-related indicators of motor networks were noted according to impairment severity. Our results may suggest meaningful implications for recovery prediction and treatment strategies in future stroke research. © 2017 EAN.

  4. High-temperature brushless DC motor controller

    Cieslewski, Crzegorz; Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Eckert, Michael Nathan

    2017-05-16

    A motor control system for deployment in high temperature environments includes a controller; a first half-bridge circuit that includes a first high-side switching element and a first low-side switching element; a second half-bridge circuit that includes a second high-side switching element and a second low-side switching element; and a third half-bridge circuit that includes a third high-side switching element and a third; low-side switching element. The motor controller is arranged to apply a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme to switch the first half-bridge circuit, second half-bridge circuit, and third half-bridge circuit to power a motor.

  5. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology.

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-06-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. FES for the immediate generation of lower limb movement along with current rehabilitative techniques is reviewed. The potential of SCS for controlling spinal spasticity and enhancing lower limb function in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury is discussed. The necessity for precise electrode placement and appropriate stimulation parameter settings to achieve therapeutic specificity is elaborated. This will lead to our human work of epidural and transcutaneous stimulation targeting the lumbar spinal cord for enhancing motor functions in spinal cord injured people, supplemented by pertinent human research of other investigators. We conclude that the concept of restorative neurology recently received new appreciation by accumulated evidence for locomotor circuits residing in the human spinal cord. Technological and clinical advancements need to follow for a major impact on the functional recovery in individuals with severe damage to their motor system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Running exercise enhances motor functional recovery with inhibition of dendritic regression in the motor cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Waseda, Yuya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2016-03-01

    Rehabilitative approaches benefit motor functional recovery after stroke and relate to neuronal plasticity. We investigated the effects of a treadmill running exercise on the motor functional recovery and neuronal plasticity after collagenase-induced striatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with type IV collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH. Sham-operated animals were injected with saline instead of collagenase. The animals were randomly assigned to the sham control (SC), the sham exercise (SE), the ICH control (IC), or the ICH exercise (IE) group. The exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill at a speed of 9 m/min for 30 min/day between days 4 and 14 after surgery. Behavioral tests were performed using a motor deficit score, a beam-walking test and a cylinder test. At fifteen days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed, and their brains were removed. The motor function of the IE group significantly improved compared with the motor function of the IC group. No significant differences in cortical thickness were found between the groups. The IC group had fewer branches and shorter dendrite lengths compared with the sham groups. However, dendritic branches and lengths were not significantly different between the IE and the other groups. Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) expression levels increased in the IE compared with IC group, but no significant differences in other protein (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF; Nogo-A; Rho-A/Rho-associated protein kinase 2, ROCK2) expression levels were found between the groups. These results suggest that improved motor function after a treadmill running exercise after ICH may be related to the prevention of dendritic regression due to TrkB upregulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Nature of motor control: perspectives and issues.

    Turvey, Michael T; Fonseca, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical?

  8. Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents

    Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J

    1995-01-01

    Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....

  9. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  10. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  11. Effect of levodopa in combination with physiotherapy on functional motor recovery after stroke: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    Scheidtmann, K; Fries, W; Müller, F; Koenig, E

    2001-09-08

    Functional disability is generally caused by hemiplegia after stroke. Physiotherapy used to be the only way of improving motor function in such patients. However, administration of amphetamines in addition to exercise improves motor recovery in animals, probably by increasing the concentration of norepinephrine in the central nervous system. Our aim was to ascertain whether levodopa could enhance the efficacy of physiotherapy after hemiplegia. We did a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in which we enrolled 53 primary stroke patients. For the first 3 weeks patients received single doses of levodopa 100 mg or placebo daily in combination with physiotherapy. For the second 3 weeks patients had only physiotherapy. We quantitatively assessed motor function every week with Rivermead motor assessment (RMA). Six patients were excluded from analyses because of non-neurological complications. Motor recovery was significantly improved after 3 weeks of drug intervention in those on levodopa (RMA improved by 6.4 points) compared with placebo (4.1), and the result was independent of initial degree of impairment (pstroke rehabilitation.

  12. Serotonergic modulation of spinal motor control

    Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie; Cotel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine that powerfully modulates spinal motor control by acting on intrasynaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. Here we review the diversity of 5-HT actions on locomotor and motoneuronal activities. Two approaches have been used on in vitro spinal cord preparations: either...

  13. Movement does not promote recovery of motor output following acute experimental muscle pain

    Schabrun, Siobhan M.; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Thapa, Tribikram

    2018-01-01

    Objective.:  To examine the effect of motor activity on the magnitude and duration of altered corticomotor output following experimental muscle pain. Design. : Experimental, pre-post test. Setting. : University laboratory. Subjects. : Twenty healthy individuals. Methods.:  Participants were rando....... Understanding corticomotor depression in the postpain period and what factors promote recovery has relevance for clinical pain syndromes where ongoing motor dysfunction, in the absence of pain, may predispose to symptom persistence or recurrence....

  14. Motor control theories and their applications.

    Latash, Mark L; Levin, Mindy F; Scholz, John P; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the idea of synergies based on the principle of motor abundance. The equilibrium-point hypothesis is based on the idea of control with thresholds for activation of neuronal pools; it provides a framework for analysis of both voluntary and involuntary movements. In particular, control of a single muscle can be adequately described with changes in the threshold of motor unit recruitment during slow muscle stretch (threshold of the tonic stretch reflex). Unlike the ideas of internal models, the equilibrium-point hypothesis does not assume neural computations of mechanical variables. The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is based on the dynamic system approach to movements; it offers a toolbox to analyze synergic changes within redundant sets of elements related to stabilization of potentially important performance variables. The referent configuration hypothesis and the principle of abundance can be naturally combined into a single coherent scheme of control of multi-element systems. A body of experimental data on healthy persons and patients with movement disorders are reviewed in support of the mentioned hypotheses. In particular, movement disorders associated with spasticity are considered as consequences of an impaired ability to shift threshold of the tonic stretch reflex within the whole normal range. Technical details and applications of the mentioned hypo-theses to studies of motor learning are described. We view the mentioned hypotheses as the most promising ones in the field of motor control, based on a solid physical and neurophysiological foundation.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Task-specific compensation and recovery following focal motor cortex lesion in stressed rats.

    Kirkland, Scott W; Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2012-03-01

    One reason for the difficulty to develop effective therapies for stroke is that intrinsic factors, such as stress, may critically influence pathological mechanisms and recovery. In cognitive tasks, stress can both exaggerate and alleviate functional loss after focal ischemia in rodents. Using a comprehensive motor assessment in rats, this study examined if chronic stress and corticosterone treatment affect skill recovery and compensation in a task-specific manner. Groups of rats received daily restraint stress or oral corticosterone supplementation for two weeks prior to a focal motor cortex lesion. After lesion, stress and corticosterone treatments continued for three weeks. Motor performance was assessed in two skilled reaching tasks, skilled walking, forelimb inhibition, forelimb asymmetry and open field behavior. The results revealed that persistent stress and elevated corticosterone levels mainly limit motor recovery. Treated animals dropped larger amounts of food in successful reaches and showed exaggerated loss of forelimb inhibition early after lesion. Stress also caused a moderate, but non-significant increase in infarct size. By contrast, stress and corticosterone treatments promoted reaching success and other quantitative measures in the tray reaching task. Comparative analysis revealed that improvements are due to task-specific development of compensatory strategies. These findings suggest that stress and stress hormones may partially facilitate task-specific and adaptive compensatory movement strategies. The observations support the notion that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation may be a key determinant of recovery and motor system plasticity after ischemic stroke.

  17. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia in a chronic stroke patient.

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    We report on a chronic stroke patient who showed motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) after undergoing intensive rehabilitation for a period of one month, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe paralysis of the left extremities at the onset of thalamic hemorrhage. At thirty months after onset, the patient exhibited moderate weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. In addition, he exhibited a slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern during grasp-release movements of his left hand. During a one-month period of intensive rehabilitation, which was started at thrity months after onset, the patient showed 22% motor recovery of the left extremities. The slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern of the left hand almost disappeared. DTTs of the corticospinal tract (CST) in both hemispheres originated from the cerebral cortex, including the primary motor cortex, and passed along the known CST pathway. The DTT of the right CST was located anterior to the old hemorrhagic lesion. TMS study performed at thirty and thirty-one months after onset showed normal and similar findings for motor evoked potential in terms of latency and amplitude of the left hand muscle. We think that the motor weakness of the left extremities in this patient was mainly ascribed to LKA and that most of the motor recovery during a one-month period of rehabilitation was attributed to improvement of LKA.

  19. DC Motor control using motor-generator set with controlled generator field

    Belsterling, Charles A.; Stone, John

    1982-01-01

    A d.c. generator is connected in series opposed to the polarity of a d.c. power source supplying a d.c. drive motor. The generator is part of a motor-generator set, the motor of which is supplied from the power source connected to the motor. A generator field control means varies the field produced by at least one of the generator windings in order to change the effective voltage output. When the generator voltage is exactly equal to the d.c. voltage supply, no voltage is applied across the drive motor. As the field of the generator is reduced, the drive motor is supplied greater voltage until the full voltage of the d.c. power source is supplied when the generator has zero field applied. Additional voltage may be applied across the drive motor by reversing and increasing the reversed field on the generator. The drive motor may be reversed in direction from standstill by increasing the generator field so that a reverse voltage is applied across the d.c. motor.

  20. FGF-2 induces behavioral recovery after early adolescent injury to the motor cortex of rats.

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-11-20

    Motor cortex injuries in adulthood lead to poor performance in behavioral tasks sensitive to limb movements in the rat. We have shown previously that motor cortex injury on day 10 or day 55 allow significant spontaneous recovery but not injury in early adolescence (postnatal day 35 "P35"). Previous studies have indicated that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) enhances behavioral recovery after neonatal cortical injury but such effect has not been studied following motor cortex lesions in early adolescence. The present study undertook to investigate the possibility of such behavioral recovery. Rats with unilateral motor cortex lesions were assigned to two groups in which they received FGF-2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were tested in a number of behavioral tests (postural asymmetry, skilled reaching, sunflower seed manipulation, forepaw inhibition in swimming). Golgi-Cox analysis was used to examine the dendritic structure of pyramidal cells in the animals' parietal (layer III) and forelimb (layer V) area of the cortex. The results indicated that rats injected with FGF-2 (but not BSA) showed significant behavioral recovery that was associated with increased dendritic length and spine density. The present study suggests a role for FGF-2 in the recovery of function following injury during early adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microgravity induced changes in the control of motor units

    de Luca, C.; Roy, S.

    The goal of this project is to understand the effects of microgravity on the control of muscles. It is motivated by the notion that in order to adequately address microgravity-induced deterioration in the force generating capacity of muscles, one needs to understand the changes in the control aspects in addition to histochemical and morphological changes. The investigations into muscle control need to include the regulation of the firing activity of motor units that make up a muscle and the coordination of different muscles responsible for the control of a joint. In order to understand the effects of microgravity on these two aspects of muscle control, we will test astronauts before and after spaceflight. The investigations of the control of motor units will involve intramuscular EMG techniques developed in our laboratory. We will use a quadrifilar electrode to detect simultaneously three differential channels of EMG activity. These data will be decomposed accurately using a sophisticated set of algorithms constructed with artificial intelligence knowledge- based techniques. Particular attention will be paid to the firing rate and recruitment behavior of motor units and we will study the degree of cross-correlation of the firing rates. This approach will enable us to study the firing behavior of several (approx. 10) concurrently active motor units. This analysis will enable us to detect modifications in the control of motor units. We will perform these investigations in a hand muscle, which continues being used in prehensile tasks in space, and a leg muscle whose antigravity role is not needed in space. The comparison of the effects of weightlessness on these muscles will determine if continued use of muscles in space deters the possible deleterious effects of microgravity on the control of motor units, in addition to slowing down atrophy. We are particularly interested in comparing the results of this study to similar data already obtained from elderly subjects

  2. Music-supported therapy for stroke motor recovery: theoretical and practical considerations.

    Chen, Joyce L

    2018-05-08

    Music may confer benefits for well-being and health. What is the state of knowledge and evidence for a role of music in supporting the rehabilitation of movements after stroke? In this brief perspective, I provide background context and information about stroke recovery in general, in order to spark reflection and discussion for how we think music may impact motor recovery, given the current clinical milieu. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Brushless DC motor speed control strategy of simulation research

    Xiang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the brushless DC motor speed regulation problem, an ideal control strategy is designed. Through the model and analysis of Brushless DC motor, the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor is obtained. By comparing three control strategies of PID control strategy, fuzzy control strategy and fuzzy PID control strategy, PID controller, fuzzy controller and fuzzy PID controller are designed respectively for simulation test. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID controller has good control effect.

  4. Computer controlled motor vehicle battery circuit

    Krueger, W.R.; McAuiliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This patent consists of a motor vehicle having a DC motor, a pedal biased to a released position and depressed by the driver to increase speed. An alternate switching means affects the vehicle speed control, a foot switch is operated by the pedal and operative when the pedal is depressed to close a circuit enabling energization of the alternate switching means. A microprocessor includes a program for controlling operation of the alternate switching means, the foot switch is operative when the pedal is released to open the enabling circuit. The program includes a register which is incremented with each passage of the logic and is responsive to the incremented count in the register to instruct a change in position of the alternate switching means.

  5. Substantiation of Structure of Adaptive Control Systems for Motor Units

    Ovsyannikov, S. I.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the development of new electronic control systems, in particular motor units, for small-sized agricultural equipment. Based on the analysis of traffic control systems, the main course of development of the conceptual designs of motor units has been defined. The systems aimed to control the course motion of the motor unit in automatic mode using the adaptive systems have been developed. The article presents structural models of the conceptual motor units based on electrically controlled systems by the operation of drive motors and adaptive systems that make the motor units completely automated.

  6. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor Control Training for the Shoulder with Smart Garments.

    Wang, Qi; De Baets, Liesbet; Timmermans, Annick; Chen, Wei; Giacolini, Luca; Matheve, Thomas; Markopoulos, Panos

    2017-07-22

    Wearable technologies for posture monitoring and posture correction are emerging as a way to support and enhance physical therapy treatment, e.g., for motor control training in neurological disorders or for treating musculoskeletal disorders, such as shoulder, neck, or lower back pain. Among the various technological options for posture monitoring, wearable systems offer potential advantages regarding mobility, use in different contexts and sustained tracking in daily life. We describe the design of a smart garment named Zishi to monitor compensatory movements and evaluate its applicability for shoulder motor control training in a clinical setting. Five physiotherapists and eight patients with musculoskeletal shoulder pain participated in the study. The attitudes of patients and therapists towards the system were measured using standardized survey instruments. The results indicate that patients and their therapists consider Zishi a credible aid for rehabilitation and patients expect it will help towards their recovery. The system was perceived as highly usable and patients were motivated to train with the system. Future research efforts on the improvement of the customization of feedback location and modality, and on the evaluation of Zishi as support for motor learning in shoulder patients, should be made.

  8. Supporting Stroke Motor Recovery Through a Mobile Application: A Pilot Study.

    Lawson, Sonia; Tang, Ziying; Feng, Jinjuan

    Neuroplasticity and motor learning are promoted with repetitive movement, appropriate challenge, and performance feedback. ARMStrokes, a smartphone application, incorporates these qualities to support motor recovery. Engaging exercises are easily accessible for improved compliance. In a multiple-case, mixed-methods pilot study, the potential of this technology for stroke motor recovery was examined. Exercises calibrated to the participant's skill level targeted forearm, elbow, and shoulder motions for a 6-wk protocol. Visual, auditory, and vibration feedback promoted self-assessment. Pre- and posttest data from 6 chronic stroke survivors who used the app in different ways (i.e., to measure active or passive motion, to track endurance) demonstrated improvements in accuracy of movements, fatigue, range of motion, and performance of daily activities. Statistically significant changes were not obtained with this pilot study. Further study on the efficacy of this technology is supported. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. DC motors and servo-motors controlled by Raspberry Pi 2B

    Šustek Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expanding capabilities of today’s microcontrollers and other devices lead to an increased utilization of these technologies in diverse fields. The automation and issue of remote control of moving objects belong to these fields. In this project, a microcontroller Raspberry Pi 2B was chosen for controlling DC motors and servo-motors. This paper provides basic insight into issue of controlling DC motors and servo-motors, connection between Raspberry and other components on breadboard and programming syntaxes for controlling motors in Python programming language.

  10. Atrophy of spared grey matter tissue predicts poorer motor recovery and rehabilitation response in chronic stroke

    Gauthier, Lynne V.; Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Barghi, Ameen; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the motor deficit following stroke is clearly due to the structural brain damage that has been sustained, this relationship is attenuated from the acute to chronic phases. We investigated the possibility that motor impairment and response to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in chronic stroke patients may relate more strongly to the structural integrity of brain structures remote from the lesion than to measures of overt tissue damage. Methods Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on MRI scans from 80 chronic stroke patients to investigate whether variations in grey matter density were correlated with extent of residual motor impairment or with CI therapy-induced motor recovery. Results Decreased grey matter density in non-infarcted motor regions was significantly correlated with magnitude of residual motor deficit. In addition, reduced grey matter density in multiple remote brain regions predicted a lesser extent of motor improvement from CI therapy. Conclusions Atrophy in seemingly healthy parts of the brain that are distant from the infarct accounts for at least a portion of the sustained motor deficit in chronic stroke. PMID:22096036

  11. Sensorless V/f Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Perera, P. D. Chandana; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    V/f control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motors can be useful for HVAC applications, where not high performance is required. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have efficiency advantages over the induction motor. But open loop V/f control is not stable in the whole frequency range. As demonstrated, the V/f control strategy becomes

  12. A New Approach to Laboratory Motor Control MMCS: The Modular Motor Control System

    1989-02-01

    encB2 encl2 h/beat2 J2 . h/ beatl encll encBl encAl 0 = LED indicator connectors to motor/enc Figure 5.2: Motor interface board layout something is...signal for joint 1. h/ beatl Green Heartbeat signal for joint 1. h/beat2 Green Heartbeat signal for joint 2. gpl Red General purpose (software controllable

  13. Effect of Auditory Constraints on Motor Learning Depends on Stage of Recovery Post Stroke

    Viswanath eAluru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in twenty subjects with chronic hemiparesis, and used a bimanual wrist extension task using a custom-made wrist trainer to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: 1 without auditory cueing; 2 to non-musical happy sounds; 3 to self-selected music; and 4 to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post stroke.

  14. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  15. Design and control of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Hong, Z; Song, J; Fang, F; Coombs, T A

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor. The parameters of the motor have been identified, and the torque equation has been stated. A direct torque control algorithm is introduced and applied to a traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor and the superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor described in this paper. The motor performance shows that the direct torque control algorithm provides excellent control to the superconducting motor, and guarantees that the magnitude of the operational armature currents is smaller than the value of the critical current of the superconducting tape used for stator winding

  16. Design and control of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Jiang, Y [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Pei, R [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Hong, Z [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Song, J [Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, F [Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Coombs, T A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor. The parameters of the motor have been identified, and the torque equation has been stated. A direct torque control algorithm is introduced and applied to a traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor and the superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor described in this paper. The motor performance shows that the direct torque control algorithm provides excellent control to the superconducting motor, and guarantees that the magnitude of the operational armature currents is smaller than the value of the critical current of the superconducting tape used for stator winding.

  17. Nonlinear Deadbeat Current Control of a Switched Reluctance Motor

    Rudolph, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    High performance current control is critical to the success of the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Yet high motor phase nonlinearities in the SRM place extra burden on the current controller, rendering it the weakest link in SRM control. In contrast to linear motor control techniques that respond to current error, the deadbeat controller calculates the control voltage by the current command, phase current, rotor position and applied phase voltage. The deadbeat controller has demonstrated sup...

  18. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements.

  19. [Predictive ocular motor control in Parkinson's disease].

    Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An

    2008-02-19

    To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.

  20. Permanent magnet brushless DC motor drives and controls

    Xia, Chang-liang

    2012-01-01

    An advanced introduction to the simulation and hardware implementation of BLDC motor drives A thorough reference on the simulation and hardware implementation of BLDC motor drives, this book covers recent advances in the control of BLDC motor drives, including intelligent control, sensorless control, torque ripple reduction and hardware implementation. With the guidance of the expert author team, readers will understand the principle, modelling, design and control of BLDC motor drives. The advanced control methods and new achievements of BLDC motor drives, of interest to more a

  1. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  2. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Quentin eWelniarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  3. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

  4. Modeling and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on neural network control strategy

    Luo, Bingyang; Chi, Shangjie; Fang, Man; Li, Mengchao

    2017-03-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor is used widely in industry, the performance requirements wouldn't be met by adopting traditional PID control in some of the occasions with high requirements. In this paper, a hybrid control strategy - nonlinear neural network PID and traditional PID parallel control are adopted. The high stability and reliability of traditional PID was combined with the strong adaptive ability and robustness of neural network. The permanent magnet synchronous motor will get better control performance when switch different working modes according to different controlled object conditions. As the results showed, the speed response adopting the composite control strategy in this paper was faster than the single control strategy. And in the case of sudden disturbance, the recovery time adopting the composite control strategy designed in this paper was shorter, the recovery ability and the robustness were stronger.

  5. Robust position control of induction motor using fuzzy logic control

    Kim, Sei Chan; Kim, Duk Hun; Yang, Seung Ho; Won, Chung Yuen

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, fuzzy logic or fuzzy set theory has reveived attention of a number of researchers in the area of power electronics and motion control. The paper describes a vector-controlled induction motor position servo drive where fuzzy control is used to get robustness against parameter variation and load torque disturbance effects. Both coarse and fine control with the help of look-up rule tables are used to improve transient response and system settling time. The performance characteristics are then compared with those of proportional-integral(PI) control. The simulation results clearly indicate the superiority of fuzzy control with larger number of rules. The fuzzy controller was implemented with a 16-bit microprocessor and tested in laboratory on a 3-hp IGBT inverter induction motor drive system. The test results verify the simulation performance. (Author)

  6. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  7. Motor recovery in post-stroke patients with aphasia: the role of specific linguistic abilities.

    Ginex, Valeria; Veronelli, Laura; Vanacore, Nicola; Lacorte, Eleonora; Monti, Alessia; Corbo, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Aphasia is a serious consequence of stroke but aphasics patients have been routinely excluded from participation in some areas of stroke research. To assess the role of specific linguistic and non-verbal cognitive abilities on the short-term motor recovery of patients with aphasia due to first-ever stroke to the left hemisphere after an intensive rehabilitation treatment. 48 post-acute aphasic patients, who underwent physiotherapy and speech language therapy, were enrolled for this retrospective cohort-study. Four types of possible predictive factors were taken into account: clinical variables, functional status, language and non-verbal cognitive abilities. The motor FIM at discharge was used as the main dependent variable. Patients were classified as follows: 6 amnestic, 9 Broca's, 7 Wernicke's, and 26 global aphasics. Motor FIM at admission (p = 0.003) and at discharge (p = 0.042), all linguistic subtests of Aachener AphasieTest (p = 0.001), and non-verbal reasoning abilities (Raven's CPM, p = 0.006) resulted significantly different across different types of aphasia. Post-hoc analyses showed differences only between global aphasia and the other groups. A Multiple Linear Regression shows that admission motor FIM (p = 0.001) and Token test (p = 0.040), adjusted for clinical, language, and non-verbal reasoning variables, resulted as independent predictors of motor FIM scores at discharge, while Raven's CPM resulted close to statistical significance. Motor function at admission resulted as the variable that most affects the motor recovery of post-stroke patients with aphasia after rehabilitation. A linguistic test requiring also non-linguistic abilities, including attention and working memory (i.e. Token test) is an independent predictor as well.

  8. Tracking control of DC motors via mimo nonlinear fuzzy control

    Harb, Ahmad M.; Smadi, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a nonlinear controller for speed tracking of separately excited DC motors (SEDCM's) using the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) fuzzy logic controller (FLC's). Based on a nonlinear mathematical model of SEDCM, a FLC is designed to achieve high performance speed tracking through rejection load disturbance. Computer simulations are presented to show speed tracking performance and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  9. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  10. Fine motor assessment in chronic wrist pain: the role of adapted motor control

    Smeulders, M. J.; Kreulen, M.; Bos, K. E.

    2001-01-01

    To show whether a difference in fine motor control exists between patients with chronic, undiagnosed wrist pain (CUWP) and healthy controls. Furthermore, a method to assess fine motor function of the wrist is evaluated. A case-control study. The Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

  11. Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor

    Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.

    1987-01-01

    Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.

  12. Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA

    Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev

    2018-01-01

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

  13. Contribution of the resting-state functional connectivity of the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex to motor recovery after subcortical stroke.

    Huijuan Xu

    Full Text Available It remains uncertain if the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (CL_PSMC contributes to motor recovery after stroke. Here we investigated longitudinal changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of the CL_PSMC and their association with motor recovery. Thirteen patients who had experienced subcortical stroke underwent a series of resting-state fMRI and clinical assessments over a period of 1 year at 5 time points, i.e., within the first week, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after stroke onset. Thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The CL_PSMC was defined as a region centered at the voxel that had greatest activation during hand motion task. The dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC within the whole brain were evaluated and correlated with the Motricity Index (MI scores. Compared with healthy controls, the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC with the bilateral PSMC were initially decreased, then gradually increased, and finally restored to the normal level 1 year later. Moreover, the dynamic change in the inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC in these patients was positively correlated with the MI scores. However, the intra-hemispheric rsFC of the CL_PSMC was not correlated with the MI scores. This study shows dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC after stroke and suggests that the increased inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC may facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. However, generalization of our findings is limited by the small sample size of our study and needs to be confirmed.

  14. Enhancement Of Motor Recovery Through Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation After Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Shahram Oveisgharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two previous studies, which investigated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS use in motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke, did not show tDCS to be effective in this regard. We speculated that additional left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ‎(DLPFC ‎stimulation may enhance post stroke motor recovery.  ‎ Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 20 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited. Patients received real motor cortex (M1 stimulation in both arms of the trial. The two arms differed in terms of real vs. sham stimulation over the left DLPFC‎. Motor component of the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment (FM and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT scores were used to assess primary outcomes, and non-linear mixed effects models were used for data analyses. Results: Primary outcome measures improved more and faster among the real stimulation group. During the first days of stimulations, sham group’s FM scores increased 1.2 scores per day, while real group’s scores increased 1.7 scores per day (P = 0.003. In the following days, FM improvement decelerated in both groups. Based on the derived models, a hypothetical stroke patient with baseline FM score of 15 improves to 32 in the sham stimulation group and to 41 in the real stimulation group within the first month after stroke. Models with ARAT scores yielded nearly similar results. Conclusion: The current study results showed that left DLPFC‎ stimulation in conjunction with M1 stimulation resulted in better motor recovery than M1 stimulation alone.

  15. Permanent magnet DC motor control by using arduino and motor drive module BTS7960

    Syukriyadin, S.; Syahrizal, S.; Mansur, G.; Ramadhan, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study proposes a control system for permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor. PMDC drive control system has two critical parameters: control and monitoring. Control system includes rotation speed control and direction of rotation of motor using motor drive module BTS7960. The PWM signal has a fixed frequency of waves with varying duty cycles (between 0% and 100%), so the motor rotation can be regulated gradually using a potentiometer already programmed on the Arduino Uno board. The motor rotation direction setting uses the H-bridge circuit method using a 3-way switch to set the direction of forward-reverse rotation of the motor. The monitoring system includes measurements of rotational speed, current, and voltage. Motor rotation speed can be adjusted from the armature voltage settings through the duty cycle PWM setting so that the motor speed can be increased or decreased by the desired duty cycle. From the unload PMDC motor test results it has also been shown that the torque of the motor is relatively constant when there is a change in speed from low rpm to high rpm or vice versa.

