WorldWideScience

Sample records for motor activity

  1. Motor demand-dependent activation of ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Revill, Kate Pirog; Shuster, Linda; Hines, Benjamin; Parsons, Michael

    2014-08-15

    The role of ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in hand motor control during complex task performance remains controversial. Bilateral M1 activation is inconsistently observed in functional (f)MRI studies of unilateral hand performance. Two factors limit the interpretation of these data. As the motor tasks differ qualitatively in these studies, it is conceivable that M1 contributions differ with the demand on skillfulness. Second, most studies lack the verification of a strictly unilateral execution of the motor task during the acquisition of imaging data. Here, we use fMRI to determine whether ipsilateral M1 activity depends on the demand for precision in a pointing task where precision varied quantitatively while movement trajectories remained equal. Thirteen healthy participants used an MRI-compatible joystick to point to targets of four different sizes in a block design. A clustered acquisition technique allowed simultaneous fMRI/EMG data collection and confirmed that movements were strictly unilateral. Accuracy of performance increased with target size. Overall, the pointing task revealed activation in contralateral and ipsilateral M1, extending into contralateral somatosensory and parietal areas. Target size-dependent activation differences were found in ipsilateral M1 extending into the temporal/parietal junction, where activation increased with increasing demand on accuracy. The results suggest that ipsilateral M1 is active during the execution of a unilateral motor task and that its activity is modulated by the demand on precision. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Pre-motor and motor activities in early handwriting

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwieten, Koos Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural studies make use of handwritten letters’ characteristics like strokes, roundedness, etcetera. In consequence, Fisher et al. (2010) studying brain activation during rejected love, noticed typical pre-motor activity patterns, as suggested by irregular writing patterns as well, due to basal ganglia dysfunction (Mergl et al., 2004). A short historical text written in a presumably depressed mood was checked on such characteristics in the light of hypothesised finger-, and hand movement...

  3. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  5. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  6. DEVELOPING STUDENT SOCIALIZATION THROUGH MOTOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sabin SOPA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available : Starting from the assumption that motor activities are the perfect environment for socialization, communication and social integration of young people, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of these activities in improving intergroup relations at the university level. In this research, the samples were composed of two groups, the experimental group (n = 25 with students from the Physical Education specialization and control group B (n = 25, composed of students from the Faculty of Sciences. The sociological survey applied on the two samples aimed to analyze the level of socialization, communication and social integration of students. The findings showed that the experimental group is more united, having a higher level of socialization and communication, compared to the control group B, proving once again the socializing effects of motor activities.

  7. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  8. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  9. Task-dependent activation of distinct fast and slow(er) motor pathways during motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang; Lauber, Benedikt

    2018-02-22

    Motor imagery and actual movements share overlapping activation of brain areas but little is known about task-specific activation of distinct motor pathways during mental simulation of movements. For real contractions, it was demonstrated that the slow(er) motor pathways are activated differently in ballistic compared to tonic contractions but it is unknown if this also holds true for imagined contractions. The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during mentally simulated movements of ballistic and tonic contractions. H-reflexes were conditioned with transcranial magnetic stimulation at different interstimulus intervals to assess the excitability of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during a) the execution of tonic and ballistic contractions, b) motor imagery of these contraction types, and c) at rest. In contrast to the fast motor pathways, the slow(er) pathways displayed a task-specific activation: for imagined ballistic as well as real ballistic contractions, the activation was reduced compared to rest whereas enhanced activation was found for imagined tonic and real tonic contractions. This study provides evidence that the excitability of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during motor imagery resembles the activation pattern observed during real contractions. The findings indicate that motor imagery results in task- and pathway-specific subliminal activation of distinct subsets of neurons in the primary motor cortex. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P motor units were recruited ∼30 ms earlier (P motor unit onset discharge frequencies were significantly higher (P Recruitment order of motor unit pairs observed during eupnea was maintained for 98%, 87%, and 84% of the same pairs recorded during hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Neuronal Population Activity in Spinal Motor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W.

    2017-01-01

    The core elements of stereotypical movements such as locomotion, scratching and breathing are generated by networks in the lower brainstem and the spinal cord. Ensemble activities in spinal motor networks had until recently been merely a black box, but with the emergence of ultra-thin Silicon multi......-electrode technology it was possible to reveal the spiking activity of larger parts of the network. A series of experiments revealed unexpected features of spinal networks, such as multiple spiking regimes and lognormal firing rate distributions. The lognormality renders the widespread idea of a typical firing rate...

  12. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Barela, José Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has be...

  13. Misconceptions about mirror-induced motor cortex activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praamstra, P.; Torney, L.; Rawle, C.J.; Miall, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of self-produced hand movements through a mirror, creating an illusion of the opposite hand moving, was recently reported to induce ipsilateral motor cortex activation, that is, motor cortex activation for the hand in rest. The reported work goes far beyond earlier work on motor cortex

  14. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    eOseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2) for motor proficiency, and the International. Physical Activity ... Pienaar, 2007; Malina, 2012). ..... sults of Hardy, Reinten-Reynolds, Espinel, Zask, and Okely .... Journal of Psychiatric and Mental.

  15. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls? physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh?s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children?s physical activit...

  16. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  17. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angelo Barela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.

  18. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One of the risks associated with low physical activity levels is the insufficient development of motor proficiency, which in turn has an impact on participation in physical activity and sport during adolescence. Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in ...

  19. Moxidectin interference on motor activity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Sá e Benevides Rodrigues-Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of t moxidectin (MXD in some parameters of rat motor function and neurochemical. The general activity in the open field and the motor coordination in the wooden beam were employed to evaluate the MXD effects. The results showed that, in the open field, even at high doses (2.0 and 20.0 mg/kg, the MXD did not alter the locomotion and the rearing frequencies. However, MXD was able to impair the motor coordination of the animals at wooden beam. Neurochemical studies of striatal GABA and dopamine neurotransmitters showed a reduced levels of dopamine and its metabolite, homovanillic acid, without interference on striatal GABA levels. Since GABAergic receptor stimulation had an inhibitory effect on dopaminergic striatal system, the decreased motor coordination could be attributed to an action of MXD on dopamine system via GABA activation.A moxidectina (MXD é uma droga antiparasitária amplamente empregada em animais domésticos; seu mecanismo de ação, em mamíferos, envolve o neurotransmissor ácido gama-aminobutírico (GABA. Esse neurotransmissor tem papel importante na função motora. Assim, no presente trabalho estudaram-se os efeitos da MXD em alguns parâmetros comportamentais ligados a função motora de ratos e também em sistemas de neurotransmissão central. A atividade geral no campo aberto e a coordenação motora na trave elevada foram empregadas para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de MXD. Os resultados mostraram que: no campo aberto, mesmo as doses maiores (2.0 e 20.0 mg/kg de MXD não alteraram as freqüências de locomoção e levantar. Por outro lado, a MXD foi capaz de prejudicar a coordenação motora dos animais avaliada na trave elevada. Estudos neuroquímicos dos níveis estriatais de GABA e dopamina mostraram redução dos níveis de dopamina e seu metabólito, ácido homavanílico, sem interferência nos níveis de GABA estriatal. Considerando que a estimulação de

  20. Motor Cortex Activity During Functional Motor Skills: An fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Ulrich, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of brain activity during motor task performance have been limited to fine motor movements due to technological constraints presented by traditional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a promising method by which to overcome these constraints and investigate motor performance of functional motor tasks. The current study used fNIRS to quantify hemodynamic responses within the primary motor cortex in twelve healthy adults as they performed unimanual right, unimanual left, and bimanual reaching, and stepping in place. Results revealed that during both unimanual reaching tasks, the contralateral hemisphere showed significant activation in channels located approximately 3 cm medial to the C3 (for right-hand reach) and C4 (for left-hand reach) landmarks. Bimanual reaching and stepping showed activation in similar channels, which were located bilaterally across the primary motor cortex. The medial channels, surrounding Cz, showed significantly higher activations during stepping when compared to bimanual reaching. Our results extend the viability of fNIRS to study motor function and build a foundation for future investigation of motor development in infants during nascent functional behaviors and monitor how they may change with age or practice.

  1. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  2. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eSollfrank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007. This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during motor imagery. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronisation (ERD of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based BCI protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb motor imagery present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (2D vs. 3D. The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during motor imagery after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D visualization modality group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during MI. Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant’s motor imagery, might be helpful for accomplishing successful motor imagery and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for motor imagery based BCI rehabilitation.

  3. Parietal operculum and motor cortex activities predict motor recovery in moderate to severe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Fabrice Hannanu

    2017-01-01

    In subacute stroke, fMRI brain activity related to passive movement measured in a sensorimotor network defined by activity during voluntary movement predicted motor recovery better than baseline motor-FMS alone. Furthermore, fMRI sensorimotor network activity measures considered alone allowed excellent clinical recovery prediction and may provide reliable biomarkers for assessing new therapies in clinical trial contexts. Our findings suggest that neural reorganization related to motor recovery from moderate to severe stroke results from balanced changes in ipsilesional MI (BA4a and a set of phylogenetically more archaic sensorimotor regions in the ventral sensorimotor trend, in which OP1 and OP4 processes may complement the ipsilesional dorsal motor cortex in achieving compensatory sensorimotor recovery.

  4. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  5. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS: T...

  6. Gastric myoelectrical and antroduodenal motor activity in patients with achalasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M. A.; Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Achalasia is a primary motor disorder of the oesophagus, in which the myenteric plexus is involved. However, abnormalities in other parts of the digestive tract have also been described in achalasia. Whether gastric myoelectrical and duodenal motor activity in these patients is also affected is

  7. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.

    2018-01-01

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  8. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS......: Thirteen patients and 13 normal controls matched for age, gender and handedness underwent O15-labelled water positron emission tomography during (1) right ankle flexion-extension, (2) right shoulder flexion-extension and (3) rest. Within-group comparisons of movement vs. rest (simple main effects......, the supplementary motor areas and the right premotor cortex compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Motor cortical reorganisation may explain this result, but as no significant differences were recognised in the motor response of the unaffected limb, differences in functional demands should also be considered...

  9. Social interaction is associated with changes in infants’ motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Scola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods: We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song. Results: The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion: These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants.

  10. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  11. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  12. Do already grasped objects activate motor affordances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iani, Cristina; Ferraro, Luca; Maiorana, Natale Vincenzo; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2018-04-07

    This study investigated whether in a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task affordance effects in response to picture of graspable objects emerge when these objects appear as already grasped. It also assessed whether the observed effects could be explained as due to spatial compatibility between the most salient part in the object/display and the hand of response rather than to action potentiation. To this aim, we conducted three behavioural experiments in which participants were required to discriminate the vertical orientation (upright vs. inverted) of an object presented in the centre of the screen, while ignoring the right-left orientation of its handle. The object could be presented alone, as already grasped, as partially masked (Experiment 1) or with a human hand close to its graspable side (Experiment 2). In addition, to assess the role of perceptual salience, the object could be presented with a human hand or a non-biological (a geometrical shape) distractor located opposite to the object's graspable side. Results showed faster responses when the object's handle was located on the same side of the responding hand with a larger effect when upright objects were shown as already grasped (Experiment 1) or when a hand was displayed close to its handle (Experiment 2), and a smaller reversed effect when the hand or the geometrical shape was located opposite to the handled side (Experiment 3). We interpreted these findings as indicating that handle orientation effects emerging in SRC tasks may result from the interplay between motor affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms.

  13. Abstract Art and Cortical Motor Activation: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al 2007, Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al, 2011, neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Zeki, 1999; Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999 mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder’s brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works. Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works.

  14. Learning-induced Dependence of Neuronal Activity in Primary Motor Cortex on Motor Task Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X; Shimansky, Y; He, Jiping

    2005-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system such as a cortically controlled robotic arm must have a capacity of adjusting its function to a specific environmental condition. We studied this capacity in non-human primates based on chronic multi-electrode recording from the primary motor cortex of a monkey during the animal's performance of a center-out 3D reaching task and adaptation to external force perturbations. The main condition-related feature of motor cortical activity observed before the onset of force perturbation was a phasic raise of activity immediately before the perturbation onset. This feature was observed during a series of perturbation trials, but were absent under no perturbations. After adaptation has been completed, it usually was taking the subject only one trial to recognize a change in the condition to switch the neuronal activity accordingly. These condition-dependent features of neuronal activity can be used by a BCI for recognizing a change in the environmental condition and making corresponding adjustments, which requires that the BCI-based control system possess such advanced properties of the neural motor control system as capacity to learn and adapt.

  15. Brain activation related to the change between bimanual motor programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    By using positron emission tomography, we aimed to identify cerebral foci of neuronal activation associated with the initiation of a specific motor program. To that end, a state of repeatedly alternating in- and antiphase of bimanual flexion and extension movements was compared with similar movement

  16. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  17. Sport and Other Motor Activities of Warsaw Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities. Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in…

  18. Effects of a water activity intervention programme on motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a specially designed water activity programme on the motor competency levels of children with Down's syndrome. Six institutionalised children classified as having Down\\'s syndrome, from a school for the mentally retarded, took part in the study. The children\\'s ...

  19. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spindle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  20. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollfrank, Teresa; Hart, Daniel; Goodsell, Rachel; Foster, Jonathan; Tan, Tele

    2015-01-01

    A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

  1. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio eAvenanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others’ actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people’s behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals’ ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings.

  2. Motor imagery beyond the motor repertoire: Activity in the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, N; Nakata, H; Kanosue, K

    2016-02-19

    To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type......-referenced classification of MS, the Danish sample distribution was significantly well for aiming and catching but poorer for the motor coordination test.The total sample and the least active children were most active on weekdays, during preschool time and in the late afternoon at the weekend. However, a relatively larger...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...

  4. Motor Unit Action Potential Clustering—Theoretical Consideration for Muscle Activation during a Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Asmussen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During dynamic or sustained isometric contractions, bursts of muscle activity appear in the electromyography (EMG signal. Theoretically, these bursts of activity likely occur because motor units are constrained to fire temporally close to one another and thus the impulses are “clustered” with short delays to elicit bursts of muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a sequence comprised of “clustered” motor unit action potentials (MUAP can explain spectral and amplitude changes of the EMG during a simulated motor task. This question would be difficult to answer experimentally and thus, required a model to study this type of muscle activation pattern. To this end, we modeled two EMG signals, whereby a single MUAP was either convolved with a randomly distributed impulse train (EMG-rand or a “clustered” sequence of impulses (EMG-clust. The clustering occurred in windows lasting 5–100 ms. A final mixed signal of EMG-clust and EMG-rand, with ratios (1:1–1:10, was also modeled. A ratio of 1:1 would indicate that 50% of MUAP were randomly distributed, while 50% of “clustered” MUAP occurred in a given time window (5–100 ms. The results of the model showed that clustering MUAP caused a downshift in the mean power frequency (i.e., ~30 Hz with the largest shift occurring with a cluster window of 10 ms. The mean frequency shift was largest when the ratio of EMG-clust to EMG-rand was high. Further, the clustering of MUAP also caused a substantial increase in the amplitude of the EMG signal. This model potentially explains an activation pattern that changes the EMG spectra during a motor task and thus, a potential activation pattern of muscles observed experimentally. Changes in EMG measurements during fatiguing conditions are typically attributed to slowing of conduction velocity but could, per this model, also result from changes of the clustering of MUAP. From a clinical standpoint, this type of muscle

  5. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  6. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  7. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  8. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR 24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR 24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR 24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  9. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  10. Nocturnal motor activity in fibromyalgia patients with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  11. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); M.A. Schlager (Max); W.A. van der Zwan (Wouter); P. Wulf (Phebe); N. Keijzer (Nanda); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAlthough purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living

  12. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K.

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were

  13. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  14. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  15. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  16. Associations among Elementary School Children's Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Children's (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus recommended to expand health interventions in children

  17. Pacific Ciguatoxin Induces Excitotoxicity and Neurodegeneration in the Motor Cortex Via Caspase 3 Activation: Implication for Irreversible Motor Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Pallavi; Zhang, Ni; Kumar, Gajendra; Chine, Virendra Bhagawan; Singh, Kunal Kumar; Mak, Yim Ling; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2018-01-18

    Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1. We detected irreversible motor strength deficits accompanied by reduced EMG activity, demyelination, and slowing of motor nerve conduction, whereas control unexposed mice fully recovered in 1 month after peripheral nerve injury. Finally, to uncover the mechanism underlying CFP, we detected reduction of spontaneous firing rate of motor cortical neurons even 6 months after exposure and increased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes. Increased numbers of motor cortical neuron apoptosis were detected by dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay along with activation of caspase 3. Taken together, our study demonstrates that persistence of P-CTX-1 in the nervous system induces irreversible motor deficit that correlates well with excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration detected in the motor cortical neurons.

  18. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  19. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  20. Is there an association among actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in preschool children?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Barnett, L.M.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to explore relationships among moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and actual gross motor competence (MC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in young children. Data were collected in 101 children (M age = 4.9 ± 0.93 years). MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Gross MC was assessed with the Portuguese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. PMC was evaluated with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Accep...

  1. Intense Activity of the Raphe Spinal Pathway Depresses Motor Activity via a Serotonin Dependent Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-François; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Jørgensen, Lone K

    2018-01-01

    Motor fatigue occurring during prolonged physical activity has both peripheral and central origins. It was previously demonstrated that the excitability of motoneurons was decreased when a spillover of serotonin could activate extrasynaptic 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS...

  2. Sleep-Active Neurons: Conserved Motors of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The “motor” of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness. These sleep-inducing neurons are themselves controlled by inhibitory or activating upstream pathways, which act as the “drivers” of the sleep motor: arousal inhibits “sleep-active” neurons whereas various sleep-promoting “tiredness” pathways converge onto sleep-active neurons to depolarize them. This review provides the first overview of sleep-active neurons across the major model animals. The occurrence of sleep-active neurons and their regulation by upstream pathways in both vertebrate and invertebrate species suggests that these neurons are general and ancient components that evolved early in the history of nervous systems. PMID:29618588

  3. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in Senior Phase learners in the Potchefstroom area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.

  4. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-14

    To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

  5. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  6. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  7. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  8. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitein, Lukas C; Schlager, Max A; van der Zwan, Wouter A; Wulf, Phebe S; Keijzer, Nanda; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2010-10-06

    Although purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living cells, we utilized the FKBP-rapalog-FRB heterodimerization system to develop an in vivo peroxisomal trafficking assay that allows inducible recruitment of exogenous and endogenous kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors to drive specific cargo transport. We demonstrate that cargo rapidly redistributes with distinct dynamics for each respective motor, and that combined (antagonistic) actions of more complex motor combinations can also be probed. Of importance, robust cargo redistribution is readily achieved by one type of motor protein and does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors. Simultaneous live-cell imaging of microtubules and kinesin or dynein-propelled peroxisomes, combined with high-resolution particle tracking, revealed that peroxisomes frequently pause at microtubule intersections. Titration and washout experiments furthermore revealed that motor recruitment by rapalog-induced heterodimerization is dose-dependent but irreversible. Our assay directly demonstrates that robust cargo motility does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors, and can therefore be used to characterize the motile properties of specific types of motor proteins. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early functional MRI activation predicts motor outcome after ischemic stroke: a longitudinal, multimodal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-05-15

    An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.

  10. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to either unilateral lesion of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1. It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Pyramidal cells’ dendritic arborization underwent overall shrinkage and transient spine pruning. Moreover, microglial cell density surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons was significantly increased with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. Additionally, we induced facial nerve lesion in Wistar rats to evaluate the degree and extension of facial nerve lesion-induced reorganization processes in central nervous system using neuronal and glial markers. Immunoreactivity to NeuN (neuronal nuclei antigen, GAP-43 (growth-associated protein 43, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Iba 1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 were evaluated 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 35 days after either unilateral facial nerve lesion or sham surgery. Patches of decreased NeuN immunoreactivity were found bilaterally in vM1 as well as in primary somatosensory cortex (CxS1. Significantly increased GAP-43 immunoreactivity was found bilaterally after the lesion in hippocampus, striatum, and sensorimotor cortex. One day after lesion GFAP immunoreactivity increased bilaterally in hippocampus, subcortical white

  11. Motor-enriched learning activities can improve mathematical performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning......-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical.......73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly accounted for by visuo-spatial short-term memory and gross motor skills. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that motor enriched learning activities...

  12. Analysis of the low motor activity of students of the specialized educational department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryban G.P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the results of investigations into the reasons for the low motor activity of students who belong to a special medical group due to their state of health. Deals with the gap between huge amount of mental activity and insufficient motor activity. The absence of dosed motor activity has it's negative impact on students' health, reduces their labor activity and the quality of educational process. The combination of physical exercises provide healthy and training effect on the students who have health condition aberrations.

  13. Neurofeedback using real-time near-infrared spectroscopy enhances motor imagery related cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Mihara

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients.

  14. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-08-01

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motor Skill Improvement in Preschoolers: How Effective Are Activity Cards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to early develop and implement motor skill promotion in preschoolers are lacking. Thus, we examined the effects of a card-based exercise promotion program in a kindergarten setting. 214 preschool children (5.5 ± 0.6 y, range 4.2–6.7 y were examined in the present intervention study. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were measured. Children were randomly assigned to the KIDZ-Box® physical activity intervention program (INT: n = 107 or the control group (CON: n = 107. Children were trained daily for 15 min over 7 month at the preschool for agility, balance, endurance and jump performance, employing the card-based KIDZ-Box® media package. At pre- and post-testing, dynamic balance, jump and agility performance were tested. Cross-sectionally, agility testing differed between sexes (p = 0.01 and BMI (p = 0.02. Trends towards a significant association were found between BMI and side-to-side jumping (p = 0.1 and beam balancing (p = 0.05. Relevant interventional effects favoring the intervention group were slightly found for agility (p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.02 and moderately for side-to-side jumping (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08. Balance performance did not relevantly improve. As jumping cards have been used frequently by the teachers, jumping improvements are plausible. The activity cards are feasibly applicable but should be employed with more structure during longer training sessions.

  16. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Examination protocol and basic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    We examined and analyzed the region activated by the unilateral finger opposition task using motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT). M-SPECT studies were carried out on 11 cases, all of whom were normal volunteers (mean age: 49.4 years), none of whom showed any abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) or any neurological abnormalities. The SPECT images for each case were superimposed on the MRIs using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT study was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensori-motor cortex during the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among 11 patients, 10 cases (90.9%) showed positive M-SPECT findings, and the eleventh case showed negative M-SPECT findings. The asymmetry index (AI) was calculated on the sensorio-motor cortex in the SPECT images before and after motor activation, with the 10 cases with positive M-SPECT having an AI before motor activation of 0.99{+-}0.06 (mean{+-}standard deviation) and an AI after motor activation of 1.14{+-}0.07. This change was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the single case categorized as negative, the AI before motor activation was 1.04, and the AI after motor activation was 1.01. There was no significant difference of AI values between the resting and motor activation stages. The positive M-SPECT was seen in 90.9% of the normal volunteer series using a visual inspection method. In these cases, the blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex significantly increased after application of the finger opposition task using the semi-quantitative method. (author)

  17. When action turns into words. Activation of motor-based knowledge during categorization of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2002-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that processing of man-made objects activate the left ventral premotor cortex, which is known to be concerned with motor function. This has led to the suggestion that the comprehension of man-made objects may rely on motor-based knowledge of object uti...

  18. Muscle activation described with a differential equation model for large ensembles of locally coupled molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Sam

    2014-10-01

    Molecular motors, by turning chemical energy into mechanical work, are responsible for active cellular processes. Often groups of these motors work together to perform their biological role. Motors in an ensemble are coupled and exhibit complex emergent behavior. Although large motor ensembles can be modeled with partial differential equations (PDEs) by assuming that molecules function independently of their neighbors, this assumption is violated when motors are coupled locally. It is therefore unclear how to describe the ensemble behavior of the locally coupled motors responsible for biological processes such as calcium-dependent skeletal muscle activation. Here we develop a theory to describe locally coupled motor ensembles and apply the theory to skeletal muscle activation. The central idea is that a muscle filament can be divided into two phases: an active and an inactive phase. Dynamic changes in the relative size of these phases are described by a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). As the dynamics of the active phase are described by PDEs, muscle activation is governed by a set of coupled ODEs and PDEs, building on previous PDE models. With comparison to Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the theory captures the behavior of locally coupled ensembles. The theory also plausibly describes and predicts muscle experiments from molecular to whole muscle scales, suggesting that a micro- to macroscale muscle model is within reach.

  19. Motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy: a survey of parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrhaug, Hilde Tinderholt; Østensjø, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    To describe motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway, and assess associations between child, parent, and motor intervention characteristics, and parent-reported child benefits from interventions. Survey of 360 parents and data from the Norwegian CP follow-up program. The response rate was 34%. During the six months preceding the time of the survey, 75% of the children performed gross-motor training, 73% fine-motor training, 80% manual stretching, and 67% participated regularly in physical activities. The training was highly goal-directed, intensive, frequently incorporated in daily routines, and often with a high level of parental involvement. The use of goals was associated with higher parent-reported child benefits for all types of interventions. Moreover, the positive relationship, which was indicated between frequency of training, parent education, and parent-reported child benefits of gross-motor training, was not seen for fine-motor training. Parent-reported child benefits support goal-directed motor interventions, and the use of everyday activities to increase practice of motor skills.

  20. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in Senior Phase learners in the Potchefstroom area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    2016-10-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in adolescent Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa. No literature exists on the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels among South African adolescents. Method: A total of 239 13- to 14-year-old learners were assessed using the Bruininkse Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2 for motor proficiency, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for physical activity levels. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation coefficients and effect sizes. Results: Statistically and practically significant correlations were found between the total BOT-2 score and the physical activity levels of the total group, as well as the boys and the girls respectively. Fine motor coordination correlated with physical activity levels in the girls, while manipulation coordination correlated with the physical activity levels of the total group and the boys. The body coordination skill of jumping in place and the strength test items showed strong correlations with physical activity in all the groups. Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.

  1. D2 receptor genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Ursini, Gianluca; Quarto, Tiziana; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Mancini, Marina; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-02-14

    Pre-synaptic D2 receptors regulate striatal dopamine release and DAT activity, key factors for modulation of motor pathways. A functional SNP of DRD2 (rs1076560 G>T) is associated with alternative splicing such that the relative expression of D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) vs. D2L (mainly post-synaptic) receptor isoforms is decreased in subjects with the T allele with a putative increase of striatal dopamine levels. To evaluate how DRD2 genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans, we have investigated the association of rs1076560 with BOLD fMRI activity during a motor task. To further evaluate the relationship of this circuitry with dopamine signaling, we also explored the correlation between genotype based differences in motor brain activity and pre-synaptic striatal DAT binding measured with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT. Fifty healthy subjects, genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 were studied with BOLD-fMRI at 3T while performing a visually paced motor task with their right hand; eleven of these subjects also underwent [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. SPM5 random-effects models were used for statistical analyses. Subjects carrying the T allele had greater BOLD responses in left basal ganglia, thalamus, supplementary motor area, and primary motor cortex, whose activity was also negatively correlated with reaction time at the task. Moreover, left striatal DAT binding and activity of left supplementary motor area were negatively correlated. The present results suggest that DRD2 genetic variation was associated with focusing of responses in the whole motor network, in which activity of predictable nodes was correlated with reaction time and with striatal pre-synaptic dopamine signaling. Our results in humans may help shed light on genetic risk for neurobiological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of disorders with dysregulation of striatal dopamine like Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coin Tossing Explains the Activity of Opposing Microtubule Motors on Phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Paulomi; D'Souza, Ashwin; Rai, Ashim; Rai, Arpan; Padinhatheeri, Ranjith; Mallik, Roop

    2018-05-07

    How the opposing activity of kinesin and dynein motors generates polarized distribution of organelles inside cells is poorly understood and hotly debated [1, 2]. Possible explanations include stochastic mechanical competition [3, 4], coordinated regulation by motor-associated proteins [5-7], mechanical activation of motors [8], and lipid-induced organization [9]. Here, we address this question by using phagocytosed latex beads to generate early phagosomes (EPs) that move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs) in an in vitro assay [9]. Dynein/kinesin activity on individual EPs is recorded as real-time force generation of the motors against an optical trap. Activity of one class of motors frequently coincides with, or is rapidly followed by opposite motors. This leads to frequent and rapid reversals of EPs in the trap. Remarkably, the choice between dynein and kinesin can be explained by the tossing of a coin. Opposing motors therefore appear to function stochastically and independently of each other, as also confirmed by observing no effect on kinesin function when dynein is inhibited on the EPs. A simple binomial probability calculation based on the geometry of EP-microtubule contact explains the observed activity of dynein and kinesin on phagosomes. This understanding of intracellular transport in terms of a hypothetical coin, if it holds true for other cargoes, provides a conceptual framework to explain the polarized localization of organelles inside cells. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Phrenic long-term facilitation requires PKCθ activity within phrenic motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Michael J; Fields, Daryl P; Huxtable, Adrianne G; Peterson, Timothy J; Dale, Erica A; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-05-27

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces a form of spinal motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF); pLTF is a prolonged increase in phrenic motor output after AIH has ended. In anesthetized rats, we demonstrate that pLTF requires activity of the novel PKC isoform, PKCθ, and that the relevant PKCθ is within phrenic motor neurons. Whereas spinal PKCθ inhibitors block pLTF, inhibitors targeting other PKC isoforms do not. PKCθ is highly expressed in phrenic motor neurons, and PKCθ knockdown with intrapleural siRNAs abolishes pLTF. Intrapleural siRNAs targeting PKCζ, an atypical PKC isoform expressed in phrenic motor neurons that underlies a distinct form of phrenic motor plasticity, does not affect pLTF. Thus, PKCθ plays a critical role in spinal AIH-induced respiratory motor plasticity, and the relevant PKCθ is localized within phrenic motor neurons. Intrapleural siRNA delivery has considerable potential as a therapeutic tool to selectively manipulate plasticity in vital respiratory motor neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358107-11$15.00/0.

  4. Gender impacts on motor skill proficiency-physical activity relationship in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.

  5. Gender impacts on motor skill proficiency-physical activity relationship in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. Results Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. Conclusions This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.

  6. Motor performance as predictor of physical activity in children - The CHAMPS Study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity is associated with several health benefits in children, and physical activity habits developed in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Physical activity may be the foundation of a healthy lifestyle and motor performance has been shown to be positively associated wit...... run in childhood may be important determinants of physical activity in adolescence.......Purpose Physical activity is associated with several health benefits in children, and physical activity habits developed in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Physical activity may be the foundation of a healthy lifestyle and motor performance has been shown to be positively associated...... with physical activity in cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between motor performance and physical activity in a three-year follow-up study. Methods Longitudinal analyses were performed using data from 673 participants (44% boys, 6-12 years old) who...

  7. Motor unit recruitment and bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram during a sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary A; Terry, Mary E; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Litsey, Jane C; Enoka, Roger M

    2008-06-01

    Bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during a sustained contraction have been interpreted as corresponding to the transient recruitment of motor units, but this association has never been confirmed. The current study compared the timing of trains of action potentials discharged by single motor units during a sustained contraction with the bursts of activity detected in the surface EMG signal. The 20 motor units from 6 subjects [recruitment threshold, 35.3 +/- 11.3% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force] that were detected with fine wire electrodes discharged 2-9 trains of action potentials (7.2 +/- 5.6 s in duration) when recruited during a contraction that was sustained at a force below its recruitment threshold (target force, 25.4 +/- 10.6% MVC force). High-pass filtering the bipolar surface EMG signal improved its correlation with the single motor unit signal. An algorithm applied to the surface EMG was able to detect 75% of the trains of motor unit action potentials. The results indicate that bursts of activity in the surface EMG during a constant-force contraction correspond to the transient recruitment of higher-threshold motor units in healthy individuals, and these results could assist in the diagnosis and design of treatment in individuals who demonstrate deficits in motor unit activation.

  8. Motor performance and physical activity habits of college students in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the motor performance of fundamental motor skills and physical activity habits of students at the University of Costa Rica. A total of 92 males and 48 females (M age = 19.78 yr., SD = 4.72 yr. enrolled in different Sports Activity courses taught at the Rodrigo Facio campus was assessed. The Instrument for the Evaluation of Fundamental Movement Patterns was used to assess motor performance in eight fundamental movement patterns (running, jumping, galloping, catching, throwing, bouncing, and kicking. The physical activity level was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire developed for such purpose. Results show that 28% of the participants were physically active. Participants presented a proficient performance in kicking, running, and galloping, but a non-proficient performance in jumping, hopping, bouncing, throwing and catching. Physical activity behavior was related to the overall performance of the motor skills assessed (Rho = .233; p = .006. In conclusion, college students presented a proficient performance on three of the eight skills assessed. In addition, a relationship was found between physical activity levels and performance. Physical Education teachers are recommended to develop activities to enhance motor performance of fundamental motor skills in college students.

  9. Modelling and Design of Active Thermal Controls for Power Electronics of Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    of active thermal control methods for the power devices of a motor drive application. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling of the power devices have been modelled, and adverse temperature swings could be noticed during the start-up and deceleration periods of the motor. Based...... on the electrical response of the system, the junction temperature of the semiconductor devices is estimated, and consequently three active thermal control methods are proposed and practically designed with respect to the following parameters: switching frequency, deceleration slope and modulation technique....... Finally, experimental results are provided in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control methods....

  10. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  11. Esterases activity in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum exposed to chlorpyrifos and its implication to motor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, Cecilia; Zúñiga-Lagunes, Sebastian R; Ponce de León-Hill, Claudia A; Hernández-Soto, Jesús; Vanegas-Pérez, Cecilia

    2011-10-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is a neotenic salamander considered a good biological model due to its ability to regenerate limbs, tail, brain and heart cells. Nevertheless, severe reduction of A. mexicanum wild populations in the lacustrine area of Xochimilco, the natural habitat of the axolotl, could be related to several environmental pressures as the presence of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), intensively applied in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally realistic chlorpyrifos (CPF) concentrations, a OPP commonly used in this zone, on esterases activity (acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase) and bioconcentration of CPF and to relate them with the motor activity of A. mexicanum juveniles. Axolotls were exposed 48 h to 0.05 and 0.1mg CPF/L, and the responses were evaluated at the end of the CPF exposure. Results suggest that CPF is bioconcentrated into axolotls and that the CPF internal concentrations are related with the observed inhibition activity of AChE (>50%) and CbE (≈ 50%). CPF concentration responsible of the inhibition of the 50% of AChE activity (IC50) was estimated in 0.04 mg CPF/L; however IC50 for CbE activity was not possible to calculate since inhibition levels were lower than 50%, results that suggest a higher resistance of CbE enzymatic activity to CPF. However, motor activity was a more sensitive endpoint to CPF poisoning since time that axolotls spent active and walking, frequency and speed of swimming, frequency of prey attack were reduced >90% of control groups. The motor activity alterations in the axolotl could be related with the registered esterases inhibition. Thus important alterations on axolotls were identified even at short time and low concentrations of CPF exposure. Also, it was possible to link biochemical responses as esterases activity with higher levels of biological organization as behavior. This study provides tools for the regulation of the

  12. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo A.; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervent......Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child...

  13. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, pre...

  14. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  15. Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Mark; Wessberg, Johan; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2000-06-01

    When an animal learns to make movements in response to different stimuli, changes in activity in the motor cortex seem to accompany and underlie this learning. The precise nature of modifications in cortical motor areas during the initial stages of motor learning, however, is largely unknown. Here we address this issue by chronically recording from neuronal ensembles located in the rat motor cortex, throughout the period required for rats to learn a reaction-time task. Motor learning was demonstrated by a decrease in the variance of the rats' reaction times and an increase in the time the animals were able to wait for a trigger stimulus. These behavioural changes were correlated with a significant increase in our ability to predict the correct or incorrect outcome of single trials based on three measures of neuronal ensemble activity: average firing rate, temporal patterns of firing, and correlated firing. This increase in prediction indicates that an association between sensory cues and movement emerged in the motor cortex as the task was learned. Such modifications in cortical ensemble activity may be critical for the initial learning of motor tasks.

  16. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  17. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children's learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success.

  18. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children’s learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success. PMID:27660751

  19. Motor-Enriched Learning Activities Can Improve Mathematical Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mikkel M.; Lind, Rune R.; Geertsen, Svend S.; Ritz, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Wienecke, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether fine or gross motor activity integrated into math lessons (i.e., motor-enrichment) could improve children's mathematical performance. Methods: A 6-week within school cluster-randomized intervention study investigated the effects of motor-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical teaching enriched with fine and gross motor activity, respectively. The children were tested before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 8 weeks after the intervention (T2). A standardized mathematical test (50 tasks) was used to evaluate mathematical performance. Furthermore, it was investigated whether motor-enriched math was accompanied by different effects in low and normal math performers. Additionally, the study investigated the potential contribution of cognitive functions and motor skills on mathematical performance. Results: All groups improved their mathematical performance from T0 to T1. However, from T0 to T1, the improvement was significantly greater in GMM compared to FMM (1.87 ± 0.71 correct answers) (p = 0.02). At T2 no significant differences in mathematical performance were observed. A subgroup analysis revealed that normal math-performers benefitted from GMM compared to both CON 1.78 ± 0.73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly

  20. Motor competence and physical activity in 8-year-old school children with generalized joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Kristensen, Jens Halkjaer; Frausing, Britt

    2009-01-01

    regarding motor competence, self-reported physical activity, and incidence of musculoskeletal pain and injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 524 children in the second grade from 10 public schools was performed. A positive response rate was obtained for 416 (79.4%) children, and 411 (78.4%) children...... were clinically examined and tested for motor competence, whereas questionnaire response to items comprising musculoskeletal pain and injuries, in addition to daily level and duration of physical activity, corresponded to 377 (71.9%) children. RESULTS: In total, 29% of the children had GJH4, 19% had...... in the motor competence tests. CONCLUSION: Motor competence and physical activity are not reduced in primary school children at 8 years of age with GJH or BJHS. It is recommended that a potential negative influence on the musculoskeletal system over time, as a result of GJH, be investigated by longitudinal...

  1. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Troncoso; Julieta Troncoso; Efraín Buriticá; Efraín Buriticá

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to eithe...

  2. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination and balance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Ramos-Languren, Laura-Elisa; Ríos, Camilo; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates motor coordination, and its depletion, as in Parkinson's disease, produces motor impairment. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and cerebral cortex are interconnected, have functional roles in motor coordination, and possess dopamine D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs), which are expressed at a particularly high density in the basal ganglia. In this study, we examined whether the activation of D 1 Rs modulates motor coordination and balance in the rat using a beam-walking test that has previously been used to detect motor coordination deficits. The systemic administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 at 2, 3, or 4 mg/kg did not alter the beam-walking scores, but the subsequent administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 at 1 mg/kg did produce deficits in motor coordination, which were reversed by the full agonist SKF-82958. The co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 did not alter the beam-walking scores compared with the control group, but significantly prevented the increase in beam-walking scores induced by SCH-23390. The effect of the D 1 R agonist to prevent and reverse the effect of the D 1 R antagonist in beam-walking scores is an indicator that the function of D 1 Rs is necessary to maintain motor coordination and balance in rats. Our results support that D 1 Rs mediate the SCH-23390-induced deficit in motor coordination.

  3. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA.

  4. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  5. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  6. Altered neuronal activities in the motor cortex with impaired motor performance in adult rats observed after infusion of cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayani, R; Nalini, A; Rao Laxmi, T; Raju, T R

    2010-01-05

    Although definite evidences are available to state that, neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, the specific relationship between local field potentials of the motor cortex after intervention with CSF from human patients and animal behavior have remained opaque. The present study has investigated whether cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) patients could disrupt neuronal activity of the motor cortex, which could be associated with disturbances in the motor performance of adult rats. CSF from ALS patients (ALS-CSF) was infused into the lateral ventricle of Wistar rats. After 24h, the impact of ALS-CSF on the local field potentials (LFPs) of the motor cortex and on the motor behavior of animals were examined. The results indicate that ALS-CSF produced a bivariate distribution on the relative power values of the LFPs of the motor cortex 24h following infusion. However, the behavioral results did not show bimodality, instead showed consistent decrease in motor performance: on rotarod and grip strength meter. The neuronal activity of the motor cortex negatively correlated with the duration of ALS symptoms at the time of lumbar puncture. Although the effect of ALS-CSF was more pronounced at 24h following infusion, the changes observed in LFPs and motor performance appeared to revert to baseline values at later time points of testing. In the current study, we have shown that, ALS-CSF has the potential to perturb neuronal activity of the rat motor cortex which was associated with poor performance on motor function tests.

  7. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  8. Brain activation in motor sequence learning is related to the level of native cortical excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    Full Text Available Cortical excitability may be subject to changes through training and learning. Motor training can increase cortical excitability in motor cortex, and facilitation of motor cortical excitability has been shown to be positively correlated with improvements in performance in simple motor tasks. Thus cortical excitability may tentatively be considered as a marker of learning and use-dependent plasticity. Previous studies focused on changes in cortical excitability brought about by learning processes, however, the relation between native levels of cortical excitability on the one hand and brain activation and behavioral parameters on the other is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the role of differential native motor cortical excitability for learning a motor sequencing task with regard to post-training changes in excitability, behavioral performance and involvement of brain regions. Our motor task required our participants to reproduce and improvise over a pre-learned motor sequence. Over both task conditions, participants with low cortical excitability (CElo showed significantly higher BOLD activation in task-relevant brain regions than participants with high cortical excitability (CEhi. In contrast, CElo and CEhi groups did not exhibit differences in percentage of correct responses and improvisation level. Moreover, cortical excitability did not change significantly after learning and training in either group, with the exception of a significant decrease in facilitatory excitability in the CEhi group. The present data suggest that the native, unmanipulated level of cortical excitability is related to brain activation intensity, but not to performance quality. The higher BOLD mean signal intensity during the motor task might reflect a compensatory mechanism in CElo participants.

  9. Diminished activation of motor working-memory networks in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rottschy

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by typical extrapyramidal motor features and increasingly recognized non-motor symptoms such as working memory (WM deficits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we investigated differences in neuronal activation during a motor WM task in 23 non-demented PD patients and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants had to memorize and retype variably long visuo-spatial stimulus sequences after short or long delays (immediate or delayed serial recall. PD patients showed deficient WM performance compared to controls, which was accompanied by reduced encoding-related activation in WM-related regions. Mirroring slower motor initiation and execution, reduced activation in motor structures such as the basal ganglia and superior parietal cortex was detected for both immediate and delayed recall. Increased activation in limbic, parietal and cerebellar regions was found during delayed recall only. Increased load-related activation for delayed recall was found in the posterior midline and the cerebellum. Overall, our results demonstrate that impairment of WM in PD is primarily associated with a widespread reduction of task-relevant activation, whereas additional parietal, limbic and cerebellar regions become more activated relative to matched controls. While the reduced WM-related activity mirrors the deficient WM performance, the additional recruitment may point to either dysfunctional compensatory strategies or detrimental crosstalk from "default-mode" regions, contributing to the observed impairment.

  10. Enhancing motor network activity using real-time functional MRI neurofeedback of left premotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Ferreira Marins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is a technique of potential therapeutic relevance that allows individuals to be aware of their own neurophysiological responses and to voluntarily modulate the activity of specific brain regions, such as the premotor cortex (PMC, important for motor recovery after brain injury. We investigated (i whether healthy human volunteers are able to up-regulate the activity of the left PMC during a right hand finger tapping motor imagery (MI task while receiving continuous fMRI-neurofeedback, and (ii whether successful modulation of brain activity influenced non-targeted motor control regions. During the MI task, participants of the neurofeedback group (NFB received ongoing visual feedback representing the level of fMRI responses within their left PMC. Control (CTL group participants were shown similar visual stimuli, but these were non-contingent on brain activity. Both groups showed equivalent levels of behavioral ratings on arousal and motor imagery, before and during the fMRI protocol. In the NFB, but not in CLT group, brain activation during the last run compared to the first run revealed increased activation in the left PMC. In addition, the NFB group showed increased activation in motor control regions extending beyond the left PMC target area, including the supplementary motor area, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Moreover, in the last run, the NFB group showed stronger activation in the left PMC/inferior frontal gyrus when compared to the CTL group. Our results indicate that modulation of PMC and associated motor control areas can be achieved during a single neurofeedback-fMRI session. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MI-based neurofeedback training, with direct implications for rehabilitation strategies in severe brain disorders, such as stroke.