  16. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct.

    Kim, Ra Gyung; Cho, Jongwook; Ree, Jinkyue; Kim, Hyung-Sun; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kim, Jin-Myung; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions. To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group (SOG) showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum. In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were 72.9% of prelesion levels in the wide stimulation group (WSG) and 37% of prelesion levels in the small stimulation group (SSG). The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging. Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  18. Design of double DC motor control system based on DSP

    Suo WANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of speed control, commutation and so on in the multi-motor synchronous control system, based on automatic control technology, a control system with PC as principal computer and DSP as slave computer is designed, which can change dual DC motor speed and steering, as well as select work drive motors. Related hardware and software design of the control system are given. Through serial communication between DSP and PC using PC serial port software, digital control command is sent to the slave computer for controlling dual DC motor to do a series of preset functions. PWM pulse width modulation is used for motor speed regulation, photoelectric encoder is used to measure motor speed by T method, and the motor speed is displayed by the actual waveform. Experimental results show that the system can not only realize the synchronization of dual DC motor speed and steering adjustment, but also select the motor and achieve the dual DC motors synchronization control effect. The control system has certain reliability and effectiveness.

  19. Trajectories of Motor Recovery in the First Year After Pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    Cooper, Anna N; Anderson, Vicki; Hearps, Stephen; Greenham, Mardee; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Hunt, Rod W; Mackay, Mark T; Monagle, Paul; Gordon, Anne L

    2017-08-01

    Neuromotor impairments are common after pediatric stroke, but little is known about functional motor outcomes. We evaluated motor function and how it changed over the first 12 months after diagnosis. We also examined differences in outcome according to age at diagnosis and whether fine motor (FM) or gross motor (GM) function at 12 months was associated with adaptive behavior. This prospective, longitudinal study recruited children ( N = 64) from The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne who were diagnosed with acute arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) between December 2007 and November 2013. Motor assessments were completed at 3 time points after the diagnosis of AIS (1, 6, and 12 months). Children were grouped as follows: neonates ( n = 27), preschool-aged ( n = 19), and school-aged ( n = 18). A larger lesion size was associated with poorer GM outcomes at 12 months ( P = .016). Neonatal AIS was associated with better FM and GM function initially but with a reduction in z scores over time. For the preschool- and school-aged groups, FM remained relatively stable over time. For GM outcomes, the preschool- and the school-aged age groups displayed similar profiles, with gradual recovery over time. Overall, poor FM and GM outcomes at 12 months were associated with poorer adaptive behavior scores. Motor outcomes and the trajectory of recovery post-AIS differed according to a child's age at stroke onset. These findings indicate that an individualized approach to surveillance and intervention may be needed that is informed in part by age at diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  1. Measurement control program for new special recovery

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation for motor recovery of upper limb function after stroke.

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Rothhardt, Sandra; Verheyden, Geert; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Changes in neural processing after stroke have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. Transcranial direct current stimulation has the potential to alter cortico-spinal excitability and thereby might be beneficial in stroke recovery. We review the pertinent literature prior to 30/09/2013 on transcranial direct current stimulation in promoting motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke. We found overall 23 trials (they included 523 participants). All stimulation protocols pride on interhemispheric imbalance model. In a comparative approach, methodology and effectiveness of (a) facilitation of the affected hemisphere, (b) inhibition of the unaffected hemisphere and (c) combined application of transcranial direct current stimulation over the affected and unaffected hemispheres to treat impaired hand function after stroke are presented. Transcranial direct current stimulation is associated with improvement of the affected upper limb after stroke, but current evidence does not support its routine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  4. Motor Control of Drosophila Courtship Song

    Troy R. Shirangi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  5. ANALISA SISTEM KENDALI PUTARAN MOTOR DC MENGGUNAKAN SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS

    M. Khairudin, Efendi, N Purwantiningsih,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Paper ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa rangkaian sistem kendali putaran motor menggunakan Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR atau Thyristor. Eksperimen sistem kendali putaran motor ini menggunakan dua rangkaian yang berbeda. Rangkaian pertama menggunakan dua sumber, yaitu sumber tegangan DC 12 v terhubung dengan motor universal secara seri dengan resistor dan SCR, sedangkan sumber tegangan DC variabel 0 sampai 1.5 v dihubung paralel dengan kapasitor dan resistor. Rangkaian kedua menggunakan satu sumber tegangan AC 5 v yang dihubungkan dengan saklar dan motor. Pada rangkaian kedua ini motor dihubungkan dengan potensio, SCR, dioda serta kapasitor yang dipasang paralel dengan sumber tegangan AC. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan dalam rangkaian menggunakan sumber tegangan DC, motor DC akan berputar saat saklar S1 tertutup. Kondisi motor akan berputar lebih cepat ketika sumber tegangan variabel diatur lebih besar dari 0 v sehingga arus gate Ig lebih bear dari 400 mA. Adapun Eksperimen dengan sumber tegangan AC, motor akan berputar dengan menambahkan dioda D3 dan pengaturan kecepatan melalui potensio meter Rv sampai posisi maksimum. Kata kunci: analisa, motor DC, SCR, sistem kendali ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to analyse the circuit of DC motor control system using Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR or Thyristor. In this experiment the circuit of control system for the motor using two different circuits. The first circuit using two sources, the 12 v DC voltage is connected to universal motor and series with a resistor and SCR, while the DC variable voltage source of 0 to 1.5 v connected in parallel to the capacitor and resistor. The second circuit uses a single source of 5 V AC voltage connected to the switch and the motor. In the second circuit, the motor is connected to the potentio meter, SCR, diode and capacitor in parallel with the AC voltage source. The experimental results showed the circuit using a DC voltage source impacted the

  6. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  7. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination in injured rats but does not accelerate the recovery of the motor coordination deficit.

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Reyes-Legorreta, Celia; Garza-Montaño, Paloma; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    The sensorimotor cortex and the striatum are interconnected by the corticostriatal pathway, suggesting that cortical injury alters the striatal function that is associated with skilled movements and motor learning, which are functions that may be modulated by dopamine (DA). In this study, we explored motor coordination and balance in order to investigate whether the activation of D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs) modulates functional recovery after cortical injury. The results of the beam-walking test showed motor deficit in the injured group at 24, 48 and 96h post-injury, and the recovery time was observed at 192h after cortical injury. In the sham and injured rats, systemic administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 (1mg/kg) alone at 24, 48, 96 and 192h significantly (Pmotor deficit, while administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 alone (2, 3 and 4mg/kg) at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury did not produce a significant difference; however, the co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 prevented the antagonist-induced increase in the motor deficit. The cortical+striatal injury showed significantly increased the motor deficit at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury (Pmotor recovery, but the activation of D 1 Rs maintained motor coordination, confirming that an intact striatum may be necessary for achieving recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation: Local and distant effects for motor recovery

    Sook-Lei eLiew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS may enhance motor recovery after neurological injury through the causal induction of plasticity processes. Neurological injury, such as stroke, often results in serious long-term physical disabilities, and despite intensive therapy, a large majority of brain injury survivors fail to regain full motor function. Emerging research suggests that NIBS techniques, such as transcranial magnetic (TMS and direct current (tDCS stimulation, in association with customarily used neurorehabilitative treatments, may enhance motor recovery. This paper provides a general review on TMS and tDCS paradigms, the mechanisms by which they operate and the stimulation techniques used in neurorehabilitation, specifically stroke. TMS and tDCS influence regional neural activity underlying the stimulation location and also distant interconnected network activity throughout the brain. We discuss recent studies that document NIBS effects on global brain activity measured with various neuroimaging techniques, which help to characterize better strategies for more accurate NIBS stimulation. These rapidly growing areas of inquiry may hold potential for improving the effectiveness of NIBS-based interventions for clinical rehabilitation.

  9. Stepping-Motion Motor-Control Subsystem For Testing Bearings

    Powers, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Control subsystem closed-loop angular-position-control system causing motor and bearing under test to undergo any of variety of continuous or stepping motions. Also used to test bearing-and-motor assemblies, motors, angular-position sensors including rotating shafts, and like. Monitoring subsystem gathers data used to evaluate performance of bearing or other article under test. Monitoring subsystem described in article, "Monitoring Subsystem For Testing Bearings" (GSC-13432).

  10. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  11. Two-dimensional servo control of surface motor; Surface motor no nijigen servo control

    Ebihara, D; Takahashi, T; Watada, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    Two dimensional (2D) drive system is needed in many aspects of factory automation (FA) and office automation (OA) machines, such as pen drivers in X-Y plotters, X-Y stage for machining, 2D moving robots, etc. Conventional 2D drive systems are consisted from two sets of rotational motor drive and several types of rotary-to-linear transform mechanisms. Linear motors, in these days, have become to be effective as the requirement for high speed increases. We have been studying about Surface Motor which enables 2D drive on a surface by single mover, and the characteristics are measured. Main difficulty of the actuator is that it is short of thrust forces. Also the feasibility is limited because of its vocational uncertainty caused by the open loop control. Our interest is to introduce the closed loop digital control, to obtain required thrust force at any point on the stator. Since open loop control is used, that is, stability point where the thrust force is zero is moved one after another, generated thrust force within the range of synchronization is small. We have been studying about the peculiar expression of exciting currents to generate required direction at all the stator. On the basis of results, two dimensional position feedback system is assembled, which detect the two dimensional location of the mover by optical sensors and direct current instructions are generated for all the four phases of the mover. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Studies in Motor Behavior: 75 Years of Research in Motor Development, Learning, and Control

    Ulrich, Beverly D.; Reeve, T. Gilmour

    2005-01-01

    Research focused on human motor development, learning, and control has been a prominent feature in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) since it was first published in 1930. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the papers in the RQES that demonstrate the journal's contributions to the study of motor development,…

  13. Controlling chaos in the permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Zribi, Mohamed; Oteafy, Ahmed; Smaoui, Nejib

    2009-01-01

    The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is known to exhibit chaotic behavior under certain conditions. This paper proposes to use an instantaneous Lyapunov exponent control algorithm to control the PMSM. One of the objectives of the control approach is to bring order to the PMSM and to drive it to any user-defined desired state. Simulation results under different operating conditions indicate that the proposed control scheme works well. Moreover, the proposed Lyapunov exponent control scheme is able to induce chaos on the permanent magnet synchronous motor. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in chaotifing the response of the motor.

  14. Design and advanced control of switched reluctance motor; Design og avanceret styring af switched reluctance motor

    Blaabjerg, F.; Jensen, F.; Kierkegaard, P.; Pedersen, J.K.; Rasmussen, P.O.; Simonsen, L.

    1999-03-01

    The aim of the project is to design, construct and optimise the control of Switched Reluctance Motors with and without permanent magnets. The expectation was an increased efficiency and a decreased material consumption. The project included originally three types of SR-motors, two with a nominal number of revolutions of 3.000 rpm and one motor with a nominal number of revolutions of 50.000 rpm. The project was changed to focus on one motor with a nominal number of revolutions of 6.000 rpm, one with a nominal number of revolutions of 50.000 rpm and one two-phased low-voltage motor with a nominal number of revolutions of 2.000 rpm. The motors had different outputs of 2,7 kW, 0,9 kW and 3 kW, respectively. For this purpose an advanced simulation programme for Switched Reluctance Motors is developed. The programme differs from other programmes by being able to simulate multi-disciplinary such as vibrations and acoustic noise. It is even possible to play the sound. In this connection completely new models are developed. It is also possible to simulate different grid connected converters. Input to the simulation programme is finite element calculations, geometry of the motor and calculations or data from an advanced characterisation system for Switched Reluctance Motors. New methods to control the current in Switched Reluctance Motors are developed, which particularly make quick dynamics possible in a digitally controlled current without use of special noise filters. The method will soon have industrial use. Other new methods have emerged, which secure that the system all the time works with the maximum efficiency irrespective of load. In some cases an efficiency improvement of 10 % is obtained compared to a classic control of the Switched Reluctance Motor. (EHS) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-98. 16 refs.

  15. Motor function recovery of people of mature years after stroke by means of physical rehabilitation

    Khristova T.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of applying the complex technology of physical rehabilitation are described for patients with cerebral ischemic stroke during the phase of in-patient rehabilitation. The experiment involved 36 male patients aged 45-50 years. The rehabilitation program included treatment by changing position, complex of therapeutic gymnastics (based on sanogenetic approach to the problem of motor function recovery in accordance with the stages of postnatal ontogenesis, magnetic therapy, thermotherapy of large joints of the affected extremities. Findings show that the use of the mentioned methods of treatment leads to increase of the range of motion in the hip and shoulder joints: passive of 15-20%, and active of 10-30%, muscle strength of 10-30%, improvement of motor activity indices (scale of Bobaht and quality of life (scale of Barthel.

  16. Controlling An Inverter-Driven Three-Phase Motor

    Dolland, C.

    1984-01-01

    Control system for three-phase permanent-magnet motor driven by linecommutated inverter uses signals generated by integrating back emf of each phase of motor. High-pass filter network eliminates low-frequency components from control loop while maintaining desired power factor.

  17. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  18. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

    Luomajoki, H; Moseley, G L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with back pain. Forty-five patients with back pain and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Tactile acuity at the back was assessed using two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold in vertical and horizontal directions. Voluntary motor control was assessed using an established battery of clinical tests. Patients performed worse on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks than healthy controls did (p<0.001). TPD threshold was larger in patients (mean (SD)=61 (13) mm) than in healthy controls (44 (10) mm). Moreover, larger TPD threshold was positively related to worse performance on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks (Pearson's r=0.49; p<0.001). Tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to voluntary lumbopelvic control. This relationship raises the possibility that the former contributes to the latter, in which case training tactile acuity may aid recovery and assist in achieving normal motor performance after back injury.

  19. Design of dual DC motor control system based on DSP

    Shi, Peicheng; Wang, Suo; Xu, Zengwei; Xiao, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Multi-motor control systems are widely used in actual production and life, such as lifting stages, robots, printing systems. This paper through serial communication between PC and DSP, dual DC motor control system consisting of PC as the host computer, DSP as the lower computer with synchronous PWM speed regulation, commutation and selection functions is designed. It sends digital control instructions with host computer serial debugger to lower computer, to instruct the motor to complete corresponding actions. The hardware and software design of the control system are given, and feasibility and validity of the control system are verified by experiments. The expected design goal is achieved.

  20. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  1. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  2. Control characteristics of inert gas recovery plant

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Kato, Yomei; Kamiya, Kunio

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulator and the control characteristics for a radioactive inert gas recovery plant which uses a cryogenic liquefying process. The simulator was developed to analyze the operational characteristics and is applicable to gas streams which contain nitrogen, argon, oxygen and krypton. The characteristics analysis of the pilot plant was performed after the accuracy of the simulator was checked using data obtained in fundamental experiments. The relationship between the reflux ratio and krypton concentration in the effluent gas was obtained. The decontamination factor is larger than 10 9 when the reflux ratio is more than 2. 0. The control characteristics of the plant were examined by changing its various parameters. These included the amount of gas to be treated, the heater power inside the evaporator and the liquid nitrogen level in the condenser. These characteristics agreed well with the values obtained in the pilot plant. The results show that the krypton concentration in the effluent gas increases when the liquid nitrogen level is decreased. However, in this case, the krypton concentration can be minimized by applying a feed forward control to the evaporator liquid level controller. (author)

  3. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  4. Control Of Stepper Motor Movement By DC Voltage

    Gayani, Didi; Margono; Indasah, Iin; Sugito

    2000-01-01

    Instrumentation for controlling the power of reactor of TRIGA Mark II uses the stepper motor to move the control rod of neutron absorbers. The direction and speed of control rod movement are determined by the polarity and the amplitude of DC voltage as an error signal that is the difference of set point of power and the power of being measured on the control system. The unit of stepper motor controller of reactor instrumentation of TRIGA Mark II uses patent module of trade Mark of Vexta, USA. In this chance, the electronic circuit is made to function as the control of stepper motor movement by using the DC voltage to anticipate the problem may be faced in case of repair and maintenance of reactor instrumentation. As a result of experiment, it is stated that the control of motor movement by using DC voltage is performed into 2 stages. First, by making the oscillator that is proportional to the positive DC voltage. Secondly, by making the translator to translate the oscillator signal to be a logic pattern for controlling the movement of stepper motor. Translator and motor driver are made by using the L297 and L298 as a pair of stepper motor controller of SGS T HOMSON

  5. Sensorless Sliding Mode Vector Control of Induction Motor Drives

    Gouichiche Abdelmadjid; Boucherit Mohamed Seghir; Safa Ahmed; Messlem Youcef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of sliding mode controllers for sensorless field oriented control of induction motor. In order to improve the performance of controllers, the motor speed is controlled by sliding mode regulator with integral sliding surface. The estimated rotor speed used in speed feedback loop is calculated by an adaptive observer based on MRAS (model reference adaptive system) technique .the validity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by experimental results.

  6. Application of CMAC Neural Network Coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control Strategy on Three-motor Synchronization Control System

    Hui Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-motor synchronous coordination system is a MI-MO nonlinear and complex control system. And it often works in poor working condition. Advanced control strategies are required to improve the control performance of the system and to achieve the decoupling between main motor speed and tension. Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control (CMAC-ADRC control strategy is proposed. The speed of the main motor and tensions between two motors is decoupled by extended state observer (ESO in ADRC. ESO in ADRC is used to compensate internal and external disturbances of the system online. And the anti interference of the system is improved by ESO. And the same time the control model is optimized. Feedforward control is implemented by the adoption of CMAC neural network controller. And control precision of the system is improved in reason of CMAC. The overshoot of the system can be reduced without affecting the dynamic response of the system by the use of CMAC-ADRC. The simulation results show that: the CMAC- ADRC control strategy is better than the traditional PID control strategy. And CMAC-ADRC control strategy can achieve the decoupling between speed and tension. The control system using CMAC-ADRC have strong anti-interference ability and small regulate time and small overshoot. The magnitude of the system response incited by the interference using CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system using conventional PID control 6.43 %. And the recovery time of the system with CMAC-ADRC is shorter than the system with traditional PID control 0.18 seconds. And the triangular wave tracking error of the system with CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system with conventional PID control 0.24 rad/min. Thus the CMAC-ADRC control strategy is a good control strategy and is able to fit three-motor synchronous coordinated control.

  7. Sensorless Control of PM Synchronous Motors and Brushless DC Motors

    Montesinos, D.; Galceran, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature addressing sensorless operation methods of PM brushless machines. The methods explained are state-of-the-art of open and closed loop control strategies. The closed loop review includes those methods based on voltage and current measurements, those me...

  8. PID controller simulator software for DC motor of gamma scanning

    Arjoni Amir

    2008-01-01

    Mostly PID controller (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) has been used in industry. For certain applications, it can be used as a Proportional (P) model only, or as a Proportional-Integral (PI) model. The aim of this paper is to design a PID controller simulator software for DC motor which is used in gamma scanning system. A DC motor is described as a plant of SISO (Single Input Single Output) which is used for pulling down the load (detector + casing) and gamma radiation source (Co-60 + container) by using sling cable. A DC motor consist of an armature and a rotor, the equivalent circuit of DC motor is shown in a transfer function equation between output parameter (angular speed DC motor) and input parameter (voltage of DC motor). Methods used for the process of PID controller design is to arrange the PID controller parameter (Kc, Ti, Td) so that there are more PID controller transfer function model which are able to control angular speed of DC motor in stable condition, as design criteria requirement is needed. Design criteria requirement for control system are the settling time < 3 second, overshoot < 5%, rise time = 0.25 second, steady state gain = 1 and peak time < 3 second with step response reference 1 rad/second. The result of simulation gives several models of PID controller in function transfer equation which is similar with design criteria requirement in a equation of function transfer of order 2 for numerator and order 1 for denominator. (author)

  9. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients

    Zun-rong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238.

  10. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients

    Wang, Zun-rong; Wang, Ping; Xing, Liang; Mei, Li-ping; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT) was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238). PMID:29239328

  11. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients.

    Wang, Zun-Rong; Wang, Ping; Xing, Liang; Mei, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT) was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238).

  12. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

    Deep Parikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

  13. performance characteristics of an armature voltage controlled dc motor

    Dr Obe

    . INTRODUCTION. The good control properties of the d.c. motor have made possible its initial large scale application in industry [1]. In spite of the present superiority of the solid state squirrel cage induction motor drive, especially at supply ...

  14. A brushless dc spin motor for momentum exchange altitude control

    Stern, D.; Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brushless dc spin motor is designed to use Hall effect probes as means of revolving rotor position and controlling motor winding currents. This results in 3 to 1 reduction in watt-hours required for wheel acceleration, a 2 to 1 reduction in power to run wheel, and a 10 to 1 reduction in the electronics size and weight.

  15. Control Systems Lab Using a LEGO Mindstorms NXT Motor System

    Kim, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a low-cost LEGO Mindstorms NXT motor system for teaching classical and modern control theories in standard third-year undergraduate courses. The LEGO motor system can be used in conjunction with MATLAB, Simulink, and several necessary toolboxes to demonstrate: 1) a modeling technique; 2) proportional-integral-differential…

  16. Discrete-Time LPV Current Control of an Induction Motor

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we apply a new method for gain-scheduled output feedback control of nonlinear systems to current control of an induction motor. The method relies on recently developed controller synthesis results for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems, where the controller synthesis is formulated...... without further complications. The synthesis method is applied to the model, yielding an LPV discrete-time controller. Finally, the efficiency of the control scheme is validated via simulations as well as experimentally on the actual induction motor, both in open-loop current control and when an outer...... speed control loop is closed around the current loop...

  17. Discrete-Time LPV Current Control of an Induction Motor

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we apply a new method for gain-scheduled output feedback control of nonlinear systems to current control of an induction motor. The method relies on recently developed controller synthesis results for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems, where the controller synthesis is formulated...... further complications. The synthesis method is applied to the model, yielding an LPV discrete-time controller. Finally, the efficiency of the control scheme is validated via simulations as well as on the actual induction motor, both in open-loop current control and when an outer speed control loop...... is closed around the current loop....

  18. Switch Reluctance Motor Control Based on Fuzzy Logic System

    S. V. Aleksandrovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its intrinsic simplicity and reliability, the switched reluctance motor (SRM has now become a promising candidate for variable-speed drive applications as an alternative induction motor in various industrial application. However, the SRM has the disadvantage of nonlinear characteristic and control. It is suggested to use controller based on fuzzy logic system. Design of FLS controller and simulation model presented.

  19. Fuzzy adaptive speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Rae-Young

    2012-05-01

    A fuzzy adaptive speed controller is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed fuzzy adaptive speed regulator is insensitive to model parameter and load torque variations because it does not need any accurate knowledge about the motor parameter and load torque values. The stability of the proposed control system is also proven. The proposed adaptive speed regulator system is implemented by using a TMS320F28335 floating point DSP. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy adaptive speed controller under uncertainties such as motor parameter and load torque variations using a prototype PMSM drive system.

  20. The bulbospinal network controlling the phrenic motor system: Laterality and course of descending projections.

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki

    2017-08-01

    The respiratory rhythm is generated by the parafacial respiratory group, Bötzinger complex, and pre-Bötzinger complex and relayed to pre-motor neurons, which in turn project to and control respiratory motor outputs in the brainstem and spinal cord. The phrenic nucleus is one such target, containing phrenic motoneurons (PhMNs), which supply the diaphragm, the primary inspiratory muscle in mammals. While some investigators have demonstrated both ipsi- and contralateral bulbophrenic projections, there exists controversy regarding the relative physiological contribution of each to phasic and tonic drive to PhMNs and at which levels decussations occur. Following C1- or C2 spinal cord hemisection-induced silencing of the ipsilateral phrenic/diaphragm activity, respiratory stressor-induced, as well as spontaneous, recovery of crossed phrenic activity is observed, suggesting an important contribution of pathways crossing below the level of injury in driving phrenic motor output. The precise mechanisms underlying this recovery are debated. In this review, we seek to present a comprehensive discussion of the organization of the bulbospinal network controlling PhMNs, a thorough appreciation of which is necessary for understanding neural respiratory control, accurate interpretation of studies investigating respiratory recovery following spinal cord injury, and targeted development of therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation in patients sustaining high cervical cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function. By examining the activity of individual motor units (the muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron) and manipulating patterns of activation of these neurons, we provide both correlative and causal evidence......A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time...... interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear...

  2. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions.

    De Luca, Carlo J; Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The "firing rate spectrum" presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units-both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response.

  3. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  4. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke.

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Roy, Anindo; Jung, Brian C; Diaz, Jason; Macko, Richard F; Forrester, Larry W

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemiparetic stroke, randomly assigned to train with an impedance-controlled ankle robot (anklebot) under either high reward (HR) or low reward conditions. The 1 h training sessions entailed playing a seated video game by moving the paretic ankle to hit moving onscreen targets with the anklebot only providing assistance as needed. Assessments included paretic ankle motor control, learning curves, electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and spectral power during unassisted trials, and gait function. While both groups exhibited changes in EEG, the HR group had faster learning curves (p = 0.05), smoother movements (p motor learning for restoring mobility.

  5. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis.

    Latash, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time.

  6. Discrete-Time LPV Current Control of an Induction Motor

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we apply a new method for gain-scheduled output feedback control of nonlinear systems to current control of an induction motor. The method relies on recently developed controller synthesis results for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems, where the controller synthesis is formulated...... as a set of linear matrix inequalities with full-block multipliers. A standard nonlinear model of the motor is constructed and written on LPV form. We then show that, although originally developed in continuous time, the controller synthesis results can be applied to a discrete-time model as well without...... further complications. The synthesis method is applied to the model, yielding an LPV discrete-time controller. Finally, the efficiency of the control scheme is validated via simulations as well as on the actual induction motor, both in open-loop current control and when an outer speed control loop...

  7. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of m...

  8. speed control of dc motor on load using fuzzy logic controller

    HP

    STUDY OF EMERGENCY LUBE OIL PUMP MOTOR OF H25 HITACHI. TURBINE GENERATOR ... with a reference, and if there is an offset, the controller takes action to ... magnetic flux of the air-gap that exists in the motor provided the field is ... Figure 3: Block Diagram of Field-Controlled DC Motor for Driving Lube Oil Pump.

  9. Broad Application of a Reconfigurable Motor Controller, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ultra-miniature (<50 grams) high-performance brushless-motor controller, code named 'Puck', has been developed by Barrett for Earth-based mobile-manipulation...

  10. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 .... with a high power 90 mm circular coil, capable of generating. 2 T maximum field ..... advanced glycation end products, oxidative damage and microvascular ...

  11. The roles of the olivocerebellar pathway in motor learning and motor control. A consensus paper

    Lang, Eric J.; Apps, Richard; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Cerminara, Nadia L.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Ebner, Timothy J.; Heck, Detlef H.; Jaeger, Dieter; Jörntell, Henrik; Kawato, Mitsuo; Otis, Thomas S.; Ozyildirim, Ozgecan; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Reeves, Alexander M.B.; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Sugihara, Izumi; Xiao, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    For many decades the predominant view in the cerebellar field has been that the olivocerebellar system's primary function is to induce plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, specifically, at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. However, it has also long been proposed that the olivocerebellar system participates directly in motor control by helping to shape ongoing motor commands being issued by the cerebellum. Evidence consistent with both hypotheses exists; however, they are often investigated as mutually exclusive alternatives. In contrast, here we take the perspective that the olivocerebellar system can contribute to both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum, and might also play a role in development. We then consider the potential problems and benefits of its having multiple functions. Moreover, we discuss how its distinctive characteristics (e.g., low firing rates, synchronization, variable complex spike waveform) make it more or less suitable for one or the other of these functions, and why its having a dual role makes sense from an evolutionary perspective. We did not attempt to reach a consensus on the specific role(s) the olivocerebellar system plays in different types of movements, as that will ultimately be determined experimentally; however, collectively, the various contributions highlight the flexibility of the olivocerebellar system, and thereby suggest it has the potential to act in both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum. PMID:27193702

  12. A New Torque Control System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Evstratov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new approach to control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on the analysis of the electromechanical transformation. The proposed control system provides quick response and low ripple of the motor torque and flux. To synthesis this control system, the authors put the electromagnetic torque and the modulus of stator flux vector as controlled values and use the Lyapunov’s second method. In addition, the stator voltage constriction and ability of low-pass filtration are taken into account. The investigation of the proposed control system has carried out with the simulation and the experimental research which have confirmed that the proposed control system correspond to all above-mentioned control tasks and the permanent magnet synchronous motor controlled under this system may be recommended to use in robotics.