  11. Motorized Activity on Legacy Seismic Lines: A Predictive Modeling Approach to Prioritize Restoration Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, M L; Pigeon, K E; MacNearney, D; Larsen, T A; Stenhouse, G; Cranston, J; Finnegan, L

    2018-05-11

    Natural regeneration of seismic lines, cleared for hydrocarbon exploration, is slow and often hindered by vegetation damage, soil compaction, and motorized human activity. There is an extensive network of seismic lines in western Canada which is known to impact forest ecosystems, and seismic lines have been linked to declines in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). Seismic line restoration is costly, but necessary for caribou conservation to reduce cumulative disturbance. Understanding where motorized activity may be impeding regeneration of seismic lines will aid in prioritizing restoration. Our study area in west-central Alberta, encompassed five caribou ranges where restoration is required under federal species at risk recovery strategies, hence prioritizing seismic lines for restoration is of immediate conservation value. To understand patterns of motorized activity on seismic lines, we evaluated five a priori hypotheses using a predictive modeling framework and Geographic Information System variables across three landscapes in the foothills and northern boreal regions of Alberta. In the northern boreal landscape, motorized activity was most common in dry areas with a large industrial footprint. In highly disturbed areas of the foothills, motorized activity on seismic lines increased with low vegetation heights, relatively dry soils, and further from forest cutblocks, while in less disturbed areas of the foothills, motorized activity on seismic lines decreased proportional to seismic line density, slope steepness, and white-tailed deer abundance, and increased proportional with distance to roads. We generated predictive maps of high motorized activity, identifying 21,777 km of seismic lines where active restoration could expedite forest regeneration.

  12. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  14. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  15. EFFECTS OF OUTSCHOOL BODY ACTIVITIES ON QUALITATIVE CHANGES OF MOTORICAL STATUS PUPILS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STRATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudin Tanović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population of pupil high classes primary school present one of cariks in chain of complex education and systematic social influence in body and health education, which are used a new generations (Mikić,1991. Including that we have a very sensibility population in way of strature and development in phase of adolescental period, it is necessary that throw the classes body education and extra outschool activities, give enough quantity of motorical activities, which will completly satisfied necessy of children this strature and also completly give them normal biopsychosocial growth. Explorations of effects extra outschool activities in frame of school sport sections pupils of primary school tell us that with a correct planning and programming work, which understand correctly choice adequate methods and operators of work could been very significant transformations of anthropological status of pupils (Malacko 2002. The basic target of this explorations was that confirm influence of outschool body activities on level qualitative changes of structure motorical space of pupils primary school strature, under influence applying programme of outschool activities. With help of factory analise, but also of method of congruation, it was explored structure of motorical space in the start but also at the end of this applying experimental programme of outschool body activities , and we concluded that changes which was appear in structure of explored motorical space, tell us on positive influence outschool body activities in sense transformation and progressing of motorical status of explorated sample.

  16. The effect of tumour type and distance on activation in the motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Ching; Feldman, Susan C.; Zimmerman, Aphrodite; Sinensky, Rebecca; Rao, Satyaveni; Schulder, Michael; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Holodny, Andrei I.

    2005-01-01

    Functional MRI has been widely used to identify the eloquent cortex in neurosurgical/radiosurgical planning and treatment of CNS neoplasms and malformations. In this study we examined the effect of CNS tumours on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation maps in the primary and supplementary motor cortex. A total of 33 tumour patients and five healthy right-handed adults were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into four groups based on tumour type and distance from primary motor cortex: (1) intra-axial, near, (2) extra-axial, near, (3) intra-axial, far and (4) extra-axial, far. The intra-axial groups consisted of patients with astrocytomas, glioblastomas and metastatic tumours of mixed histology; all the extra-axial tumours were meningiomas. The motor task was a bilateral, self-paced, finger-tapping paradigm. Anatomical and functional data were acquired with a 1.5 T GE Echospeed scanner. Maps of the motor areas were derived from the BOLD images, using SPM99 software. For each subject we first determined the activation volume in the primary motor area and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and then calculated the percentage difference between the hemispheres. Two factors influenced the activation volumes: tumour type (P<0.04) and distance from the eloquent cortex (P<0.06). Patients in group 1 (intra-axial, near) had the smallest activation area in the primary motor cortex, the greatest percentage difference in the activation volume between the hemispheres, and the largest activation volume in the SMA. Patients in group 4 (extra-axial, far) had the largest activation volume in the primary motor cortex, the least percentage difference in volume between the hemispheres, and the smallest activation volume in the SMA. There was no significant change in the volume of the SMA in any group, compared with controls, suggesting that, although there is a gradual decrease in SMA volume with distance from the primary motor area, the effect on motor

  17. Cognitive aspects of human motor activity: Contribution of right hemisphere and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedov A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology. Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior. Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times. The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil. Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode. Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.

  18. BDNF heightens the sensitivity of motor neurons to excitotoxic insults through activation of TrkB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peter; Kalb, Robert G.; Walton, K. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The survival promoting and neuroprotective actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well known but under certain circumstances this growth factor can also exacerbate excitotoxic insults to neurons. Prior exploration of the receptor through which BDNF exerts this action on motor neurons deflects attention away from p75. Here we investigated the possibility that BDNF acts through the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, to confer on motor neurons sensitivity to excitotoxic challenge. We blocked BDNF activation of TrkB using a dominant negative TrkB mutant or a TrkB function blocking antibody, and found that this protected motor neurons against excitotoxic insult in cultures of mixed spinal cord neurons. Addition of a function blocking antibody to BDNF to mixed spinal cord neuron cultures is also neuroprotective indicating that endogenously produced BDNF participates in vulnerability to excitotoxicity. We next examined the intracellular signaling cascades that are engaged upon TrkB activation. Previously we found that inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase (PI3'K) pathway blocks BDNF-induced excitotoxic sensitivity. Here we show that expression of a constitutively active catalytic subunit of PI3'K, p110, confers excitotoxic sensitivity (ES) upon motor neurons not incubated with BDNF. Parallel studies with purified motor neurons confirm that these events are likely to be occuring specifically within motor neurons. The abrogation of BDNF's capacity to accentuate excitotoxic insults may make it a more attractive neuroprotective agent.

  19. Emergence of gamma motor activity in an artificial neural network model of the corticospinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Bernard; Maier, Marc A

    2017-02-01

    Muscle spindle discharge during active movement is a function of mechanical and neural parameters. Muscle length changes (and their derivatives) represent its primary mechanical, fusimotor drive its neural component. However, neither the action nor the function of fusimotor and in particular of γ-drive, have been clearly established, since γ-motor activity during voluntary, non-locomotor movements remains largely unknown. Here, using a computational approach, we explored whether γ-drive emerges in an artificial neural network model of the corticospinal system linked to a biomechanical antagonist wrist simulator. The wrist simulator included length-sensitive and γ-drive-dependent type Ia and type II muscle spindle activity. Network activity and connectivity were derived by a gradient descent algorithm to generate reciprocal, known target α-motor unit activity during wrist flexion-extension (F/E) movements. Two tasks were simulated: an alternating F/E task and a slow F/E tracking task. Emergence of γ-motor activity in the alternating F/E network was a function of α-motor unit drive: if muscle afferent (together with supraspinal) input was required for driving α-motor units, then γ-drive emerged in the form of α-γ coactivation, as predicted by empirical studies. In the slow F/E tracking network, γ-drive emerged in the form of α-γ dissociation and provided critical, bidirectional muscle afferent activity to the cortical network, containing known bidirectional target units. The model thus demonstrates the complementary aspects of spindle output and hence γ-drive: i) muscle spindle activity as a driving force of α-motor unit activity, and ii) afferent activity providing continuous sensory information, both of which crucially depend on γ-drive.

  20. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  1. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  2. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  3. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  5. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  6. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  7. Motor Development and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Discordant Twin-Pair Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Sari; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-01

    Previous longitudinal research suggests that motor proficiency in early life predicts physical activity in adulthood. Familial effects including genetic and environmental factors could explain the association, but no long-term follow-up studies have taken into account potential confounding by genetic and social family background. The present twin study investigated whether childhood motor skill development is associated with leisure-time physical activity levels in adulthood independent of family background. Altogether, 1550 twin pairs from the FinnTwin12 study and 1752 twin pairs from the FinnTwin16 study were included in the analysis. Childhood motor development was assessed by the parents' report of whether one of the co-twins had been ahead of the other in different indicators of motor skill development in childhood. Leisure-time physical activity (MET·h·d) was self-reported by the twins in young adulthood and adulthood. Statistical analyses included conditional and ordinary linear regression models within twin pairs. Using all activity-discordant twin pairs, the within-pair difference in a sum score of motor development in childhood predicted the within-pair difference in the leisure-time physical activity level in young adulthood (P men and women.

  8. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  9. Rhythmic activity of feline dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons during fictive motor actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirchuk, Brent; Stecina, Katinka; Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl

    2013-01-01

    (without phasic afferent feedback). In this study, we compared the activity of DSCT and VSCT neurons during fictive rhythmic motor behaviors. We used decerebrate cat preparations in which fictive motor tasks can be evoked while the animal is paralyzed and there is no rhythmic sensory input from hindlimb......Neurons of the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (DSCT) have been described to be rhythmically active during walking on a treadmill in decerebrate cats, but this activity ceased following deafferentation of the hindlimb. This observation supported the hypothesis that DSCT neurons primarily relay...

  10. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill…

  11. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further

  12. Spindles and active vortices in a model of confined filament-motor mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, David A; Briels, Wj; Gompper, Gerhard

    2011-11-16

    Robust self-organization of subcellular structures is a key principle governing the dynamics and evolution of cellular life. In fission yeast cells undergoing division, the mitotic spindle spontaneously emerges from the interaction of microtubules, motor proteins and the confining cell walls, and asters and vortices have been observed to self-assemble in quasi-two dimensional microtubule-kinesin assays. There is no clear microscopic picture of the role of the active motors driving this pattern formation, and the relevance of continuum modeling to filament-scale structures remains uncertain. Here we present results of numerical simulations of a discrete filament-motor protein model confined to a pressurised cylindrical box. Stable spindles, nematic configurations, asters and high-density semi-asters spontaneously emerge, the latter pair having also been observed in cytosol confined within emulsion droplets. State diagrams are presented delineating each stationary state as the pressure, motor speed and motor density are varied. We further highlight a parameter regime where vortices form exhibiting collective rotation of all filaments, but have a finite life-time before contracting to a semi-aster. Quantifying the distribution of life-times suggests this contraction is a Poisson process. Equivalent systems with fixed volume exhibit persistent vortices with stochastic switching in the direction of rotation, with switching times obeying similar statistics to contraction times in pressurised systems. Furthermore, we show that increasing the detachment rate of motors from filament plus-ends can both destroy vortices and turn some asters into vortices. We have shown that discrete filament-motor protein models provide new insights into the stationary and dynamical behavior of active gels and subcellular structures, because many phenomena occur on the length-scale of single filaments. Based on our findings, we argue the need for a deeper understanding of the microscopic

  13. Spindles and active vortices in a model of confined filament-motor mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head David A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust self-organization of subcellular structures is a key principle governing the dynamics and evolution of cellular life. In fission yeast cells undergoing division, the mitotic spindle spontaneously emerges from the interaction of microtubules, motor proteins and the confining cell walls, and asters and vortices have been observed to self-assemble in quasi-two dimensional microtubule-kinesin assays. There is no clear microscopic picture of the role of the active motors driving this pattern formation, and the relevance of continuum modeling to filament-scale structures remains uncertain. Results Here we present results of numerical simulations of a discrete filament-motor protein model confined to a pressurised cylindrical box. Stable spindles, nematic configurations, asters and high-density semi-asters spontaneously emerge, the latter pair having also been observed in cytosol confined within emulsion droplets. State diagrams are presented delineating each stationary state as the pressure, motor speed and motor density are varied. We further highlight a parameter regime where vortices form exhibiting collective rotation of all filaments, but have a finite life-time before contracting to a semi-aster. Quantifying the distribution of life-times suggests this contraction is a Poisson process. Equivalent systems with fixed volume exhibit persistent vortices with stochastic switching in the direction of rotation, with switching times obeying similar statistics to contraction times in pressurised systems. Furthermore, we show that increasing the detachment rate of motors from filament plus-ends can both destroy vortices and turn some asters into vortices. Conclusions We have shown that discrete filament-motor protein models provide new insights into the stationary and dynamical behavior of active gels and subcellular structures, because many phenomena occur on the length-scale of single filaments. Based on our findings, we argue

  14. Is generic physical activity or specific exercise associated with motor abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Marjo; Pasanen, Matti; Miilunpalo, Seppo; Mälkiä, Esko

    2010-09-01

    Evidence of the effect of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) modes on the motor abilities of a mature population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the motor abilities of physically active and inactive men and women and to examine the associations of different exercise modes and former and recent LTPA (R-LTPA) with motor ability and various physical tests. The LTPA of the participants (men n = 69, women n = 79; aged 41-47 yr) was ascertained by a modified Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, including questions on the frequency, duration, and intensity of R-LTPA and former LTPA and on exercise modes. Motor abilities in terms of balance, agility, and coordination were assessed with a battery of nine tests supplemented with five physical fitness tests. Multiple statistical methods were used in analyses that were conducted separately for men and women. The MET-hours per week of R-LTPA correlated statistically significantly with the tests of agility and static balance (rs = -0.28, P = 0.022; rs = -0.25, P = 0.043, respectively) among men and with the static balance (rs = 0.41), 2-km walking (rs = 0.36), step squat (rs = 0.36) (P women. In the stepwise regression among men, the most frequent statistically significant predictor was the playing of several games. For women, a history of LTPA for more than 3 yr was the strongest predictor for good results in almost all tests. Participants with long-term and regular LTPA had better motor performance, and especially a variety of games improve components of motor ability. Diverse, regular, and long-term exercise including both specific training and general activity develops both motor abilities and physical fitness.

  15. Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Weis, Luca; Dembek, Till A; Samuel, Michael; Rizos, Alexandra; Silverdale, Monty; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Antonini, Angelo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-03-16

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up. Changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-test and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Although the STN was targeted visually, we employed an atlas-based approach to explore the relationship between active contact locations and DBS outcomes. Based on fused MRI/CT-images, we identified Cartesian coordinates of active contacts with patient-specific Mai-atlas standardization. We computed linear mixed-effects models with x-/y-/z-coordinates as independent, hemispheres as within-subject, and test change scores as dependent variables. NMSS, NMSQ, PDQ-8, motor examination, complications, and LEDD significantly improved at follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models showed that NMS and QoL improvement significantly depended on more medial (HADS-D, NMSS), anterior (HADS-D, NMSQ, PDQ-8), and ventral (HADS-A/-D, NMSS, PDQ-8) neurostimulation. ADL improved more in posterior, LEDD in lateral neurostimulation locations. No relationship was observed for motor examination and complications scores. Our study provides evidence that more anterior, medial, and ventral STN-DBS is significantly related to more beneficial non-motor outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Microscopic origins of anisotropic active stress in motor-driven nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Robert; Sweezy-Schindler, Oliver; Baldwin, Christopher; Hough, Loren E; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D

    2016-03-14

    The cytoskeleton, despite comprising relatively few building blocks, drives an impressive variety of cellular phenomena ranging from cell division to motility. These building blocks include filaments, motor proteins, and static crosslinkers. Outside of cells, these same components can form novel materials exhibiting active flows and nonequilibrium contraction or extension. While dipolar extensile or contractile active stresses are common in nematic motor-filament systems, their microscopic origin remains unclear. Here we study a minimal physical model of filaments, crosslinking motors, and static crosslinkers to dissect the microscopic mechanisms of stress generation in a two-dimensional system of orientationally aligned rods. We demonstrate the essential role of filament steric interactions which have not previously been considered to significantly contribute to active stresses. With this insight, we are able to tune contractile or extensile behavior through the control of motor-driven filament sliding and crosslinking. This work provides a roadmap for engineering stresses in active liquid crystals. The mechanisms we study may help explain why flowing nematic motor-filament mixtures are extensile while gelled systems are contractile.

  17. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  18. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  19. Neurofeedback fMRI-mediated learning and consolidation of regional brain activation during motor imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Lee, Jong-Hwan; O’Leary, Heather; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the long-term effect of real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) training on voluntary regulation of the level of activation from a hand motor area. During the performance of a motor imagery task of a right hand, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal originating from a primary motor area was presented back to the subject in real-time. Demographically matched individuals also received the same procedure without valid feedback information. Followed by the initial rtfMRI sessions, both groups underwent two-week long, daily-practice of the task. Off-line data analysis revealed that the individuals in the experimental group were able to increase the level of BOLD signal from the regulatory target to a greater degree compared to the control group. Furthermore, the learned level of activation was maintained after the two-week period, with the recruitment of additional neural circuitries such as the hippocampus and the limbo-thalamo-cortical pathway. The activation obtained from the control group, in the absence of proper feedback, was indifferent across the training conditions. The level of BOLD activity from the target regulatory region was positively correlated with a self evaluative score within the experimental group, while the majority of control subjects had difficulty adopting a strategy to attain the desired level of functional regulation. Our results suggest that rtfMRI helped individuals learn how to increase region-specific cortical activity associated with a motor imagery task, and the level of increased activation in motor areas was consolidated after the two-week self-practice period, with the involvement of neural circuitries implicated in motor skill learning. PMID:19526048

  20. Intracortical Microstimulation (ICMS) Activates Motor Cortex Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons Mainly Transsynaptically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Ahmed T; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Brown, Andrew R; Pittman, Quentin J; Teskey, G Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a technique used for a number of purposes including the derivation of cortical movement representations (motor maps). Its application can activate the output layer 5 of motor cortex and can result in the elicitation of body movements depending upon the stimulus parameters used. The extent to which pyramidal tract projection neurons of the motor cortex are activated transsynaptically or directly by ICMS remains an open question. Given this uncertainty in the mode of activation, we used a preparation that combined patch clamp whole-cell recordings from single layer 5 pyramidal neurons and extracellular ICMS in slices of motor cortex as well as a standard in vivo mapping technique to ask how ICMS activated motor cortex pyramidal neurons. We measured changes in synaptic spike threshold and spiking rate to ICMS in vitro and movement threshold in vivo in the presence or absence of specific pharmacological blockers of glutamatergic (AMPA, NMDA and Kainate) receptors and GABAA receptors. With major excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission blocked (with DNQX, APV and bicuculline methiodide), we observed a significant increase in the ICMS current intensity required to elicit a movement in vivo as well as to the first spike and an 85% reduction in spiking responses in vitro. Subsets of neurons were still responsive after the synaptic block, especially at higher current intensities, suggesting a modest direct activation. Taken together our data indicate a mainly synaptic mode of activation to ICMS in layer 5 of rat motor cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A threat to a virtual hand elicits motor cortex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Franco, Mar; Peck, Tabitha C; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Slater, Mel

    2014-03-01

    We report an experiment where participants observed an attack on their virtual body as experienced in an immersive virtual reality (IVR) system. Participants sat by a table with their right hand resting upon it. In IVR, they saw a virtual table that was registered with the real one, and they had a virtual body that substituted their real body seen from a first person perspective. The virtual right hand was collocated with their real right hand. Event-related brain potentials were recorded in two conditions, one where the participant's virtual hand was attacked with a knife and a control condition where the knife only struck the virtual table. Significantly greater P450 potentials were obtained in the attack condition confirming our expectations that participants had a strong illusion of the virtual hand being their own, which was also strongly supported by questionnaire responses. Higher levels of subjective virtual hand ownership correlated with larger P450 amplitudes. Mu-rhythm event-related desynchronization in the motor cortex and readiness potential (C3-C4) negativity were clearly observed when the virtual hand was threatened-as would be expected, if the real hand was threatened and the participant tried to avoid harm. Our results support the idea that event-related potentials may provide a promising non-subjective measure of virtual embodiment. They also support previous experiments on pain observation and are placed into context of similar experiments and studies of body perception and body ownership within cognitive neuroscience.

  2. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  3. Converging Mechanisms of p53 Activation Drive Motor Neuron Degeneration in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Simon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, an inherited disease caused by ubiquitous deficiency in the SMN protein, is the selective degeneration of subsets of spinal motor neurons. Here, we show that cell-autonomous activation of p53 occurs in vulnerable but not resistant motor neurons of SMA mice at pre-symptomatic stages. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of p53 prevents motor neuron death, demonstrating that induction of p53 signaling drives neurodegeneration. At late disease stages, however, nuclear accumulation of p53 extends to resistant motor neurons and spinal interneurons but is not associated with cell death. Importantly, we identify phosphorylation of serine 18 as a specific post-translational modification of p53 that exclusively marks vulnerable SMA motor neurons and provide evidence that amino-terminal phosphorylation of p53 is required for the neurodegenerative process. Our findings indicate that distinct events induced by SMN deficiency converge on p53 to trigger selective death of vulnerable SMA motor neurons.

  4. Aberrant neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex in children with acute migraine: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyao Guo

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks have been shown to interfere with normal function in the brain such as motor or sensory function. However, to date, there has been no clinical neurophysiology study focusing on the motor function in children with migraine during headache attacks. To investigate the motor function in children with migraine, twenty-six children with acute migraine, meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria and age- and gender-matched healthy children were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography system. A finger-tapping paradigm was designed to elicit neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex. Children with migraine showed significantly prolonged latency of movement-evoked magnetic fields (MEF during finger movement compared with the controls. The correlation coefficient of MEF latency and age in children with migraine was significantly different from that in healthy controls. The spectral power of high gamma (65-150 Hz oscillations during finger movement in the primary motor cortex is also significantly higher in children with migraine than in controls. The alteration of responding latency and aberrant high gamma oscillations suggest that the developmental trajectory of motor function in children with migraine is impaired during migraine attacks and/or developmentally delayed. This finding indicates that childhood migraine may affect the development of brain function and result in long-term problems.

  5. Disassociation between primary motor cortical activity and movement kinematics during adaptation to reach perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X; Shimansky, Y P; Weber, D J; He, Jiping

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between movement kinematics and motor cortical activity was studied in monkeys performing a center-out reaching task during their adaptation to force perturbations applied to the wrist. The main feature of adaptive changes in movement kinematics was anticipatory deviation of hand paths in the direction opposite to that of the upcoming perturbation. We identified a group of neurons in the dorsal lateral portion of the primary motor cortex where a gradual buildup of spike activity immediately preceding the actual (in perturbation trials) or the "would-be" (in unperturbed/catch trials) perturbation onset was observed. These neurons were actively involved in the adaptation process, which was evident from the gradual increase in the amplitude of their movement-related modulation of spike activity from virtual zero and development of certain directional tuning pattern (DTP). However, the day-to-day dynamics of the kinematics adaptation was dramatically different from that of the neuronal activity. Hence, the adaptive modification of the motor cortical activity is more likely to reflect the development of the internal model of the perturbation dynamics, rather than motor instructions determining the adaptive behavior.

  6. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  7. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with 99m Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%ΔCBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %ΔCBF were up 24.1±4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3±3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %ΔCBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  8. Validation of a motor activity system by a robotically controlled vehicle and using standard reference compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John P; Markgraf, Carrie G; Cirino, Maria; Bass, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken to evaluate the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of an automated, infrared photo beam-based open field motor activity system, the MotorMonitor v. 4.01, Hamilton-Kinder, LLC, for use in a good laboratory practices (GLP) Safety Pharmacology laboratory. This evaluation consisted of two phases: (1) system validation, employing known inputs using the EM-100 Controller Photo Beam Validation System, a robotically controlled vehicle representing a rodent and (2) biologic validation, employing groups of rats treated with the standard pharmacologic agents diazepam or D-amphetamine. The MotorMonitor's parameters that described the open-field activity of a subject were: basic movements, total distance, fine movements, x/y horizontal ambulations, rearing, and total rest time. These measurements were evaluated over a number of zones within each enclosure. System validation with the EM-100 Controller Photo Beam Validation System showed that all the parameters accurately and precisely measured what they were intended to measure, with the exception of fine movements and x/y ambulations. Biologic validation using the central nervous system depressant diazepam at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg, i.p. produced the expected dose-dependent reduction in rat motor activity. In contrast, the central nervous system stimulant D-amphetamine produced the expected increases in rat motor activity at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p, demonstrating the specificity and sensitivity of the system. Taken together, these studies of the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity show the importance of both system and biologic validation in the evaluation of an automated open field motor activity system for use in a GLP compliant laboratory.

  9. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  10. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induction in Purkinje Neurons After Cerebellar Motor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Nicholas W.; Williams, Brian L.; Bickford, Paula C.

    1995-12-01

    The cerebellar cortex is implicated in the learning of complex motor skills. This learning may require synaptic remodeling of Purkinje cell inputs. An extracellular serine protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is involved in remodeling various nonneural tissues and is associated with developing and regenerating neurons. In situ hybridization showed that expression of tPA messenger RNA was increased in the Purkinje neurons of rats within an hour of their being trained for a complex motor task. Antibody to tPA also showed the induction of tPA protein associated with cerebellar Purkinje cells. Thus, the induction of tPA during motor learning may play a role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

  11. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China); Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zheng, Xiaolin [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China)

    2014-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  12. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong; Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun; Yan, Rubing; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  13. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Elizabeth Robinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age

  14. Spinal atypical protein kinase C activity is necessary to stabilize inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Nichols, N.L.; Baertsch, N.A.; Broytman, O.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The neural network controlling breathing must establish rhythmic motor output at a level adequate to sustain life. Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a novel form of plasticity in circuits driving the diaphragm known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), a rebound increase in phrenic inspiratory output observed once respiratory neural drive is restored. The mechanisms underlying iPMF are unknown. Here, we demonstrate in anesthetized rats that spinal mechanisms give rise to iPMF, and that iPMF consists of at least two mechanistically distinct phases: 1) an early, labile phase that requires atypical PKC (PKCζ and/or PKCΙ/λ) activity to transition to a 2) late, stable phase. Early (but not late) iPMF is associated with increased interactions between PKCζ/Ι and the scaffolding protein ZIP/p62 in spinal regions associated with the phrenic motor pool. Although PKCζ/Ι activity is necessary for iPMF, spinal aPKC activity is not necessary for phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia, an activity-independent form of spinal respiratory plasticity. Thus, while iPMF and pLTF both manifest as prolonged increases in phrenic burst amplitude, they arise from distinct spinal cellular pathways. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that: 1) local mechanisms sense and respond to reduced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic motor pool, and 2) inactivity-induced increases in phrenic inspiratory output require local PKCζ/Ι activity to stabilize into a long-lasting iPMF. Although the physiological role of iPMF is unknown, we suspect that iPMF represents a compensatory mechanism, assuring adequate motor output in a physiological system where prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:23152633

  15. Self-regulation of primary motor cortex activity with motor imagery induces functional connectivity modulation: A real-time fMRI neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Meena M; Seulgi, Eun; Kyungmo Park

    2017-07-01

    Recent developments in data acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to rapid preprocessing and analysis of brain activity in a quasireal-time basis, what so called real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NFB). This information is fed back to subjects allowing them to gain a voluntary control over their own region-specific brain activity. Forty-one healthy participants were randomized into an experimental (NFB) group, who received a feedback directly proportional to their brain activity from the primary motor cortex (M1), and a control (CTRL) group who received a sham feedback. The M1 ROI was functionally localized during motor execution and imagery tasks. A resting-state functional run was performed before and after the neurofeedback training to investigate the default mode network (DMN) modulation after training. The NFB group revealed increased DMN functional connectivity after training to the cortical and subcortical sensory/motor areas (M1/S1 and caudate nucleus, respectively), which may be associated with sensorimotor processing of learning in the resting state. These results show that motor imagery training through rtfMRI-NFB could modulate the DMN functional connectivity to motor-related areas, suggesting that this modulation potentially subserved the establishment of motor learning in the NFB group.

  16. EEG activation differences in the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area between normal individuals with high and low traits of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo

    2010-06-25

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) is believed to provide a basic mechanism for social cognition. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in alpha (8-12Hz) and low beta band (12-20Hz) over sensori-motor cortex has been suggested to index mirror neurons' activity. We tested whether autistic traits revealed by high and low scores on the Autistic Quotient (AQ) in the normal population are linked to variations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) over motor, pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) during action observation. Results revealed that in the low AQ group, the pre-motor cortex and SMA were more active during hand action than static hand observation whereas in the high AQ group the same areas were active both during static and hand action observation. In fact participants with high traits of autism showed greater low beta ERD while observing the static hand than those with low traits and this low beta ERD was not significantly different when they watched hand actions. Over primary motor cortex, the classical alpha and low beta ERD during hand actions relative to static hand observation was found across all participants. These findings suggest that the observation-execution matching system works differently according to the degree of autism traits in the normal population and that this is differentiated in terms of the EEG according to scalp site and bandwidth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Using hierarchical clustering methods to classify motor activities of COPD patients from wearable sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly John J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in miniature sensor technology have led to the development of wearable systems that allow one to monitor motor activities in the field. A variety of classifiers have been proposed in the past, but little has been done toward developing systematic approaches to assess the feasibility of discriminating the motor tasks of interest and to guide the choice of the classifier architecture. Methods A technique is introduced to address this problem according to a hierarchical framework and its use is demonstrated for the application of detecting motor activities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. Accelerometers were used to collect data for 10 different classes of activity. Features were extracted to capture essential properties of the data set and reduce the dimensionality of the problem at hand. Cluster measures were utilized to find natural groupings in the data set and then construct a hierarchy of the relationships between clusters to guide the process of merging clusters that are too similar to distinguish reliably. It provides a means to assess whether the benefits of merging for performance of a classifier outweigh the loss of resolution incurred through merging. Results Analysis of the COPD data set demonstrated that motor tasks related to ambulation can be reliably discriminated from tasks performed in a seated position with the legs in motion or stationary using two features derived from one accelerometer. Classifying motor tasks within the category of activities related to ambulation requires more advanced techniques. While in certain cases all the tasks could be accurately classified, in others merging clusters associated with different motor tasks was necessary. When merging clusters, it was found that the proposed method could lead to more than 12% improvement in classifier accuracy while retaining resolution of 4 tasks. Conclusion Hierarchical

  18. The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  19. Primary motor cortex of the parkinsonian monkey: altered encoding of active movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; DeLong, Mahlon R.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the movement-related activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) are thought to be a major contributor to the motor signs of Parkinson’s disease. The existing evidence, however, variably indicates that M1 is under-activated with movement, overactivated (due to a loss of functional specificity) or activated with abnormal timing. In addition, few models consider the possibility that distinct cortical neuron subtypes may be affected differently. Those gaps in knowledge were addressed by studying the extracellular activity of antidromically-identified lamina 5b pyramidal-tract type neurons (n = 153) and intratelencephalic-type corticostriatal neurons (n = 126) in the M1 of two monkeys as they performed a step-tracking arm movement task. We compared movement-related discharge before and after the induction of parkinsonism by administration of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and quantified the spike rate encoding of specific kinematic parameters of movement using a generalized linear model. The fraction of M1 neurons with movement-related activity declined following MPTP but only marginally. The strength of neuronal encoding of parameters of movement was reduced markedly (mean 29% reduction in the coefficients from the generalized linear model). This relative decoupling of M1 activity from kinematics was attributable to reductions in the coefficients that estimated the spike rate encoding of movement direction (−22%), speed (−40%), acceleration (−49%) and hand position (−33%). After controlling for MPTP-induced changes in motor performance, M1 activity related to movement itself was reduced markedly (mean 36% hypoactivation). This reduced activation was strong in pyramidal tract-type neurons (−50%) but essentially absent in corticostriatal neurons. The timing of M1 activation was also abnormal, with earlier onset times, prolonged response durations, and a 43% reduction in the prevalence of movement-related changes

  20. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  1. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...

  2. The influence of motor activity on the development of cardiac arrhythmias during experimental emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyaninskiy, L. S.; Urmancheyeva, T. G.; Stepanyan, Y. P.; Fufacheva, A. A.; Gritsak, A. V.; Kuznetsova, B. A.; Kvitka, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental emotional stress which can produce various disorders of cardiac rhythm: sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular, extrasystoles and paroxysmal ventricular tachysystoles was studied. In these conditions the adrenalin content in the blood and myocardium is increased 3 to 4 times. It is found that moderate motor activity leads to a relative decrease of adrenalin in the myocardium and arrest of cardiac arrhythmias.

  3. The Effect of Fine Motor Skill Activities on Kindergarten Student Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Roger A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Giordano, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effect of fine motor skill activities on the development of attention in kindergarteners (n = 68) in five classes at a suburban public school in the Intermountain West through a pretest/posttest experimental group (n = 36) control group (n = 32) design. All children received the regular curriculum which included typical…

  4. Physical activity levels and motor skills of 5 th to 7 th grade students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...

  5. Human duodenal motor activity in response to acid and different nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, M. P.; Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    Duodenal motor activity in response to intraduodenal infusion of small volumes of acid and nutrients of different chemical composition was studied in 10 healthy humans, using a water-perfused catheter incorporating 20 antropyloroduodenal sideholes. Saline and dextrose did not affect motility. Acid

  6. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  7. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  8. Mechanochemical coupling in the myosin motor domain. I. Insights from equilibrium active-site simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the major structural transitions in molecular motors are often argued to couple to the binding of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP, the recovery stroke in the conventional myosin has been shown to be dependent on the hydrolysis of ATP. To obtain a clearer mechanistic picture for such "mechanochemical coupling" in myosin, equilibrium active-site simulations with explicit solvent have been carried out to probe the behavior of the motor domain as functions of the nucleotide chemical state and conformation of the converter/relay helix. In conjunction with previous studies of ATP hydrolysis with different active-site conformations and normal mode analysis of structural flexibility, the results help establish an energetics-based framework for understanding the mechanochemical coupling. It is proposed that the activation of hydrolysis does not require the rotation of the lever arm per se, but the two processes are tightly coordinated because both strongly couple to the open/close transition of the active site. The underlying picture involves shifts in the dominant population of different structural motifs as a consequence of changes elsewhere in the motor domain. The contribution of this work and the accompanying paper [] is to propose the actual mechanism behind these "population shifts" and residues that play important roles in the process. It is suggested that structural flexibilities at both the small and large scales inherent to the motor domain make it possible to implement tight couplings between different structural motifs while maintaining small free-energy drops for processes that occur in the detached states, which is likely a feature shared among many molecular motors. The significantly different flexibility of the active site in different X-ray structures with variable level arm orientations supports the notation that external force sensed by the lever arm may transmit into the active site and influence the chemical steps (nucleotide

  9. Supplementary motor area and primary auditory cortex activation in an expert break-dancer during the kinesthetic motor imagery of dance to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Michael P; Bar, Rachel J; Fogarty, Mary; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2015-01-01

    The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of an expert dancer with 35 years of break-dancing experience during the kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) of dance accompanied by highly familiar and unfamiliar music. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of musical familiarity on neural activity underlying KMI within a highly experienced dancer. In order to investigate this in both primary sensory and motor planning cortical areas, we examined the effects of music familiarity on the primary auditory cortex [Heschl's gyrus (HG)] and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Our findings reveal reduced HG activity and greater SMA activity during imagined dance to familiar music compared to unfamiliar music. We propose that one's internal representations of dance moves are influenced by auditory stimuli and may be specific to a dance style and the music accompanying it.

  10. Different patterns of motor activity induce differential plastic changes in pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex of rats: A Golgi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Hernández, Nallely; González-Tapia, Diana C; Martínez-Torres, Nestor I; González-Tapia, David; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2017-09-14

    Rehabilitation is a process which favors recovery after brain damage involving motor systems, and neural plasticity is the only real resource the brain has for inducing neurobiological events in order to bring about re-adaptation. Rats were placed on a treadmill and made to walk, in different groups, at different velocities and with varying degrees of inclination. Plastic changes in the spines of the apical and basal dendrites of fifth-layer pyramidal neurons in the motor cortices of the rats were detected after study with the Golgi method. Numbers of dendritic spines increased in the three experimental groups, and thin, mushroom, stubby, wide, and branched spines increased or decreased in proportion depending on the motor demands made of each group. Along with the numerical increase of spines, the present findings provide evidence that dendritic spines' geometrical plasticity is involved in the differential performance of motor activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuron activity in rat hippocampus and motor cortex during discrimination reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disterhoft, J F; Segal, M

    1978-01-01

    Chronic unit activity and gross movement were recorded from rats during two discrimination reversals in a classical appetitive conditioning situation. The anticipatory movement decreased in response to the former CS+ tone and increased to the previous CS- tone after each reversal. Hippocampus and motor cortex were differently related to these two kinds of behavioral change. Response rates of hippocampal neurons were more closely related to the increased movement response to the former CS- which now signaled food. Motor cortex neuron responses were more closely correlated with the decrease in movement responses to the former CS+ which became neutral after the reversal. It appeared that hippocampal neurons could have been involved in one cognitive aspect of the situation, motor cortex neurons in another. The data were related to current functional concepts of these brain regions.

  12. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  13. Media use, sports activities, and motor fitness in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Jovy, Sebastian; Scheu, Anja; Greier, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity is one of the key determinants of physical, mental, and social health of children and adolescents. Therefore, the early development of health-relevant behavior patterns is of high relevance. To examine the impact of selected socioeconomic factors as well as media consumption, on sports activities and the motor skills of 10- to 14-year-old secondary school students. Body height and body weight were measured. The motor skills were determined with the Deutschen Motorik Test (DMT 6‑18; German Motor Test). Information about media use, media equipment, recreational sports activities, migration status, and the parents' profession was collected by means of a standardized questionnaire. A total of 391 adolescents have been tested (male 235; female 156). Body mass index (BMI) types are evenly distributed on gender. On a weekday, the pupils spend 10.3 h using media (SD ± 9.1 h). On weekends, media use increases up to 12 h per day on average (SD ± 9.7 h). The number of available media is independent from the age of the respondents and the social status of their families. According to bivariate correlations, heavy media use, a high BMI as well as migration status correlate negatively with both sports activities and motor skills. BMI seems to have the strongest influence on athletic performance (b = 0.41). Media use is an important determinant of juvenile sports activity and motor performance, being part of a complex juvenile leisure behavior.

  14. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination in injured rats but does not accelerate the recovery of the motor coordination deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Reyes-Legorreta, Celia; Garza-Montaño, Paloma; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    The sensorimotor cortex and the striatum are interconnected by the corticostriatal pathway, suggesting that cortical injury alters the striatal function that is associated with skilled movements and motor learning, which are functions that may be modulated by dopamine (DA). In this study, we explored motor coordination and balance in order to investigate whether the activation of D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs) modulates functional recovery after cortical injury. The results of the beam-walking test showed motor deficit in the injured group at 24, 48 and 96h post-injury, and the recovery time was observed at 192h after cortical injury. In the sham and injured rats, systemic administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 (1mg/kg) alone at 24, 48, 96 and 192h significantly (Pmotor deficit, while administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 alone (2, 3 and 4mg/kg) at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury did not produce a significant difference; however, the co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 prevented the antagonist-induced increase in the motor deficit. The cortical+striatal injury showed significantly increased the motor deficit at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury (Pmotor recovery, but the activation of D 1 Rs maintained motor coordination, confirming that an intact striatum may be necessary for achieving recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How emotion context modulates unconscious goal activation during motor force exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-02-01

    Priming participants with emotional or action-related concepts influences goal formation and motor force output during effort exertion tasks, even without awareness of priming information. However, little is known about neural processes underpinning how emotional cues interact with action (or inaction) goals to motivate (or demotivate) motor behaviour. In a novel functional neuroimaging paradigm, visible emotional images followed by subliminal action or inaction word primes were presented before participants performed a maximal force exertion. In neutral emotional contexts, maximum force was lower following inaction than action primes. However, arousing emotional images had interactive motivational effects on the motor system: Unpleasant images prior to inaction primes increased force output (enhanced effort exertion) relative to control primes, and engaged a motivation-related network involving ventral striatum, extended amygdala, as well as right inferior frontal cortex. Conversely, pleasant images presented before action (versus control) primes decreased force and activated regions of the default-mode network, including inferior parietal lobule and medial prefrontal cortex. These findings show that emotional context can determine how unconscious goal representations influence motivational processes and are transformed into actual motor output, without direct rewarding contingencies. Furthermore, they provide insight into altered motor behaviour in psychopathological disorders with dysfunctional motivational processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Region and task-specific activation of Arc in primary motor cortex of rats following motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, J A; Mann, S; Wegenast-Braun, B M; Calhoun, M E; Luft, A R

    2013-10-10

    Motor learning requires protein synthesis within the primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we show that the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 is specifically induced in M1 by learning a motor skill. Arc mRNA was quantified using a fluorescent in situ hybridization assay in adult Long-Evans rats learning a skilled reaching task (SRT), in rats performing reaching-like forelimb movement without learning (ACT) and in rats that were trained in the operant but not the motor elements of the task (controls). Apart from M1, Arc expression was assessed within the rostral motor area (RMA), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), striatum (ST) and cerebellum. In SRT animals, Arc mRNA levels in M1 contralateral to the trained limb were 31% higher than ipsilateral (pmotor skill learning in rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Task-Relevant Information Modulates Primary Motor Cortex Activity Before Movement Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Cristian B; Van Opstal, Filip; Peigneux, Philippe; Verguts, Tom; Gevers, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Monkey neurophysiology research supports the affordance competition hypothesis (ACH) proposing that cognitive information useful for action selection is integrated in sensorimotor areas. In this view, action selection would emerge from the simultaneous representation of competing action plans, in parallel biased by relevant task factors. This biased competition would take place up to primary motor cortex (M1). Although ACH is plausible in environments affording choices between actions, its relevance for human decision making is less clear. To address this issue, we designed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment modeled after monkey neurophysiology studies in which human participants processed cues conveying predictive information about upcoming button presses. Our results demonstrate that, as predicted by the ACH, predictive information (i.e., the relevant task factor) biases activity of primary motor regions. Specifically, first, activity before movement onset in contralateral M1 increases as the competition is biased in favor of a specific button press relative to activity in ipsilateral M1. Second, motor regions were more tightly coupled with fronto-parietal regions when competition between potential actions was high, again suggesting that motor regions are also part of the biased competition network. Our findings support the idea that action planning dynamics as proposed in the ACH are valid both in human and non-human primates.

  18. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  20. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  1. Effect of visual feedback on brain activation during motor tasks: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jeremy W; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of visual feedback and force level on the neural mechanisms responsible for the performance of a motor task. We used a voxel-wise fMRI approach to determine the effect of visual feedback (with and without) during a grip force task at 35% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction. Two areas (contralateral rostral premotor cortex and putamen) displayed an interaction between force and feedback conditions. When the main effect of feedback condition was analyzed, higher activation when visual feedback was available was found in 22 of the 24 active brain areas, while the two other regions (contralateral lingual gyrus and ipsilateral precuneus) showed greater levels of activity when no visual feedback was available. The results suggest that there is a potentially confounding influence of visual feedback on brain activation during a motor task, and for some regions, this is dependent on the level of force applied.