  13. Behavioural Models of Motor Control and Short-Term Memory

    Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Funase, Kozo; Yamauchi, Masaki

    1995-01-01

    We examined in this review article the behavioural and conceptual models of motor control and short-term memory which have intensively been investigated since the 1970s. First, we reviewed both the dual-storage model of short-term memory in which movement information is stored and a typical model of motor control which emphasizes the importance of efferent factors. We then examined two models of preselection effects: a cognitive model and a cognitive/ efferent model. Following this we reviewe...

  14. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  15. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  16. Functional recovery of regenerating motor axons is delayed in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P(0) gene

    Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Mice with a heterozygous knock-out of the myelin protein P0 gene (P0+/-) develop a neuropathy similar to human Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. They are indistinguishable from wild-types (WT) at birth and develop a slowly progressing demyelinating neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate...... whether the regeneration capacity of early symptomatic P0+/- is impaired as compared to age matched WT. Right sciatic nerves were lesioned at the thigh in 7-8 months old mice. Tibial motor axons at ankle were investigated by conventional motor conduction studies and axon excitability studies using...... threshold tracking. To evaluate regeneration we monitored the recovery of motor function after crush, and then compared the fiber distribution by histology. The overall motor performance was investigated using Rotor-Rod. P0+/- had reduced compound motor action potential amplitudes and thinner myelinated...

  17. Recovery from distal ulnar motor conduction block injury: serial EMG studies.

    Montoya, Liliana; Felice, Kevin J

    2002-07-01

    Acute conduction block injuries often result from nerve compression or trauma. The temporal pattern of clinical, electrophysiologic, and histopathologic changes following these injuries has been extensively studied in experimental animal models but not in humans. Our recent evaluation of a young man with an injury to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve following nerve compression from weightlifting exercises provided the opportunity to follow the course and recovery of a severe conduction block injury with sequential nerve conduction studies. The conduction block slowly and completely resolved, as did the clinical deficit, over a 14-week period. The reduction in conduction block occurred at a linear rate of -6.1% per week. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report

    Dogonowski, A M; Andersen, Kasper W.; Sellebjerg, F

    2018-01-01

    A patient with motor conversion disorder presented with a functional paresis of the left hand. After exclusion of structural brain damage, she was repeatedly examined with whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, while she performed visually paced finger-tapping tasks. The dorsal premotor...... cortex showed a bilateral deactivation in the acute-subacute phase. Recovery from unilateral hand paresis was associated with a gradual increase in task-based activation of the dorsal premotor cortex bilaterally. The right medial prefrontal cortex displayed the opposite pattern, showing initial task...... that an excessive 'veto' signal generated in medial prefrontal cortex along with decreased premotor activity might constitute the functional substrate of conversion disorder. This notion warrants further examination in a larger group of affected patients....

  19. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.

  20. Thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery and climate control in automobiles

    Maranville, Clay W. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices have received renewed attention in the past decade for use in light-duty automotive applications. Governmental organizations and private corporations world-wide are sponsoring research at both the basic materials level, as well as for applied research and technology demonstrations. This funding has led to measurable improvement in TE device cost and efficiency, as well as spurring the emergence and growth of a vertically-integrated TE industry. The two broad categories of applications that have been considered for thermoelectrics are power generation through waste-heat recovery and cabin climate control through the use of TE heat pumps. Neither of these uses of TE devices has ever been commercialized in large-scale vehicle applications, in large part due to the challenges of low device efficiency and high costs. While it is still not clear that TEs will emerge as a winner in the marketplace in the near-term, there are several new developments which provide justification for this renewed interest. Among these reasons are increasing electrification of the vehicle fleet, demands from governments and consumers for improvement in fuel economy and reduction in tailpipe CO{sub 2} emissions, and a greater emphasis on occupant comfort. With governments and industry around the world placing substantial financial bets on the promise of this technology to help address national and global concerns for reducing CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbon consumption, it makes sense for the automotive industry to leverage this investment and to re-evaluate TE-based technology for use in vehicles. In this paper, we will present an overview of Ford Motor Company's current and upcoming research efforts into TE technology. This effort is focused on the use of TE waste heat recovery systems in a vehicle exhaust; and the use of TE HVAC systems in hybrid vehicles. We will discuss the role of the automotive OEM in establishing guidelines and targets for cost, power density

  1. Orderly recruitment of motor units under optical control in vivo.

    Llewellyn, Michael E; Thompson, Kimberly R; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L

    2010-10-01

    A drawback of electrical stimulation for muscle control is that large, fatigable motor units are preferentially recruited before smaller motor units by the lowest-intensity electrical cuff stimulation. This phenomenon limits therapeutic applications because it is precisely the opposite of the normal physiological (orderly) recruitment pattern; therefore, a mechanism to achieve orderly recruitment has been a long-sought goal in physiology, medicine and engineering. Here we demonstrate a technology for reliable orderly recruitment in vivo. We find that under optical control with microbial opsins, recruitment of motor units proceeds in the physiological recruitment sequence, as indicated by multiple independent measures of motor unit recruitment including conduction latency, contraction and relaxation times, stimulation threshold and fatigue. As a result, we observed enhanced performance and reduced fatigue in vivo. These findings point to an unanticipated new modality of neural control with broad implications for nervous system and neuromuscular physiology, disease research and therapeutic innovation.

  2. Efficient speed control of induction motor using RBF based model reference adaptive control method

    Kilic, Erdal; Ozcalik, Hasan Riza; Yilmaz, Saban

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a model reference adaptive speed controller based on artificial neural network for induction motor drives. The performance of traditional feedback controllers has been insufficient in speed control of induction motors due to nonlinear structure of the system, changing environmental conditions, and disturbance input effects. A successful speed control of induction motor requires a nonlinear control system. On the other hand, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that ar...

  3. Recovery of motor deficit, cerebellar serotonin and lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of injured rats.

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Nekrassov-Protasova, Vladimir; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Montes, Sergio; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso

    2010-10-01

    The sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum are interconnected by the corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathway and by neuronal groups such as the serotonergic system. Our aims were to determine the levels of cerebellar serotonin (5-HT) and lipid peroxidation (LP) after cortical iron injection and to analyze the motor function produced by the injury. Rats were divided into the following three groups: control, injured and recovering. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking test as an assessment of overall locomotor function and the footprint test as an assessment of gait. We also determined the levels of 5-HT and LP two and twenty days post-lesion. We found an increase in cerebellar 5-HT and a concomitant increase in LP in the pons and cerebellum of injured rats, which correlated with their motor deficits. Recovering rats showed normal 5-HT and LP levels. The increase of 5-HT in injured rats could be a result of serotonergic axonal injury after cortical iron injection. The LP and motor deficits could be due to impairments in neuronal connectivity affecting the corticospinal and CPC tracts and dysmetric stride could be indicative of an ataxic gait that involves the cerebellum.

  4. Design and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor control system

    Li, Li; Liu, Yongqiu

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of power electronics, microelectronics, new motor control theory and rare earth permanent magnet materials, permanent magnet synchronous motors have been rapidly applied. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have the advantages of small size, low loss and high efficiency. Today, energy conservation and environmental protection are increasingly valued. It is very necessary to study them. Permanent magnet synchronous motor control system has a wide range of application prospects in the fields of electric vehicles, ships and other transportation. Using the simulation function of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a modular design structure was used to simulate the whole system model of speed loop adjustment, current PI modulation, SVPWM (Space Vector Pulse Width Module) wave generation and double closed loop. The results show that this control method has good robustness, and this method can improve the design efficiency and shorten the system design time. In this article, the analysis of the control principle of modern permanent magnet synchronous motor and the various processes of MATLAB simulation application will be analyzed in detail. The basic theory, basic method and application technology of the permanent magnet synchronous motor control system are systematically introduced.

  5. Quantifying motor recovery after stroke using independent vector analysis and graph-theoretical analysis

    Jonathan Laney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of neuroplasticity after stroke through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI analysis is a developing field where the objective is to better understand the neural process of recovery and to better target rehabilitation interventions. The challenge in this population stems from the large amount of individual spatial variability and the need to summarize entire brain maps by generating simple, yet discriminating features to highlight differences in functional connectivity. Independent vector analysis (IVA has been shown to provide superior performance in preserving subject variability when compared with widely used methods such as group independent component analysis. Hence, in this paper, graph-theoretical (GT analysis is applied to IVA-generated components to effectively exploit the individual subjects' connectivity to produce discriminative features. The analysis is performed on fMRI data collected from individuals with chronic stroke both before and after a 6-week arm and hand rehabilitation intervention. Resulting GT features are shown to capture connectivity changes that are not evident through direct comparison of the group t-maps. The GT features revealed increased small worldness across components and greater centrality in key motor networks as a result of the intervention, suggesting improved efficiency in neural communication. Clinically, these results bring forth new possibilities as a means to observe the neural processes underlying improvements in motor function.

  6. Combined pharmacological and motor training interventions for recovery of upper limb function in subacute ischemic stroke

    Ioana Stanescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor deficit, especially in the upper limb, is the primary contributor in post-stroke disability. Recovery of motor function relies on neural plasticity – cortical plastic reorganization – a spontaneous process, which could be enhanced from early phases by rehabilitative strategies. The subacute stage after stroke is the critical period during which the brain is most receptive to rehabilitation strategies. Based on the recent results of 2 trials in stroke rehabilitation using pharmacological intervention with Cerebrolysin in combination with standardized kinesitherapy, we conducted a pilot study of 4 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, treated with Cerebrolysin for 28 days after stroke, and with intensive task-specific kinesitherapy from day 7 to day 28 after stroke. We assessed stroke severity with NIHSS score, upper limb function with ARAT (Action Research Arm Test score, disability with modified Rankin scale and patient’s autonomy with Barthel Index, at day 0 and day 30 after stroke. After 28 days of combined therapy all 4 patients improved, most significant improvement was seen in upper limb function, measured by ARAT score and in autonomy measured by Barthel Index.

  7. An Adaptive Speed Control Approach for DC Shunt Motors

    Ruben Tapia-Olvera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A B-spline neural networks-based adaptive control technique for angular speed reference trajectory tracking tasks with highly efficient performance for direct current shunt motors is proposed. A methodology for adaptive control and its proper training procedure are introduced. This algorithm sets the control signal without using a detailed mathematical model nor exact values of the parameters of the nonlinear dynamic system. The proposed robust adaptive tracking control scheme only requires measurements of the velocity output signal. Thus, real-time measurements or estimations of acceleration, current and disturbance signals are avoided. Experimental results confirm the efficient and robust performance of the proposed control approach for highly demanding motor operation conditions exposed to variable-speed reference trajectories and completely unknown load torque. Hence, laboratory experimental tests on a direct current shunt motor prove the viability of the proposed adaptive output feedback trajectory tracking control approach.

  8. Visual and Motor Recovery After "Cognitive Therapeutic Exercises" in Cortical Blindness: A Case Study.

    De Patre, Daniele; Van de Winckel, Ann; Panté, Franca; Rizzello, Carla; Zernitz, Marina; Mansour, Mariam; Zordan, Lara; Zeffiro, Thomas A; OʼConnor, Erin E; Bisson, Teresa; Lupi, Andrea; Perfetti, Carlo

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous visual recovery is rare after cortical blindness. While visual rehabilitation may improve performance, no visual therapy has been widely adopted, as clinical outcomes are variable and rarely translate into improvements in activities of daily living (ADLs). We explored the potential value of a novel rehabilitation approach "cognitive therapeutic exercises" for cortical blindness. The subject of this case study was 48-year-old woman with cortical blindness and tetraplegia after cardiac arrest. Prior to the intervention, she was dependent in ADLs and poorly distinguished shapes and colors after 19 months of standard visual and motor rehabilitation. Computed tomographic images soon after symptom onset demonstrated acute infarcts in both occipital cortices. The subject underwent 8 months of intensive rehabilitation with "cognitive therapeutic exercises" consisting of discrimination exercises correlating sensory and visual information. Visual fields increased; object recognition improved; it became possible to watch television; voluntary arm movements improved in accuracy and smoothness; walking improved; and ADL independence and self-reliance increased. Subtraction of neuroimaging acquired before and after rehabilitation showed that focal glucose metabolism increases bilaterally in the occipital poles. This study demonstrates feasibility of "cognitive therapeutic exercises" in an individual with cortical blindness, who experienced impressive visual and sensorimotor recovery, with marked ADL improvement, more than 2 years after ischemic cortical damage.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A173).

  9. Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report.

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Kasper W; Sellebjerg, Finn; Schreiber, Karen; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2018-03-27

    A patient with motor conversion disorder presented with a functional paresis of the left hand. After exclusion of structural brain damage, she was repeatedly examined with whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, while she performed visually paced finger-tapping tasks. The dorsal premotor cortex showed a bilateral deactivation in the acute-subacute phase. Recovery from unilateral hand paresis was associated with a gradual increase in task-based activation of the dorsal premotor cortex bilaterally. The right medial prefrontal cortex displayed the opposite pattern, showing initial task-based activation that gradually diminished with recovery. The inverse dynamics of premotor and medial prefrontal activity over time were found during unimanual finger-tapping with the affected and non-affected hand as well as during bimanual finger-tapping. These observations suggest that reduced premotor and increased medial prefrontal activity reflect an effector-independent cortical dysfunction in conversion paresis which gradually disappears in parallel with clinical remission of paresis. The results link the medial prefrontal and dorsal premotor areas to the generation of intentional actions. We hypothesise that an excessive 'veto' signal generated in medial prefrontal cortex along with decreased premotor activity might constitute the functional substrate of conversion disorder. This notion warrants further examination in a larger group of affected patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  11. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  12. Control de un motor paso a paso: PIC, USB, C#

    Fernández Aragón, Iñigo

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto fin de carrera es crear un equipo con el que comprender y controlar, desde el ordenador, el funcionamiento de un motor paso a paso bifásico de imanes permanentes, a través de una comunicación USB, la ayuda de un microprocesador y el imprescindible driver del motor paso a paso. Uno de los elementos utilizados en el control de un motor paso a paso es el microprocesador, encargado tanto de enviar las consignas al controlador (driver), como de captar...

  13. Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system

    Janda Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.

  14. Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program.

    Sumbre, G; Gutfreund, Y; Fiorito, G; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2001-09-07

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed. These extensions show kinematic features that are almost identical to normal behavior, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Such peripheral motor programs represent considerable simplification in the motor control of this highly redundant appendage.

  15. Echoes on the motor network: how internal motor control structures afford sensory experience.

    Burgess, Jed D; Lum, Jarrad A G; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    Often, during daily experiences, hearing peers' actions can activate motor regions of the CNS. This activation is termed auditory-motor resonance (AMR) and is thought to represent an internal simulation of one's motor memories. Currently, AMR is demonstrated at the neuronal level in the Macaque and songbird, in conjunction with evidence on a systems level in humans. Here, we review evidence of AMR development from a motor control perspective. In the context of internal modelling, we consider data that demonstrates sensory-guided motor learning and action maintenance, particularly the notion of sensory comparison seen during songbird vocalisation. We suggest that these comparisons generate accurate sensory-to-motor inverse mappings. Furthermore, given reports of mapping decay after songbird learning, we highlight the proposal that the maintenance of these sensorimotor maps potentially explains why frontoparietal regions are activated upon hearing known sounds (i.e., AMR). In addition, we also recommend that activation of these types of internal models outside of action execution may provide an ecological advantage when encountering known stimuli in ambiguous conditions.

  16. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  17. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of switched reluctance motor

    Tahour Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results show that the designed ANFIS speed controller realizes a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  18. Nonlinear Control of Induction Motors: A Performance Study

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach to control of induction motors based on nonlinear state feedback has previously been presented by the authors. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers for the...... for the field amplitude and the motor torque. The method is compared with the traditional Rotor Field Oriented Control method as regards variations in rotor resistance an magnetizing inductance......A novel approach to control of induction motors based on nonlinear state feedback has previously been presented by the authors. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers...

  19. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  20. The effect of gravity on the motor control of landing

    Gambelli, Clément

    2016-01-01

    Landing from a fall is a complex action requiring the prediction of the instant of contact with the ground. Since humans have developed motor actions on Earth, the nervous system and the sensory input processing are optimized to the Earth’s gravity. The aim of this study is to assess human motor control of landing in different conditions of fall initiation, simulated gravity and sensory neural input. Hypergravity was simulated either on Earth with a Subject Loading System (SLS) generating a p...

  1. High power density superconducting motor for control applications

    Lopez, J; Granados, X; Lloberas, J; Torres, R; Grau, J; Maynou, R; Bosch, R

    2008-01-01

    A high dynamics superconducting low power motor for control applications has been considered for design. The rotor is cylindrical with machined bulks that generate the field by trapping flux in a four poles configuration. The toothless iron armature is wound by copper, acting iron only as magnetic screen. Details of the magnetic assembling, cryogenics and electrical supply conditioning will be reported. Improvements due to the use of a superconducting set are compared with performances of equivalent conventional motors

  2. Mapping cortical hand motor representation using TMS: A method to assess brain plasticity and a surrogate marker for recovery of function after stroke?

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is associated with reorganization within motor areas of both hemispheres. Mapping the cortical hand motor representation using transcranial magnetic stimulation may help to understand the relationship between motor cortex reorganization and motor recovery of the affected hand after stroke. A standardized review of the pertinent literature was performed. We identified 20 trials, which analyzed the relationship between the extent and/or location of cortical hand motor representation using transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor function and recovery of the affected hand. Several correlations were found between cortical reorganization and measures of hand motor impairment and recovery. A better understanding of the relationships between the extent and location of cortical hand motor representation and the motor impairment and motor recovery of the affected hand after stroke may contribute to a targeted use of non-invasive brain stimulation protocols. In the future motor mapping may help to guide brain stimulation techniques to the most effective motor area in an affected individual. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ON THE ISSUE OF VECTOR CONTROL OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

    B. I. Firago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of one of the widespread types of vector control realization for the asynchronous motors with a short-circuited rotor. Of all more than 20 vector control types known presently, the following are applied most frequently: direct vector control with velocity pickup (VP, direct vector control without VP, indirect vector control with VP and indirect vector control without VP. Despite the fact that the asynchronous-motor indirect vector control without VP is the easiest and most spread, the absence of VP does not allow controlling the motor electromagnetic torque at zero velocity. This is the reason why for electric motor drives of such requirements they utilize the vector control with a velocity transducer. The systems of widest dissemination became the direct and indirect vector control systems with X-axis alignment of the synchronously rotating x–y-coordinate frame along the rotor flux-linkage vector inasmuch as this provides the simplest correlations for controlling variables. Although these two types of vector control are well presented in literature, a number of issues concerning their realization and practical application require further elaboration. These include: the block schemes adequate representation as consisted with the modern realization of vector control and clarification of the analytical expressions for evaluating the regulator parameters.The authors present a technique for evaluating the dynamics of an asynchronous electric motor drive with direct vector control and x-axis alignment along the vector of rotor flux linkage. The article offers a generalized structure of this vector control type with detailed description of its principal blocks: controlling system, frequency converter, and the asynchronous motor.The paper presents a direct vector control simulating model developed in the MatLab environment on the grounds of this structure. The authors illustrate the described technique with the results

  4. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  5. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech...... is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....

  6. The micro-step motor controller protocol and driver

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    We developed the communication protocol which is a main kernel of motor control firmware program that is used at HANARO neutron spectrometer now. This protocol driver divide into as a 4 group(Serial protocol, DLL, Active-X, Labview driver), so end-user can control the motor control as easily by PC RS232/422 port and have a merits as follows: Support a Low Level/High level driver, Support a Network Connectivity function by using High level Driver, One Server can services many client request. By using this protocol, The End-user can be easily makes a application motor control program and developed another application system program by using several kinds of programming tools under Widows and Linux based operation systems

  7. Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter Fed Induction Motor Drive

    JAGADEESAN Karpagam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Direct TorqueControl (DTC of induction motor drive using matrixconverters. DTC is a high performance motor controlscheme with fast torque and flux responses. However,the main disadvantage of conventional DTC iselectromagnetic torque ripple. In this paper, directtorque control for Induction Motors using MatrixConverters is analysed and points out the problem ofthe electromagnetic torque ripple which is one of themost important drawbacks of the Direct TorqueControl. Besides, the matrix converter is a single-stageac-ac power conversion device without dc-link energystorage elements. Matrix converter (MC may becomea good alternative to voltage-source inverter (VSI.This work combines the advantages of the matrixconverter with those of the DTC technique, generatingthe required voltage vectors under unity input powerfactor operation. Simulation results demonstrates theeffectiveness of the torque control.

  8. Motor control of handwriting in the developing brain: A review.

    Palmis, Sarah; Danna, Jeremy; Velay, Jean-Luc; Longcamp, Marieke

    This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to 12-year-old children without learning disabilities. We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old. Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood. The acquisition of a new skill is characterized by the involvement of a network more restricted in space and where neural specificity is increased in key regions. The cerebellum and the left dorsal premotor cortex are of fundamental importance in motor learning, and could be at the core of the acquisition of handwriting.

  9. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-04-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. Engineering molecular motors with controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells and provide optimized device components for tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions and other signals. Here, we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies and guided by a structural model for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we have constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should make it possible to achieve spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size and branchpoint turning.

  10. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells1, and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2,3. Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells, and yield optimized device components for complex tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly3. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions4,5 and other signals6. Here we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies7–11 and guided by a structural model12 for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our general strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should enable spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size13, and branchpoint turning14. PMID:22343382

  11. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  12. Nonlinear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor driving a ...

    This paper presents a non-linear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) fed by a PWM voltage source inverter. To improve the performance of this control technique, the input-output linearization technique is proposed for a system driving a mechanical load with two masses. In order to ensure a steady ...

  13. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

    In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is defined to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

  14. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  15. Rehabilitation of motor function after stroke: a multiple systematic review focused on techniques to stimulate upper extremity recovery

    Samar M Hatem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients’ mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed.At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  16. Functional MRI activation of somatosensory and motor cortices in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical sensorimotor recovery

    Neugroschl, C.; Denolin, V.; Schuind, F.; Holder, C. van; David, P.; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory and motor cortical activity with functional MRI (fMRI) in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical recovery. The patient had motor fMRI examinations before transplantation, and motor and passive tactile stimulations after surgery. His normal hand and a normal group were studied for comparison. A patient with complete brachial plexus palsy was studied to assess the lack of a fMRI signal in somatosensory areas in the case of total axonal disconnection. Stimulating the grafted hand revealed significant activation in the contralateral somatosensory cortical areas in all fMRI examinations. The activation was seen as early as 10 days after surgery; this effect cannot be explained by the known physiological mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Although an imagination effect cannot be excluded, the objective clinical recovery of sensory function led us to formulate the hypothesis that a connection to the somatosensory cortex was rapidly established. Additional cases and fundamental studies are needed to assess this hypothesis, but several observations were compatible with this explanation. Before surgery, imaginary motion of the amputated hand produced less intense responses than executed movements of the intact hand, whereas the normal activation pattern for right-handed subjects was found after surgery, in agreement with the good clinical motor recovery. (orig.)

  17. Control of automotive waste heat recovery systems with parallel evaporators

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rascanu, G.C.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is applied to control a Waste Heat Recovery system for a highly dynamic automotive application. As a benchmark, a commonly applied control strategy is used that consists of a feedforward based on engine conditions and of two PI controllers that

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation as an investigative tool for motor dysfunction and recovery in stroke: an overview for neurorehabilitation clinicians.

    Cortes, Mar; Black-Schaffer, Randie M; Edwards, Dylan J

    2012-07-01

    An improved understanding of motor dysfunction and recovery after stroke has important clinical implications that may lead to the design of more effective rehabilitation strategies for patients with hemiparesis. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and painless tool that has been used in conjunction with other existing diagnostic tools to investigate motor pathophysiology in stroke patients. Since TMS emerged more than two decades ago, its application in clinical and basic neuroscience has expanded worldwide. TMS can quantify the corticomotor excitability properties of clinically affected and unaffected muscles and can probe local cortical networks as well as remote but functionally related areas. This provides novel insight into the physiology of neural circuits underlying motor dysfunction and brain reorganization during the motor recovery process. This important tool needs to be used with caution by clinical investigators, its limitations need to be understood, and the results should to be interpreted along with clinical evaluation in this patient population. In this review, we provide an overview of the rationale, implementation, and limitations of TMS to study stroke motor physiology. This knowledge may be useful to guide future rehabilitation treatments by assessing and promoting functional plasticity. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  20. Rapid Control Prototyping Plataform for Didactic Plant Motor DC

    Cristian Bazán-Orobio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a design, implementation and validation of a Rapid Control Prototype platform for a plant based on a DC motor is proposed. This low-cost prototype provides of an electronic card (with a motor DC and sensors manipulated by PC with free software tools using Linux, Scilab / Scicos and RTAI-Lab. This RCP System allows developing speed -position control trainings by using different types of PID industrial controllers with anti – wind up and bump less transfer schemes. We develop a speed control application structured in four steps: identification, controller design, simulation and real time control, where there are pedagogical advantages of a platform that not only allows simulation but also real-time control of a plant.

  1. Strength and fine dexterity recovery profiles after a primary motor cortex insult and effect of a neuronal cell graft.

    Vaysse, Laurence; Conchou, Fabrice; Demain, Boris; Davoust, Carole; Plas, Benjamin; Ruggieri, Cyrielle; Benkaddour, Mehdi; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to set up (a) a large primary motor cortex (M1) lesion in rodent and (b) the conditions for evaluating a long-lasting motor deficit in order to propose a valid model to test neuronal replacement therapies aimed at improving motor deficit recovery. A mitochondrial toxin, malonate, was injected to induce extensive destruction of the forelimb M1 cortex. Three key motor functions that are usually evaluated following cerebral lesion in the clinic-strength, target reaching, and fine dexterity-were assessed in rats by 2 tests, a forelimb grip strength test and a skilled reaching task (staircase) for reaching and dexterity. The potential enhancement of postlesion recovery induced by a neuronal cell transplantation was then explored and confirmed by histological analyses. Both tests showed a severe functional impairment 2 days post lesion, however, reaching remained intact. Deficits in forelimb strength were long lasting (up to 3 months) but spontaneously recovered despite the extensive lesion size. This natural grip strength recovery could be enhanced by cell therapy. Histological analyses confirmed the presence of grafted cells 3 months postgraft and showed partial tissue reconstruction with some living neuronal cells in the graft. In contrast, fine dexterity never recovered in the staircase test even after grafting. These results suggest that cell replacement was only partially effective and that the forelimb M1 area may be a node of the sensorimotor network, where compensation from secondary pathways could account for strength recovery but recovery of forelimb fine dexterity requires extensive tissue reconstruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  3. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  4. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Lisa Katharina Pendt

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  5. Recovery of gait and other motor functions after stroke: novel physical and pharmacological treatment strategies.

    Hesse, S

    2004-01-01

    The gait-lab at Klinik Berlin developed and evaluated novel physical and pharmacological strategies promoting the repetitive practise of hemiparetic gait in line with the slogan: who wants to relearn walking, has to walk. Areas of research are treadmill training with partial body weight support, enabling wheelchair-bound subjects to repetitively practice gait, the electromechanical gait trainer GT I reducing the effort on the therapists as compared to the manually assisted locomotor therapy, and the future HapticWalker which will allow the additional practise of stair climbing up and down and of perturbations. Further means to promote gait practice after stroke was the application of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of lower limb spasticity and the early use of walking aids. New areas of research are also the study of D-Amphetamine, which failed to promote motor recovery in acute stroke patients as compared to placebo, and the development of a computerized arm trainer, Bi-Manu-T rack, for the bilateral treatment of patients with a severe upper limb paresis.

  6. Assessment of motor recovery and MRI correlates in a porcine spinal cord injury model

    Igor Šulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrated on behavioral and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics in a porcine spinal cord injury model. Six adult minipigs weighing 32–35 kg were narcotized by thiopental, intubated, and placed on a volume-cycled ventilator. Anaesthesia was maintained by 1.5% sevoflurane with oxygen. Following location of the 1st lumbar vertebra animals were fastened in an immobilization frame. The spinal cord, exposed through a laminectomy, was compressed by a 5 mm thick circular rod with a peak force of 0.8 kg at a velocity of 3 cm·s-1. The next day the minipigs were paraplegic but improved rapidly to paraparesis. On the 12th postoperative day they were euthanasied. Neural tissue changes were evaluated by post mortem MRI, which showed damage to the spinal cord white and/or gray matter in the epicentre of compression with longitudinal spreading over one segment cranially and caudally. Statistical analyses performed by Spearman’s rho test revealed positive correlations between damaged areas and the whole area of the spinal cord white/gray matter (P = 0.047; rs = 0.742 and (P = 0.002; rs = 0.943, respectively. The study confirmed the reliability and reproducibility of the utilised model of spinal cord trauma. The structural changes in the epicentre of injury did not impede the rapid but incomplete recovery of motor functions.

  7. Chaotic operation and chaos control of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    Shi, Jingzhuo; Zhao, Fujie; Shen, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-08-01

    The travelling wave ultrasonic motor, which is a nonlinear dynamic system, has complex chaotic phenomenon with some certain choices of system parameters and external inputs, and its chaotic characteristics have not been studied until now. In this paper, the preliminary study of the chaos phenomenon in ultrasonic motor driving system has been done. The experiment of speed closed-loop control is designed to obtain several groups of time sampling data sequence of the amplitude of driving voltage, and phase-space reconstruction is used to analyze the chaos characteristics of these time sequences. The largest Lyapunov index is calculated and the result is positive, which shows that the travelling wave ultrasonic motor has chaotic characteristics in a certain working condition Then, the nonlinear characteristics of travelling wave ultrasonic motor are analyzed which includes Lyapunov exponent map, the bifurcation diagram and the locus of voltage relative to speed based on the nonlinear chaos model of a travelling wave ultrasonic motor. After that, two kinds of adaptive delay feedback controllers are designed in this paper to control and suppress chaos in USM speed control system. Simulation results show that the method can control unstable periodic orbits, suppress chaos in USM control system. Proportion-delayed feedback controller was designed following and arithmetic of fuzzy logic was used to adaptively adjust the delay time online. Simulation results show that this method could fast and effectively change the chaos movement into periodic or fixed-point movement and make the system enter into stable state from chaos state. Finally the chaos behavior was controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  9. Motor control and the management of musculoskeletal dysfunction.

    van Vliet, Paulette M; Heneghan, Nicola R

    2006-08-01

    This paper aims to develop understanding of three important motor control issues--feedforward mechanisms, cortical plasticity and task-specificity and assess the implications for musculoskeletal practice. A model of control for the reach-to-grasp movement illustrates how the central nervous system integrates sensorimotor processes to control complex movements. Feedforward mechanisms, an essential element of motor control, are altered in neurologically intact patients with chronic neck pain and low back pain. In healthy subjects, cortical mapping studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation have demonstrated that neural pathways adapt according to what and how much is practised. Neuroplasticity has also been demonstrated in a number of musculoskeletal conditions, where cortical maps are altered compared to normal. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies indicate that environmental and task constraints such as the goal of the task and an object's shape and size, are determinants of the motor schema for reaching and other movements. Consideration of motor control issues as well as signs and symptoms, may facilitate management of musculoskeletal conditions and improve outcome. Practice of entire everyday tasks at an early stage and systematic variation of the task is recommended. Training should be directed with the aim of re-educating feedforward mechanisms where necessary and the amount of practice should be sufficient to cause changes in cortical activity.

  10. EOG Controlled Motorized Wheelchair for Disabled Persons

    A. Naga Rajesh; S. Chandralingam; T. Anjaneyulu; K. Satyanarayana

    2014-01-01

    Assistive robotics are playing a vital role in advancing the quality of life for disable people. There exist wide range of systems that can control and guide autonomous mobile robots. The objective of the control system is to guide an autonomous mobile robot using the movement of eyes by means of EOG signal. The EOG signal is acquired using Ag/AgCl electrodes and this signal is processed by a microcontroller unit to calculate the eye gaze direction. Then according to the guidance control stra...

  11. Motor Preparation Disrupts Proactive Control in the Stop Signal Task

    Wuyi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the stop signal task (SST we employed Bayesian modeling to compute the estimated likelihood of stop signal or P(Stop trial by trial and identified regional processes of conflict anticipation and response slowing. A higher P(Stop is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time (goRT—a form of sequential effect—and reflects proactive control of motor response. However, some individuals do not demonstrate a sequential effect despite similar go and stop success (SS rates. We posited that motor preparation may disrupt proactive control more in certain individuals than others. Specifically, the time interval between trial and go signal onset—the fore-period (FP—varies across trials and a longer FP is associated with a higher level of motor preparation and shorter goRT. Greater motor preparatory activities may disrupt proactive control. To test this hypothesis, we compared brain activations and Granger causal connectivities of 81 adults who demonstrated a sequential effect (SEQ and 35 who did not (nSEQ. SEQ and nSEQ did not differ in regional activations to conflict anticipation, motor preparation, goRT slowing or goRT speeding. In contrast, SEQ and nSEQ demonstrated different patterns of Granger causal connectivities. P(Stop and FP activations shared reciprocal influence in SEQ but FP activities Granger caused P(Stop activities unidirectionally in nSEQ, and FP activities Granger caused goRT speeding activities in nSEQ but not SEQ. These findings support the hypothesis that motor preparation disrupts proactive control in nSEQ and provide direct neural evidence for interactive go and stop processes.

  12. Controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control: A framework for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context

    Subotic, Branka; Schuster, Wolfgang; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    Air Traffic Control (ATC) involves a complex interaction of human operators (primarily air traffic controllers), equipment and procedures. On the rare occasions when equipment malfunctions, controllers play a crucial role in the recovery process of the ATC system for continued safe operation. Research on human performance in other safety critical industries using human reliability assessment techniques has shown that the context in which recovery from failures takes place has a significant influence on the outcome of the process. This paper investigates the importance of context in which air traffic controller recovery from equipment failures takes place, defining it in terms of 20 Recovery Influencing Factors (RIFs). The RIFs are used to develop a novel approach for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context based on a metric referred to as the Recovery Context Indicator (RCI). The method is validated by a series of simulation exercises conducted at a specific ATC Centre. The proposed method is useful to assess recovery enhancement approaches within ATC centres

  13. Controller Design for Direct Torque Controlled Space Vector Modulated (DTC-SVM) Induction Motor Drives

    Zelechowski, M.; Kazmierkowski, M.P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of PI controllers for direct torque controlled-space vector modulated induction motor drives have been studied. The first one is simple method based only on symmetric optimum criterion. The second approach takes into account the full model of induction motor in...

  14. Simple Approach For Induction Motor Control Using Reconfigurable Hardware

    József VÁSÁRHELYI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with rotor-field-oriented vector control structures for the induction motor drives fed by the so-called tandem frequency converter. It is composed of two different types of DC-link converters connected in parallel arrangement. The larger-power one has current-source character and is operating synchronized in time and in amplitude with the stator currents. The other one has voltage-source character and it is the actuator of the motor control system. The drive is able to run also with partial-failed tandem converter, if the control strategy corresponds to the actual operating mode. A reconfigurable hardware implemented in configurable logic cells ensures the changing of the vector-control structure. The proposed control schemes were tested by simulation based on Matlab-Simulink model.

  15. Enhanced pid vs model predictive control applied to bldc motor

    Gaya, M. S.; Muhammad, Auwal; Aliyu Abdulkadir, Rabiu; Salim, S. N. S.; Madugu, I. S.; Tijjani, Aminu; Aminu Yusuf, Lukman; Dauda Umar, Ibrahim; Khairi, M. T. M.

    2018-01-01

    BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motor is a multivariable and highly complex nonlinear system. Variation of internal parameter values with environment or reference signal increases the difficulty in controlling the BLDC effectively. Advanced control strategies (like model predictive control) often have to be integrated to satisfy the control desires. Enhancing or proper tuning of a conventional algorithm results in achieving the desired performance. This paper presents a performance comparison of Enhanced PID and Model Predictive Control (MPC) applied to brushless direct current motor. The simulation results demonstrated that the PSO-PID is slightly better than the PID and MPC in tracking the trajectory of the reference signal. The proposed scheme could be useful algorithms for the system.

  16. Illusory movement perception improves motor control for prosthetic hands

    Marasco, Paul D.; Hebert, Jacqueline S.; Sensinger, Jon W.; Shell, Courtney E.; Schofield, Jonathon S.; Thumser, Zachary C.; Nataraj, Raviraj; Beckler, Dylan T.; Dawson, Michael R.; Blustein, Dan H.; Gill, Satinder; Mensh, Brett D.; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Newcomb, Madeline D.; Carey, Jason P.; Orzell, Beth M.

    2018-01-01

    To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement’s progress. This largely non-conscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. Here we report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands. Vibrating the muscles used for prosthetic control via a neural-machine interface produced the illusory perception of complex grip movements. Within minutes, three amputees integrated this kinesthetic feedback and improved movement control. Combining intent, kinesthesia, and vision instilled participants with a sense of agency over the robotic movements. This feedback approach for closed-loop control opens a pathway to seamless integration of minds and machines. PMID:29540617

  17. Effective and Robust Generalized Predictive Speed Control of Induction Motor

    Patxi Alkorta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and validates a new proposal for effective speed vector control of induction motors based on linear Generalized Predictive Control (GPC law. The presented GPC-PI cascade configuration simplifies the design with regard to GPC-GPC cascade configuration, maintaining the advantages of the predictive control algorithm. The robust stability of the closed loop system is demonstrated by the poles placement method for several typical cases of uncertainties in induction motors. The controller has been tested using several simulations and experiments and has been compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and Sliding Mode (SM control schemes, obtaining outstanding results in speed tracking even in the presence of parameter uncertainties, unknown load disturbance, and measurement noise in the loop signals, suggesting its use in industrial applications.

  18. Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Using Super Twisting Algorithm

    Muhammad Rafiq Mufti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent problem of chattering in traditional sliding mode control is harmful for practical application of control system. This paper pays a considerable attention to a chattering-free control method, that is, higher-order sliding mode (super twisting algorithm. The design of a position controller for switched reluctance motor is presented and its stability is assured using Lyapunov stability theorem. In order to highlight the advantages of higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC, a classical first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC is also applied to the same system and compared. The simulation results reflect the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  19. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle

    2015-01-01

    fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H...

  20. Fuzzy sliding mode controller for doubly fed induction motor speed ...

    The use of the nonlinear fuzzy sliding mode method provides very good performance for motor operation and robustness of the control law despite the external/internal perturbations. The chattering effects is eliminated by a particular function "sat" that presents a serious problem to applications of variable structure systems.

  1. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  2. performance characteristics of an armature voltage controlled dc motor

    Dr Obe

    obtained by digital computer analysis. The results show that closed loop operation, with appropriate control ... Using digital computer analysis, the driver characteristics of a test motor is investigated. In the closed loop ... system circuit failure especially with respect to the semiconductor devices that may be used in varying ...

  3. Velocity control in three-phase induction motors using PIC; Controle de velocidade de motor de inducao trifasico usando PIC

    Marcelino, M.A.; Silva, G.B.S.; Grandinetti, F.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)], Emails: abud@feg.unesp.br, gabonini@yahoo.com.br, grandinetti@unitau.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for speed control three-phase induction motor using the pulse width modulation (PWM), in open loop while maintaining the tension for constant frequency. The technique is adapted from a thesis entitled 'Control of the three-phase induction motor, using discrete PWM generation, optimized and synchronized', where studies are presented aimed at their application in home appliances, to eliminate mechanical parts, replaced by low cost electronic control, thus having a significant reduction in power consumption. Initially the experiment was done with the Intel 80C31 micro controller. In this paper, the PWM modulation is implemented using a PIC micro controller, and the speed control kept a low profile, based on tables, synchronized with transitions and reduced generation of harmonics in the network. Confirmations were made using the same process of building tables, but takes advantage of the program of a RISC device.

  4. Impulsive control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with parameters uncertainties

    Li Dong; Zhang Xiaohong; Wang Shilong; Yan Dan; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) may have chaotic behaviours for the uncertain values of parameters or under certain working conditions, which threatens the secure and stable operation of motor-driven. It is important to study methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this paper, robust stabilities of PMSM with parameter uncertainties are investigated. After the uncertain matrices which represent the variable system parameters are formulated through matrix analysis, a novel asymptotical stability criterion is established. Some illustrated examples are also given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results

  5. Sensorless Control of Electric Motors with Kalman Filters: Applications to Robotic and Industrial Systems

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies sensorless control for DC and induction motors, using Kalman Filtering techniques. First the case of a DC motor is considered and Kalman Filter-based control is implemented. Next the nonlinear model of a field-oriented induction motor is examined and the motor

  6. Fuzzy – PI controller to control the velocity parameter of Induction Motor

    Malathy, R.; Balaji, V.

    2018-04-01

    The major application of Induction motor includes the usage of the same in industries because of its high robustness, reliability, low cost, highefficiency and good self-starting capability. Even though it has the above mentioned advantages, it also have some limitations: (1) the standard motor is not a true constant-speed machine, itsfull-load slip varies less than 1 % (in high-horsepower motors).And (2) it is not inherently capable of providing variable-speedoperation. In order to solve the above mentioned problem smart motor controls and variable speed controllers are used. Motor applications involve non linearity features, which can be controlled by Fuzzy logic controller as it is capable of handling those features with high efficiency and it act similar to human operator. This paper presents individuality of the plant modelling. The fuzzy logic controller (FLC)trusts on a set of linguistic if-then rules, a rule-based Mamdani for closed loop Induction Motor model. Themotor model is designed and membership functions are chosenaccording to the parameters of the motor model. Simulation results contains non linearity in induction motor model. A conventional PI controller iscompared practically to fuzzy logic controller using Simulink.

  7. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  8. Pollution control -- Recovery of uranium from phosphatic fertilizer industry

    Trivedi, R.N.; Pachaiyappan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Various uranium recovery processes, viz. Brazilian process (HCL leaching), selective extraction of U, Japanese process, ORNL process and the Indian methods, recently developed, pertaining to the fertilizer industry are reviewed and their relative merits are discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recovery of uranium from the Indian and imported phosphatic rocks, showing the advantages, both from the pollution control and nuclear energy aspects. (K.B.)

  9. Perinatal Development of the Motor Systems Involved in Postural Control

    Laurent Vinay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood—e.g, deficits in motor coordination—might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy.

  10. Water control for enhanced oil recovery

    Cole, R.C.; Mody, B.; Pace, J.

    1981-11-01

    Gains in recovery efficiency in W. Texas oil and gas fields have been realized as a result of applying 4 different chemical processes, either singly or in combination. Each of the 4 chemical processes has been tailored to meet specific reservoir requirements. Complete plugging of high flow capacity channels can be accomplished, and the high water production portion of a producing zone can be sealed by injection of gel-forming chemicals into the matrix. Both floodwater diversion and water-oil mobility ratio improvement can be attained by in situ polymerization of a one-stage polymer bank in the reservoir. In producing wells, the water-oil production ratio can be favorably changed by treating certain formulations with a nonplugging polymer which tends to restrict water flow but not oil. One feature which each of the 4 processes has in common is the ability to invade deeply into matrix which may produce long lasting results. A description of each process is presented with various placement techniques used to obtain optimum results. Data from fields which have benefited from these treatments are presented. The work describes what may be expected with each of these proven processes based on field results.

  11. Myoelectric hand prosthesis force control through servo motor current feedback.

    Sono, Tálita Saemi Payossim; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the prehension force closed-loop control design of a mechanical finger commanded by electromyographic signal (EMG) from a patient's arm. The control scheme was implemented and tested in a mechanical finger prototype with three degrees of freedom and one actuator, driven by arm muscles EMG of normal volunteers. Real-time indirect estimation of prehension force was assessed by measuring the DC servo motor actuator current. A model of the plant comprising finger, motor, and grasped object was proposed. Model parameters were identified experimentally and a classical feedback phase-lead compensator was designed. The controlled mechanical finger was able to provide a more accurate prehension force modulation of a compliant object when compared to open-loop control.

  12. Loss Minimization Sliding Mode Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives

    Mehran Zamanifar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear loss minimization control strategy for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM based on a newly developed sliding mode approach is presented. This control method sets force the speed control of the IPMSM drives and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the losses besides the uncertainties exist in the system such as parameter variations which have undesirable effects on the controller performance except at near nominal conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  13. Intrinsic Hardware Evolution for the Design and Reconfiguration of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a second generation Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA2). The performance of an evolved controller is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. It is shown that hardware evolution is able to create a compact design that provides good performance, while using considerably less functional electronic components than the conventional design. Additionally, the use of hardware evolution to provide fault tolerance by reconfiguring the design is explored. Experimental results are presented showing that significant recovery of capability can be made in the face of damaging induced faults.

  14. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for glioma removal: prognostic value in motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

    Takakura, Tomokazu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Niki, Chiharu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i.e., before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks after surgery. To assess the response induced by nTMS, motor evoked potential (nTMS-MEP) was recorded using a surface electromyography electrode attached to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The cortical locations that elicited the largest electromyography response by nTMS were defined as hotspots. Hotspots for APB were confirmed as positive responsive sites by direct electrical stimulation (DES) during awake craniotomy. The distances between hotspots and lesions (D HS-L ) were measured. Postoperative neurological deficits were assessed by manual muscle test and dynamometer. To validate the prognostic value of nTMS in recovery from upper-extremity paresis, the following were investigated: 1) the correlation between D HS-L and the serial grip strength change, and 2) the correlation between positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery and the serial grip strength change. RESULTS From the presurgical nTMS study, MEPs from targeted muscles were identified in 13 cases from affected hemispheres. In one case, MEP was not evoked due to a huge tumor. Among 9 cases from which intraoperative DES mapping for hand motor area was available, hotspots for APB identified by nTMS were concordant with DES-positive sites. Compared with the adjacent group (D HS-L < 10 mm, n = 6), the nonadjacent group (D HS-L ≥ 10 mm, n = 7) showed significantly better recovery of grip strength at 3 months after surgery (p < 0.01). There were

  15. Is the basic trunk control recovery different between stroke patients with right and left hemiparesis?

    Pappalardo, A; Ciancio, M R; Patti, F

    2014-01-01

    Basic trunk movement control is often impaired after stroke and its recovery is a "miliary stone" in rehabilitation. In this prospective, observational, parallel-group study, we investigated whether there are differences in terms of post-stroke recovery of basic trunk control between patients with left or with right hemiparesis. We recruited 94 patients with loss of postural trunk control due to stroke. Patients were divided into Group A (48 patients with left hemiparesis) and Group B (46 patients with right hemiparesis). We administered the Trunk Control Test (TCT) and the 13 motor items included on the Functional Independence Measure. Evaluation was performed at admission (To) and discharge (T1). TCT increased respectively from 46.7 ± 23.3 to 62.6 ± 19.5 (mean ± standard deviation-SD, p hemiparesis could affect the degree of recovery of basic trunk control after stroke. Patients with right hemiparesis benefit more than those with left hemiparesis. Improvement of basic trunk control was not responsible for an advantage on functional independence.

  16. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control.

    Reis, Janine; Swayne, Orlando B; Vandermeeren, Yves; Camus, Mickael; Dimyan, Michael A; Harris-Love, Michelle; Perez, Monica A; Ragert, Patrick; Rothwell, John C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2008-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and across cerebral hemispheres. These applications have provided insight into the intracortical physiological processes underlying the functional role of different brain regions in various cognitive processes, motor control in health and disease and neuroplastic changes during recovery of function after brain lesions. Used in combination with neuroimaging tools, TMS provides valuable information on functional connectivity between different brain regions, and on the relationship between physiological processes and the anatomical configuration of specific brain areas and connected pathways. More recently, there has been increasing interest in the extent to which these physiological processes are modulated depending on the behavioural setting. The purpose of this paper is (a) to present an up-to-date review of the available electrophysiological data and the impact on our understanding of human motor behaviour and (b) to discuss some of the gaps in our present knowledge as well as future directions of research in a format accessible to new students and/or investigators. Finally, areas of uncertainty and limitations in the interpretation of TMS studies are discussed in some detail.

  17. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  18. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (... not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except...... that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results....

  19. Performance improvement of a slip energy recovery drive system by a voltage-controlled technique

    Tunyasrirut, Satean [Department of Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pathumwan Institute of Technology, 833 Rama1 Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kinnares, Vijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ngamwiwit, Jongkol [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    This paper introduces the performance improvement of a slip energy recovery drive system for the speed control of a wound rotor induction motor by a voltage-controlled technique. The slip energy occurred in the rotor circuit is transferred back to ac mains supply through a reactor instead of a step up transformer. The objective of the voltage-controlled technique is to increase power factor of the system and to reduce low order harmonics of the input line current. The drive system is designed and implemented using a voltage source inverter in conjunction with a boost chopper for DC link voltage, instead of a conventional drive using a 6 pulse converter or a Scherbius system. The slip power is recovered by the help of a voltage source inverter (VSI) based on a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. In order to keep the speed of the wound rotor induction motor constant over a certain range of operating conditions, the servo state feedback controller designed by a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is also introduced in this paper. The overall control system is implemented on DSP, DS1104'TMS320F240 controller board. The performance improvement of the proposed system is tested in comparison with the conventional Scherbius system and the modified conventional Scherbius system by a 12 pulse converter in conjunction with a chopper at steady state and at dynamic conditions. A 220 W wound motor is employed for testing. It is found that the motor speed can be controlled to be constant in the operating range of 450-1200 rpm at no load and full load. It is also found that the efficiency of the proposed system is remarkably increased since the harmonics of the input ac line current is reduced while the ac line input power factor is increased. (author)

  20. Signal differentiation in position tracking control of dc motors

    Beltran-Carbajal, F; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, A; Rosas-Caro, J C

    2015-01-01

    An asymptotic differentiation approach with respect to time is used for on-line estimation of velocity and acceleration signals in controlled dc motors. The attractive feature of this differentiator of signals is that it does not require any system mathematical model, which allows its use in engineering systems that require the signal differentiation for its control, identification, fault detection, among other applications. Moreover, it is shown that the differentiation approach can be applied for output signals showing a chaotic behavior. In addition a differential flatness control scheme with additional integral compensation of the output error is proposed for tracking tasks of position reference trajectories for direct current electric motors using angular position measurements only

  1. Fuzzy Impulsive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Dong, Li; Shi-Long, Wang; Xiao-Hong, Zhang; Dan, Yang; Hui, Wang

    2008-01-01

    The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) may experience chaotic behaviours with systemic parameters falling into a certain area or under certain working conditions, which threaten the secure and stable operation of motor-driven. Hence, it is important to study the methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this work, the Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy impulsive control model for PMSMs is established via the T-S modelling methodology and impulsive technology. Based on the new model, the control conditions of asymptotical stability and exponential stability for PMSMs have been derived by the Lyapunov method. Finally, an illustrated example is also given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results

  2. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    Toma, Keiichiro

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  4. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    Toma, Keiichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Nakai, Toshiharu [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  5. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  6. Novel intelligent PID control of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    Jingzhuo, Shi; Yu, Liu; Jingtao, Huang; Meiyu, Xu; Juwei, Zhang; Lei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    A simple control strategy with acceptable control performance can be a good choice for the mass production of ultrasonic motor control system. In this paper, through the theoretic and experimental analyses of typical control process, a simpler intelligent PID speed control strategy of TWUM is proposed, involving only two expert rules to adjust the PID control parameters based on the current status. Compared with the traditional PID controller, this design requires less calculation and more cheap chips which can be easily involved in online performance. Experiments with different load torques and voltage amplitudes show that the proposed controller can deal with the nonlinearity and load disturbance to maintain good control performance of TWUM. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasticity in One Hemisphere, Control From Two: Adaptation in Descending Motor Pathways After Unilateral Corticospinal Injury in Neonatal Rats

    Tong-Chun Wen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After injury to the corticospinal tract (CST in early development there is large-scale adaptation of descending motor pathways. Some studies suggest the uninjured hemisphere controls the impaired forelimb, while others suggest that the injured hemisphere does; these pathways have never been compared directly. We tested the contribution of each motor cortex to the recovery forelimb function after neonatal injury of the CST. We cut the left pyramid (pyramidotomy of postnatal day 7 rats, which caused a measurable impairment of the right forelimb. We used pharmacological inactivation of each motor cortex to test its contribution to a skilled reach and supination task. Rats with neonatal pyramidotomy were further impaired by inactivation of motor cortex in both the injured and the uninjured hemispheres, while the forelimb of uninjured rats was impaired only from the contralateral motor cortex. Thus, inactivation demonstrated motor control from each motor cortex. In contrast, physiological and anatomical interrogation of these pathways support adaptations only in the uninjured hemisphere. Intracortical microstimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy produced responses from both forelimbs, while stimulation of the injured hemisphere did not elicit responses from either forelimb. Both anterograde and retrograde tracers were used to label corticofugal pathways. There was no increased plasticity from the injured hemisphere, either from cortex to the red nucleus or the red nucleus to the spinal cord. In contrast, there were very strong CST connections to both halves of the spinal cord from the uninjured motor cortex. Retrograde tracing produced maps of each forelimb within the uninjured hemisphere, and these were partly segregated. This suggests that the uninjured hemisphere may encode separate control of the unimpaired and the impaired forelimbs of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy.

  8. Plasticity in One Hemisphere, Control From Two: Adaptation in Descending Motor Pathways After Unilateral Corticospinal Injury in Neonatal Rats.

    Wen, Tong-Chun; Lall, Sophia; Pagnotta, Corey; Markward, James; Gupta, Disha; Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Shivakeshavan; Bucci, Jacqueline; Greenwald, Lucy; Klugman, Madelyne; Hill, N Jeremy; Carmel, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    After injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) in early development there is large-scale adaptation of descending motor pathways. Some studies suggest the uninjured hemisphere controls the impaired forelimb, while others suggest that the injured hemisphere does; these pathways have never been compared directly. We tested the contribution of each motor cortex to the recovery forelimb function after neonatal injury of the CST. We cut the left pyramid (pyramidotomy) of postnatal day 7 rats, which caused a measurable impairment of the right forelimb. We used pharmacological inactivation of each motor cortex to test its contribution to a skilled reach and supination task. Rats with neonatal pyramidotomy were further impaired by inactivation of motor cortex in both the injured and the uninjured hemispheres, while the forelimb of uninjured rats was impaired only from the contralateral motor cortex. Thus, inactivation demonstrated motor control from each motor cortex. In contrast, physiological and anatomical interrogation of these pathways support adaptations only in the uninjured hemisphere. Intracortical microstimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy produced responses from both forelimbs, while stimulation of the injured hemisphere did not elicit responses from either forelimb. Both anterograde and retrograde tracers were used to label corticofugal pathways. There was no increased plasticity from the injured hemisphere, either from cortex to the red nucleus or the red nucleus to the spinal cord. In contrast, there were very strong CST connections to both halves of the spinal cord from the uninjured motor cortex. Retrograde tracing produced maps of each forelimb within the uninjured hemisphere, and these were partly segregated. This suggests that the uninjured hemisphere may encode separate control of the unimpaired and the impaired forelimbs of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy.