  2. Responsiveness of rat fetuses to sibling motor activity: Communication in utero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Michele R; Hoagland, Riana; Truong, Melissa; Robinson, Scott R

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that fetuses detect and respond to extrauterine stimuli such as maternal movement and speech, but little attention has been cast on how fetuses may directly influence and respond to each other in the womb. This study investigated whether motor activity of E20 rat fetuses influenced the behavior of siblings in utero. Three experiments showed that; (a) contiguous siblings expressed a higher frequency of synchronized movement than noncontiguous siblings; (b) fetuses that lay between two siblings immobilized with curare showed less movement relative to fetuses between saline or uninjected controls; and (c) fetuses between two siblings behaviorally activated by the opioid agonist U50,488 also showed less activity and specific behavioral changes compared to controls. Our findings suggest that rat fetuses are directly impacted by sibling motor activity, and thus that a rudimentary form of communication between siblings may influence the development of fetuses in utero. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Motor performance as predictor of physical activity in children - The CHAMPS Study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina

    , health-related fitness and performance-related fitness were significantly associated to time spent at moderate to vigorous physical activity level at three years follow up. The clinical relevance of the results indicated cardiorespiratory fitness and shuttle run to be important skills to perceive......Background Physical activity is associated to several health benefits in children and has a tendency to track from childhood to adulthood. An adequate motor performance has been shown positively related to physical activity level in cross sectional studies and may be the foundation of a healthy...... lifestyle, but there is a lack of longitudinal studies. The objective of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between motor performance and physical activity in a three-year follow up study. Methods Longitudinal analyses were performed using data from the CHAMPS-Study DK, including 673...

  4. Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: The mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current findings suggest that physical activity of children with developmental difficulties may be limited by low level of motor coordination. Motor difficulties are often connected with children suffering from attention deficit disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out the level of physical activity (PA in older school-age children with motor difficulties (MD in comparison with children without MD and to reveal possible mediate impact on attention between the level of motor skills and PA in children of this age. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: 15 children with MD (age 13.7 ± 1.6 years and 27 children without MD (age 13.3 ± 1.4 years. Motor functions were assessed by means of test battery MABC-2, weekly physical activity by means of Actigraph accelerometer and attention by both d2 and numeric square tests. To estimate the mediation of the attention level we have used Baron's & Kenny's (1986 analysis. RESULTS: In most of the indicators of PA, children with MD reached lower value than those without MD. The differences of statistical significance were found in the number of steps per week and weekdays (d = 0.50 and 0.64 respectively and in PA of a very high intensity (d =2 .00 in boys with and without MD. In girls with MD we have found out significantly less time spent in vigorous intensity PA (d = 0.86. The study results support the hypothesis of developmental motor deficits to be a risk factor for PA in older school-age children. Significant mediation effect of concentration of attention in the relationship between the level of motor skills and PA was observed in three cases - in the relationship between gross motor skills on the one hand, and energy expenditure per week and weekdays, and vigorous intensity PA per week on the other. The amount of mediation effect of attention concentration ranged between 12-22%. CONCLUSION: The study has indicated that children's participation in PA can be

  5. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  6. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved ...

  7. Pulsed Light Stimulation Increases Boundary Preference and Periodicity of Episodic Motor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Qiu

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the therapeutic benefits of long-term sensory stimulation for improving cognitive abilities and motor performance of stroke patients. The rationale is that such stimulation would activate mechanisms of neural plasticity to promote enhanced coordination and associated circuit functions. Experimental approaches to characterize such mechanisms are needed. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most attractive model organisms to investigate neural mechanisms responsible for stimulation-induced behaviors with its powerful accessibility to genetic analysis. In this study, the effect of chronic sensory stimulation (pulsed light stimulation on motor activity in w1118 flies was investigated. Flies were exposed to a chronic pulsed light stimulation protocol prior to testing their performance in a standard locomotion assay. Flies responded to pulsed light stimulation with increased boundary preference and travel distance in a circular arena. In addition, pulsed light stimulation increased the power of extracellular electrical activity, leading to the enhancement of periodic electrical activity which was associated with a centrally-generated motor pattern (struggling behavior. In contrast, such periodic events were largely missing in w1118 flies without pulsed light treatment. These data suggest that the sensory stimulation induced a response in motor activity associated with the modifications of electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS. Finally, without pulsed light treatment, the wild-type genetic background was associated with the occurrence of the periodic activity in wild-type Canton S (CS flies, and w+ modulated the consistency of periodicity. We conclude that pulsed light stimulation modifies behavioral and electrophysiological activities in w1118 flies. These data provide a foundation for future research on the genetic mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying such behavioral modification.

  8. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel......-time series. The optimal number of clusters was chosen using a cross-validated likelihood method, which highlights the clustering pattern that generalizes best over the subjects. Data were acquired with PET at different time points during practice of a visuomotor task. The results from cluster analysis show...

  9. Active Learning to Develop Motor Skills and Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lorena Aristizabal-Almanza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This action-research project was conducted to determine how the use of principles of active learning, specifically collaboration, had an effect on psychomotor performance and achievement in teamwork. The research setting included 20 students of first grade from a private school located in Bogota, Colombia. The students were selected through not randomized sampling based on criteria. The methodological process included observation, interviews, and a scale based on standardized tests to measure skills; the latter was applied before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using a triangulation of qualitative data, and through comparative analysis of the initial and final student profile for quantitative inputs. The results showed that, after the intervention with collaborative techniques based on action learning, students achieved a positive variation in their performance. Being part of a team positively affected the achievement of the objectives. Systematical reflection on their practices fostered their capacity to identify strengths and weaknesses to build knowledge in interaction with others. Knowledge construction was nurtured based in their previous experiences. Students showed more accountability and self-directed learning behaviors, according to their age. Overall the experience showed the importance of research and innovation in the classroom in order to provide meaningful data, so teachers and researchers can engage in providing learning experiences based in active learning.

  10. Effect of Error Augmentation on Brain Activation and Motor Learning of a Complex Locomotor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marchal-Crespo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors—error amplification and random force disturbance—and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task. Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the experiment with a robotic stepper (MARCOS in a 1.5 T MR scanner. The task consisted in tracking a Lissajous figure presented on a display by coordinating the legs in a gait-like movement pattern. Behavioral results showed that training without perturbations enhanced motor learning in initially less skilled subjects, while error amplification benefited better-skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, hampered transfer of learning. Randomly disturbing forces induced learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because the unexpected forces increased subjects' attention. Functional MRI revealed main effects of training strategy and skill level during training. A main effect of training strategy was seen in brain regions typically associated with motor control and learning, such as, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, intraparietal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Especially, random disturbance and no perturbation lead to stronger brain activation in similar brain regions than error amplification. Skill-level related effects were observed in the IPS, in parts of the superior parietal lobe (SPL, i.e., precuneus, and temporal cortex. These neuroimaging findings

  11. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine intensity of motor and intellectual abilities and motivation for physical activity of students engaged in physical education in different sports groups.Methodology and research methods. Motor abilities of the students were assessed by measuring: hand, strength endurance, speed-power abilities, speed ability and general stamina. Assessment of general intelligence (GI was carried out by R. Amthauer’s test in the adaptation of L. A. Yasjukova. Formal-dynamic characteristics of the individuality (FDCI were studied using the technique of FDCI feedback form proposed by V. M. Rusalov. Assessment of motivation to implement motor activity was performed using the author's questionnaire. The method of statistical information processing has allowed the author to reveal correlation communications between motor abilities and GI of first-year students.Results. Significant differences in the manifestation of the individual students’ characteristics choosing practicing in different types of physical activity are experimentally established. In particular, students who chose table tennis, are inferior to the students who went in for wrestling in the manifestation of certain (power, motor skills, motivation for physical activity, but at the same time show relatively higher rates of certain intellectual abilities.Formal-dynamic traits of individuality are peculiar to students involved in table tennis, reflecting lower psychomotor activity (integrated indicator PDI - Psychomotor Development Index, in comparison with students who prefer fighting. The material presented provides a basis to argue that sports-oriented approach has some potential in the aspect of increase of efficiency of students’ physical education, distinguished by individual characteristics of age specific development.Scientific novelty. Scientific findings on distinct differences in motivation to physical activity, manifestation of motor and mental

  12. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...

  13. Motor abilities, activities, and participation of institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To assess motor abilities and functioning of institutionalized children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP within a contextual model of development. Methods: Eleven institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents aged 2-19 (14 ± 5 years, 5 males and 6 females, were evaluated through the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and 66 and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and classified according to the ICF core set. Results: The evaluated individuals have severe impairments as indicated by their GMFM scores and confirmed by their need for full assistance in basic activities of daily living according to the FIM assessment. The difficulties manifested reflected on the ICF body functions and activities and participation domains. Conclusion: Most institutionalized children and adolescents with CP had GMFM-66 scores comparable to those indicated in literature. The ICF-based assessment identified environmental barriers that might be considered for improvement in order to facilitate activities and participation.

  14. Reprogramming movements: Extraction of motor intentions from cortical ensemble activity when movement goals change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Ifft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit unwanted movements and change motor plans is essential for behaviors of advanced organisms. The neural mechanisms by which the primate motor system rejects undesired actions have received much attention during the last decade, but it is not well understood how this neural function could be utilized to improve the efficiency of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs. Here we employed linear discriminant analysis (LDA and a Wiener filter to extract motor plan transitions from the activity of ensembles of sensorimotor cortex neurons. Two rhesus monkeys, chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays in primary motor (M1 and primary sensory (S1 cortices, were overtrained to produce reaching movements with a joystick towards visual targets upon their presentation. Then, the behavioral task was modified to include a distracting target that flashed for 50, 150 or 250 ms (25% of trials each followed by the true target that appeared at a different screen location. In the remaining 25% of trials, the initial target stayed on the screen and was the target to be approached. M1 and S1 neuronal activity represented both the true and distracting targets, even for the shortest duration of the distracting event. This dual representation persisted both when the monkey initiated movements towards the distracting target and then made corrections and when they moved directly towards the second, true target. The Wiener filter effectively decoded the location of the true target, whereas the LDA classifier extracted the location of both targets from ensembles of 50-250 neurons. Based on these results, we suggest developing real-time BMIs that inhibit unwanted movements represented by brain activity while enacting the desired motor outcome concomitantly.

  15. Motor activation in literal and non literal sentences: does time matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCacciari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impressive amount of evidence showing involvement of the sensorimotor systems in language processing, important questions remain unsolved among which the relationship between non literal uses of language and sensorimotor activation. The literature did not yet provide a univocal answer on whether the comprehension of non literal, abstract motion sentences engages the same neural networks recruited for literal sentences. A previous TMS study using the same experimental materials of the present study showed activation for literal, fictive and metaphoric motion sentences but not for idiomatic ones. To evaluate whether this may depend on insufficient time for elaborating the idiomatic meaning, we conducted a behavioural experiment that used a sensibility judgment task performed by pressing a button either with a hand finger or with a foot. Motor activation is known to be sensitive to the action-congruency of the effector used for responding. Therefore, all other things being equal, significant differences between response emitted with an action-congruent or incongruent effector (foot vs. hand may be attributed to motor activation. Foot-related action verbs were embedded in sentences conveying literal motion, fictive motion, metaphoric motion or idiomatic motion. Mental sentences were employed as a control condition. Foot responses were significantly faster than finger responses but only in literal motion sentences. We hypothesize that motor activation may arise in early phases of comprehension processes (i.e. upon reading the verb for then decaying as a function of the strength of the semantic motion component of the verb.

  16. EMG analysis tuned for determining the timing and level of activation in different motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; Miara, Maria de Boef; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2011-08-01

    Recruitment patterns and activation dynamics of different motor units greatly influence the temporal pattern and magnitude of muscle force development, yet these features are not often considered in muscle models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the recruitment and activation dynamics of slow and fast motor units from electromyographic (EMG) recordings and twitch force profiles recorded directly from animal muscles. EMG and force data from the gastrocnemius muscles of seven goats were recorded during in vivo tendon-tap reflex and in situ nerve stimulation experiments. These experiments elicited EMG signals with significant differences in frequency content (p<0.001). The frequency content was characterized using wavelet and principal components analysis, and optimized wavelets with centre frequencies, 149.94 Hz and 323.13 Hz, were obtained. The optimized wavelets were used to calculate the EMG intensities and, with the reconstructed twitch force profiles, to derive transfer functions for slow and fast motor units that estimate the activation state of the muscle from the EMG signal. The resulting activation-deactivation time constants gave r values of 0.98-0.99 between the activation state and the force profiles. This work establishes a framework for developing improved muscle models that consider the intrinsic properties of slow and fast fibres within a mixed muscle, and that can more accurately predict muscle force output from EMG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  18. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2009-03-01

    Cross-sectional evidence has demonstrated the importance of motor skill proficiency to physical activity participation, but it is unknown whether skill proficiency predicts subsequent physical activity. In 2000, children's proficiency in object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) skills were assessed in a school intervention. In 2006/07, the physical activity of former participants was assessed using the Australian Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. Linear regressions examined relationships between the reported time adolescents spent participating in moderate-to-vigorous or organized physical activity and their childhood skill proficiency, controlling for gender and school grade. A logistic regression examined the probability of participating in vigorous activity. Of 481 original participants located, 297 (62%) consented and 276 (57%) were surveyed. All were in secondary school with females comprising 52% (144). Adolescent time in moderate-to-vigorous and organized activity was positively associated with childhood object control proficiency. Respective models accounted for 12.7% (p = .001), and 18.2% of the variation (p = .003). Object control proficient children became adolescents with a 10% to 20% higher chance of vigorous activity participation. Object control proficient children were more likely to become active adolescents. Motor skill development should be a key strategy in childhood interventions aiming to promote long-term physical activity.

  19. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants’ Object Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Sarah E.; Watkins, Rachel M.; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants’ behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant’s experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  20. Effector-independent brain activity during motor imagery of the upper and lower limbs: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2014-10-03

    We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the common brain region of motor imagery for the right and left upper and lower limbs. The subjects were instructed to repeatedly imagined extension and flexion of the right or left hands/ankles. Brain regions, which included the supplemental motor area (SMA), premotor cortex and parietal cortex, were activated during motor imagery. Conjunction analysis revealed that the left SMA and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/ventral premotor cortex (vPM) were commonly activated with motor imagery of the right hand, left hand, right foot, and left foot. This result suggests that these brain regions are activated during motor imagery in an effector independent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Motor unit activation patterns during concentric wrist flexion in humans with different muscle fibre composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, K; Christensen, H; Fallentin, N; Mizuno, M; Quistorff, B; Sjøgaard, G

    1998-10-01

    Muscle activity was recorded from the flexor carpi radialis muscle during static and dynamic-concentric wrist flexion in six subjects, who had exhibited large differences in histochemically identified muscle fibre composition. Motor unit recruitment patterns were identified by sampling 310 motor units and counting firing rates in pulses per second (pps). During concentric wrist flexion at 30% of maximal exercise intensity the mean firing rate was 27 (SD 13) pps. This was around twice the value of 12 (SD 5) pps recorded during sustained static contraction at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, despite a larger absolute force level during the static contraction. A similar pattern of higher firing rates during dynamic exercise was seen when concentric wrist flexion at 60% of maximal exercise intensity [30 (SD 14) pps] was compared with sustained static contraction at 60% of maximal voluntary contraction [19 (SD 8) pps]. The increase in dynamic exercise intensity was accomplished by recruitment of additional motor units rather than by increasing the firing rate as during static contractions. No difference in mean firing rates was found among subjects with different muscle fibre composition, who had previously exhibited marked differences in metabolic response during corresponding dynamic contractions. It was concluded that during submaximal dynamic contractions motor unit firing rate cannot be deduced from observations during static contractions and that muscle fibre composition may play a minor role.

  2. FM-CW radar sensors for vital signs and motor activity monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Adrian Postolache

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes on-going research on vital signs and motor activity monitoring based on radar sensors embedded in wheelchairs, walkers and crutches for in home rehabilitation. Embedded sensors, conditioning circuits, real-time platforms that perform data acquisition, auto-identification, primary data processing and data communication contribute to convert daily used objects in home rehabilitation into smart objects that can be accessed by caregivers during the training sessions through human–machine interfaces expressed by the new generation of smart phones or tablet computers running Android OS or iOS operating systems. The system enables the management of patients in home rehabilitation by providing more accurate and up-to-date information using pervasive computing of vital signs and motor activity records.

  3. Does Physical Self-Concept Mediate the Relationship between Motor Abilities and Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11–17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity. PMID:28045914

  4. Weaker Seniors Exhibit Motor Cortex Hypoexcitability and Impairments in Voluntary Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Taylor, Janet L; Hong, S Lee; Law, Timothy D; Russ, David W

    2015-09-01

    Weakness predisposes seniors to a fourfold increase in functional limitations. The potential for age-related degradation in nervous system function to contribute to weakness and physical disability has garnered much interest of late. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that weaker seniors have impairments in voluntary (neural) activation and increased indices of GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex, assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Young adults (N = 46; 21.2±0.5 years) and seniors (N = 42; 70.7±0.9 years) had their wrist flexion strength quantified along with voluntary activation capacity (by comparing voluntary and electrically evoked forces). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor-evoked potential amplitude and silent period duration during isometric contractions at 15% and 30% of maximum strength. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure intracortical facilitation and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition. The primary analysis compared seniors to young adults. The secondary analysis compared stronger seniors (top two tertiles) to weaker seniors (bottom tertile) based on strength relative to body weight. The most novel findings were that weaker seniors exhibited: (i) a 20% deficit in voluntary activation; (ii) ~20% smaller motor-evoked potentials during the 30% contraction task; and (iii) nearly twofold higher levels of long-interval intracortical inhibition under resting conditions. These findings indicate that weaker seniors exhibit significant impairments in voluntary activation, and that this impairment may be mechanistically associated with increased GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were recorded for 30 min from thenar muscles of nine men with chronic cervical SCI. Motor units fired for sustained periods (>10 min) at regular (coefficient of variation ≤ 0.15, CV, n =19 units) or irregular intervals (CV>0.15, n =14). Regularly firing units started and stopped firing independently suggesting that intrinsic motoneurone properties were important for recruitment and derecruitment. Recruitment (3.6 Hz, SD 1.2), maximal (10.2 Hz, SD 2.3, range: 7.5-15.4 Hz) and derecruitment frequencies were low (3.3 Hz, SD 1.6), as were firing rate increases after recruitment (~20 intervals in 3 s). Once active, firing often covaried, promoting the idea that units received common inputs.Half of the regularly firing units showed a very slow decline (>40 s) in discharge before derecruitment and had interspike intervals longer than their estimated after hyperpolarisation potential (AHP) duration (estimated by death rate and breakpoint analyses). The other units were derecruited more abruptly and had shorter estimated AHP durations. Overall, regularly firing units had longer estimated AHP durations and were weaker than irregularly firing units, suggesting they were lower threshold units. Sustained firing of units at regular rates may reflect activation of persistent inward currents, visible here in the absence of voluntary drive, whereas irregularly firing units may only respond to synaptic noise.

  6. Clinical application of fMRI: Activation of the motor cortex in an LIS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, H.; Popp, C.A.; Song, A.W.; Kennedy, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Patients suffering from the Locked-in Syndrome are completely paralyzed over their entire body, while their brain retains full consciousness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a method applied to identify those areas of the brain where activities of neurons indicate motor performance, and which might be electronically stimulated and used for controlling electronic aids expressing intended movements of the patient. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Subthalamic nucleus activity optimizes maximal effort motor responses in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The neural substrates that enable individuals to achieve their fastest and strongest motor responses have long been enigmatic. Importantly, characterization of such activities may inform novel therapeutic strategies for patients with hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Here, we ask whether the basal ganglia may play an important role, not only in the attainment of maximal motor responses under standard conditions but also in the setting of the performance enhancements known to be engendered by delivery of intense stimuli. To this end, we recorded local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted bilaterally in the subthalamic nuclei of 10 patients with Parkinson's disease, as they executed their fastest and strongest handgrips in response to a visual cue, which was accompanied by a brief 96-dB auditory tone on random trials. We identified a striking correlation between both theta/alpha (5-12 Hz) and high-gamma/high-frequency (55-375 Hz) subthalamic nucleus activity and force measures, which explained close to 70% of interindividual variance in maximal motor responses to the visual cue alone, when patients were ON their usual dopaminergic medication. Loud auditory stimuli were found to enhance reaction time and peak rate of development of force still further, independent of whether patients were ON or OFF l-DOPA, and were associated with increases in subthalamic nucleus power over a broad gamma range. However, the contribution of this broad gamma activity to the performance enhancements observed was only modest (≤13%). The results implicate frequency-specific subthalamic nucleus activities as substantial factors in optimizing an individual's peak motor responses at maximal effort of will, but much less so in the performance increments engendered by intense auditory stimuli.

  8. The Potential of Active Video Games (AVG to Improve Motor Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Šlosar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in video games and the related increase in sedentary lifestyles among adolescents has encouraged researchers to look for alternative strategies replacing the passive time in front of the screen with the active one. The solution was found in active video games (AVG, which require physical activity from the player. Given encouraging results about the impact of AVG on healthy lifestyle, subsequent studies were expanded to cover the area of motor abilities and sports performance. The purpose of our article is to determine whether the use of AVG can improve sport performance, bring progress in sports and rehabilitation.

  9. The effect of a physical activity intervention on preschoolers' fundamental motor skills - A cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasenius, Niko S; Grattan, Kimberly P; Harvey, Alysha L J; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Goldfield, Gary S; Adamo, Kristi B

    2018-07-01

    To assess the effect of a physical activity intervention delivered in the childcare centres (CC), with or without a parent-driven home physical activity component, on children's fundamental motor skills (FMS). Six-month 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Preschoolers were recruited from 18 licensed CC. CC were randomly assigned to a typical curriculum comparison group (COM), childcare intervention alone (CC), or childcare intervention with parental component (CC+HOME). FMS was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Linear mixed models were performed at the level of the individual while accounting for clustering. Raw locomotor skills score increased significantly in the CC group (mean difference=2.5 units, 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, 1.0-4.1, p0.05) between group differences were observed in the raw object control skills, sum of raw scores, or gross motor quotient. No significant sex differences were found in any of the measured outcomes. A physical activity intervention delivered in childcare with or without parents' involvement was effective in increasing locomotor skills in preschoolers. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RATING CHANGES INTRODUCED IN SOME CHARACTERISTIC MORPHOLOGICAL AND BASIC-SPECIFIC MOTOR SKILLS TO YOUNG ACTIVE AND INACTIVE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu

    2016-01-01

    The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...