  9. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  10. Electromagnetic phenomena analysis in brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method

    Ciurys, Marek Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Field-circuit model of a brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method was developed. Waveforms of electrical and mechanical quantities of the designed motor with a high pressure vane pump built in a rotor of the motor were computed. Analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the system: single phase AC network - converter - BLDC motor was carried out.

  11. Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control.

    Nishikawa, Kiisa; Biewener, Andrew A; Aerts, Peter; Ahn, Anna N; Chiel, Hillel J; Daley, Monica A; Daniel, Thomas L; Full, Robert J; Hale, Melina E; Hedrick, Tyson L; Lappin, A Kristopher; Nichols, T Richard; Quinn, Roger D; Satterlie, Richard A; Szymik, Brett

    2007-07-01

    Neuromechanics seeks to understand how muscles, sense organs, motor pattern generators, and brain interact to produce coordinated movement, not only in complex terrain but also when confronted with unexpected perturbations. Applications of neuromechanics include ameliorating human health problems (including prosthesis design and restoration of movement following brain or spinal cord injury), as well as the design, actuation and control of mobile robots. In animals, coordinated movement emerges from the interplay among descending output from the central nervous system, sensory input from body and environment, muscle dynamics, and the emergent dynamics of the whole animal. The inevitable coupling between neural information processing and the emergent mechanical behavior of animals is a central theme of neuromechanics. Fundamentally, motor control involves a series of transformations of information, from brain and spinal cord to muscles to body, and back to brain. The control problem revolves around the specific transfer functions that describe each transformation. The transfer functions depend on the rules of organization and operation that determine the dynamic behavior of each subsystem (i.e., central processing, force generation, emergent dynamics, and sensory processing). In this review, we (1) consider the contributions of muscles, (2) sensory processing, and (3) central networks to motor control, (4) provide examples to illustrate the interplay among brain, muscles, sense organs and the environment in the control of movement, and (5) describe advances in both robotics and neuromechanics that have emerged from application of biological principles in robotic design. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that (1) intrinsic properties of muscle contribute to dynamic stability and control of movement, particularly immediately after perturbations; (2) proprioceptive feedback reinforces these intrinsic self-stabilizing properties of muscle; (3) control systems

  12. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  13. Self-Controlled Feedback for a Complex Motor Task

    Wolf Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-controlled augmented feedback enhances learning of simple motor tasks. Thereby, learners tend to request feedback after trials that were rated as good by themselves. Feedback after good trials promotes positive reinforcement, which enhances motor learning. The goal of this study was to investigate when naïve learners request terminal visual feedback in a complex motor task, as conclusions drawn on simple tasks can hardly be transferred to complex tasks. Indeed, seven of nine learners stated to have intended to request feedback predominantly after good trials, but in contrast to their intention, kinematic analysis showed that feedback was rather requested randomly (23% after good, 44% after intermediate, 33% after bad trials. Moreover, requesting feedback after good trials did not correlate with learning success. It seems that self-estimation of performance in complex tasks is challenging. As a consequence, learners might have focused on certain movement aspects rather than on the overall movement. Further studies should assess the current focus of the learner in detail to gain more insight in self-estimation capabilities during complex motor task learning.

  14. Vector Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle AC Induction Motor Based on Improved Variable Gain PID Controller

    Gang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.

  15. SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR ON LOAD USING FUZZY LOGIC ...

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic controller for the driver DC motor in the lube oil system of the H25 Hitachi gas turbine generator. The turbine generator is required to run at an operating pressure of 1.5bar with the low and the high pressure trip points being 0.78 bar and 1.9 bar respectively. However, the ...

  16. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making.

    Ignasi Cos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  17. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Verification of control system using inverter and canned motor pump

    Sawada, Yoshiaki; Misato, Hisashi

    2002-01-01

    Control on flow volume and so on of auxiliary systems at power stations is generally carried out by using control valves (CVs), of which numbers and kinds ranges to wide areas. CVs are required for periodical change of packing and so on, of which labor for maintenance is never few. Therefore, to reduce the maintenance of CVs, a system to operate pumps by using an inverter control was investigated. When carrying out flow control by an inverter, valves at output side of pumps was made perfectly open, but because of control on rotation numbers so as to keep required amount excess energy is never consumed. And, by reducing flow volume of a pump, consumed energy is reduced at a rate of its three powers as feature of pumps, so large energy saving effect can be established. Selected canned motor pumps have such characteristics as upgrading of reliability for leakage because of their seal-less ones and extension of periodical inspection period by setting a monitor for abrasion of bearings. As results of some investigations, it could be considered that a control system combining an inverter with a canned motor pump had equal feature as that of a control system using CVs. And, from a test result adding useless time and first order delay element to its control feature forecasting on its application to practical machine could be obtained. (G.K.)

  19. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    Emma Bestaven

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. Methods: Seven subjects were evaluated on four different tasks before and after a subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (0.2 mg: a one-minute balance test, a subjective visual vertical test, a pointing task and a galvanic vestibular stimulation with EMG recordings. Results: The results showed that the reaction time and the movement duration were not modified after the injection of scopolamine. However, there was an increase in the center of pressure displacement during the balance test, a decrease in EMG muscle response after galvanic vestibular stimulation and an alteration in the perception of verticality. Discussion: These results confirm that low doses of scopolamine such as those prescribed to avoid motion sickness have no effect on attentional processes, but that it is essential to consider the responsiveness of each subject. However, scopolamine did affect postural control and the perception of verticality. In conclusion, the use of scopolamine to prevent motion sickness must be considered carefully because it could increase imbalances in situations when individuals are already at risk of falling (e.g., sailing, parabolic flight.

  20. Computers in the Cop Car: Impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal Technology on Motor Vehicle Theft Clearance and Recovery Rates in a Texas City.

    Nunn, Samuel

    1993-01-01

    Assessed the impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal technology (computers used to communicate with remote crime databases) on motor vehicle theft clearance (arresting a perpetrator) and recovery rates in Fort Worth (Texas), using a time series analysis. Impact has been ambiguous, with little evidence of improved clearance or recovery. (SLD)

  1. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  2. Mechanisms of motor recovery after subtotal spinal cord injury: insights from the study of mice carrying a mutation (WldS) that delays cellular responses to injury.

    Zhang, Z; Guth, L; Steward, O

    1998-01-01

    Partial lesions of the mammalian spinal cord result in an immediate motor impairment that recovers gradually over time; however, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the transient nature of this paralysis have not been defined. A unique opportunity to identify those injury-induced cellular responses that mediate the recovery of function has arisen from the discovery of a unique mutant strain of mice in which the onset of Wallerian degeneration is dramatically delayed. In this strain of mice (designated WldS for Wallerian degeneration, slow), many of the cellular responses to spinal cord injury are also delayed. We have used this experimental animal model to evaluate possible causal relationships between these delayed cellular responses and the onset of functional recovery. For this purpose, we have compared the time course of locomotor recovery in C57BL/6 (control) mice and in WldS (mutant) mice by hemisecting the spinal cord at T8 and evaluating locomotor function at daily postoperative intervals. The time course of locomotor recovery (as determined by the Tarlov open-field walking procedure) was substantially delayed in mice carrying the WldS mutation: C57BL/6 control mice began to stand and walk within 6 days (mean Tarlov score of 4), whereas mutant mice did not exhibit comparable locomotor function until 16 days postoperatively. (a) The rapid return of locomotor function in the C57BL/6 mice suggests that the recovery resulted from processes of functional plasticity rather than from regeneration or collateral sprouting of nerve fibers. (b) The marked delay in the return of locomotor function in WldS mice indicates that the processes of neuroplasticity are induced by degenerative changes in the damaged neurons. (c) These strains of mice can be effectively used in future studies to elucidate the specific biochemical and physiological alterations responsible for inducing functional plasticity and restoring locomotor function after spinal cord injury.

  3. Temperature control of evaporators in automotive waste heat recovery systems

    Oom, M.E.E.; Feru, E.; de Jager, A.G.; de Lange, H.C.; Ouwerkerk, H.

    2017-01-01

    his paper presents a control strategy for the steam generation process in automotive waste heat recovery systems that are based on the subcritical Rankine cycle. The central question is how to regulate the flow of water into the evaporator such that dry steam is generated at its outlet, subject to

  4. Mechanical verification of concurrency control and recovery protocols

    Chkliaev, D.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis concerns the formal specification and mechanized verification of concurrency control and recovery protocols for distributed databases. Such protocols are needed for many modern application such as banking and are often used in safety-critical applications. Therefore it is very important

  5. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  6. Optimal control of diesel engines with waste heat recovery systems

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.; Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Del Re, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO 2 - NO x trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  7. Motor skill changes and neurophysiologic adaptation to recovery-oriented virtual rehabilitation of hand function in a person with subacute stroke: a case study.

    Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document

  8. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  9. Motor cortex stimulation does not lead to functional recovery after experimental cortical injury in rats.

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Jahanshahi, Ali; Lemmens, Evi; Bauwens, Matthias; Hescham, Sarah-Anna; Schipper, Sandra; Lagiere, Melanie; Hendrix, Sven; Temel, Yasin

    2017-01-01

    Motor impairments are among the major complications that develop after cortical damage caused by either stroke or traumatic brain injury. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) can improve motor functions in animal models of stroke by inducing neuroplasticity. In the current study, the therapeutic effect of chronic MCS was assessed in a rat model of severe cortical damage. A controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied to the forelimb area of the motor cortex followed by implantation of a flat electrode covering the lesioned area. Forelimb function was assessed using the Montoya staircase test and the cylinder test before and after a period of chronic MCS. Furthermore, the effect of MCS on tissue metabolism and lesion size was measured using [18F]-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) μPET scanning. CCI caused a considerable lesion at the level of the motor cortex and dorsal striatum together with a long-lasting behavioral phenotype of forelimb impairment. However, MCS applied to the CCI lesion did not lead to any improvement in limb functioning when compared to non-stimulated control rats. Also, MCS neither changed lesion size nor distribution of FDG. The use of MCS as a standalone treatment did not improve motor impairments in a rat model of severe cortical damage using our specific treatment modalities.

  10. Direct Torque Control With Feedback Linearization for Induction Motor Drives

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a direct-torque-controlled (DTC) induction motor (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control (SMC). A new feedback linearization approach is proposed, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC-type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using SMC with proportional control in the vicinity of the sliding surface. SMC assures...... in simulations. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme with and without feedback linearization. Extensive experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....

  11. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH; Breitzmann, Robert J [South Russel, OH; Nondahl, Thomas A [Wauwatosa, WI; Schmidt, Peter B [Franklin, WI; Liu, Jingbo [Milwaukee, WI

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  12. Implementation of FPGA based PID Controller for DC Motor Speed Control System

    Savita SONOLI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the implementation of software module using ‘VHDL’ for Xilinx FPGA (XC3S400 based PID controller for DC motor speed control system is presented. The tools used for building and testing the software modules are Xilinx ISE 9.2i and ModelSim XE III 6.3c. Before verifying the design on FPGA the complete design is simulated using Modelsim Simulation tool. A test bench is written where the set speed can be changed for the motor. It is observed that the motor speed gradually changes to the set speed and locks to the set speed.

  13. Pain and motor control: From the laboratory to rehabilitation.

    Hodges, Paul W

    2011-04-01

    Movement is changed in pain and is the target of clinical interventions. Yet the understanding of the physiological basis for movement adaptation in pain remains limited. Contemporary theories are relatively simplistic and fall short of providing an explanation for the variety of permutations of changes in movement control identified in clinical and experimental contexts. The link between current theories and rehabilitation is weak at best. New theories are required that both account for the breadth of changes in motor control in pain and provide direction for development and refinement of clinical interventions. This paper describes an expanded theory of the motor adaptation to pain to address these two issues. The new theory, based on clinical and experimental data argues that: activity is redistributed within and between muscles rather than stereotypical inhibition or excitation of muscles; modifies the mechanical behaviour in a variable manner with the objective to "protect" the tissues from further pain or injury, or threatened pain or injury; involves changes at multiple levels of the motor system that may be complementary, additive or competitive; and has short-term benefit, but with potential long-term consequences due to factors such as increased load, decreased movement, and decreased variability. This expanded theory provides guidance for rehabilitation directed at alleviating a mechanical contribution to the recurrence and persistence of pain that must be balanced with other aspects of a multifaceted intervention that includes management of psychosocial aspects of the pain experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller

  15. Control difuso de un motor de inducción

    Agustín Garzón Carbonell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la simulación de un esquema de control de velocidad de un motor de inducción en coordenadas decampo, con controlador difuso sin la necesidad de realizar las compensaciones en los ejes d-q, lo que simplificasustancialmente el control. La inferencia difusa se implementó por el método de mínimo máximo. Para eldesemborronado, el método del centro de gravedad. Se muestra el comportamiento del sistema de controlsometido a cambios bruscos de carga y referencia, observándose la robustez del control difuso frente a un PIDclásico.  In this article the simulation  of speed control  of  induction motor is presented in field coordinates with fuzzycontroller without the necessity of carrying out the compensations in the d-q axes, simplifying substantially thecontrol. The diffuse inference was implemented by the maximum minimum method. For defuzzification, themethod of the center of gravity is used. The system behaviour is shown from control to abrupt changes of loadand it indexes being observed the robustness of the diffuse control in front of a classic PID.

  16. Motor Recovery and Synaptic Preservation after Ventral Root Avulsion and Repair with a Fibrin Sealant Derived from Snake Venom

    Barbizan, Roberta; Castro, Mateus V.; Rodrigues, Antônio C.; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui S.; Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old) were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1) avulsion only and 2) replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera). Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the astroglial reaction and

  17. Motor recovery and synaptic preservation after ventral root avulsion and repair with a fibrin sealant derived from snake venom.

    Roberta Barbizan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1 avulsion only and 2 replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera. Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the

  18. Longitudinal Recovery and Reduced Costs After 120 Sessions of Locomotor Training for Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Morrison, Sarah A; Lorenz, Douglas; Eskay, Carol P; Forrest, Gail F; Basso, D Michele

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of long-term, body weight-supported locomotor training after chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and to estimate the health care costs related to lost recovery potential and preventable secondary complications that may have occurred because of visit limits imposed by insurers. Prospective observational cohort with longitudinal follow-up. Eight outpatient rehabilitation centers that participate in the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation NeuroRecovery Network (NRN). Individuals with motor incomplete chronic SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C or D; N=69; 0.1-45y after SCI) who completed at least 120 NRN physical therapy sessions. Manually assisted locomotor training (LT) in a body weight-supported treadmill environment, overground standing and stepping activities, and community integration tasks. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury motor and sensory scores, orthostatic hypotension, bowel/bladder/sexual function, Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory (SCI-FAI), Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach, 10-m walk test, and 6-minute walk test. Longitudinal outcome measure collection occurred every 20 treatments and at 6- to 12-month follow-up after discharge from therapy. Significant improvement occurred for upper and lower motor strength, functional activities, psychological arousal, sensation of bowel movement, and SCI-FAI community ambulation. Extended training enabled minimal detectable changes at 60, 80, 100, and 120 sessions. After detectable change occurred, it was sustained through 120 sessions and continued 6 to 12 months after treatment. Delivering at least 120 sessions of LT improves recovery from incomplete chronic SCI. Because walking reduces rehospitalization, LT delivered beyond the average 20-session insurance limit can reduce rehospitalizations and long-term health costs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  19. DNA-assisted swarm control in a biomolecular motor system.

    Keya, Jakia Jannat; Suzuki, Ryuhei; Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Hess, Henry; Kuzuya, Akinori; Kakugo, Akira

    2018-01-31

    In nature, swarming behavior has evolved repeatedly among motile organisms because it confers a variety of beneficial emergent properties. These include improved information gathering, protection from predators, and resource utilization. Some organisms, e.g., locusts, switch between solitary and swarm behavior in response to external stimuli. Aspects of swarming behavior have been demonstrated for motile supramolecular systems composed of biomolecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments, where cross-linkers induce large scale organization. The capabilities of such supramolecular systems may be further extended if the swarming behavior can be programmed and controlled. Here, we demonstrate that the swarming of DNA-functionalized microtubules (MTs) propelled by surface-adhered kinesin motors can be programmed and reversibly regulated by DNA signals. Emergent swarm behavior, such as translational and circular motion, can be selected by tuning the MT stiffness. Photoresponsive DNA containing azobenzene groups enables switching between solitary and swarm behavior in response to stimulation with visible or ultraviolet light.

  20. How do glial cells contribute to motor control?

    Christensen, Rasmus Kordt; Petersen, Anders Victor; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2013-01-01

    that glia play an active role in several physiological functions. The discovery that a bidirectional communication takes place between astrocytes (the star shaped glial cell of the brain) and neurons, was a major breakthrough in the field of synaptic physiology. Astrocytes express receptors that get...... activated by neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. In turn they release other transmitters - called gliotransmitters - that bind to neuronal receptors and modulate synaptic transmission. This feedback, which led to the concept of the tripartite synapse, has been reported with various transmitters...... including glutamate, ATP, GABA or serine. In the present review we will focus on astrocytes and review the evidence suggesting and demonstrating their role in motor control. Rhythmic motor behaviors such as locomotion, swimming or chewing are generated by networks of neurons termed central pattern...

  1. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system has been designed and implemented in collaboration...... with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations......"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, etc. These criteria have lead to a primarily message-driven system interacting with an existing browser on the end users' systems...

  2. Modelling and control system of multi motor conveyor

    Kovalchuk, M. S.; Baburin, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of developing the mathematical model of electromechanical system: conveyor – multimotor electric drive with a frequency converter, with the implementation in Simulink/MatLab, which allows one to perform studies of conveyor operation modes, taking into account the specifics of the mechanism with different electric drives control algorithms. The authors designed the mathematical models of the conveyor and its control system that provides increased uniformity of load distribution between drive motors and restriction of dynamic loads on the belt (over-regulation until 15%).

  3. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  4. Identification and robust control of an experimental servo motor.

    Adam, E J; Guestrin, E D

    2002-04-01

    In this work, the design of a robust controller for an experimental laboratory-scale position control system based on a dc motor drive as well as the corresponding identification and robust stability analysis are presented. In order to carry out the robust design procedure, first, a classic closed-loop identification technique is applied and then, the parametrization by internal model control is used. The model uncertainty is evaluated under both parametric and global representation. For the latter case, an interesting discussion about the conservativeness of this description is presented by means of a comparison between the uncertainty disk and the critical perturbation radius approaches. Finally, conclusions about the performance of the experimental system with the robust controller are discussed using comparative graphics of the controlled variable and the Nyquist stability margin as a robustness measurement.

  5. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly......, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...... and measurement noise in general, were the major reasons for the drifting parameters. Two approaches was proposed to robustify MASTR2 against the output noise. The first approach consists of filtering the output. Output filtering had a significant effect in simulations, but the robustness against the output noise...

  6. Illusory movement perception improves motor control for prosthetic hands.

    Marasco, Paul D; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Sensinger, Jon W; Shell, Courtney E; Schofield, Jonathon S; Thumser, Zachary C; Nataraj, Raviraj; Beckler, Dylan T; Dawson, Michael R; Blustein, Dan H; Gill, Satinder; Mensh, Brett D; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Newcomb, Madeline D; Carey, Jason P; Orzell, Beth M

    2018-03-14

    To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands. Vibrating the muscles used for prosthetic control via a neural-machine interface produced the illusory perception of complex grip movements. Within minutes, three amputees integrated this kinesthetic feedback and improved movement control. Combining intent, kinesthesia, and vision instilled participants with a sense of agency over the robotic movements. This feedback approach for closed-loop control opens a pathway to seamless integration of minds and machines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature.

    Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2014-11-06

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

    Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

  9. Can a single session of motor imagery promote motor learning of locomotion in older adults? A randomized controlled trial

    Nicholson VP

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson,1 Justin WL Keogh,2–4 Nancy L Low Choy1 1School of Physiotherapy, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD, Australia; 3Human Potential Centre, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Cluster for Health Improvement, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: To investigate the influence of a single session of locomotor-based motor imagery training on motor learning and physical performance. Patients and methods: Thirty independent adults aged >65 years took part in the randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted within an exercise science laboratory. Participants were randomly divided into three groups following baseline locomotor testing: motor imagery training, physical training, and control groups. The motor imagery training group completed 20 imagined repetitions of a locomotor task, the physical training group completed 20 physical repetitions of a locomotor task, and the control group spent 25 minutes playing mentally stimulating games on an iPad. Imagined and physical performance times were measured for each training repetition. Gait speed (preferred and fast, timed-up-and-go, gait variability and the time to complete an obstacle course were completed before and after the single training session. Results: Motor learning occurred in both the motor imagery training and physical training groups. Motor imagery training led to refinements in motor planning resulting in imagined movements better matching the physically performed movement at the end of training. Motor imagery and physical training also promoted improvements in some locomotion outcomes as demonstrated by medium to large effect size improvements after training for fast gait speed and timed-up-and-go. There were no training effects on gait variability. Conclusion: A single session

  10. Energy efficiency in speed control system for induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em sistema de controle de velocidade em motores de inducao

    Silva, Arlete Vieira da; Ribeiro, Elisangela do Nascimento; Tenorio, Iana Cavalcanti; Horta, Mario Marcos Brito [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UnBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: arlete.silva@prof.unibh.br, nr.elisangela@gmail.com, ianactenorio@gmail.com, mario_bhorta@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of energy efficiency of induction motors fed by frequency inverters, since this is a practical resource that has progressively allowed the replacement of mechanical speed reducers. In this work the speed control of induction motors of the squirrel cage has steeped through the frequency inverters using scalar control. Induction motors are frequently used in industrial applications due to its simple construction, its low maintenance and reduced in size. It was possible through tests made at UNI-BH Electrical Engineering laboratory to obtain satisfactory results regarding the performance of the inverter CFW08 (WEG), speed control of induction motor. (author)

  11. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  12. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control

    Geyer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  13. Motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 G2019S carriers versus matched controls.

    Gunzler, Steven A; Riley, David E; Chen, Shu G; Tatsuoka, Curtis M; Johnson, William M; Mieyal, John J; Walter, Ellen M; Whitney, Christina M; Feng, I Jung; Owusu-Dapaah, Harry; Mittal, Shivam O; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L

    2018-05-15

    LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been generally indistinguishable from those with idiopathic PD, with the exception of variable differences in some motor and non-motor domains, including cognition, gait, and balance. LRRK2 G2019S is amongst the most common genetic etiologies for PD, particularly in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) populations. This cross-sectional data collection study sought to clarify the phenotype of LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with PD. Primary endpoints were the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Other motor and non-motor data were also assessed. The Mann-Whitney U Test was utilized to compare LRRK2 G2019S carriers with PD (LRRK2+) with non-carrier PD controls who were matched for age, gender, education, and PD duration. Survival analyses and log rank tests were utilized to compare interval from onset of PD to development of motor and non-motor complications. We screened 251 subjects and 231 completed the study, of whom 9 were LRRK2+, including 7 AJ subjects. 22.73% of AJ subjects with a family history of PD (FH) and 12.96% of AJ subjects without a FH were LRRK2+. There were no significant differences between the 9 LRRK2+ subjects and 19 matched PD controls in MDS-UPDRS, MoCA, or other motor and non-motor endpoints. Prevalence of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation in AJ and non-AJ subjects in our study population in Cleveland, Ohio was comparable to other clinical studies. There were no significant motor or non-motor differences between LRRK2+ PD and matched PD controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Control And Monitoring Of Controller Area Network Based Motor And Sensor Boards

    Kubilay Taşdelen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote control system also can use to provide the control of devices that are used in industrial environments nowadays. In this study, three experimental modules and one master module have been developed by using Arduino development board. These modules include sensors and motors. Experimental modules are controlled remotely through Android based application software, running on a smart phone. Bluetooth technology is used for this application. The connection between the experimental modules and master module are provided with Controller Area Network. In this way, the sensor and motor data are transmitted by serial communication.

  15. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature

    Kaiser, Marie-Laure; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control

  16. Control of Position for a Telescope with Stepping Motors

    Quintero Salazar, Edwin Andrés; Gallego Becerra, Hugo Armando; Gallego Orozco, Hoover

    2008-01-01

    En este documento se muestran los resultados obtenidos al construir un control electrónico de posición para un telescopio reflector de 15 cm de objetivo, con motores paso a paso manejados desde un microcontrolador. También se ilustra el diseño circuital realizado, la simulación obtenida en la herramienta informática Proteus, el software desarrollado en lenguaje ensamblador para el microcontrolador, y el circuito final resultante montado sobre protoboard. In this paper the obtained resul...

  17. The Speed Control of Constant Tension Motor of Marine Crane

    Chen Xinyang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the working principle of the marine beacon crane hanging disc mechanical anti-sway device, and establish mathematical model on the rope controlling hanging disc of mechanical anti-sway device; Through matlab simulation analysis, this article obtains the relation curve between the velocity of traction rope of hanging disc and output frequency of the crane motor, combining rotary crane scaled model, this article carries out anti-sway experiment for the rotary crane to examine the crane’s anti-sway effects.

  18. Human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in computerized control rooms

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    selection and delayed operation were mutually dependent. The ranges of other recovery failure probabilities were 0.227 to 0.546 in terms of using soft controls. Since there is no recovery failure probability database regarding soft controls in advanced MCRs and recovery failure probabilities in other HRA method were obtained by expert judgment, the results in this study would be helpful for HRA experts to decide recovery failure probabilities under advanced MCR environment

  19. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed loop controller based on sliding mode control algorithm

    Qiang, Jiang; Meng-wei, Liao; Ming-jie, Luo

    2018-03-01

    Abstract.The control performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor will be affected by the fluctuation or changes of mechanical parameters when PMSM is applied as driving motor in actual electric vehicle,and external disturbance would influence control robustness.To improve control dynamic quality and robustness of PMSM speed control system, a new second order integral sliding mode control algorithm is introduced into PMSM vector control.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control,the modified control scheme optimized has better control precision and dynamic response ability and perform better with a stronger robustness facing external disturbance,it can effectively solve the traditional sliding mode variable structure control chattering problems as well.

  20. The impact of falls on motor and cognitive recovery after discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation

    Wong, Jennifer S.; Brooks, Dina; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Background Falls are common among community-dwelling stroke survivors. The aim of this study was to (1) compare motor and cognitive outcomes between individuals who fell in the six months post-discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation and those who did not fall, and (2) explore potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between falls and recovery of motor and cognitive function. Methods Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of individuals discharged home from in-patient rehabilitation was conducted. Participants were recruited at discharge and completed a six-month falls monitoring period using postcards with follow-up. Non-fallers and fallers were compared at the six-month follow-up assessment on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA), gait speed, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Measures of balance confidence and physical activity were also assessed. Results 23 fallers were matched to 23 non-fallers on age and functional balance scores at discharge. A total of 43 falls were reported during the study period (8 participants fell more than once). At follow-up, BBS scores (p=0.0066) and CMSA foot scores (p=0.0033) were significantly lower for fallers than non-fallers. The two groups did not differ on CMSA leg scores (p=0.049), gait speed (p=0.47) or MoCA (p=0.23). There was no significant association between change in balance confidence scores and change in physical activity levels among all participants from the first and third questionnaire (r=0.27, p=0.08). Conclusions Performance in balance and motor recovery of the foot were compromised in fallers when compared to non-fallers at six months post-discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27062418

  1. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  2. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study.

    Casale, Roberto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Gazzoni, Marco; Buskila, Dan; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Eight female patients aged 55.6 +/- 13.6 years (FM group) and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 +/- 9.3 years (MCG) were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG) involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited) contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean +/- SD and skewness), and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF) were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 +/- 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 +/- 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 +/- 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 +/- 0.34%/s in MCG). Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered suprasegmental control.

  3. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  4. Real Time Implementation of a DC Motor Speed Control by Fuzzy Logic Controller and PI Controller Using FPGA

    G. Sakthivel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic control has met with growing interest in many motor control applications due to its non-linearity, handling features and independence of plant modelling. The hardware implementation of fuzzy logic controller (FLC on FPGA is very important because of the increasing number of fuzzy applications requiring highly parallel and high speed fuzzy processing. Implementation of a fuzzy logic controller and conventional PI controller on an FPGA using VHDL for DC motor speed control is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme is to improve tracking performance of D.C. motor as compared to the conventional (PI control strategy .This paper describes the hardware implementation of two inputs (error and change in error, one output fuzzy logic controller based on PI controller and conventional PI controller using VHDL. Real time implementation FLC and conventional PI controller is made on Spartan-3A DSP FPGA (XC3SD1800A FPGA for the speed control of DC motor. It is observed that fuzzy logic based controllers give better responses than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of dc motor.

  5. PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller

    MARABA, V. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.

  6. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle; Simonsen, Erik B; Petersen, Nicolas C; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that impairs walking ability and function. We compared the temporal gait variability and motor control in people with knee OA with healthy controls. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that the temporal gait variability would reflect a more stereotypic pattern in people with knee OA compared with healthy age-matched subjects. To assess the gait variability the temporal structure of the ankle and knee joint kinematics was quantified by the largest Lyapunov exponent and the stride time fluctuations were quantified by sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H-reflex amplitude was significantly higher in the knee OA group around heel strike when compared with the controls. The mean group difference in the H-reflex in the initial part of the stance phase (control-knee OA) was -6.6% Mmax (95% CI: -10.4 to -2.7, p=0.041). The present OA group reported relatively small impact of their disease. These results suggest that the OA group in general sustained a normal gait pattern with natural variability but with suggestions of facilitated SO H-reflex in the swing to stance phase transition. We speculate that the difference in SO H-reflex modulation reflects that the OA group increased the excitability of the soleus stretch reflex as a preparatory mechanism to avoid sudden collapse of the knee joint which is not uncommon in knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A neuro-inspired spike-based PID motor controller for multi-motor robots with low cost FPGAs.

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  8. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs

    Anton Civit-Balcells

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN, which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  9. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  10. Design and construction of stepper motor controller for brachy-therapy equipment

    Ahmad Rifai; Usep Setia Gunawan; Indarzah Masbatin Putra

    2011-01-01

    Based on a microcontroller, a stepper motor controller for brachy-therapy equipment has been designed and prototyped. The embedded control program routine and its other associated routines enable the microcontroller to generate required pulses via external commands for stepper motor based position control. The controller receives ASCII text command via a serial port. The constructed algorithm implements the widely used method that allows motor to rotate in three phases, i.e: acceleration, constant speed, and deceleration. (author)

  11. Sensor fault detection and recovery in satellite attitude control

    Nasrolahi, Seiied Saeed; Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes an integrated sensor fault detection and recovery for the satellite attitude control system. By introducing a nonlinear observer, the healthy sensor measurements are provided. Considering attitude dynamics and kinematic, a novel observer is developed to detect the fault in angular rate as well as attitude sensors individually or simultaneously. There is no limit on type and configuration of attitude sensors. By designing a state feedback based control signal and Lyapunov stability criterion, the uniformly ultimately boundedness of tracking errors in the presence of sensor faults is guaranteed. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the integrated scheme.

  12. Comparison between two braking control methods integrating energy recovery for a two-wheel front driven electric vehicle

    Itani, Khaled; De Bernardinis, Alexandre; Khatir, Zoubir; Jammal, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between two braking methods for an EV maximizing the energy recovery. • Wheels slip ratio control based on robust sliding mode and ECE R13 control methods. • Regenerative braking control strategy. • Energy recovery of a HESS with respect to road surface type and road condition. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison between two braking methods for a two-wheel front driven Electric Vehicle maximizing the energy recovery on the Hybrid Energy Storage System. The first method consists in controlling the wheels slip ratio while braking using a robust sliding mode controller. The second method will be based on ECE R13H constraints for an M1 passenger vehicle. The vehicle model used for simulation is a simplified five degrees of freedom model. It is driven by two 30 kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) recovering energy during braking phases. Several simulation results for extreme braking conditions will be performed and compared on various road type surfaces using Matlab/Simulink®. For an initial speed of 80 km/h, simulation results demonstrate that the difference of energy recovery efficiency between the two control braking methods is beneficial to the ECE constraints control method and it can vary from 3.7% for high friction road type to 11.2% for medium friction road type. At low friction road type, the difference attains 6.6% due to different reasons treated in the paper. The stability deceleration is also discussed and detailed.

  13. Development of EPICS based beam-line experimental control employing motor controller for precision positioning

    Tuli, Anupriya; Jain, Rajiv; Vora, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    In a Synchrotron Radiation Source the beamline experiments are carried out in radiation prone environment, inside the hutch, which demands to conduct experiments remotely. These experiments involves instrument control and data acquisition from various devices. Another factor which attributes to system complexity is precise positioning of sample and placement of detectors. A large number of stepper motors are engaged for achieving the required precision positioning. This work is a result of development of Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based control system to interface a stepper motor controller developed indigenously by Laser Electronics Support Division of RRCAT. EPICS is an internationally accepted open source software environment which follows toolkit approach and standard model paradigm. The operator interface for the control system software was implemented using CSS BOY. The system was successfully tested for Ethernet based remote access. The developed control software comprises of an OPI and alarm handler (EPICS ALH). Both OPI and ALH are linked with PV's defined in database files. The development process resulted into a set of EPICS based commands for controlling stepper motor. These commands are independent of operator interface, i.e. stepper motor can be controlled by using these set of commands directly on EPICS prompt. This command set is illustrated in the above table. EPICS Alarm Handler was also tested independently by running these commands on EPIC prompt. If not using ALH, operator can read the alarm status of a PV using 'SEVR' and 'STAT' attributes. (author)

  14. Robust quasi NID current and flux control of an induction motor for position control

    van Duijnhoven, M.; Blachuta, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, a new control design method called Dynamic Contraction method is applied to the flux and quadrature current robust control of an induction motor operated using the field orientation principle. The resulting input-output decoupled and linearized drive is then used for time-optimal

  15. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  16. Voltage directive drive with claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator

    Stroenisch, Volker Ewald

    Design and testing of a voltage directive drive for synchronous variable speed claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator is described. Economic analysis of the designed regulation is performed. Computations of stationary and dynamic behavior are given and experimental operational behavior is determined. The motors can be used for electric transportation vehicles, diesel motors, and electric railway engines.

  17. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation.

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of linear pulse motor for control element drive mechanism of SMART

    Kim, J. H.; Huh, H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.; Kang, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    49 Control Rod Drive Mechanisms(CEDMs) are densely installed on the reactor central head of SMART. The structural design should ensure the space for maintenance/repair, cable routing, and heat release from the motor. In this paper, an improved design is presented to enlarge the space between CEDMs by decreasing the diameter of linear pulse motor. The reduction of motor thrust force due to the decrease of the motor diameter is compensated by resizing the other structural components

  19. Interaction of attentional and motor control processes in handwriting.

    Brown, T L; Donnenwirth, E E

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between attentional capacity, motor control processes, and strategic adaptations to changing task demands was investigated in handwriting, a continuous (rather than discrete) skilled performance. Twenty-four subjects completed 12 two-minute handwriting samples under instructions stressing speeded handwriting, normal handwriting, or highly legible handwriting. For half of the writing samples, a concurrent auditory monitoring task was imposed. Subjects copied either familiar (English) or unfamiliar (Latin) passages. Writing speed, legibility ratings, errors in writing and in the secondary auditory task, and a derived measure of the average number of characters held in short-term memory during each sample ("planning unit size") were the dependent variables. The results indicated that the ability to adapt to instructions stressing speed or legibility was substantially constrained by the concurrent listening task and by text familiarity. Interactions between instructions, task concurrence, and text familiarity in the legibility ratings, combined with further analyses of planning unit size, indicated that information throughput from temporary storage mechanisms to motor processes mediated the loss of flexibility effect. Overall, the results suggest that strategic adaptations of a skilled performance to changing task circumstances are sensitive to concurrent attentional demands and that departures from "normal" or "modal" performance require attention.

  20. Gradual Recovery from Bilateral Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss post Motor Vehicle Accident.

    Yaroko, A A; Shahrjerdi, B; M D, Md Khairi

    2013-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss following trauma is a common finding in daily clinical practice and usually associated with a poor prognosis. Our case illustrates a patient who was involved in motor vehicle accident sustaining bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss but subsequently recovered fully after two years. Unless there is clear trauma to the cochlea or auditory nerve, a substantial duration of follow up is needed in the treatment of such cases.

  1. Proposed torque optimized behavior for digital speed control of induction motors

    Metwally, H.M.B.; El-Shewy, H.M.; El-Kholy, M.M. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Zagazig (Egypt); Abdel-Kader, F.E. [Menoufyia Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Menoufyia (Egypt)

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, a control strategy for speed control of induction motors with field orientation is proposed. The proposed method adjusts the output voltage and frequency of the converter to operate the motor at the desired speed with maximum torque per ampere at all load torques keeping the torque angle equal to 90 deg. A comparison between the performance characteristics of a 2 hp induction motor using three methods of speed control is presented. These methods are the proposed method, the direct torque control method and the constant V/f method. The comparison showed that better performance characteristics are obtained using the proposed speed control strategy. A computer program, based on this method, is developed. Starting from the motor parameters, the program calculates a data set for the stator voltage and frequency required to obtain maximum torque per ampere at any motor speed and load torque. This data set can be used by the digital speed control system of induction motors. (Author)

  2. Research and simulation of the decoupling transformation in AC motor vector control

    He, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Zhongjie; Liu, Ken; Zhang, Yongping; Yao, Tuozhong

    2018-04-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a nonlinear, strong coupling, multivariable complex object, and transformation decoupling can solve the coupling problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor. This paper gives a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) mathematical model, introduces the permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control coordinate transformation in the process of modal matrix inductance matrix transform through the matrix related knowledge of different coordinates of diagonalization, which makes the coupling between the independent, realize the control of motor current and excitation the torque current coupling separation, and derived the coordinate transformation matrix, the thought to solve the coupling problem of AC motor. Finally, in the Matlab/Simulink environment, through the establishment and combination between the PMSM ontology, coordinate conversion module, built the simulation model of permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control, introduces the model of each part, and analyzed the simulation results.

  3. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumer control in service recovery: beyond decisional control

    Joosten, H.W.M.; Bloemer, J.M.M.; Hillebrand, B.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE - Focusing on decisional control of the outcome provides only a partial picture of how firms may handle customer complaints and ignores many (alternative) opportunities to recover the relationship with the customer when service delivery fails. The purpose of this paper is to introduce other

  5. A discreet control of sliding ways of an induction motor; Control discreto de modos deslizantes de un motor de induccion

    Rivera Dominguez, Jorge

    2001-12-15

    A control of sliding ways in discreet time for non-linear discreet systems is designed, also the technique of the control by histograms for non-linear discreet systems was developed, and an observer of reduced order was developed for non-linear electromechanical discreet systems. All these techniques are applied to a non-linear discreet model of an induction motor that was found here, that posses electrical and mechanical dynamics, in which the load pair is considered an unknown disturbance. With complete measurements of the states are satisfied the pursuing of the rotor velocity and the amplitude of the magnetic flux of the rotor, where the unknown load does not affect the velocity regulation. Next, an observer of reduced order is implemented where the velocity and current measurements are employed to consider the load pair and the flows that are very difficult to measure. The proposed method has a design and stability procedure of direct analyses, conserving a simple structure of the control law. The simulations predict that the system is robust with respect to several types of load pairs. The responses of velocity and amplitude of the rotor flow and the entrance references evolved very well. These references have a linear dynamics of second order with time constants that can be chosen by the motor user. The practical aspects for a future digital implementation of the control law are considered, including the velocity and currents sensors, the preparation of signals, the transformation of the current in the frame of stationary reference, PWM and inverter modules, which were seen in detail. The experimental results are left as a future work. [Spanish] Se disena un control de modos deslizantes en tiempo discreto para sistemas discretos no lineales, tambien se desarrollo la tecnica del control por bloques para sistemas discretos no lineales, y un observador de orden reducido fue desarrollado para sistemas discretos electromecanicos no lineales. Todas estas tecnicas

  6. Combinatorial Motor Training Results in Functional Reorganization of Remaining Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats.

    Combs, Hannah L; Jones, Theresa A; Kozlowski, Dorothy A; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-04-15

    Cortical reorganization subsequent to post-stroke motor rehabilitative training (RT) has been extensively examined in animal models and humans. However, similar studies focused on the effects of motor training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are lacking. We previously reported that after a moderate/severe TBI in adult male rats, functional improvements in forelimb use were accomplished only with a combination of skilled forelimb reach training and aerobic exercise, with or without nonimpaired forelimb constraint. Thus, the current study was designed to examine the relationship between functional motor cortical map reorganization after experimental TBI and the behavioral improvements resulting from this combinatorial rehabilitative regime. Adult male rats were trained to proficiency on a skilled reaching task, received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb area of the caudal motor cortex (CMC). Three days post-CCI, animals began RT (n = 13) or no rehabilitative training (NoRT) control procedures (n = 13). The RT group participated in daily skilled reach training, voluntary aerobic exercise, and nonimpaired forelimb constraint. This RT regimen significantly improved impaired forelimb reaching success and normalized reaching strategies, consistent with previous findings. RT also enlarged the area of motor cortical wrist representation, derived by intracortical microstimulation, compared to NoRT. These findings indicate that sufficient RT can greatly improve motor function and improve the functional integrity of remaining motor cortex after a moderate/severe CCI. When compared with findings from stroke models, these findings also suggest that more intense RT may be needed to improve motor function and remodel the injured cortex after TBI.

  7. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  8. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: a case-control study.

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM) with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex) and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog), and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS). The change in TFIM (20 +/- 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 +/- 6, p = 0.20), FIM-Cog (3 +/- 3 SD vs. 4 +/- 5, p = 0.41), FIM-Motor (15 +/- 11 SD vs. 20 +/- 13, p = 0.21) sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 +/- 9 SD vs. 23 +/- 9, p = 0.59), and discharge disposition (home/institution) (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60) between the vitamin C and the control groups. This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients.

  9. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Parsapoor, Amir; Moallem, Mehdi; Lucas, Caro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  10. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  11. Intelligent robust control law for induction motors based on field-oriented control theory

    Barambones, O.; Alcorta, P.; Sevillano, G.; Garrido, A.; Garrido, I. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieri a de Sistemas y Automatica

    2009-07-01

    A sensorless adaptive control law was developed to improve the trajectory tracking performance of induction motors. The law used an integral sliding mode algorithm to avoid the necessity of calculating an upper bound for system uncertainties. The vector control theory was used to develop the induction motor drives. The sliding mode control law incorporated an adaptive switching gain and included a method of estimating rotor speeds. Rotor speed estimation errors were presented as a first order simple function based on the difference between real stator currents and estimated stator currents. The Lyapunov stability theory was used to analyze the controller under different load disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Results of the study showed that the control signal of the scheme was smaller than signals obtained using traditional variable structure control schemes. It was concluded that speed tracking objectives can be obtained under various parameter and torque uncertainties. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Review of Apraxia: The cognitive side of motor control

    Martínez-Ferreiro, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Reviews the book, Apraxia: The Cognitive Side of Motor Control by G. Goldenberg (see record 2013-31133-000). The book makes a significant contribution to the study of this multifaceted syndrome, especially in relation to limb apraxia, the author’s main research area. Despite more than 100 years...... of tradition in the field, this book is the first comprehensive account of its history, philosophy and experimental research. Consequently, this volume fulfils both the author’s main aim to assemble a comprehensive review of cases, considerations and theories about apraxia, and fills in an already too long...... the original texts. Part II concerns the survey of contemporary empirical evidence and its impact on the diverse theories available for apraxia. The book concludes with the author’s own view on apraxia and a word on therapy. On the whole, the book provides the reader with deep insights into the evolution...

  13. Stepping motor control processor reference manual. Volume I

    Holloway, F.W.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Suski, G.J.; Gant, R.G.; Rash, M.

    1980-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve several purposes. The first goal is to describe the capabilities and operation of the SMC processor package from an operator or user point of view. Secondly, the manual will describe in some detail the basic hardware elements and how they can be used effectively to implement a step motor control system. Practical information on the use, installation and checkout of the hardware set is presented in the following sections along with programming suggestions. Available related system software is described in this manual for reference and as an aid in understanding the system architecture. Section two presents an overview and operations manual of the SMC processor describing its composition and functional capabilities. Section three contains hardware descriptions in some detail for the LLL-designed hardware used in the SMC processor. Basic theory of operation and important features are explained

  14. Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation with Concurrent Upper Limb Repetitive Task Practice for Poststroke Motor Recovery: A Pilot Study.

    Redgrave, Jessica N; Moore, Lucy; Oyekunle, Tosin; Ebrahim, Maryam; Falidas, Konstantinos; Snowdon, Nicola; Ali, Ali; Majid, Arshad

    2018-03-23

    Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has the potential to enhance the effects of physiotherapy for upper limb motor recovery after stroke. Noninvasive, transcutaneous auricular branch VNS (taVNS) may have similar benefits, but this has not been evaluated in stroke recovery. We sought to determine the feasibility of taVNS delivered alongside upper limb repetitive task-specific practice after stroke and its effects on a range of outcome measures evaluating limb function. Thirteen participants at more than 3 months postischemic stroke with residual upper limb dysfunction were recruited from the community of Sheffield, United Kingdom (October-December 2016). Participants underwent 18 × 1-hour sessions over 6 weeks in which they made 30-50 repetitions of 8-10 arm movements concurrently with taVNS (NEMOS; Cerbomed, Erlangen, Germany, 25 Hz, .1-millisecond pulse width) at maximum tolerated intensity (mA). An electrocardiogram and rehabilitation outcome scores were obtained at each visit. Qualitative interviews determined the acceptability of taVNS to participants. Median time after stroke was 1.16 years, and baseline median/interquartile range upper limb Fugl-Meyer (UFM) score was 63 (54.5-99.5). Participants attended 92% of the planned treatment sessions. Three participants reported side effects, mainly fatigue, but all performed mean of more than 300 arm repetitions per session with no serious adverse events. There was a significant change in the UFM score with a mean increase per participant of 17.1 points (standard deviation 7.8). taVNS is feasible and well-tolerated alongside upper limb repetitive movements in poststroke rehabilitation. The motor improvements observed justify a phase 2 trial in patients with residual arm weakness. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements.

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N

    2016-02-01

    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Is the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex important for motor recovery in rats with photochemically induced cortical lesions?

    Takata, Kotaro; Yamauchi, Hideki; Tatsuno, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Keiji; Abo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex is important for motor recovery after brain damage in the photochemically initiated thrombosis (PIT) model. We induced PIT in the sensorimotor cortex in rats and examined the recovery of motor function using the beam-walking test. In 24 rats, the right sensorimotor cortex was lesioned after 2 days of training for the beam-walking test (group 1). After 10 days, PIT was induced in the left sensorimotor cortex. Eight additional rats (group 2) received 2 days training in beam walking, then underwent the beam-walking test to evaluate function. After 10 days of testing, the left sensorimotor cortex was lesioned and recovery was monitored by the beam-walking test for 8 days. In group 1 animals, left hindlimb function caused by a right sensorimotor cortex lesion recovered within 10 days after the operation. Right hindlimb function caused by the left-side lesion recovered within 6 days. In group 2, right hindlimb function caused by induction of the left-side lesion after a total of 12 days of beam-walking training and testing recovered within 6 days as with the double PIT model. The training effect may be relevant to reorganization and neuromodulation. Motor recovery patterns did not indicate whether motor recovery was dependent on the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the cortex of the contralateral side. The results emphasize the need for selection of appropriate programs tailored to the area of cortical damage in order to enhance motor functional recovery in this model. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using sliding mode control strategy

    John, G. [Kenetech Windpower, Livermore, CA (United States); Eastham, A.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A robust speed drive system for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using sliding mode control strategy (SLMC) is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a SLMC based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is implemented using a micro-controller and a high resolution position sensor. The parameter insensitive characteristics are demonstrated through computer simulations and experimental verification.

  18. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

  19. Stall Recovery Guidance Algorithms Based on Constrained Control Approaches

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Acosta, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft loss-of-control, in particular approach to stall or fully developed stall, is a major factor contributing to aircraft safety risks, which emphasizes the need to develop algorithms that are capable of assisting the pilots to identify the problem and providing guidance to recover the aircraft. In this paper we present several stall recovery guidance algorithms, which are implemented in the background without interfering with flight control system and altering the pilot's actions. They are using input and state constrained control methods to generate guidance signals, which are provided to the pilot in the form of visual cues. It is the pilot's decision to follow these signals. The algorithms are validated in the pilot-in-the loop medium fidelity simulation experiment.

  20. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

    Hanna, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  1. Simple Power Control for Sensorless Induction Motor Drives Fed by a Matrix Converter

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo Beum

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simple method for sensorless control of matrix converter drives using a power flowing to the motor. The proposed control algorithm is based on controlling the instantaneous real and imaginary powers into the induction motor. To improve low-speed sensorless performance...

  2. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    Ting-ting Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury.

  3. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

    Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

    2016-10-01

    In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.

  4. Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controllers for Rotor Flux Oriented Control of Induction Motor

    Abdollahi, Rohollah; Farhangi, Reza; Yarahmadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of a novel approach based on emotional learning to improve the speed control system of rotor flux oriented control of induction motor. The controller includes a neuro-fuzzy system with speed error and its derivative as inputs. A fuzzy critic evaluates the present situation, and provides the emotional signal (stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critics stress is reduced. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed controller is more robust and hence found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high performance industrial drive applications.

  5. Fine Motor Control Is Related to Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…

  6. Performance analysis of PM synchronous motor using fuzzy logic and self tuning fuzzy PI speed controls

    Karakaya, A.; Karakas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors have nonlinear characteristics whose dynamics changes with time. In spite of this structure the permanent magnet synchronous motor has answered engineering problems in industry such as motion control which need high torque values. This paper obtains a nonlinear mathematical model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and realizes stimulation of the obtained model in the Matlab/Simulink program. Motor parameters are determined by an experimental set-up and they are used in the motor model. Speed control of motor model is made with Fuzzy Logic and Self Tuning logic PI controllers. Using the speed graphs obtained, rise time, overshoot, steady-state error and settling time are analyzed and controller performances are compared. (author)

  7. Excited state dynamics & optical control of molecular motors

    Wiley, Ted; Sension, Roseanne

    2014-03-01

    Chiral overcrowded alkenes are likely candidates for light driven rotary molecular motors. At their core, these molecular motors are based on the chromophore stilbene, undergoing ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization about their central double bond. Unlike stilbene, the photochemistry of molecular motors proceeds in one direction only. This unidirectional rotation is a result of helicity in the molecule induced by steric hindrance. However, the steric hindrance which ensures unidirectional excited state rotation, has the unfortunate consequence of producing large ground state barriers which dramatically decrease the overall rate of rotation. These molecular scale ultrafast motors have only recently been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. Our lab has studied the photochemistry and photophysics of a ``first generation'' molecular motor with UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy. We hope to use optical pulse shaping to enhance the efficiency and turnover rate of these molecular motors.

  8. Losses in chopper-controlled DC series motors

    Hamilton, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Motors for electric vehicle (EV) applications must have different features than dc motors designed for industrial applications. The EV motor application is characterized by the following requirements: (1) the need for highest possible efficiency from light load to overload, for maximum EV range, (2) large short time overload capability (The ratio of peak to average power varies from 5/1 in heavy city traffic to 3/1 in suburban driving situations) and (3) operation from power supply voltage levels of 84 to 144 volts (probably 120 volts maximum). A test facility utilizing a dc generator as a substitute for a battery pack was designed and utilized. Criteria for the design of such a facility are presented. Two motors, differing in design detail, commercially available for EV use were tested. Losses measured are discussed, as are waves forms and their harmonic content, the measurements of resistance and inductance, EV motor/chopper application criteria, and motor design considerations.

  9. Speed response of brushless DC motor using fuzzy PID controller under varying load condition

    Akash Varshney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend towards usage of precisely controlled, high torque, efficient and low noise motors for dedicated applications has attracted the attention of researcher in Brushless DC (BLDC motors. BLDC motors can act as an acceptable alternative to the conventional motors like Induction Motors, Switched Reluctance Motors etc. This paper presents a detailed study on the performance of a BLDC motor supplying different types of loads, and at the same time, deploying different control techniques. An advance Fuzzy PID controller is compared with the commonly used PID controller. The load variations considered are of the most common types, generally encountered in practice. A comparison has been carried out in this paper by observing the dynamic speed response of motor at the time of application as well as at the time of removal of the load. The BLDC motors suffer from a major drawback of having jerky behaviour at the time of load removal. The study reveals that irrespective of the type of controller used, the gradual load variation produces better results as against sudden load variations. It is further observed that in addition to other dynamic features, the jerks produced at the time of load removal also get improved to a large extent with Fuzzy PID controller.The speed torque characteristics unraveled the fact that the jerks are minimum at the time of gradual load removal with Fuzzy PID controller in place. An attempt has been made to define these jerks by ‘Perturbation Window’.

  10. The Effects of Two Different Stretching Programs on Balance Control and Motor Neuron Excitability

    Kaya, Fatih; Biçer, Bilal; Yüktasir, Bekir; Willems, Mark E. T.; Yildiz, Nebil

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of training (4d/wk for 6 wks) with static stretching (SS) or contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on static balance time and motor neuron excitability. Static balance time, H[subscript max]/M[subscript max] ratios and H-reflex recovery curves (HRRC) were measured in 28 healthy subjects (SS: n = 10,…

  11. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  12. Incremental Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Sensorless Stroke Control of A Halbach-type Linear Oscillatory Motor

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    The halbach-type linear oscillatory motor (HT-LOM) is multi-variable, highly coupled, nonlinear and uncertain, and difficult to get a satisfied result by conventional PID control. An incremental adaptive fuzzy controller (IAFC) for stroke tracking was presented, which combined the merits of PID control, the fuzzy inference mechanism and the adaptive algorithm. The integral-operation is added to the conventional fuzzy control algorithm. The fuzzy scale factor can be online tuned according to the load force and stroke command. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control scheme can achieve satisfied stroke tracking performance and is robust with respect to parameter variations and external disturbance.