  11. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van Beurden Eric; Morgan Philip J; Barnett Lisa M; Beard John R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competenc...

  12. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longi...

  13. Understanding physical (in-) activity, overweight, and obesity in childhood: Effects of congruence between physical self-concept and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Naul, R; Geukes, K

    2018-04-12

    Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity. Motor competence, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 3 rd grade and one year later in 4 th grade. Children's weight status was categorized based on WHO recommendations. Polynomial regression with Response surface analyses were conducted with a quasi-DIF approach examining moderating weight status effects. Analyses revealed that children with higher motor competence levels and higher self-perceptions show greater physical activity. Importantly, children who perceive their motor competence more accurately (compared to less) show more future physical activity. This effect is strong for underweight and overweight/obese children, but weak for normal weight children. This study indicates that an accurate self-perception of motor competence fosters future physical activity beyond single main effects, respectively. Hence, the promotion of actual motor competence should be linked with the respective development of accurate self-knowledge.

  14. Coordination of fictive motor activity in the larval zebrafish is generated by non-segmental mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Wiggin

    Full Text Available The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits.

  15. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  16. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  17. Prognostic value of cortically induced motor evoked activity by TMS in chronic stroke: Caveats from a revealing single clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amengual Julià L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand. Case presentation Multimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP, and Cortical Silent period (CSP as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST. Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG activity (indexed by CSP demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations. Conclusions The potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  18. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Laughlin, David D; Nguyen, Timothy V

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control-High Activity; Self-Control-Low Activity; Yoked-High Activity; and Yoked-Low Activity. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be "good" trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after "good" trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  19. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  20. Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Shumpei; Ando, Hiroshi; Masuda, Yuji; Kitagawa, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) is a debilitating condition. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the development of neuropathic pain. Recently, glial cells have been shown to play a key pathogenetic role. Nerve injury leads to an immune response near the site of injury. Satellite glial cells are activated in the peripheral ganglia. Various neural and immune mediators, released at the central terminals of primary afferents, lead to the sensitization of postsynaptic neurons and the activation of glia. The activated glia, in turn, release pro-inflammatory factors, further sensitizing the neurons, and resulting in central sensitization. Recently, we observed the involvement of glia in the alteration of orofacial motor activity in NOP. Microglia and astroglia were activated in the trigeminal sensory and motor nuclei, in parallel with altered motor functions and a decreased pain threshold. A microglial blocker attenuated the reduction in pain threshold, reduced the number of activated microglia, and restored motor activity. We also found an involvement of the astroglial glutamate–glutamine shuttle in the trigeminal motor nucleus in the alteration of the jaw reflex. Neuron–glia crosstalk thus plays an important role in the development of pain and altered motor activity in NOP. PMID:28954391

  1. Neuron-Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Zakir; Unno, Shumpei; Ando, Hiroshi; Masuda, Yuji; Kitagawa, Junichi

    2017-09-26

    Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) is a debilitating condition. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the development of neuropathic pain. Recently, glial cells have been shown to play a key pathogenetic role. Nerve injury leads to an immune response near the site of injury. Satellite glial cells are activated in the peripheral ganglia. Various neural and immune mediators, released at the central terminals of primary afferents, lead to the sensitization of postsynaptic neurons and the activation of glia. The activated glia, in turn, release pro-inflammatory factors, further sensitizing the neurons, and resulting in central sensitization. Recently, we observed the involvement of glia in the alteration of orofacial motor activity in NOP. Microglia and astroglia were activated in the trigeminal sensory and motor nuclei, in parallel with altered motor functions and a decreased pain threshold. A microglial blocker attenuated the reduction in pain threshold, reduced the number of activated microglia, and restored motor activity. We also found an involvement of the astroglial glutamate-glutamine shuttle in the trigeminal motor nucleus in the alteration of the jaw reflex. Neuron-glia crosstalk thus plays an important role in the development of pain and altered motor activity in NOP.

  2. Gender and motor competence affects perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes among 14 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, B; Parker, H E; Rose, E; Larkin, D

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of the effects of physical activity could facilitate or deter future participation. This study explored the differences between gender and motor competence at 14 years of age in the perceptions of likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes. The sample comprised 1582 14-year-old adolescents (769 girls) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Four motor competence groups were formed from a standardized Neuromuscular Developmental Index score (McCarron 1997). Perceptions of the likelihood and the importance of 15 physical activity outcomes were measured by a questionnaire developed for the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey (Booth et al. 1997). Gender (two) × motor competence (four) analyses of variance and Tukey post hoc were conducted on outcome scores (P importance of physical activity outcomes within competition, social friendships and injury domains. Motor competence was significant in the perceived likelihood of physical health (P importance was perceived for academic outcomes for 14 year olds categorized with low compared with high motor competence (P importance. Although level of motor competence at 14 years affected the perceived likelihood of health, social and fun outcomes from future participation in physical activity, adolescents highly valued these outcomes, whereas gender affected competition and winning, outcomes that were less valued. Physical activity that promotes these key and valued outcomes may encourage young people's ongoing involvement in physical activity, especially for those at risk of low participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.

  4. MPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OBESE CHILDREN IN RELATION TO MOTOR SKILLS A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Sundaram Subramanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and is associated with increased cardio vascular mortality and morbidity in adult life. In children, obesity correlates strongly with a progressive reduction in the level of physical activity and changes in food habits. Methods: This study is a qualitative research study. A secondary data collection technique was utilized and conducted through a search of articles published between 2005 and 2014 in PubMed and Google scholar databases. The objective of the present study is to provide a systemic review of the available literature and outline the factors in early life that are associated with an increased risk of obesity in children there by leading to poor gross motor skill performance with the help of Anthropometric assessment, Body composition and Motor skills proficiency. Results: Importantly recent studies have demonstrated that exercise training improves vascular endothelial function and stimulation of pressure receptors leading to increased vagal activity in obese children. The current literature highlights the importance of adding exercise programs to clinics, schools and families for the physical and psychological wellbeing of children. Conclusion: Overall findings from the present review showed that normal children with physical exercise are more superior in motor skills compared to other peers. Results of the previous studies indicated that normal children’s are more efficient in bilateral coordination in greater balancing, efficient upper limb coordination and greater strength

  5. [Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and the related esophageal motor activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hyo; Hong, Su Jin

    2012-03-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is defined as LES relaxation without a swallow. TLESRs are observed in both of the normal individuals and the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). However, TLESR is widely considered as the major mechanism of the GERD. The new equipments such as high resolution manometry and impedance pH study is helped to understand of TLESR and the related esophageal motor activities. The strong longitudinal muscle contraction was observed during development of TLESR. Most of TLESRs are terminated by TLESR related motor events such as primary peristalsis and secondary contractions. The majority of TLESRs are associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contraction is mainly associated with liquid reflux during recumbent position and UES relaxation predominantly related with air reflux during upright position. The frequency of TLESR in GERD patients seems to be not different compared to normal individuals, but the refluxate of GERD patients tend to be more acidic during TLESR.

  6. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of source level neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Shaun; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Kraeutner, Sarah; Tremblay, Antoine; Little, Graham; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) may be effective as an adjunct to physical practice for motor skill acquisition. For example, MI is emerging as an effective treatment in stroke neurorehabilitation. As in physical practice, the repetitive activation of neural pathways during MI can drive short- and long-term brain changes that underlie functional recovery. However, the lack of feedback about MI performance may be a factor limiting its effectiveness. The provision of feedback about MI-related brain activity may overcome this limitation by providing the opportunity for individuals to monitor their own performance of this endogenous process. We completed a controlled study to isolate neurofeedback as the factor driving changes in MI-related brain activity across repeated sessions. Eighteen healthy participants took part in 3 sessions comprised of both actual and imagined performance of a button press task. During MI, participants in the neurofeedback group received source level feedback based on activity from the left and right sensorimotor cortex obtained using magnetoencephalography. Participants in the control group received no neurofeedback. MI-related brain activity increased in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the imagined movement across sessions in the neurofeedback group, but not in controls. Task performance improved across sessions but did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that the provision of neurofeedback during MI allows healthy individuals to modulate regional brain activity. This finding has the potential to improve the effectiveness of MI as a tool in neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-09-29

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved in Parkinson's disease, but find no evidence that there is an increased sensitivity to the effects of object affordances on voluntary action.

  8. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved in Parkinson's disease, but find no evidence that there is an increased sensitivity to the effects of object affordances on voluntary action. PMID:19616073

  9. Calorigenic effect of adrenaline in rats under conditions of restricted motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, L.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, it was demonstrated that long term restricted motor activity in rats induces a decrease in body weight, an increase in release of adrenaline, and a decrease in the release of noradrenaline with the urine, as well as a reduction in activity of the thymus gland and level of thyroxin in the blood. At the same time, a decrease was found in the internal body temperature that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of metabolism in the state of rest. An investigation is presented which attempts to clarify whether the calorigenic effect of adrenaline under conditions of increased metabolism in the period of immobility is exposed to changes.

  10. THE MODEL OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.

  11. Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, A; Pesola, A; Havu, M; Sääkslahti, A; Finni, T

    2014-04-01

    Adequate motor skills are essential for children participating in age-related physical activities, and gross motor skills may play an important role for maintaining sufficient level of physical activity (PA) during life course. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and PA in children when PA was analyzed by both metabolic- and neuromuscular-based methods. Gross motor skills (KTK--Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder and APM inventory--manipulative skill test) of 84 children aged 5-8 years (53 preschoolers, 28 girls; 31 primary schoolers, 18 girls) were measured, and accelerometer-derived PA was analyzed using in parallel metabolic counts and neuromuscular impact methods. The gross motor skills were associated with moderate-to-high neuromuscular impacts, PA of vigorous metabolic intensity, and mean level of PA in primary school girls (0.5 motor skills (0.4 motor skills and PA stressing both metabolic and neuromuscular systems in children. Furthermore, PA highly stressing neuromuscular system interacts with gross motor proficiency in girls especially. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  13. Motor Performance as Predictor of Physical Activity in Children: The CHAMPS Study-DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina; Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with several health benefits in children, and PA habits developed in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. PA may be the foundation of a healthy lifestyle, and motor performance has been shown to be positively associated with PA in cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal relation between motor performance and PA in a 3-yr follow-up study. Longitudinal analyses were performed using data from 673 participants (44% boys, 6-12 yr old) who had been included in the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School study-DK. Baseline motor performance tests consisted of vertical jump, shuttle run, hand grip strength, backward balance, precision throw, and cardiovascular fitness. Composite z-scores were generated to express health-related fitness and performance-related fitness. PA was measured by accelerometer at baseline and at 3-yr follow-up and was expressed as a percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Cardiovascular fitness, vertical jump, health-related fitness, and performance-related fitness showed significant positive associations with 3-yr follow-up measures of PA in both sexes. Furthermore, shuttle run showed significant inverse associations with follow-up measures of PA for both sexes. Cardiorespiratory fitness, shuttle run, vertical jump, health-related fitness, and performance-related fitness were significantly associated with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA at 3-yr follow-up. The clinical relevance of the results indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness and shuttle run in childhood may be important determinants of PA in adolescence.

  14. [CHANGES IN THE NUMBER OF NEURONS IN THE MOTOR CORTEX OF RATS AND THEIR LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE AGE ASPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piavchenko, G A; Shmarkova, L I; Nozdrin, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using Laboras hardware-software complex, which is a system of automatic registration of behavioral reactions, the locomotor activity 1-, 8- and 16-month-old male rats (12 animals in each group) was recorded followed by counting the number of neuron cell bodies of in the layer V of the motor cortex in Nissl stained slides. It was found that the number of neurons in the motor cortex varied in different age groups. Maximal number of neurons was observed in 8-month-old animals. Motor activity was found to correlate with the number of neurons.

  15. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Ward

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.

  16. Environmental physiology: effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacher, G.A.; Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Obermeyer, W.; Russell, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation. So far, mice have been exposed to fast neutron-gamma radiation or to the chemical effluents of an atmospheric pressure experimental fluidized-bed combustor. The physiological parameters measured included: O 2 consumption; CO 2 production; motor activity; and deep body temperatures

  17. Motor association cortex activity in Parkinson's disease. A functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Yukiko

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the activation of motor association cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and control subjects during performed hand movements. There were 26 patients with PD (12 patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II, 14 patients with stage III) and 8 control subjects. Functional imaging was performed using a 1.5 tesla MRI system equipped with a single-shot, echo-planar pulse sequence. The significant signal changes were observed within the primary sensorimotor area, the supplementary motor area (SMA), and the parietal association area in both PD and control subjects. In PD subjects, the SMA was less activated than in control subjects; there were significant differences in the number of pixels activated in SMA between control and Yahr III group (p<0.01), and between Yahr I-II and Yahr III group (p<0.01). Our results demonstrated that movement related cerebral activity in the SMA is reduced in PD subjects, consistent with previously published data using other methods. It is well known from anatomical studies that one of the major cortical outputs of the basal ganglia is the SMA. This may explain the hypoactivation of the SMA in PD. Studies using fMRI provide a promising method not only for localizing cortical activation related to voluntary movements but also for investigating pathophysiology of movement disorders. (author)

  18. Localization of Brain Electrical Activity Sources and Hemodynamic Activity Foci during Motor Imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Mokienko, O.; Bobrov, P.; Chernikova, L.; Konovalov, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 0362-1197 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain computer interface * independent component analysis * EEG pattern classification * motor imagery * inverse EEG problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function using diffusion tensor tractography in acute hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients.

  20. Do Perceptions of Competence Mediate The Relationship Between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Physical Activity Levels of Children in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jeff R; Naylor, Patti J; Cook, Ryan; Temple, Viviene A

    2015-07-01

    Perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between motor skill proficiency and physical activity among older children and adolescents. This study examined kindergarten children's perceptions of physical competence as a mediator of the relationship between motor skill proficiency as a predictor variable and physical activity levels as the outcome variable; and also with physical activity as a predictor and motor skill proficiency as the outcome. Participants were 116 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, 58% boys) from 10 schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was monitored through accelerometry. Perceptions of physical competence were measured using The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, and the relationships between these variables were examined using a model of mediation. The direct path between object control skills and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significant and object control skills predicted perceived physical competence. However, perceived competence did not mediate the relationship between object control skills and MVPA. The significant relationship between motor proficiency and perceptions of competence did not in turn influence kindergarten children's participation in physical activity. These findings support concepts of developmental differences in the structure of the self-perception system.

  1. [Local brain activity in different motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease with fMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya'nan; Zhang, Jiarong; Chen, Biao; Wu, Tao

    2015-02-17

    To explore the changes of local brain activity in motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 60 idiopathic PD and 30 age- and gender-matched normal controls were examined with resting-state fMRI from January 2013 to March 2014. All subjects gave their written informed consent for the study. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to measure local brain activity. The PD patients were divided into two groups of tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) (n = 30 each). All subjects gave their written in formed consent for the study.One-way ANOVA and post-hoc t-test were performed to detect the differences of local brain activity between PD and normal subjects. And the correlations were examined between ALFF, scores and levodopa dose. Compared with normal subjects, the TD group showed increased activity in bilateral cerebellums (-37, -47, -38), thalamus (-18, -17,0), pons (-3, -23, -37) and left precentral gyrus (-41, -30, 46) versus decreased activity in bilateral frontal lobes (-13, 69, 6), temporal lobes (-42, 18, -21), left insula (-32, 22, 2) and left anterior cingulated (-7, 32, -5). The PIGD group showed increased activity in right postcentral gyrus (63, -18, 39) and decreased activity in bilateral putamens (-24, 12, 3), pre-supplementary motor area (10, 10, 58), frontal lobes (15, -15, 57), temporal lobes (-39, 18, -3) and left insula (-29, 20, 11). Compared with PIGD, the TD group showed increased activity in temporal lobes, but decreased activity in frontal lobes. Additionally, ALFF in bilateral cerebellums and frontal lobes was positively correlated with TD scores while ALFF in left precentral gyrus, bilateral putamens and temporal lobes negatively correlated with TD scores. ALFF in bilateral frontal lobes and left temporal lobe was positively correlated with PIGD scores.However, in right postcentral gyrus and bilateral putamens, ALFF was

  2. Electronic bypass of spinal lesions: activation of lower motor neurons directly driven by cortical neural signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Alam, Monzurul; Guo, Shanshan; Ting, K H; He, Jufang

    2014-07-03

    Lower motor neurons in the spinal cord lose supraspinal inputs after complete spinal cord injury, leading to a loss of volitional control below the injury site. Extensive locomotor training with spinal cord stimulation can restore locomotion function after spinal cord injury in humans and animals. However, this locomotion is non-voluntary, meaning that subjects cannot control stimulation via their natural "intent". A recent study demonstrated an advanced system that triggers a stimulator using forelimb stepping electromyographic patterns to restore quadrupedal walking in rats with spinal cord transection. However, this indirect source of "intent" may mean that other non-stepping forelimb activities may false-trigger the spinal stimulator and thus produce unwanted hindlimb movements. We hypothesized that there are distinguishable neural activities in the primary motor cortex during treadmill walking, even after low-thoracic spinal transection in adult guinea pigs. We developed an electronic spinal bridge, called "Motolink", which detects these neural patterns and triggers a "spinal" stimulator for hindlimb movement. This hardware can be head-mounted or carried in a backpack. Neural data were processed in real-time and transmitted to a computer for analysis by an embedded processor. Off-line neural spike analysis was conducted to calculate and preset the spike threshold for "Motolink" hardware. We identified correlated activities of primary motor cortex neurons during treadmill walking of guinea pigs with spinal cord transection. These neural activities were used to predict the kinematic states of the animals. The appropriate selection of spike threshold value enabled the "Motolink" system to detect the neural "intent" of walking, which triggered electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and induced stepping-like hindlimb movements. We present a direct cortical "intent"-driven electronic spinal bridge to restore hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal cord injury.

  3. Effect of a 12-Week Physical Activity Program on Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on gross motor skill development in children from low-income families. Participants were 1,460 school-aged children (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years; 730 girls, 730 boys) recruited from three schools receiving U.S. governmental financial assistance. Students were recruited from grades K-6. CSPAP was implemented over one semester during the 2014-2015 school year. Select gross motor skill items were assessed during each student's physical education class at baseline and at a 12-week follow-up using the Test for Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2). Each student's TGMD-2 score was converted to a percentage of the total possible score. A 7 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance test with repeated measures was employed to examine the effects of age, sex, and time on TGMD-2 percent scores, adjusting for clustering within the data structure. There were greater TGMD-2 percent scores at follow-up compared with baseline (82.4% vs. 72.6%, mean difference = 9.8%, p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.67), and greater improvements were seen in younger children compared with older children (mean difference of change = 4.0%-7.5%, p < .01, Cohen's d = 0.30-0.55).

  4. Frontal infraslow activity marks the motor spasms of anti-LGI1 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Richard; Steriade, Claude; Chen, Robert; Andrade, Danielle

    2018-01-01

    The clinical and electrographic features of seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis are distinct from those seen in other autoimmune encephalitides or non-encephalitic epilepsies. One electroclinical phenomenon specific to the condition consists of lateralized motor spasms, known as faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). An electrodecremental pattern overriding a "DC shift" has been described as the EEG correlate of these spasms. We sought to further characterize this pre-spasm infraslow activity (ISA). Continuous video-EEG recordings were acquired in four patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis: each had frequent motor spasms/FBDS as well as frequent subclinical temporal lobe seizures (an independent indicator of anti-LGI1 encephalitis). In artifact-free recordings obtained using clinical amplifiers equipped with a low frequency analog filter of 0.07 Hz, ISA reliably preceded clinical onset of the motor spasms by ∼1.2 s and preceded the electrodecremental pattern by ∼700 ms. Pre-spasm ISA was invariably recorded contralateral to FBDS, with a voltage topographic maximum over the mid frontal region. The pre-movement ISA differed from the Bereitschaftspotential in timing and topography and was an order of magnitude higher in amplitude. Sporadic FBDS that occurred in association with temporal lobe seizures were preceded by identical ISA. The motor spasms of anti-LGI1 encephalitis are preceded by frontal ISA. A paucity of data at the microscale level precludes mechanistic explanations at the macroscale level, or even determination of the relative contributions of neurons and glia in the generation of the ISA. Although fundamental cellular mechanisms await elucidation, the pre-spasm ISA represents a singular and readily identifiable EEG response to this autoimmune brain disorder. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of sensory-motor activity during speech in first and second languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J; Wise, Richard J S; Dhanjal, Novraj S; Leech, Robert

    2011-07-01

    A foreign language (L2) learned after childhood results in an accent. This functional neuroimaging study investigated speech in L2 as a sensory-motor skill. The hypothesis was that there would be an altered response in auditory and somatosensory association cortex, specifically the planum temporale and parietal operculum, respectively, when speaking in L2 relative to L1, independent of rate of speaking. These regions were selected for three reasons. First, an influential computational model proposes that these cortices integrate predictive feedforward and postarticulatory sensory feedback signals during articulation. Second, these adjacent regions (known as Spt) have been identified as a "sensory-motor interface" for speech production. Third, probabilistic anatomical atlases exist for these regions, to ensure the analyses are confined to sensory-motor differences between L2 and L1. The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and participants produced connected overt speech. The first hypothesis was that there would be greater activity in the planum temporale and the parietal operculum when subjects spoke in L2 compared with L1, one interpretation being that there is less efficient postarticulatory sensory monitoring when speaking in the less familiar L2. The second hypothesis was that this effect would be observed in both cerebral hemispheres. Although Spt is considered to be left-lateralized, this is based on studies of covert speech, whereas overt speech is accompanied by sensory feedback to bilateral auditory and somatosensory cortices. Both hypotheses were confirmed by the results. These findings provide the basis for future investigations of sensory-motor aspects of language learning using serial fMRI studies.