  13. Cerebrolysin and aquaporin 4 inhibition improve pathological and motor recovery after ischemic stroke.

    Catalin, Bogdan; Rogoveanu, O C; Pirici, Ionica; Balseanu, Tudor Adrian; Stan, Adina; Tudorica, Valerica; Balea, Maria; Mindrila, Ion; Albu, Carmen Valeria; Mohamed, Guleed; Pirici, Daniel; Muresanu, Dafin Fior

    2018-04-25

    Edema represents one of the earliest negative markers of survival and consecutive neurological deficit following stroke. The mixture of cellular and vasogenic edema makes treating this condition complicated, and to date, there is no pathogenically oriented drug treatment for edema, which leaves parenteral administration of a hypertonic solution as the only non-surgical alternative. New insights into water metabolism in the brain have opened the way for molecular targeted treatment, with aquaporin 4 channels (AQP4) taking center stage. We aimed here to assess the effect of inhibiting AQP4 together with the administration of a neurotropic factor (Cerebrolysin) in ischemic stroke. Using a permanent medial cerebral artery occlusion rat model, we administrated a single dose of the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 (100 mg/kg) at 15 minutes after ischemia followed by daily Cerebrolysin dosing (5ml/kg) for seven days. Rotarod motor testing and neuropathology examinations were next performed. We showed first that the combination treatment animals have a better motor function preservation at seven days after permanent ischemia. We have also identified distinct cellular contributions that represent the bases of behavior testing, such as less astrocyte scarring and a larger neuronal-survival phenotype rate in animals treated with both compounds than in animals treated with Cerebrolysin alone or untreated animals. Our data shows that water diffusion inhibition and Cerebrolysin administration after focal ischemic stroke reduces infarct size, leading to a higher neuronal survival in the peri-core glial scar region. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  15. Modeling and Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Neural Networks

    V. Jamuna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Speed control of induction motor drives using neural networks is presented. The mathematical model of single phase induction motor is developed. A new simulink model for a neural network-controlled bidirectional chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Under normal operation, the true drive parameters are real-time identified and they are converted into the controller parameters through multilayer forward computation by neural networks. Comparative study has been made between the conventional and neural network controllers. It is observed that the neural network controlled drive system has better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and faster transient response than the conventional controlled system.

  16. Compensatory cerebral motor control following presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Jong, Bauke M

    Case: A fifteen year-old left-handed girl presented with right-sided focal motor seizures. Neuroimaging showed a large left hemisphere lesion compatible with a middle cerebral artery stroke of presumed perinatal origin. She was not previously diagnosed with a motor deficit, although neurological

  17. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  18. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  19. Controlling a Four-Quadrant Brushless Three-Phase dc Motor

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit commutates windings of brushless, three-phase, permanent-magnet motor operating from power supply. With single analog command voltage, controller makes motor accelerate, drive steadily, or brake regeneratively, in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Controller well suited for use with energy-storage flywheels, actuators for aircraft-control surfaces, cranes, industrial robots, and other electromechanical systems requiring bidirectional control or sudden stopping and reversal.

  20. Linear switched reluctance motor control with PIC18F452 microcontroller

    DURSUN, Mahir; KOÇ, Fatmagül

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation, control, and experimental results of the velocity of a double-sided, 6/4-poled, 3-phased, 8 A, 24 V, 250 W, and 250 N pull force linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM). In the simulation and experimental study, the reference velocity is constant depending on the position and time. The velocity versus the position of the translator was controlled with fuzzy logic control (FLC) and proportional-integral (PI) control techniques. The motor was control...

  1. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    Meheroz H Rabadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients

  2. Fixed-Time Stability Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Novel Adaptive Control

    Maoxing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We firstly investigate the fixed-time stability analysis of uncertain permanent magnet synchronous motors with novel control. Compared with finite-time stability where the convergence rate relies on the initial permanent magnet synchronous motors state, the settling time of fixed-time stability can be adjusted to desired values regardless of initial conditions. Novel adaptive stability control strategy for the permanent magnet synchronous motors is proposed, with which we can stabilize permanent magnet synchronous motors within fixed time based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, some simulation and comparison results are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  3. Wavelet-Fuzzy Speed Indirect Field Oriented Controller for Three-Phase AC Motor Drive

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Daya, Febin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Three-phase voltage source inverter driven induction motor are used in many medium- and high-power applications. Precision in speed of the motor play vital role, i.e. popular methods of direct/indirect field-oriented control (FOC) are applied. FOC is employed with proportional-integral (P...... wavelet transform and the fuzzy logic controller, to generate the scaled gains for the indirect FOC induction motor. Complete model of the proposed ac motor drive is developed with numerical simulation Matlab/Simulink software and tested under different working conditions. For experimental verification...

  4. A Study on Energy Saving of Single Phase Induction Motor By Voltage Control

    Bae, Jong Moon [Pusan College of Information Technolgy, Pusan (Korea); Kim, Joon Hong [Dong Myong College, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a simple effective method for energy saving of AC motors having a widely variable load. The proposed method is based on an optimal efficiency control which is operated by voltage-current pattern such as to maintain the maximum efficiency on the efficiency-output characteristics of the motor, TRIAC voltage control characteristics. The parameters of simplified voltage-current pattern can be determined approximately and reliably from the rated voltage and current of the motor. Experiments are focused on a single phase capacitor motor, the optimal energy saving are proved by proposed method. (author). 8 refs., 15 figs.

  5. A Novel Control Algorithm Expressions Set for not Negligible Resistive Parameters PM Brushless AC Motors

    Renato RIZZO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors. In particular is proposed a new set of control algorithm expressions that is realized taking into account resistive parameters of the motor, differently from simplified models of this type of motors where these parameters are usually neglected. The control is set up and an analysis of the performance is reported in the paper, where the validation of the new expressions is done with reference to a motor prototype particularly compact because is foreseen for application on tram propulsion drives. The results are evidenced in the last part of the paper.

  6. UNIFIED CONTROL STRUCTURE OF MULTI-TYPE INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

    M. NORHISAM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategy structure to extract the speed torque characteristic for the newly designed three phase Multi Type Interior Permanent Magnet Motor. The proposed structure with the driving circuits exhibit the performance of torque characteristics of the stepper motor and brushless motor with independent coil winding per phase especially used as an in-wheel motor in agricultural applications. Brushless Direct Current motors exhibit characteristics of generating high torque at high speed while the Permanent Magnet Stepper motors has characteristic of generating high torque at low speed. The typical characteristics of the above two are integrated in the proposed structure with a complex control structure that handle the switching complexity and speed control in real time. Thus, a specially designed driving system is essential to drive and control this special motor. The evaluation of the motor mechanical characteristics when applying load torque is also presented. The result determines the practical torque range applicable for each motor configuration and as combined machine.

  7. Differential expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in the motor cortex among primate species and during postnatal development and functional recovery.

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available We previously reported that secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1 mRNA is expressed in neurons whose axons form the corticospinal tract (CST of the rhesus macaque, but not in the corresponding neurons of the marmoset and rat. This suggests that SPP1 expression is involved in the functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species. To further examine this hypothesis, we evaluated the expression of SPP1 mRNA in the motor cortex from three viewpoints: species differences, postnatal development, and functional/structural changes of the CST after a lesion of the lateral CST (l-CST at the mid-cervical level. The density of SPP1-positive neurons in layer V of the primary motor cortex (M1 was much greater in species with highly developed corticospinal systems (i.e., rhesus macaque, capuchin monkey, and humans than in those with less developed corticospinal systems (i.e., squirrel monkey, marmoset, and rat. SPP1-positive neurons in the macaque monkey M1 increased logarithmically in layer V during postnatal development, following a time course consistent with the increase in conduction velocity of the CST. After an l-CST lesion, SPP1-positive neurons increased in layer V of the ventral premotor cortex, in which compensatory changes in CST function/structure may occur, which positively correlated with the extent of finger dexterity recovery. These results further support the concept that the expression of SPP1 may reflect functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species.

  8. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Reguera, David, E-mail: dreguera@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  9. Application of stepping motor

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  10. Speed Synchronization of Multi Induction Motors with Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    HACHEMI Glaoui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. Aspeed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed controlstrategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designedcontroller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  12. Field oriented control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with time constant adaption

    Afsharnia, S.; Vahedi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, initially, we present a method for on-line identifying of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine electrical parameters, then these parameters will be used in the vector control structure of motors. Simulation results show the efficiency of this method to parameters identifying of machine even in the presence of saturation, variation of temperature and etc. Because of simplicity and being economic, this method can be used by electro motors constructors to identify motor parameters for different operating points

  13. Analysis and control of excitation, field weakening and stability in direct torque controlled electrically excited synchronous motor drives

    Pyrhoenen, O

    1999-12-31

    Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque

  14. Analysis and control of excitation, field weakening and stability in direct torque controlled electrically excited synchronous motor drives

    Pyrhoenen, O.

    1998-12-31

    Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque

  15. Vector Control Using Series Iron Loss Model of Induction, Motors and Power Loss Minimization

    Kheldoun Aissa; Khodja Djalal Eddine

    2009-01-01

    The iron loss is a source of detuning in vector controlled induction motor drives if the classical rotor vector controller is used for decoupling. In fact, the field orientation will not be satisfied and the output torque will not truck the reference torque mostly used by Loss Model Controllers (LMCs). In addition, this component of loss, among others, may be excessive if the vector controlled induction motor is driving light loads. In this paper, the series iron loss model ...

  16. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  17. Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection

    Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kanpur 208 016 e-mail: ... voltage vectors, which keep the motor torque in the defined hysteresis tolerance band. At every sampling ... For reverse rotation, in the same way ...

  18. Real-time direct measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression: relationship between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency in spinal cord injury.

    Hamamoto, Yuichiro; Ogata, Tadanori; Morino, Tadao; Hino, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu

    2007-08-15

    An in vivo study to measure rat spinal cord blood flow in real-time at the site of compression using a newly developed device. To evaluate the change in thoracic spinal cord blood flow by compression force and to clarify the association between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency after a spinal cord compression injury. Until now, no real-time measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression has been conducted. In addition, it has not been clearly determined whether blood flow recovery is related to motor function after a spinal cord injury. Our blood flow measurement system was a combination of a noncontact type laser Doppler system and a spinal cord compression device. The rat thoracic spinal cord was exposed at the 11th vertebra and spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression was continuously measured before, during, and after the compression. The functioning of the animal's hind-limbs was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scoring scale and the frequency of voluntary standing. Histologic changes such as permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier, microglia proliferation, and apoptotic cell death were examined in compressed spinal cord tissue. The spinal blood flow decreased on each increase in the compression force. After applying a 5-g weight, the blood flow decreased to compression), while no significant difference was observed between the 20-minute ischemia group and the sham group. In the 20-minute ischemia group, the rats whose spinal cord blood flow recovery was incomplete showed significant motor function loss compared with rats that completely recovered blood flow. Extensive breakdown of blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and the following microglia proliferation and apoptotic cell death were detected in the 40-minute complete ischemia group. Duration of ischemia/compression and blood flow recovery of the spinal cord are important factors in the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury.

  19. Summary on Sensorless permanent magnet Brushless DC Motor Control Strategies

    Li Hai Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the development process and application of permanent magnet brushless DC motor. By referring to the related literatures, this thesis gives an overview of several common non-position sensor detection technologies, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses as well as a number of new and improved methods in practical applications. Besides, The application situation of the electric door with sensorless permanent magnet brushless DC motor was illustrated.

  20. Bobath Concept versus constraint-induced movement therapy to improve arm functional recovery in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Huseyinsinoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak; Krespi, Yakup

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of the Bobath Concept and constraint-induced movement therapy on arm functional recovery among stroke patients with a high level of function on the affected side. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy department of a stroke unit. A total of 24 patients were randomized to constraint-induced movement therapy or Bobath Concept group. The Bobath Concept group was treated for 1 hour whereas the constraint-induced movement therapy group received training for 3 hours per day during 10 consecutive weekdays. Main measures were the Motor Activity Log-28, the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients and the Functional Independence Measure. The two groups were found to be homogeneous based on demographic variables and baseline measurements. Significant improvements were seen after treatment only in the 'Amount of use' and 'Quality of movement' subscales of the Motor Activity Log-28 in the constraint-induced movement therapy group over the the Bobath Concept group (P = 0.003; P = 0.01 respectively). There were no significant differences in Wolf Motor Function Test 'Functional ability' (P = 0.137) and 'Performance time' (P = 0.922), Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients (P = 0.947) and Functional Independence Measure scores (P = 0.259) between the two intervention groups. Constraint-induced movement therapy and the Bobath Concept have similar efficiencies in improving functional ability, speed and quality of movement in the paretic arm among stroke patients with a high level of function. Constraint-induced movement therapy seems to be slightly more efficient than the Bobath Concept in improving the amount and quality of affected arm use.

  1. Online MTPA Control Approach for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives Based on Emotional Controller

    Daryabeigi, Ehsan; Zarchi, Hossein Abootorabi; Markadeh, G. R. Arab

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, speed and torque control modes (SCM and TCM) of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) drives are proposed based on emotional controllers and space vector modulation under an automatic search of the maximum-torque-per-ampere (MTPA) strategy. Furthermore, in order to achieve an MTPA...... strategy at any operating condition, after recognition of transient state by two new indicators, a search algorithm changes the stator flux magnitude automatically. The indicators operate based on slip effect generated at transient conditions in a SynRM with cage. The performance of the proposed controller...

  2. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age......, with both gross motor function and mobility. Segmental trunk control measured using the SATCo could explain between 38% and 40% of variation in GMFM and between 32% and 37% of variation in PEDI. Interpretation This study suggests a strong association between segmental trunk postural control and gross motor...

  3. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...

  4. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...

  5. Modulation of motor control in saccadic behaviors by TMS over the posterior parietal cortex.

    Liang, Wei-Kuang; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2012-08-01

    The right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) has been found to be critical in shaping visual selection and distractor-induced saccade curvature in the context of predictive as well as nonpredictive visual cues by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interference. However, the dynamic details of how distractor-induced saccade curvatures are affected by rPPC TMS have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the key dynamic properties that cause saccades to curve away from distractors with different degrees of curvature in various TMS and target predictability conditions. Stochastic optimal feedback control theory was used to model the dynamics of the TMS saccade data. This allowed estimation of torques, which was used to identify the critical dynamic mechanisms producing saccade curvature. The critical mechanisms of distractor-induced saccade curvatures were found to be the motor commands and torques in the transverse direction. When an unpredictable saccade target occurred with rPPC TMS, there was an initial period of greater distractor-induced torque toward the side opposite the distractor in the transverse direction, immediately followed by a relatively long period of recovery torque that brought the deviated trace back toward the target. The results imply that the mechanisms of distractor-induced saccade curvature may be comprised of two mechanisms: the first causing the initial deviation and the second bringing the deviated trace back toward the target. The pattern of the initial torque in the transverse direction revealed the former mechanism. Conversely, the later mechanism could be well explained as a consequence of the control policy in this model. To summarize, rPPC TMS increased the initial torque away from the distractor as well as the recovery torque toward the target.

  6. Sensorless Control of Electric Motors with Kalman Filters: Applications to Robotic and Industrial Systems

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies sensorless control for DC and induction motors, using Kalman Filtering techniques. First the case of a DC motor is considered and Kalman Filter-based control is implemented. Next the nonlinear model of a field-oriented induction motor is examined and the motor's angular velocity is estimated by an Extended Kalman Filter which processes measurements of the rotor's angle. Sensorless control of the induction motor is again implemented through feedback of the estimated state vector. Additionally, a state estimation-based control loop is implemented using the Unscented Kalman Filter. Moreover, state estimation-based control is developed for the induction motor model using a nonlinear flatness-based controller and the state estimation that is provided by the Extended Kalman Filter. Unlike field oriented control, in the latter approach there is no assumption about decoupling between the rotor speed dynamics and the magnetic flux dynamics. The efficiency of the Kalman Filter-based control schemes, for both the DC and induction motor models, is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  7. The electric motor handbook

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Fuzzy Adaptive Model Following Speed Control for Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Baghdad BELABES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.

  9. DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)

    Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...

  10. Energy optimal control strategies for electro motors; low-cost and sensorless PWM-VSI based induction motor control. Vol. 1: Main report, appendix and annex

    Abrahamsen, F

    1998-02-01

    When variable speed induction motor drives are used in applications that run at low load for long periods, energy can be saved by reducing the motor flux at low load. In this report the efficiency of 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives are investigated experimentally with efficiency optimized and constant flux control, with sinusoidal and PWM voltage supply and with varying switching frequency. Steady-state motor models are developed and verified experimentally, and are used to analyze and develop efficiency optimizing control strategies. Four energy optimal control strategies are tested experimentally: cos({phi}) control, model-based control, off-line calculated airgap flux control and stator current/input power minimising search control. Their dynamical properties and their ability to reject load disturbances are analysed. Their ability to save energy is tested on a water pump system. For a typical predefined test-cycle the energy optimal control reduces the energy consumption with 10% compared with classical constant V/Hz control. (au)

  11. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  12. Lumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study.

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Rodriguez de La Cruz, Carlos; Giop, Romain; Tomasella, Marco; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter's bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players.

  13. Motor cortex changes after amputation are modulated by phantom limb motor control rather than pain

    Raffin, Estelle E.; Pascal, Giraux,; Karen, Reilly,

    Amputation of a limb induces reorganization within the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1-c) (1-3). In the case of hand amputation, M1-c areas evoking movements in the face and the remaining part of the upper-limb expand toward the hand area. Despite this expansion, the amputated hand still...... reorganization and the residual M1-c activity of the amputated hand is unknown. This fMRI study aimed to determine this relationship...

  14. Randomized controlled trial of surface peroneal nerve stimulation for motor relearning in lower limb hemiparesis

    Sheffler, L.R.; Taylor, P.N.; Gunzler, D.D.; Buurke, Jaap; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Chae, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the motor relearning effect of a surface peroneal nerve stimulator (PNS) versus usual care on lower limb motor impairment, activity limitation, and quality of life among chronic stroke survivors. Design: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Teaching hospital of

  15. FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED CONTROLLERS FOR EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

    This paper describes a fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of induction motor/drives operating at various load (torque) and speed conditions. Improvement of induction motor efficiency is important not only from the considerations of energy sav...

  16. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  17. Self-Controlled Practice Enhances Motor Learning in Introverts and Extroverts

    Kaefer, Angélica; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Meira, Cassio de Miranda, Jr.; Tani, Go

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of a sequential-timing motor task in introverts and extroverts. Method: Fifty-six university students were selected by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They practiced a motor task consisting of pressing computer keyboard keys…

  18. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  19. Nonlinear Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives Taking into Account Mutual Inductance

    M. Rayan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A speed control algorithm is proposed for variable speed switched reluctance motor (SRM drives taking into account the effects of mutual inductances. The control scheme adopts two-phase excitation; exciting two adjacent phases can overcome the problems associated with single-phase excitation such as large torque ripple, increased acoustic noise, and rotor shaft fatigues. The effects of mutual coupling between two adjacent phases and their contribution to the generated electromagnetic torque are considered in the design of the proposed control scheme for the motor. The proposed controller guarantees the convergence of the currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results are given to illustrate the developed theory; the simulation studies show that the proposed controller works well. Moreover, the simulation results indicate that the proposed controller is robust to changes in the parameters of the motor and to changes in the load torque.

  20. A new method for speed control of a DC motor using magnetorheological clutch

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    In this research, a new method to control speed of DC motor using magnetorheological (MR) clutch is proposed and realized. Firstly, the strategy of a DC motor speed control using MR clutch is proposed. The MR clutch configuration is then proposed and analyzed based on Bingham-plastic rheological model of MR fluid. An optimal designed of the MR clutch is then studied to find out the optimal geometric dimensions of the clutch that can transform a required torque with minimum mass. A prototype of the optimized MR clutch is then manufactured and its performance characteristics are experimentally investigated. A DC motor speed control system featuring the optimized MR clutch is designed and manufactured. A PID controller is then designed to control the output speed of the system. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed DC motor speed control system, experimental results of the system such as speed tracking performance are obtained and presented with discussions.

  1. Do motor control genes contribute to interindividual variability in decreased movement in patients with pain?

    Mishra Bikash K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because excessive reduction in activities after back injury may impair recovery, it is important to understand and address the factors contributing to the variability in motor responses to pain. The current dominant theory is the "fear-avoidance model", in which the some patients' heightened fears of further injury cause them to avoid movement. We propose that in addition to psychological factors, neurochemical variants in the circuits controlling movement and their modification by pain may contribute to this variability. A systematic search of the motor research literature and genetic databases yielded a prioritized list of polymorphic motor control candidate genes. We demonstrate an analytic method that we applied to 14 of these genes in 290 patients with acute sciatica, whose reduction in movement was estimated by items from the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Results We genotyped a total of 121 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 of these genes, which code for the dopamine D2 receptor, GTP cyclohydrolase I, glycine receptor α1 subunit, GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, GABA-A receptor β1 subunit, α-adrenergic 1C, 2A, and 2C receptors, serotonin 1A and 2A receptors, cannabinoid CB-1 receptor, M1 muscarinic receptor, and the tyrosine hydroxylase, and tachykinin precursor-1 molecules. No SNP showed a significant association with the movement score after a Bonferroni correction for the 14 genes tested. Haplotype analysis of one of the blocks in the GABA-A receptor β1 subunit showed that a haplotype of 11% frequency was associated with less limitation of movement at a nominal significance level value (p = 0.0025 almost strong enough to correct for testing 22 haplotype blocks. Conclusion If confirmed, the current results may suggest that a common haplotype in the GABA-A β1 subunit acts like an "endogenous muscle relaxant" in an individual with subacute sciatica. Similar methods might be applied a larger set of

  2. Architecture of vagal motor units controlling striated muscle of esophagus: peripheral elements patterning peristalsis?

    Powley, Terry L; Mittal, Ravinder K; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A; Hudson, Cherie N; Martin, Felecia N; McAdams, Jennifer L; Mason, Jacqueline K; Phillips, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the architecture of the vagal motor units that control esophageal striated muscle, in spite of the fact that these units are necessary, and responsible, for peristalsis. The present experiment was designed to characterize the motor neuron projection fields and terminal arbors forming esophageal motor units. Nucleus ambiguus compact formation neurons of the rat were labeled by bilateral intracranial injections of the anterograde tracer dextran biotin. After tracer transport, thoracic and abdominal esophagi were removed and prepared as whole mounts of muscle wall without mucosa or submucosa. Labeled terminal arbors of individual vagal motor neurons (n=78) in the esophageal wall were inventoried, digitized and analyzed morphometrically. The size of individual vagal motor units innervating striated muscle, throughout thoracic and abdominal esophagus, averaged 52 endplates per motor neuron, a value indicative of fine motor control. A majority (77%) of the motor terminal arbors also issued one or more collateral branches that contacted neurons, including nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons, of local myenteric ganglia. Individual motor neuron terminal arbors co-innervated, or supplied endplates in tandem to, both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers in roughly similar proportions (i.e., two endplates to longitudinal for every three endplates to circular fibers). Both the observation that vagal motor unit collaterals project to myenteric ganglia and the fact that individual motor units co-innervate longitudinal and circular muscle layers are consistent with the hypothesis that elements contributing to peristaltic programming inhere, or are "hardwired," in the peripheral architecture of esophageal motor units. © 2013.

  3. Speed Control Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using TakagiSugeno Fuzzy Logic Control

    Ahmad Asri Abd Samat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a speed control design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM using Field Oriented Control (FOC. The focus is to design a speed control using Takagi — Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Control (T-S FLS. These systems will replace the conventional method which is proportional-integral (PI. The objective of this paper is to study the T—S Fuzzy Inference System (FIS speed regulator and acceleration observer for PMSM. The scope of study basically is to design and analyse the Takagi Sugeno FLC and the PMSM. This paper also will describe the methodology and process of modelling the PMSM including data analysis. The simulation work is implemented in Matlab-Simulink to verify the control method. The effectiveness of this proposed control method was confirmed through various range of speed and torque variation.

  4. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  5. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder

    Thomas Hassa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  6. Development of magneto-rheologial fluid (MRF) based clutch for output torque control of AC motors

    Nguyen, Q. Hung; Do, H. M. Hieu; Nguyen, V. Quoc; Nguyen, N. Diep; Le, D. Thang

    2018-03-01

    In industry, the AC motor is widely used because of low price, power availability, low cost maintenance. The main disadvantages of AC motors compared to DC motors are difficulty in speed and torque control, requiring expensive controllers with complex control algorithms. This is the basic limitations in the widespread adoption of AC motor systems for industrial automation. One feasible solution for AC motor control is using MRF (magneto-rheological fluid) based clutches (shortly called MR clutches) Although there have been many studies on MR clutches, most of these clutches used traditional configuration with coils wound on the middle cylindrical part and a compotator is used to supply power to the coils. Therefore, this type of MR clutches possesses many disadvantages such as high friction and unstable applied current due to commutator, complex structure which causes difficulty in manufacture, assembly, and maintenance. In addition, the bottleneck problem of magnetic field is also a challenging issue. In this research, we will develop a new type of MR clutches that overcomes the abovementioned disadvantages of traditional MR clutches and more suitable for application in controlling of AC motor. Besides, in this study, speed and torque control system for AC motors using developed MR clutches is designed and experimental validated.

  7. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder.

    Hassa, Thomas; Sebastian, Alexandra; Liepert, Joachim; Weiller, Cornelius; Schmidt, Roger; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-)supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  8. Modelling and Design of Active Thermal Controls for Power Electronics of Motor Drive Applications

    Vernica, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    of active thermal control methods for the power devices of a motor drive application. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling of the power devices have been modelled, and adverse temperature swings could be noticed during the start-up and deceleration periods of the motor. Based...... on the electrical response of the system, the junction temperature of the semiconductor devices is estimated, and consequently three active thermal control methods are proposed and practically designed with respect to the following parameters: switching frequency, deceleration slope and modulation technique....... Finally, experimental results are provided in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control methods....

  9. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

    2002-01-01

    Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

  10. Validation of the efficiency of a robotic rehabilitation training system for recovery of severe plegie hand motor function after a stroke.

    Tanabe, Hirofumi; Ikuta, Munehiro; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a rehabilitation training system called the Useful and Ultimate Rehabilitation System PARKO (UR System PARKO) to promote the recovery of motor function of the severe chronic plegic hand of stroke patients. This system was equipped with two functions to realize two conditions: (1) fixing of all fingers to a hyperextended position and (2) extending the elbow joint while applying resistance load to the fingertips. A clinical test was conducted with two patients to determine the therapeutic effect of the UR System PARKO for severe plegic hand. In both patients, the active ranges of motion of finger extension improved after training with the UR System PARKO. Moreover, the Modified Ashworth scale scores of finger extension increased. Thus, training reduced the spastic paralysis. These results suggest the effectiveness of training with the UR System PARKO for recovery of motor function as reflected in the finger extension of the severe plegic hand.

  11. Electroacupuncture Promotes Recovery of Motor Function and Reduces Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration in Rodent Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yang, Han-Bin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Hung, Shih-Ya

    2017-08-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. The pathological hallmark of PD is a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta in the brain, ultimately resulting in severe striatal dopamine deficiency and the development of primary motor symptoms (e.g., resting tremor, bradykinesia) in PD. Acupuncture has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat PD for the control of tremor and pain. Accumulating evidence has shown that using electroacupuncture (EA) as a complementary therapy ameliorates motor symptoms of PD. However, the most appropriate timing for EA intervention and its effect on dopamine neuronal protection remain unclear. Thus, this study used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model (systemic-lesioned by intraperitoneal injection) and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP⁺)-lesioned rat model (unilateral-lesioned by intra-SN infusion) of PD, to explore the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of EA at the GB34 (Yanglingquan) and LR3 (Taichong) acupoints. We found that EA increased the latency to fall from the accelerating rotarod and improved striatal dopamine levels in the MPTP studies. In the MPP⁺ studies, EA inhibited apomorphine induced rotational behavior and locomotor activity, and demonstrated neuroprotective effects via the activation of survival pathways of Akt and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the SN region. In conclusion, we observed that EA treatment reduces motor symptoms of PD and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rodent models, whether EA is given as a pretreatment or after the initiation of disease symptoms. The results indicate that EA treatment may be an effective therapy for patients with PD.

  12. Research of Compound Control for DC Motor System Based on Global Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of modeling errors, parameter variations, and load moment disturbances in DC motor control system, one global sliding mode disturbance observer (GSMDO is proposed based on the global sliding mode (GSM control theory. The output of GSMDO is used as the disturbance compensation in control system, which can improve the robust performance of DC motor control system. Based on the designed GSMDO in inner loop, one compound controller, composed of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller, is proposed in order to realize the position tracking of DC motor system. The gains of feedback controller are obtained by means of linear quadratic regulator (LQR optimal control theory. Simulation results present that the proposed control scheme possesses better tracking properties and stronger robustness against modeling errors, parameter variations, and friction moment disturbances. Moreover, its structure is simple; therefore it is easy to be implemented in engineering.

  13. Design and Advanced Control of Switched Reluctance Motors

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    The introduction of mainly power electronics and cheap micro computers have made the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), which is in focus in this thesis, a feasible alternative to traditional electrical machines like the induction- and DC-motor which have been the dominating electrical machines...... to a standard induction motor, and from the test it is seen that the nominal efficiency of the SRM is 83 % compared to only 72 % for the induction motor. During the work with this thesis some follow-ups are done which were not specified in the main-goals. But these is very important contributions in the SR...... and a static characterization system developed. To simulate and analyze the electromagnetic performance of different variations of SRMs, in for instance SRDaS, is a general dynamical model derived, which also takes into account SRMs having permanent magnets. The parameters for the models are obtained with 2D...

  14. Speed Sensorless mixed sensitivity linear parameter variant H_inf control of the induction motor

    Toth, R.; Fodor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the design of a robust control structure for the speed sensorless vector control of the IM, based on the mixed sensitivity (MS) linear parameter variant (LPV) H8 control theory. The controller makes possible the direct control of the flux and speed of the motor with torque adaptation

  15. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  16. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...

  17. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  18. Blocking weight-induced spinal cord injury in rats: effects of TRH or naloxone on motor function recovery and spinal cord blood flow

    Holtz, A.; Nystroem, B.; Gerdin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of thyotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or naloxone to reduce the motor function deficit and to improve the spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was investigated in a rat spinal cord compression injury model. Spinal cord injury was induced by compression for 5 min with a load of 35 g on a 2.2 x 5.0 mm sized compression plate causing a transient paraparesis. One group of animals was given TRH, one group naloxone and one group saline alone. Each drug was administered intravenously as a bolus dose of 2 mg/kg 60 min after injury followed by a continuous infusion of 2 mg/kg/h for 4 h. The motor performance was assessed daily on the inclined plant until Day 4, when SCBF was measured with the 14 C-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic method. It was found that neither TRH nor naloxone had promoted motor function recovery or affected SCBF 4 days after spinal cord injury. (author)

  19. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  20. Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Wong, Joshua N; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Chan, K Ming

    2015-06-01

    Brief postsurgical electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models following axotomy and crush injury. However, whether this treatment is beneficial in humans with sensory nerve injury has not been tested. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that ES would enhance sensory nerve regeneration following digital nerve transection compared to surgery alone. Patients with complete digital nerve transection underwent epineurial nerve repair. After coaptation of the severed nerve ends, fine wire electrodes were implanted before skin closure. Postoperatively, patients were randomized to receiving either 1 hour of 20Hz continuous ES or sham stimulation in a double-blinded manner. Patients were followed monthly for 6 months by a blinded evaluator to monitor physiological recovery of spatial discrimination, pressure threshold, and quantitative small fiber sensory testing. Functional disability was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were recruited, with 18 in each group. Those in the ES group showed consistently greater improvements in all sensory modalities by 5 to 6 months postoperatively compared to the controls. Although there was a trend of greater functional improvements in the ES group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Postsurgical ES enhanced sensory reinnervation in patients who sustained complete digital nerve transection. The conferred benefits apply to a wide range of sensory functions. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  1. RBF Neural Network Approach for Identification and Control of DC Motors

    EA Feilat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a neural network approach for the identification and control of a separately excited direct (DC motor (SEDCM driving a centrifugal pump load is applied. In this application, two radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN are used: The first is a RBFNN identifier trained offline to emulate the dynamic performance of the DC motor-load system. The second is a RBFNN controller, which is trained to make the motor speed follow a selected reference signal. Two RBFNN control schemes are proposed using direct inverse and internal model control schemes. The performance of the RBFNN identifier and controller is investigated in terms of step response, sharp changes in speed trajectory, and sudden load change, as well as changes in motor parameters. The performance of RBFNN in system identification and control has been compared with the performance of the well-known back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The simulation results show that both of the BPNN and RBFNN controllers exhibit excellent dynamic response, adapt well to changes in speed trajectory and load connected to the motor, and adapt to the variations of motor parameters. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the step response of RBFNN internal model and direct inverse controllers are identical.

  2. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    Lima, Jeferson J. de, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Tusset, Angelo M., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Janzen, Frederic C., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Piccirillo, Vinicius, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Nascimento, Claudinor B., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br [UTFPR-PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José M., E-mail: jmbaltha@rc.unesp.br [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca, E-mail: reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  3. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a reliance EV-250AT motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Straight and chopped DC motor performances for a Reliance EV-250AT motor with an EV-1 controller were examined. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are shown. It is found that the maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight DC mode. Chopper efficiency is 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight DC mode.

  4. DC motor operation controlled from a DC/DC power converter in pulse mode with low duty cycle

    Stefanov, Goce; Kukuseva, Maja; Citkuseva Dimitrovska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper pulse mode of operation of DC motor controlled by DC/DC power converter is analyzed. DC motor operation with time intervals in which the motor operates without output load is of interest. In this mode it is possible the motor to restore energy. Also, in the paper are represented calculations for the amount of the restored energy in the pulse mode operation of the motor for different duty cycles.

  5. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  6. Electrical stimulation of paralyzed vibrissal muscles reduces endplate reinnervation and does not promote motor recovery after facial nerve repair in rats.

    Sinis, Nektarios; Horn, Frauke; Genchev, Borislav; Skouras, Emmanouil; Merkel, Daniel; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Michael, Joern; Pavlov, Stoyan; Igelmund, Peter; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Irintchev, Andrey; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

    2009-10-01

    The outcome of peripheral nerve injuries requiring surgical repair is poor. Recent work has suggested that electrical stimulation (ES) of denervated muscles could be beneficial. Here we tested whether ES has a positive influence on functional recovery after injury and surgical repair of the facial nerve. Outcomes at 2 months were compared to animals receiving sham stimulation (SS). Starting on the first day after end-to-end suture (facial-facial anastomosis), electrical stimulation (square 0.1 ms pulses at 5 Hz at an ex tempore established threshold amplitude of between 3.0 and 5.0V) was delivered to the vibrissal muscles for 5 min a day, 3 times a week. Restoration of vibrissal motor performance following ES or SS was evaluated using the video-based motion analysis and correlated with the degree of collateral axonal branching at the lesion site, the number of motor endplates in the target musculature and the quality of their reinnervation, i.e. the degree of mono- versus poly-innervation. Neither protocol reduced collateral branching. ES did not improve functional outcome, but rather reduced the number of innervated motor endplates to approximately one-fifth of normal values and failed to reduce the proportion of poly-innervated motor endplates. We conclude that ES is not beneficial for recovery of whisker function after facial nerve repair in rats.

  7. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  8. Control and sensor techniques for PAD servo motor drive

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a new type of electrical motor that employs piezoelectric multilayer actuators coupled with a form-fitted micro-mechanical gearing to generate rotary motion. The PAD is precise, having a positioning error of less than 2 arc-seconds. Its typical output...

  9. Ultrasound-guided plasma rich in growth factors injections and scaffolds hasten motor nerve functional recovery in an ovine model of nerve crush injury.

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, E; Delgado, D; Prado, R; Sánchez, P; Fiz, N; Guadilla, J; Azofra, J; Pompei, O; Orive, G; Ortega, M; Yoshioka, T; Padilla, S

    2017-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the motor recovery process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI), based on electrophysiological and histomorphometric criteria, after treatment with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) injections and scaffolds in an ovine model. Three groups of sheep underwent a nerve crush lesion: the first group (n = 3) was left to recover spontaneously (SR); the second group was administered saline injections (SI; n = 5) and a third group (n = 6) received PRGF injections and scaffolds immediately after the crush injury. At post-intervention week 8, 70% of sheep in the PRGF group were CMAP-positive, with no electrophysiological response in the rest of the groups. Histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after the surgical intervention revealed that the average axonal density of the SR (1184 ± 864 axons/µm 2 ) and SI (3109 ± 2450 axons/µm 2 ) groups was significantly inferior to the control (8427 ± 2433 axons/µm 2 ) and also inferior to the PRGF group (5276 ± 4148 axons/µm 2 ), showing no significant differences between the control and PRGF groups. The axonal size of the SR and SI groups was significantly smaller compared with the control group (18 ± 4 µm 2 ), whereas the axonal size of the PRGF group (6 ± 5 µm 2 ) did not show statistical differences from the control. Morphometry of the target muscles indicated that the PRGF group had the lowest percentage volume reduction 12 weeks after the crush injury. The PRGF group had larger muscle fibre areas than the SI and SR groups, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, these data suggest that the PRGF injections and scaffolds hastened functional axon recovery and dampened atrophy of the target muscles in an ovine model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    Elkjaer Arne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC and low back pain (LBP. However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice. Methods The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS, sitting forward lean (SFL, sitting knee extension (SKE, and bent knee fall out (BKFO, all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL, measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8, were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP. Results The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27 cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62 cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29 cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52 cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1 mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm. Conclusion These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these

  11. Comparative Study on Photovoltaic Pumping Systems Driven by Different Motors Optimized with Sliding Mode Control

    Abdelhak Bouchakour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of three different photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems driven by three types of motors, namely a separately excited DC motor (DCM, an asynchronous motor (ASM, and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, via a DC/DC buck-boost converter coupled to a centrifugal pump. The purpose of this study is to implement a fast and robust control for this type of a nonlinear system, controlled by sliding mode (SM. This paper presents an SM control technique for controlling a DC/DC buck-boost converter to transfer the maximum power delivered by the PV generator. Each component is studied and analyzed to simulate the global system in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The three systems are then compared to determine the overall effectiveness of the proposed command. The study concludes that the ASM-driven PV system yields highly favorable results and requires less maintenance compared with other systems.

  12. Motor Controller for Extreme Environments Based on SiGe, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a motor-control subsystem capable of operation in extreme environments, including those to be encountered on the Moon and Mars....

  13. Self-tuning Torque Control of Induction Motors for High Performance Applications

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    -link voltage a non-linear model of the inverter giving the relation between turn-on times and voltages is developed. A dynamic model of the induction motor based on space phasors is described. The model in a reference frame fixed to the rotor magnetizing current is analyzed in detail and extended with a model......: · To analyze and develop strategies for torque control of induction motors well suited for automatic tuning. · To analyze and develop methods for automatic tuning of the applied controllers. · To develop robust methods for adaptive field oriented control. · To test the final concept on different motors...... for magnetic saturating. The parameters in this non-linear model of the motor and inverter are determined by impressing some special designed stator voltage signals and measuring the stator currents. A s something new in this context a robust current controller is determined by relay experiment before starting...

  14. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  15. Sensorless AC electric motor control robust advanced design techniques and applications

    Glumineau, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This monograph shows the reader how to avoid the burdens of sensor cost, reduced internal physical space, and system complexity in the control of AC motors. Many applications fields—electric vehicles, wind- and wave-energy converters and robotics, among them—will benefit. Sensorless AC Electric Motor Control describes the elimination of physical sensors and their replacement with observers, i.e., software sensors. Robustness is introduced to overcome problems associated with the unavoidable imperfection of knowledge of machine parameters—resistance, inertia, and so on—encountered in real systems. The details of a large number of speed- and/or position-sensorless ideas for different types of permanent-magnet synchronous motors and induction motors are presented along with several novel observer designs for electrical machines. Control strategies are developed using high-order, sliding-mode and quasi-continuous-sliding-mode techniques and two types of observer–controller schemes based on backstepping ...

  16. An adaptive nonlinear internal-model control for the speed control of homopolar salient-pole BLDC motor

    CheshmehBeigi, Hassan Moradi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel speed control method for Homopolar Brushless DC (HBLDC) motor based on the adaptive nonlinear internal-model control (ANIMC) is presented. Rotor position information is obtained online by the Hall-Effect sensors placed on the motor's shaft, and is used to calculate the accurate model and accurate inverse model of the HBLDC motor. The online inverse model of the motor is used in the controller structure. To suppress the reference ? error, the negative feedback of difference between the motor speed and its model output ? is applied in the proposed controller. An appropriate signal is the output of the controller, which drives the power switches to converge the motor speed to the constant desired speed. Simulations and experiments are carried out on a ? three-phase HBLDC motor. The proposed drive system operates well in the speed response and has good robustness with respect to the disturbances. To validate the theoretical analysis, several experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  17. Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-12-15

    The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuzzy PID control algorithm based on PSO and application in BLDC motor

    Lin, Sen; Wang, Guanglong

    2017-06-01

    A fuzzy PID control algorithm is studied based on improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) to perform Brushless DC (BLDC) motor control which has high accuracy, good anti-jamming capability and steady state accuracy compared with traditional PID control. The mathematical and simulation model is established for BLDC motor by simulink software, and the speed loop of the fuzzy PID controller is designed. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID control algorithm based on PSO has higher stability, high control precision and faster dynamic response speed.

  19. POSITION CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    Çetin GENÇER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDC have been used widely high performance control systems which are depended on to development of power electronic and control technology. In these motors to fed commutated supply, the control of position without oscilation has been required. In this study, position control of BLDC with digital signal processing has been implemented by a proportional-derivative (PD controller because of its simple structure. It has been seen that the controller which is proposed from simulation and experimental studies, has a quick dynamic responce with nonoscillation.

  20. Motion Sensorless Control of BLDC PM Motor with Offline FEM Info Assisted State Observer

    Stirban, Alin; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new offline FEM assisted position and speed observer, for brushless dc (BLDC) PM motor drive sensorless control, based on the line-to-line PM flux linkage estimation. The zero-crossing of the line-to-line PM flux linkage occurs right in the middle of two commutation points...... identification. Digital simulations and experimental results are shown, demonstrating the reliability of the FEM assisted position and speed observer for BLDC PM motor sensorless control operation....

  1. Choice, perceived control, and customer satisfaction: the psychology of online service recovery.

    Chang, Chia-Chi

    2008-06-01

    Service failures and consequent recoveries have been identified as critical determinants of customer retention. Therefore, effective service recovery programs warrant further exploration, particularly in the online shopping environment, where consumers can receive immediate and tangible service recovery. The results of the present study suggest that by providing a choice of recovery options, customers' sense of control is increased, as is their satisfaction with the particular recovery efforts and their overall satisfaction with the entire service experience. Also, service importance accentuated the impact of choice on perceived control. Specifically, when the service was of greater importance, giving customers a choice of recovery options augmented customers' sense of control more than when the service was of lesser importance. The implications of the findings are also discussed.

  2. Sensorless Vector Control of AC Induction Motor Using Sliding-Mode Observer

    Phuc Thinh Doan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a sensorless vector controlled method for AC induction motor using sliding-mode observer. For developing the control algorithm, modeling of AC induction motor is presented. After that, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the motor speed, the rotor flux, the angular position of the rotor flux and the motor torque from monitored stator voltages and currents. The use of the nonlinear sliding mode observer provides very good performance for both low and high speed motor operation. Furthermore, the proposed system is robust in motor losses and load variations. The convergence of the proposed observer is obtained using the Lyapunov theory. Hardware and software for simulation and experiment of the AC induction motor drive are introduced. The hardware consists of a 1.5kw AC induction motor connected in series with a torque sensor and a powder brake. A controller is developed based on DSP TMS320F28355. The simulation and experimental results illustrate that fast torque and speed response with small torque ripples can be achieved. The proposed control scheme is suitable to the application fields that require high performance of torque response such as electric vehicles. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.39-43 [How to cite this article: Doan, P. T., Nguyen, T. T., Jeong, S. K., Oh, S. J., & Kim, S. B. (2013. Sensorless Vector Control of AC Induction Motor Using Sliding-Mode Observer. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, 4(2, 39-43; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.39-43

  3. Test Platform for Advanced Digital Control of Brushless DC Motors (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Gwaltney, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.

  4. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    Macedo, Luciana G; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Chris G; Hodges, Paul W; Nicholas, Michael; Tonkin, Lois; McAuley, James H; Stafford, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week) and function (patient-specific functional scale) at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415 PMID:18454877

  5. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    McAuley James H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week and function (patient-specific functional scale at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415

  6. Sensorless Sinusoidal Drives for Fan and Pump Motors by V/f Control

    Kiuchi, Mitsuyuki; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    This paper proposes sensorless sinusoidal driving methods of permanent magnet synchronous motors for fans and pumps by V/f control. The proposed methods are simple methods that control the motor peak current constant by voltage or frequency control, and are characterized by DC link current detection using a single shunt resistor at carrier wave signal bottom timing. As a result of the dumping factor from square torque load characteristics of fan and pump motors, it is possible to control stable starting and stable steady state by V/f control. In general, pressure losses as a result of the fluid pass of fan and pump systems are nearly constant; therefore, the flow rate and motor torque are determined by revolutions. Accordingly, high efficiency driving is possible by setting corresponding currents to q-axis currents (torque currents) at target revolutions. Because of the simple current detection and motor control methods, the proposed methods are optimum for fan and pump motor driving systems of home appliances.

  7. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  8. Efficiency Optimization Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives with Online Parameter Estimation

    Sadegh Vaez-Zadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficiency optimization control method for high performance interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives with online estimation of motor parameters. The control system is based on an input-output feedback linearization method which provides high performance control and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the motor losses. The controllable electrical loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. It is shown that parameter variations except at near the nominal conditions have undesirable effect on the controller performance. Therefore, a parameter estimation method based on the second method of Lyapunov is presented which guarantees the stability and convergence of the estimation. The extensive simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed controller and observer and their desirable performances.

  9. Pulsewidth Modulated Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors.

    1984-09-01

    sped acca - racy of the motoc is defined as tne difference Letweer the maximum and mir.imum motor speed divided by the commai. =e/ s~eed. TABLE I Motor...TO = .OOC C L N I5 THE SYvSTEM ELECTRICAL TIME CONSTANT lN = INCIC/RES F6 (1.c/FREcj D C/100. lIME =Ph 71ME2 l .CiFJREQ PMs C C EO IS THE BACK EtMF C...iu-8.2 J WR ITE (b , -0 I rI M 50 FGRM AT 11 ) t’I1N: 0,Fl 0 3,v ItM : a F10..3) WRITE (6t CC) IAV,IRMS 100 f -.FM tT 1 Xj IAV = ’ ,F 8.4,, v I11RMS F6

  10. Arranque de un motor de inducción usando control difuso

    Camilo Barriga Turriago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of fuzzy logic as part of artiÞ cial intelligence in the area of power electronics and motor drivers to improve performance during the startup of an induction motor. To feed the induction motor, two circuit configurations have been chosen to use: a series of thyristors connected in ant parallel and a threephaseinverter. Control strategies such as soft start and Direct Torque Control incorporating fuzzy control have been current proposals to reduce and improve torque. The results of a simulated induction motor squirrel cage of 1.1 KW to these electronic methods show an improvement in performance at boot time, reducing power and increasingthe torque.

  11. A model of reward- and effort-based optimal decision making and motor control.

    Lionel Rigoux

    Full Text Available Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure and benefits (e.g. food are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories. Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control.

  12. Incorporation of fractional-order dynamics into an existing PI/PID DC motor control loop.

    Tepljakov, Aleksei; Gonzalez, Emmanuel A; Petlenkov, Eduard; Belikov, Juri; Monje, Concepción A; Petráš, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of changing the dynamics of an existing DC motor control system without the need of making internal changes is considered in the paper. In particular, this paper presents a method for incorporating fractional-order dynamics in an existing DC motor control system with internal PI or PID controller, through the addition of an external controller into the system and by tapping its original input and output signals. Experimental results based on the control of a real test plant from MATLAB/Simulink environment are presented, indicating the validity of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive Quasi-Sliding Mode Control for Permanent Magnet DC Motor

    Fredy E. Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motor speed of a buck power converter and DC motor coupled system is controlled by means of a quasi-sliding scheme. The fixed point inducting control technique and the zero average dynamics strategy are used in the controller design. To estimate the load and friction torques an online estimator, computed by the least mean squares method, is used. The control scheme is tested in a rapid control prototyping system which is based on digital signal processing for a dSPACE platform. The closed loop system exhibits adequate performance, and experimental and simulation results match.

  14. Implementation of PID Controller in MATLAB for Real Time DC Motor Speed Control System

    Manjunatha Reddy H. K.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of PIDC (proportional + integral + derivative controller in MATLAB environment for real time DC motor speed control is presented. The MATLAB environment is chosen because of availability of tool boxes which allows the effective way of implementation and analysis of the control system. The performance of PID controller for different inputs is studied. To establish a communication between PC and process parameter, an indigenous Analog to digital and digital to analog (AD-DA board is designed. This board consists of 12-bit A/D converter and 12-bit D/A converter to facilitate the data acquisition and control. In the present study Advantech make PCI-1751 DIOT card is used to interface AD-DA board to PC externally. The data between the AD-DA board and the PC is communicated through the script file written in MATLAB environment. By applying different standard test commands such as step, square, staircase and triangular, the performance of PID controller is studied. The PID controller provides better system response in terms of transient as well as steady-state performances. The controller parameters are manually tuned (kp=0.232, ki=0.078 and kd=0.035 and the results of the best tuned PID controller are presented.

  15. Control of a Dual-Stator Flux-Modulated Motor for Electric Vehicles

    Xinhua Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategies for a novel dual-stator flux-modulated (DSFM motor for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The DSFM motor can be applied to EVs because of its simple winding structure, high reliability, and its use of two stators and rotating modulation steels in the air gap. Moreover, it outperforms conventional brushless doubly-fed machines in terms of control performance. Two stator-current-oriented vector controls with different excitation in the primary winding, direct and alternating current excitation, are designed, simulated, and evaluated on a custom-made DSFM prototype allowing the decoupled control of torque. The stable speed response and available current characteristics strongly validate the feasibility of the two control methods. Furthermore, the proposed control methods can be employed in other applications of flux-modulated motors.

  16. Speed control of switched reluctance motors taking into account mutual inductances and magnetic saturation effects

    Alrifai, M., E-mail: alrifm@eng.kuniv.edu.k [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Zribi, M.; Rayan, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Krishnan, R. [Center for Rapid Transit Systems, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Tech University, 461 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-011 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the speed control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives taking into account the effects of the mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the effects of the magnetic saturation of the core. To overcome the problems commonly associated with single-phase excitation, a nonlinear SRM model, which is suitable for two-phase excitation and which takes into account the effects of mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the magnetic saturation effects, is considered in the design of the proposed controllers. A feedback linearization control scheme and a sliding mode control scheme are designed for this motor drive. The proposed controllers guarantee the convergence of the phase currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well and that they are robust to changes in the parameters of the system and to changes in the load torque.

  17. Speed control of switched reluctance motors taking into account mutual inductances and magnetic saturation effects

    Alrifai, M.; Zribi, M.; Rayan, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the speed control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives taking into account the effects of the mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the effects of the magnetic saturation of the core. To overcome the problems commonly associated with single-phase excitation, a nonlinear SRM model, which is suitable for two-phase excitation and which takes into account the effects of mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the magnetic saturation effects, is considered in the design of the proposed controllers. A feedback linearization control scheme and a sliding mode control scheme are designed for this motor drive. The proposed controllers guarantee the convergence of the phase currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well and that they are robust to changes in the parameters of the system and to changes in the load torque.

  18. Control de velocidad de un motor de inducción utilizando un controlador Fuzzy

    Madelín Lima Álvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza la simulación del sistema de control de velocidad del motor de inducción. Se parte del enfoquevectorial y de un sistema de coordenadas adecuado a su futura utilización, utilizando para esto el lenguaje desimulación de sistemas dinámicos Simulink. En cuanto a la simulación del método de control vectorial porcampo orientado se ha empleado el denominado método de control vectorial indirecto. El control de la velocidaddel motor se simuló utilizando un controlador Fuzzy, comparándose posteriormente estos resultados con losobtenidos mediante la utilización de un controlador PI digital.  This work carries out the simulation of speed control of induction motor. It is based on the field orientation theoryand on a system of coordinates adapted to its future use. The language that has been used for the simulation ofdynamics systems is Simulink. The indirect method of the field orientation control theory was used in themathematical analysis of the induction motor. The speed control of the induction motor was simulated using aFuzzy controller and these results were compared with those obtained by means of the use of a PI digitalcontroller.

  19. Interactive Bio-feedback Therapy Using Hybrid Assistive Limbs for Motor Recovery after Stroke: Current Practice and Future Perspectives.

    Morishita, Takashi; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-10-15

    Interactive bio-feedback (iBF) was initially developed for the rehabilitation of motor function in patients with neurological disorders, and subsequently yielded the development of the hybrid assistive limb (HAL). Here, we provide a review of the theory underlying HAL treatment as well as our clinical experience and recommendations for future clinical studies using HAL in acute stroke patients. We performed a PubMed-based literature search, a retrospective data review of our acute stroke case series, and included a sample case report of our findings. Given past animal studies and functional imaging results, iBF therapy using the HAL in the acute phase of stroke seems an appropriate approach for preventing learned non-use and interhemispheric excitation imbalances. iBF therapy may furthermore promote appropriate neuronal network reorganization. Based on experiences in our stroke center, HAL rehabilitation is a safe and effective treatment modality for recovering motor impairments after acute stroke, and allows the design of tailored rehabilitation programs for individual patients. iBF therapy through the HAL system seems to be an effective and promising approach to stroke rehabilitation; however, the superiority of this treatment to conventional rehabilitation remains unclear. Further clinical studies are warranted. Additionally, the formation of a patient registry will permit a meta-analysis of HAL cases and address the problems associated with a controlled trial (e.g., the heterogeneity of an acute stroke cohort). The development of robotic engineering will improve the efficacy of HAL rehabilitation and has the potential to standardize patient rehabilitation practice.

  20. IMITATION MODEL OF A HIGH-SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR WITH FREQUENCY CONTROL

    V. E. Pliugin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the imitation model of the frequency converter controlled high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor in order to determine reasons causes electric motor vibrations and noises in starting modes. Methodology. We have applied the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic field in transient mode and imported obtained field model as an independent object in frequency converter circuit. We have correlated the simulated result with the experimental data obtained by means of the PID regulator factors. Results. We have made the simulation model of the high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor speed control in AnsysRMxprt, Ansys Maxwell and Ansys Simplorer, approximated to their physical prototype. We have made models modifications allows to provide high-performance computing (HPC in dedicated server and computer cluster to reduce the simulation time. We have obtained motor characteristics in starting and rated modes. This allows to make recommendations on determination of high-speed electric motor optimal deign, having minimum indexes of vibrations and noises. Originality. For the first time, we have carried out the integrated research of induction motor using simultaneously simulation models both in Ansys Maxwell (2D field model and in Ansys Simplorer (transient circuit model with the control low realization for the motor soft start. For the first time the correlation between stator and rotor slots, allows to obtain minimal vibrations and noises, was defined. Practical value. We have tested manufactured high-speed motor based on the performed calculation. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the model, which allows designing such motors for new high-speed construction, and upgrade the existing ones.