  6. Robot-assisted motor activation monitored by time-domain optical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, O.; Wabnitz, H.; Schmid, S.; Steingräber, R.; Schmidt, H.; Krüger, J.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Robot-assisted motor rehabilitation proved to be an effective supplement to conventional hand-to-hand therapy in stroke patients. In order to analyze and understand motor learning and performance during rehabilitation it is desirable to develop a monitor to provide objective measures of the corresponding brain activity at the rehabilitation progress. We used a portable time-domain near-infrared reflectometer to monitor the hemodynamic brain response to distal upper extremity activities. Four healthy volunteers performed two different robot-assisted wrist/forearm movements, flexion-extension and pronation-supination in comparison with an unassisted squeeze ball exercise. A special headgear with four optical measurement positions to include parts of the pre- and postcentral gyrus provided a good overlap with the expected activation areas. Data analysis based on variance of time-of-flight distributions of photons through tissue was chosen to provide a suitable representation of intracerebral signals. In all subjects several of the four detection channels showed a response. In some cases indications were found of differences in localization of the activated areas for the various tasks.

  7. Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical Activity: 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Noreen C

    2017-05-01

    Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20-59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (ptravel showed only modest declines across age groups and, for men aged 20-29 years, varied from 10.9 (95% CI=10.0, 11.7) in 2003 to 9.7 (95% CI=8.7, 10.8) in 2014. Reduced motor vehicle fatalities are a public health co-benefit of decreased driving, especially for male millennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Model for a flexible motor memory based on a self-active recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Kim Joris; Wagner, Heiko; Prieske, Markus; de Lussanet, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Using recent recurrent network architecture based on the reservoir computing approach, we propose and numerically simulate a model that is focused on the aspects of a flexible motor memory for the storage of elementary movement patterns into the synaptic weights of a neural network, so that the patterns can be retrieved at any time by simple static commands. The resulting motor memory is flexible in that it is capable to continuously modulate the stored patterns. The modulation consists in an approximately linear inter- and extrapolation, generating a large space of possible movements that have not been learned before. A recurrent network of thousand neurons is trained in a manner that corresponds to a realistic exercising scenario, with experimentally measured muscular activations and with kinetic data representing proprioceptive feedback. The network is "self-active" in that it maintains recurrent flow of activation even in the absence of input, a feature that resembles the "resting-state activity" found in the human and animal brain. The model involves the concept of "neural outsourcing" which amounts to the permanent shifting of computational load from higher to lower-level neural structures, which might help to explain why humans are able to execute learned skills in a fluent and flexible manner without the need for attention to the details of the movement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  10. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  11. The Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Participation in Organized Sports and Active Recreation in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Field

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor skill proficiency in middle childhood is associated with higher physical activity levels at that age and is predictive of adolescent physical activity levels. Much of the previous research in this area has used accelerometry in determining these relationships, and as a result, little is known about what physical activities the children are engaging in. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine rates of participation in physical activities, the relationships between motor proficiency and how often children participate, and if there were gender-based differences in participation, motor skills, or the relationship between these variables. Participants were 400 boys and girls (Mean age = 9 years 6 months in grade 4. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 and physical activity participation was measured using the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared analyses, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used to examine activity patterns and whether these patterns differed by gender. Correlation coefficients were used to estimate the relationships between fundamental motor skill proficiency and participation. The boys and girls participated in many of the same activities, but girls were more likely to participate in most of the informal physical activities. More boys than girls participated in team sports, boys participated more frequently in team sports, and the boys’ object control and locomotor skill proficiency were significantly associated with participation in team sports. There were some significant associations between motor skills and participation in specific activities; however it is not clear if participation is developing skillfulness or those who are more skilled are engaging and persisting with particular activities.

  12. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luciana G; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Chris G; Hodges, Paul W; Nicholas, Michael; Tonkin, Lois; McAuley, James H; Stafford, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week) and function (patient-specific functional scale) at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415 PMID:18454877

  14. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuley James H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week and function (patient-specific functional scale at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415

  15. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-03-09

    Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.

  16. A Delta Operator Approach for the Discrete-Time Active Disturbance Rejection Control on Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cortés-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of active disturbance rejection control of induction motors is tackled by means of a generalized PI observer based discrete-time control, using the delta operator approach as the methodology of analyzing the sampled time process. In this scheme, model uncertainties and external disturbances are included in a general additive disturbance input which is to be online estimated and subsequently rejected via the controller actions. The observer carries out the disturbance estimation, thus reducing the complexity of the controller design. The controller efficiency is tested via some experimental results, performing a trajectory tracking task under load variations.

  17. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. ...

  18. Cervical spinal demyelination with ethidium bromide impairs respiratory (phrenic) activity and forelimb motor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Punzo, Antonio M.; Duncan, Ian D.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Johnson, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Although respiratory complications are a major cause of morbidity/mortality in many neural injuries or diseases, little is known concerning mechanisms whereby deficient myelin impairs breathing, or how patients compensate for such changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that respiratory and forelimb motor function are impaired in a rat model of focal dorsolateral spinal demyelination (ethidium bromide, EB). Ventilation, phrenic nerve activity and horizontal ladder walking were performed 7-14 days post-C2 injection of EB or vehicle (SHAM). EB caused dorsolateral demyelination at C2-C3 followed by signficant spontaneous remyelination at 14 days post-EB. Although ventilation did not differ between groups, ipsilateral integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude was significantly reduced versus SHAM during chemoreceptor activation at 7 days post-EB but recovered by 14 days. The ratio of ipsi- to contralateral phrenic nerve amplitude correlated with cross-sectional lesion area. This ratio was significantly reduced 7 days post-EB versus SHAM during baseline conditions, and versus SHAM and 14 day groups during chemoreceptor activation. Limb function ipsilateral to EB was impaired 7 days post-EB and partially recovered by 14 days post-EB. EB provides a reversible model of focal, spinal demyelination, and may be a useful model to study mechanisms of functional impairment and recovery via motor plasticity, or the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions to reduce severity or duration of disease. PMID:23159317

  19. Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during a simple motor task in healthy individuals: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goozee, Rhianna; O'Daly, Owen; Handley, Rowena; Reis Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; McQueen, Grant; Hubbard, Kathryn; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Reinders, Antje A T S; Dazzan, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The dopaminergic system plays a key role in motor function and motor abnormalities have been shown to be a specific feature of psychosis. Due to their dopaminergic action, antipsychotic drugs may be expected to modulate motor function, but the precise effects of these drugs on motor function remain unclear. We carried out a within-subject, double-blind, randomized study of the effects of aripiprazole, haloperidol and placebo on motor function in 20 healthy men. For each condition, motor performance on an auditory-paced task was investigated. We entered maps of neural activation into a random effects general linear regression model to investigate motor function main effects. Whole-brain imaging revealed a significant treatment effect in a distributed network encompassing posterior orbitofrontal/anterior insula cortices, and the inferior temporal and postcentral gyri. Post-hoc comparison of treatments showed neural activation after aripiprazole did not differ significantly from placebo in either voxel-wise or region of interest analyses, with the results above driven primarily by haloperidol. We also observed a simple main effect of haloperidol compared with placebo, with increased task-related recruitment of posterior cingulate and precentral gyri. Furthermore, region of interest analyses revealed greater activation following haloperidol compared with placebo in the precentral and post-central gyri, and the putamen. These diverse modifications in cortical motor activation may relate to the different pharmacological profiles of haloperidol and aripiprazole, although the specific mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. Evaluating healthy individuals can allow investigation of the effects of different antipsychotics on cortical activation, independently of either disease-related pathology or previous treatment. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1833-1845, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  1. Increased activity of pre-motor network does not change the excitability of motoneurons during protracted scratch initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2013-01-01

    of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace-spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons...... and pre-motor network activity in the time interval from the start of sensory stimulation until the onset of scratch activity. Our results suggest that increased activity in the pre-motor network facilitates the onset of scratch episodes but does not change the excitability of motoneurons at the onset...... of scratching....

  2. Electrocorticographic activity over sensorimotor cortex and motor function in awake behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Chadwick B; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex exerts both short-term and long-term control over the spinal reflex pathways that serve motor behaviors. Better understanding of this control could offer new possibilities for restoring function after central nervous system trauma or disease. We examined the impact of ongoing sensorimotor cortex (SMC) activity on the largely monosynaptic pathway of the H-reflex, the electrical analog of the spinal stretch reflex. In 41 awake adult rats, we measured soleus electromyographic (EMG) activity, the soleus H-reflex, and electrocorticographic activity over the contralateral SMC while rats were producing steady-state soleus EMG activity. Principal component analysis of electrocorticographic frequency spectra before H-reflex elicitation consistently revealed three frequency bands: μβ (5-30 Hz), low γ (γ1; 40-85 Hz), and high γ (γ2; 100-200 Hz). Ongoing (i.e., background) soleus EMG amplitude correlated negatively with μβ power and positively with γ1 power. In contrast, H-reflex size correlated positively with μβ power and negatively with γ1 power, but only when background soleus EMG amplitude was included in the linear model. These results support the hypothesis that increased SMC activation (indicated by decrease in μβ power and/or increase in γ1 power) simultaneously potentiates the H-reflex by exciting spinal motoneurons and suppresses it by decreasing the efficacy of the afferent input. They may help guide the development of new rehabilitation methods and of brain-computer interfaces that use SMC activity as a substitute for lost or impaired motor outputs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. The Relationship between Actual Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency, Perceived Motor Skill Confidence and Competence, and Physical Activity in 8–12-Year-Old Irish Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlagh Farmer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between actual fundamental motor skill (FMS proficiency, perceived motor confidence and competence, and physical activity (PA among female children (n= 160; mean age = 10.69 ± 1.40 years. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2 was used to assess seven FMSs (locomotor, object-control, and stability. Motor confidence and competence were assessed using a valid skill-specific scale, and a modified version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and classified as low, moderate, and high active. One-way and two-way ANOVAs (post-hoc honest significant difference (HSD and correlation coefficients were used to analyse the data. Findings indicate that the majority of youth (71.8% were not meeting the minimum 60 min of daily PA recommended for health, and that 98.1% did not achieve the FMS proficiency expected for their age. While there were high levels of perceived physical self-confidence (PSC reported within FMS skill-specific tasks, there was no significant correlation observed between actual FMS proficiency and perceived PSC among the cohort. Results show that low, moderately, and highly active female participants differ significantly in terms of their overall FMS (p = 0.03 and locomotor (LOC control scores (p = 0.03. Results from a two-way between-groups analysis of variance also revealed no statistically significant interaction effect between PA grouping and physical performance self-concept (PPSC on overall FMS proficiency levels. Results of a multiple linear regression indicate that perceived PSC is a significant predictor (beta = 0.183 of participants’ overall PA levels. Data show a need for targeting low levels of PA, and low FMS proficiency in female youth, and for developing interventions aiming to enhance perceived PSC levels.

  4. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  5. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  6. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastrointestinal motor activity and transport: Oesophagus and stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacher, G.; Bergmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    For the recognition and characterisation of oesophageal motor disorders, manometry represents the most reliable tool but yields no information on bolus transport. The transport can be quantitated by radionuclide techniques. The patient is positioned supine beneath a gamma-camera and instructed to swallow a radiolabelled bolus in a single gulp. Using a marker over the cricoid and the activity in the stomach as landmarks, regions of interest are drawn representing the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus and the gastric fundus. Activity-time curves enable one to recognise the clearance patterns in these regions. In combination, manometric and radionuclide transit studies recognise a higher number of motor disorders than either procedure alone. Radionuclide methods also are the most reliable and sensitive to quantitate gastric emptying. Procedure, meal size and composition as well as patient position must be standardised and correction techniques applied. The emptying of solid and liquid meal constituents can be evaluated concomitantly. Solids start to empty only after a lag phase of varying extent. With semi-solid meals, which are emptied at the same rate as solid meals of identical composition in the postlag phase, the recording time can be considerably shorter. Besides gastric emptying, the amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be recorded using serial images of short frame time and specially devised analytic techniques. (orig.)

  7. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastrointestinal motor activity and transport: Oesophagus and stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacher, G.; Bergmann, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Psychiatrische Klinik Vienna Univ. (Austria). 1. Chirurgische Klinik Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria))

    1992-09-01

    For the recognition and characterisation of oesophageal motor disorders, manometry represents the most reliable tool but yields no information on bolus transport. The transport can be quantitated by radionuclide techniques. The patient is positioned supine beneath a gamma-camera and instructed to swallow a radiolabelled bolus in a single gulp. Using a marker over the cricoid and the activity in the stomach as landmarks, regions of interest are drawn representing the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus and the gastric fundus. Activity-time curves enable one to recognise the clearance patterns in these regions. In combination, manometric and radionuclide transit studies recognise a higher number of motor disorders than either procedure alone. Radionuclide methods also are the most reliable and sensitive to quantitate gastric emptying. Procedure, meal size and composition as well as patient position must be standardised and correction techniques applied. The emptying of solid and liquid meal constituents can be evaluated concomitantly. Solids start to empty only after a lag phase of varying extent. With semi-solid meals, which are emptied at the same rate as solid meals of identical composition in the postlag phase, the recording time can be considerably shorter. Besides gastric emptying, the amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be recorded using serial images of short frame time and specially devised analytic techniques. (orig.).

  8. Neural activation and functional connectivity during motor imagery of bimanual everyday actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J Szameitat

    Full Text Available Bimanual actions impose intermanual coordination demands not present during unimanual actions. We investigated the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these coordination demands in motor imagery (MI of everyday actions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. For this, 17 participants imagined unimanual actions with the left and right hand as well as bimanual actions while undergoing fMRI. A univariate fMRI analysis showed no reliable cortical activations specific to bimanual MI, indicating that intermanual coordination demands in MI are not associated with increased neural processing. A functional connectivity analysis based on psychophysiological interactions (PPI, however, revealed marked increases in connectivity between parietal and premotor areas within and between hemispheres. We conclude that in MI of everyday actions intermanual coordination demands are primarily met by changes in connectivity between areas and only moderately, if at all, by changes in the amount of neural activity. These results are the first characterization of the neuroanatomical correlates of bimanual coordination demands in MI. Our findings support the assumed equivalence of overt and imagined actions and highlight the differences between uni- and bimanual actions. The findings extent our understanding of the motor system and may aid the development of clinical neurorehabilitation approaches based on mental practice.

  9. A study on the activation of supplementary motor area in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Park, Hark Hoon; Oh, Hee Sul; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Jin Young

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the activated zone of the supplementary motor area through motor and sensory stimulation of both hands by fMRI. Twenty-four healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 20 to 30 years, served as subjects. They were divided into four groups and performed one of the four activation tasks : complex movement, fine movement, touch sensation, heat sensation. Complex movement consisted of a finger task in which subjects flexed and extended all fingers repeatedly in union, without the fingers touching each other(group I). Fine movement involved a thumb task in which subjects flexed and extended the thumb repeatedly without touching the other fingers(group II). Touch sensation consisted of a palm task in which another person repeatedly drew a circle on the subject's palm (group III), and heat sensation involved of a palm task in which subject's palm was touched by another person with a 40 deg C water-bag (group IV). F-MRI was conducted on a commercial 1.5-T scanner equipped with echo-planar imaging. After overlapping images were obtained using a Z-s-core, and the mean/curve in the MR devices was evaluated, the activated zone of the supplementary motor area was also evalvated. Thirty-two of 48 images(20 of the 24 men) revealed activated zones in the supplementary motor area. In group I, activation was observed in five subjects, in three of whom it was bilateral (contralateral activation). In group II, activation was observed in five subjects, in one of whom it was bilateral. In group III, activation occurred in five subjects(bilateral in four, and contralateral in three), and In group IV, activation was also observed in five;in three of these it was bilateral. Using fMRI, and in association with motor and sensory tasks, the supplementary motor area was activated in 66.7% of healthy volunteers (32/48)

  10. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  11. Joint Relationship Between Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Motor Skills in Children Aged 3 to 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; Gross McMillan, Amy; Wood, Aaron P; Sisson, Susan B

    2018-06-01

    While the relationships between physical activity (PA), obesity, and motor skills have been independently examined by previous research, this study explored both independent and combined relationships between children's PA, weight status, and motor skills within a multiple regression analysis. We measured height and weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) z scores for 96 children (3-10 years of age). We measured motor skills using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2), and we measured PA levels through accelerometry. Children with more time in moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA had higher Total motor skill scores on the MABC-2. Further, children with higher moderate PA levels had higher Balance scores and those with moderate-to-vigorous PA demonstrated higher Aiming and Catching scores. Among children with healthier BMIs, more time spent in PA, regardless of intensity, was related to higher Aiming and Catching scores. Among children with BMI scores suggestive of overweight/obesity, both moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA were positively related to Balance scores. In conclusion, while BMI z scores were not directly related to motor skills, PA levels were positively related to motor skills, and weight status mediated the relationship between PA and specific components of motor skills.

  12. Nutrição aplicada à atividade motora Nutrition applied to motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A Nutrição aplicada a atividade motora se divide em quatro áreas do movimento humano, a saber: esporte, educação física, dança, recreação/lazer. Essa definição conceitual diferencia a população alvo da intervenção nutricional. O organismo humano sempre apresentou o movimento como parte de sua atividade cotidiana e selecionou evolutivamente os organismos mais econômicos. Em contrapartida por conta de demandas, sociais, financeiras dentre outras a vida moderna impôs o sedentarismo como padrão de comportamento motor que aliado ao padrão genético de economia resultaram nas doenças modernas como obesidade, diabetes, etc. Assim a sociedade institucionalizou o movimento humano criando manifestações distintas descritas acima e suas necessidades específicas passaram a ser de interesse acadêmico/cientifico. Nutricionalmente os estudos se concentram no balanço energético, na necessidade de carboidratos, proteínas, lipídios assim como dos micronutrientes e outros compostos biologicamente ativos. Estes estudos definem estas substancias sob critérios de essencialidade ou efeito ergogênico superior a capacidade fisiológica. O primeiro determina mudanças nas necessidades nutricionais e o segundo substâncias consideradas ilícitas. No presente momento grande parte da comunidade cientifica dedicada à nutrição aplicada à atividade motora, dirige sua vocação na tentativa de descobrir as necessidades específicas provocadas pela pratica regular da atividade motora permitindo seu exercício regular para que a mesma propicie os benefícios na manutenção da saúde de forma plena nas quatro áreas descritas acima.Nutrition applied to motor activity is divided in four areas of human movement, namely: sports, physical education, dance, recreation/leisure. This conceptual definition differentiates the target population of nutritional intervention. The human body has always presented the movement as part of their daily activity and

  13. Subthalamic stimulation modulates cortical motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with ‘stimulation on’ compared to ‘stimulation off’ on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With ‘stimulation on’, interhemispheric cortico

  14. Network feedback regulates motor output across a range of modulatory neuron activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert M; Blitz, Dawn M

    2016-06-01

    Modulatory projection neurons alter network neuron synaptic and intrinsic properties to elicit multiple different outputs. Sensory and other inputs elicit a range of modulatory neuron activity that is further shaped by network feedback, yet little is known regarding how the impact of network feedback on modulatory neurons regulates network output across a physiological range of modulatory neuron activity. Identified network neurons, a fully described connectome, and a well-characterized, identified modulatory projection neuron enabled us to address this issue in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric nervous system. The modulatory neuron modulatory commissural neuron 1 (MCN1) activates and modulates two networks that generate rhythms via different cellular mechanisms and at distinct frequencies. MCN1 is activated at rates of 5-35 Hz in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, network feedback elicits MCN1 activity time-locked to motor activity. We asked how network activation, rhythm speed, and neuron activity levels are regulated by the presence or absence of network feedback across a physiological range of MCN1 activity rates. There were both similarities and differences in responses of the two networks to MCN1 activity. Many parameters in both networks were sensitive to network feedback effects on MCN1 activity. However, for most parameters, MCN1 activity rate did not determine the extent to which network output was altered by the addition of network feedback. These data demonstrate that the influence of network feedback on modulatory neuron activity is an important determinant of network output and feedback can be effective in shaping network output regardless of the extent of network modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  16. Analysis of neural activity in human motor cortex -- Towards brain machine interface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secundo, Lavi

    , the correlation of ECoG activity to kinematic parameters of arm movement is context-dependent, an important constraint to consider in future development of BMI systems. The third chapter delves into a fundamental organizational principle of the primate motor system---cortical control of contralateral limb movements. However, ipsilateral motor areas also appear to play a role in the control of ipsilateral limb movements. Several studies in monkeys have shown that individual neurons in ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) may represent, on average, the direction of movements of the ipsilateral arm. Given the increasing body of evidence demonstrating that neural ensembles can reliably represent information with a high temporal resolution, here we characterize the distributed neural representation of ipsilateral upper limb kinematics in both monkey and man. In two macaque monkeys trained to perform center-out reaching movements, we found that the ensemble spiking activity in M1 could continuously represent ipsilateral limb position. We also recorded cortical field potentials from three human subjects and also consistently found evidence of a neural representation for ipsilateral movement parameters. Together, our results demonstrate the presence of a high-fidelity neural representation for ipsilateral movement and illustrates that it can be successfully incorporated into a brain-machine interface.

  17. New insights into neurogenic cyclic motor activity in the isolated guinea-pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Wiklendt, L; Keightley, L; Brookes, S J H; Dinning, P G; Spencer, N J

    2017-10-01

    The contents of the guinea pig distal colon consist of multiple pellets that move anally in a coordinated manner. This row of pellets results in continued distention of the colon. In this study, we have investigated quantitatively the features of the neurally dependent colonic motor patterns that are evoked by constant distension of the full length of guinea-pig colon. Constant distension was applied to the excised guinea-pig by high-resolution manometry catheters or by a series of hooks. Constant distension elicited regular Cyclic Motor Complexes (CMCs) that originated at multiple different sites along the colon and propagated in an oral or anal direction extending distances of 18.3±10.3 cm. CMCs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 μ mol L -1 ), hexamethonium (100 μ mol L -1 ) or hyoscine (1 μ mol L -1 ). Application of TTX in a localized compartment or cutting the gut circumferentially disrupted the spatial continuity of CMCs. Localized smooth muscle contraction was not required for CMC propagation. Shortening the length of the preparations or disruption of circumferential pathways reduced the integrity and continuity of CMCs. CMCs are a distinctive neurally dependent cyclic motor pattern, that emerge with distension over long lengths of the distal colon. They do not require changes in muscle tension or contractility to entrain the neural activity underlying CMC propagation. CMCs are likely to play an important role interacting with the neuromechanical processes that time the propulsion of multiple natural pellets and may be particularly relevant in conditions of impaction or obstruction, where long segments of colon are simultaneously distended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. NRC inspections of licensee activities to improve the performance of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC regulations require that components important to the safe operation of a nuclear power plant be treated in a manner that provides assurance of their proper performance. Despite these regulatory requirements, operating experience and research programs have raised concerns regarding the performance of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in nuclear power plants. In June 1990, the staff issued NUREG-1352, Action Plans for Motor-Operated Valves and Check Valves, which contains planned actions to organize the activities aimed at resolving the concerns about MOV performance. A significant task of the MOV action plan is the staff's review of the implementation of Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 (June 28, 1989), 'Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,' and its supplements, by nuclear power plant licensees. The NRC staff has issued several supplements to GL 89-10 to provide additional guidance for use by licensees in responding to the generic letter. The NRC staff has conducted initial inspections of the GL 89-10 programs at most licensee facilities. This paper outlines some of the more significant findings of those inspections. For example, licensees who have begun differential pressure and flow testing have found some MOVs to require more thrust to operate than predicted by the standard industry equation with typical valve factors assumed in the past. The NRC staff has found weaknesses in licensee procedures for conducting the differential pressure and flow tests, the acceptance criteria for the tests in evaluating the capability of the MOV to perform its safety function under design basis conditions, and feedback of the test results into the methodology used by the licensee in predicting the thrust requirements for other MOVs. Some licensees have not made adequate progress toward resolving the MOV issue for their facilities within the recommended schedule of GL 89-10

  19. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19...... hand and the functional ability of the SCI participants measured by the clinical motor score on the other. There was no significant correlation between activation in any other cerebral area and the motor score. Activation in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1), M1 and PMC was negatively correlated...... to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials...

  20. 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography of single motor units: labelling of individual acutely active muscle fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toop, J.; Burke, R.E.; Dum, R.P.; O'Donovan, M.J.; Smith, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-[1- 14 C]glucose (2DG) was given intravenously during repetitive stimulation of single motor units in adult cats and autoradiographs were made of frozen sections of the target muscles in order to evaluate methods designed to improve the spatial resolution of [ 14 C]2DG autoradiography. With the modifications used, acutely active muscle fibers, independently identified by depletion of intrafiber glycogen, were associated with highly localized accumulations of silver grains over the depleted fibers. The results indicate that [ 14 C]2DG autoradiography can successfully identify individual active muscle fibers and might in principle be used to obtain quantitative data about rates of glucose metabolism in single muscle fibers of defined histochemical type. The modifications may be applicable also to other tissues to give improved spatial resolution with [ 14 C]-labeled metabolic markers. (Auth.)

  1. Differential genetic regulation of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mice using an automated home cage task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M

    2008-08-01

    Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiogenic areas. Here, an automated home cage environment for mice was designed to obtain independent measures of motor activity levels and of sheltered feeding preference during three consecutive days. Chronic treatment with the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) in C57BL/6J mice reduced sheltered feeding preference without altering motor activity levels. Furthermore, two distinct chromosome substitution strains, derived from C57BL/6J (host strain) and A/J (donor strain) inbred strains, expressed either increased sheltering preference in females (chromosome 15) or reduced motor activity levels in females and males (chromosome 1) when compared to C57BL/6J. Longitudinal behavioral monitoring revealed that these phenotypic differences maintained after adaptation to the home cage. Thus, by using new automated behavioral phenotyping approaches, behavior can be dissociated into distinct behavioral domains (e.g., anxiety-related and motor activity domains) with different underlying genetic origin and pharmacological responsiveness.

  2. The relationship among physical activity, motor competence and health-related fitness in 14-year-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, B; Larkin, D; Parker, H; Straker, L; Perry, M

    2009-10-01

    Physical activity, physical fitness and motor competence are important health-related constructs. However, the relationship among them, particularly for children and adolescents, is still unclear. In this study, motor competence (measured by the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development), pedometer-determined physical activity and physical fitness (aerobic fitness, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and body composition) were examined in a cohort of 1585 adolescents (771 girls, 814 boys) of mean age 14.06 years. Significant gender differences were observed for all measures except motor competence. Apart from hip and shoulder flexibility, males outperformed females. For both males and females, motor competence was associated with all fitness measures, physical activity was associated only with aerobic fitness and aerobic fitness was associated with physical activity, motor competence, BMI and chest pass. Among males, aerobic fitness was also associated with all other fitness tests. The correlations were, in general, moderate to weak. The results challenge the current focus on physical activity rather than physical fitness as the preferred intervention.

  3. Designed to deter. Community barriers to physical activity for people with visual or motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Corinne E; Gerber, Elaine G; Smith, Brooke C

    2008-04-01

    People with disabilities are more likely to be obese, in poor health, and get less physical activity than the general population. However, research on community factors for physical activity has generally either excluded most people with disabilities, or overlooked relevant factors of community accessibility. This exploratory study investigated environmental factors affecting people with motor impairments and people with visual impairments in urban neighborhoods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used with a nonrandom sample (n=134) of users of four types of assistive mobility technologies: guide dogs, long canes, and motorized and manual wheelchairs. From July 2005 to August 2006, the sample participated in two telephone surveys. Between the surveys, a stratified random subsample (n =32) engaged in an ethnographic phase of observation and interviews. Most participants in all groups using assistive mobility technologies rated their neighborhoods as accessible, although they also reported many specific barriers. Users of assistive mobility technologies differed in the amount of reported physical activity and on specific barriers. Problems with sidewalk pavement and puddles/poor drainage were the most frequently mentioned environmental barriers, by 90% and 80%, respectively. Users of assistive mobility technologies were more similar on main strategies for dealing with barriers. All groups reported having to plan routes for outings, to alter planned routes, to go more slowly than planned, or to wait for a different time. Despite legislative requirements for accommodation, people with disabilities face barriers to physical activity, both in the built and social environments. Determined people with disabilities were able to overcome barriers, but required additional expenditure of resources to do so. Community design that can include people with disabilities requires detailed understanding of barriers specific both to types of impairments and to different types

  4. Altered neuronal activity in the primary motor cortex and globus pallidus after dopamine depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Min; Geng, Xiwen; Song, Zhimin; Albers, H Elliott; Yang, Maoquan; Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Jinlu; Qu, Qingyang; He, Tingting

    2015-01-15

    The involvement of dopamine (DA) neuron loss in the etiology of Parkinson's disease has been well documented. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of DA loss and the resultant motor dysfunction remain unknown. To gain insights into how loss of DA disrupts the electrical processes in the cortico-subcortical network, the present study explores the effects of DA neuron depletion on electrical activity in the primary motor cortex (M1), on the external and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi respectively), and on their temporal relationships. Comparison of local field potentials (LFPs) in these brain regions from unilateral hemispheric DA neuron depleted rats and neurologically intact rats revealed that the spectrum power of LFPs in 12-70Hz (for M1, and GPe) and in 25-40Hz (for GPi) was significantly greater in the DA depleted rats than that in the control group. These changes were associated with a shortening of latency in LFP activities between M1 and GPe, from several hundred milliseconds in the intact animals to close to zero in the DA depleted animals. LFP oscillations in M1 were significantly more synchronized with those in GPe in the DA depleted rats compared with those in the control rats. By contrast, the synchronization of oscillation in LFP activities between M1 and GPi did not differ between the DA depleted and intact rats. Not surprisingly, rats that had DA neuron depletion spent more time along the ladder compared with the control rats. These data suggest that enhanced oscillatory activity and increased synchronization of LFPs may contribute to movement impairment in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complementary roles of different oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus in coding motor effort in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Anzak, Anam; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate with force or effort. Whether this feature uniquely codes for effort and whether such a coding mechanism holds true over a range of efforts is unclear. Here we investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and manual grips made with different efforts. The latter were self-rated using the 10 level Borg scale ranging from 0 (no effort) to 10 (maximal effort). STN LFP activities were recorded in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) who had undergone functional surgery. Patients were studied while motor performance was improved by dopaminergic medication. In line with previous studies we observed power increase in the theta/alpha band (4-12 Hz), power suppression in the beta band (13-30 Hz) and power increase in the gamma band (55-90 Hz) and high frequency band (101-375 Hz) during voluntary grips. Beta suppression deepened, and then reached a floor level as effort increased. Conversely, gamma and high frequency power increases were enhanced during grips made with greater effort. Multiple regression models incorporating the four different spectral changes confirmed that the modulation of power in the beta band was the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts rated <5. In contrast, increases in gamma band activity were the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts ≥5. Accordingly, the difference between power changes in the gamma and beta bands correlated with effort across all effort levels. These findings suggest complementary roles for changes in beta and gamma band activities in the STN in motor effort coding. The latter function

  6. The effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass based on the data of motor activation single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for the pure motor function in the ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) using the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Motor activation SPECT was performed on the 25 cases with ischemic CVD treated with STA-MCA bypass. Motor activation SPECT studies using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before surgery, at 1 month, and at 3 months after the bypass. The result of the motor activation SPECT was expressed as negative and positive by the visual inspection. During the follow-up period (mean; 2.2 years), there has been no recurrent or worsening clinical symptom. Before bypass, 10 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. The other 15 cases were negative. At one month after bypass, 14 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. At three months after bypass, 23 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Twenty-two cases showed the improvement of the resting CBF. STA-MCA bypass is useful for pure motor function in the ischemic CVDs based on the motor activation SPECT coupling with their clinical symptoms. (author)

  7. The effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass based on the data of motor activation single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for the pure motor function in the ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) using the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Motor activation SPECT was performed on the 25 cases with ischemic CVD treated with STA-MCA bypass. Motor activation SPECT studies using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before surgery, at 1 month, and at 3 months after the bypass. The result of the motor activation SPECT was expressed as negative and positive by the visual inspection. During the follow-up period (mean; 2.2 years), there has been no recurrent or worsening clinical symptom. Before bypass, 10 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. The other 15 cases were negative. At one month after bypass, 14 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. At three months after bypass, 23 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Twenty-two cases showed the improvement of the resting CBF. STA-MCA bypass is useful for pure motor function in the ischemic CVDs based on the motor activation SPECT coupling with their clinical symptoms. (author)

  8. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  9. Robotic Assistance of Human Motion Using Active-Backdrivability on a Geared Electromagnetic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jorge Claros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we describe an actuation and control system designed for geared electromagnetic motors, which is characterized by its simple implementation, fast response to external input loads, reliable human-machine interaction features, no need for previous set-up or calibration from user to user and high portability due to the reduction of weight and space used. By the implementation of the proposed system, an electromagnetic motor can become a multitasking, wearable actuation system capable of: detecting the user's intentions regarding motion, tracking the limbs with minimal force interaction within a wide bandwidth and also providing controllable assistance and resistance forces to the user's movements, without the use of any biological signal. Validation of the proposed approach is shown by the construction of a powered orthosis for the knee, used to test the system's performance under real human motion conditions. The proposed system was tested on one healthy subject by measuring electromyographic levels both with and without the orthosis, under controlled flexion and extension cycles. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in detecting the user's intentions regarding motion, reducing and increasing muscular activity when configured for assistance and resistance, respectively, and also increasing the transparency of the actuation system when perfect tracking of the limbs is needed.

  10. Mechanistic understanding of time-dependent oral absorption based on gastric motor activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Kazutaka; Choe, Sally Y; Löbenberg, Raimar; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-09-01

    The relationship of gastric motor activity and gastric emptying of 0.7 mm caffeine pellets with their absorption was investigated in the fed state in healthy human subjects by simultaneous monitoring of antral motility and plasma concentrations. A kinetic model for gastric emptying-dependent absorption yielded multiple phases of gastric emptying and rate constants (k(g)) with large inter-individual differences and large variability in onset of gastric emptying (50-175 min). The model suggests that 50% of the dose is emptied in 1-2h and over 90% emptied by 3.5h following dosing, in all subjects. The maximum values of k(g) (k(g)(max)) were much greater than those reported for emptying of liquids in the fasted state and were comparable to k(g) values in the late Phase II/III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The model described the observed irregular absorption rate-time and plasma concentration-time profiles adequately but not in detail. The model was more successful at simulating double-peak phenomena in absorption rate profiles and onset of caffeine absorption. The results suggest that gastric emptying regulates drug absorption of small particles in the fed state. Further, estimates of k(a) derived using the time-dependent absorption model were closer to the intrinsic absorption rate constant for caffeine.

  11. Working Memory and Motor Activity: A Comparison Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Healthy Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Sarah E; Matt Alderson, R; Patros, Connor H G; Tarle, Stephanie J; Arrington, Elaine F; Grant, DeMond M

    2018-05-01

    Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and PH and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively demanding laboratory task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The impact of physical activity on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Elizabeth Cusso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms. The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment, however non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognised in the management of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th to 22th of June 2016 from Pubmed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss and Scopus using the MeSH search terms ‘Parkinson’s’, ‘Parkinson’ and ‘Parkinsonism’ in conjunction with ‘exercise’, ‘physical activity’, ‘physiotherapy’, ‘occupational therapy’, ‘physical therapy’, ‘rehabilitation’, ‘dance’ and ‘martial arts’. Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having ten or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods however was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease

  13. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  14. The effect of motor learning and fatigue on pre-activation of the lower extremity muscles during different jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelska, Anna M; Kot, Bartosz

    2017-09-22

    The first step in identifying risk factors for injuries is to characterize the myoelectric activity of different muscles after ground contact, especially when fatigue is a limiting factor. This study aimed at: (a) recording the myoelectric activity of calf muscles after ground contact during different types of jumps and (b) investigating the effect of motor learning and fatigue on muscle pre-activation. Twenty four male students aged 24.3 ± 1.2 years old performed three different motor activities: (a) Jump from a box with counter landing (JCL) on 30x30 cm plate (b) Drop jump with bounce drop jump (BDJ) and (c) BDJ followed by a jump on 51-cm step. The surface EMG was used to examine the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior (TA), m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM), m. gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and m. soleus (S). The measurements were taken during different jumps before and after motor learning and fatigue stimulus. There were significant differences in pre-activation for TA between JCL and BDJ followed by a jump under the influence of fatigue (p<0.05). The differences were observed also during BDJ between non-fatigued and fatigued conditions. There was a statistically significant difference for GL between BDJ pre- and post-movement motor learning and BDJ pre- and post-fatigue influence. Current results indicate that myoelectric activity of muscles during motor activities is different, and the effect of motor learning and fatigue was shown. Thus, it could be important in the injury prevention in sport.

  15. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  16. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children. PMID:22405468

  17. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvin Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight for body mass index (BMI. Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059 for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04. Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting

  18. Increasing Lateralized Motor Activity in Younger and Older Adults using Real-time fMRI during Executed Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Neyedli, Heather F.; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Kirkman, Matthew A; Havard, David; Lührs, Michael; Ramsden, Katie; Flitney, David D; Clare, Stuart; Goebel, Rainer; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Neurofeedback training involves presenting an individual with a representation of their brain activity and instructing them to alter the activity using the feedback. One potential application of neurofeedback is for patients to alter neural activity to improve function. For example, there is evidence that greater laterality of movement-related activity is associated with better motor outcomes after stroke; so using neurofeedback to increase laterality may provide a novel route for improving o...

  19. Evolution of asynchronous motor activity in paired muscles: effects of ecology, morphology, and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Shannon P; Ramsay, Jason B; Dean, Mason N; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2008-08-01

    Many studies of feeding behavior have implanted electrodes unilaterally (in muscles on only one side of the head) to determine the basic motor patterns of muscles controlling the jaws. However, bilateral implantation has the potential to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of modification of the motor activity that may be occurring between the left and right sides of the head. In particular, complex processing of prey is often characterized by bilaterally asynchronous and even unilateral activation of the jaw musculature. In this study, we bilaterally implant feeding muscles in species from four orders of elasmobranchs (Squaliformes, Orectolobiformes, Carcharhiniformes, Rajoidea) in order to characterize the effects of type of prey, feeding behavior, and phylogeny on the degree of asynchronous muscle activation. Electrodes were implanted in three of the jaw adductors, two divisions of the quadratomandibularis and the preorbitalis, as well as in a cranial elevator in sharks, the epaxialis. The asynchrony of feeding events (measured as the degree to which activity of members of a muscle pair is out of phase) was compared across species for capture versus processing and simple versus complex prey, then interpreted in the contexts of phylogeny, morphology, and ecology to clarify determinants of asynchronous activity. Whereas capture and processing of prey were characterized by statistically similar degrees of asynchrony for data pooled across species, events involving complex prey were more asynchronous than were those involving simple prey. The two trophic generalists, Squalus acanthias and Leucoraja erinacea, modulated the degree of asynchrony according to type of prey, whereas the two behavioral specialists, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and Mustelus canis, activated the cranial muscles synchronously regardless of type of prey. These differences in jaw muscle activity would not have been detected with unilateral implantation. Therefore, we advocate bilateral

  20. The effect of fast and slow motor unit activation on whole-muscle mechanical performance: the size principle may not pose a mechanical paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N C; Wakeling, J M; Biewener, A A

    2014-05-22

    The output of skeletal muscle can be varied by selectively recruiting different motor units. However, our knowledge of muscle function is largely derived from muscle in which all motor units are activated. This discrepancy may limit our understanding of in vivo muscle function. Hence, this study aimed to characterize the mechanical properties of muscle with different motor unit activation. We determined the isometric properties and isotonic force-velocity relationship of rat plantaris muscles in situ with all of the muscle active, 30% of the muscle containing predominately slower motor units active or 20% of the muscle containing predominately faster motor units active. There was a significant effect of active motor unit type on isometric force rise time (p motor units were active than when either fast or slow motor units were selectively activated. We propose this is due to the greater relative effects of factors such as series compliance and muscle resistance to shortening during sub-maximal contractions. The findings presented here suggest that recruitment according to the size principle, where slow motor units are activated first and faster ones recruited as demand increases, may not pose a mechanical paradox, as has been previously suggested.

  1. Human motor cortical activity recorded with Micro-ECoG electrodes, during individual finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Degenhart, A D; Collinger, J L; Vinjamuri, R; Sudre, G P; Adelson, P D; Holder, D L; Leuthardt, E C; Moran, D W; Boninger, M L; Schwartz, A B; Crammond, D J; Tyler-Kabara, E C; Weber, D J

    2009-01-01

    In this study human motor cortical activity was recorded with a customized micro-ECoG grid during individual finger movements. The quality of the recorded neural signals was characterized in the frequency domain from three different perspectives: (1) coherence between neural signals recorded from different electrodes, (2) modulation of neural signals by finger movement, and (3) accuracy of finger movement decoding. It was found that, for the high frequency band (60-120 Hz), coherence between neighboring micro-ECoG electrodes was 0.3. In addition, the high frequency band showed significant modulation by finger movement both temporally and spatially, and a classification accuracy of 73% (chance level: 20%) was achieved for individual finger movement using neural signals recorded from the micro-ECoG grid. These results suggest that the micro-ECoG grid presented here offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for the development of minimally-invasive brain-computer interface applications.

  2. Sensing surface mechanical deformation using active probes driven by motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nitta, Takahiro; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Sada, Kazuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Studying mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials has been challenging due to the difficulty in separating surface deformation from the bulk elasticity of the materials. Here, we introduce a new approach for studying the surface mechanical deformation of a soft material by utilizing a large number of self-propelled microprobes driven by motor proteins on the surface of the material. Information about the surface mechanical deformation of the soft material is obtained through changes in mobility of the microprobes wandering across the surface of the soft material. The active microprobes respond to mechanical deformation of the surface and readily change their velocity and direction depending on the extent and mode of surface deformation. This highly parallel and reliable method of sensing mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials is expected to find applications that explore surface mechanics of soft materials and consequently would greatly benefit the surface science. PMID:27694937

  3. Do active video games benefit the motor skill development of non-typically developing children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-12-01

    The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation for heat pain and motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiton, Raimi L; Keaser, Michael L; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Greenspan, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    As the practice of conducting longitudinal fMRI studies to assess mechanisms of pain-reducing interventions becomes more common, there is a great need to assess the test-retest reliability of the pain-related BOLD fMRI signal across repeated sessions. This study quantitatively evaluated the reliability of heat pain-related BOLD fMRI brain responses in healthy volunteers across 3 sessions conducted on separate days using two measures: (1) intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) calculated based on signal amplitude and (2) spatial overlap. The ICC analysis of pain-related BOLD fMRI responses showed fair-to-moderate intersession reliability in brain areas regarded as part of the cortical pain network. Areas with the highest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis included the anterior midcingulate cortex, anterior insula, and second somatosensory cortex. Areas with the lowest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis also showed low spatial reliability; these regions included pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and posterior insula. Thus, this study found regional differences in pain-related BOLD fMRI response reliability, which may provide useful information to guide longitudinal pain studies. A simple motor task (finger-thumb opposition) was performed by the same subjects in the same sessions as the painful heat stimuli were delivered. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation in cortical motor areas was comparable to previously published findings for both spatial overlap and ICC measures, providing support for the validity of the analytical approach used to assess intersession reliability of pain-related fMRI activation. A secondary finding of this study is that the use of standard ICC alone as a measure of reliability may not be sufficient, as the underlying variance structure of an fMRI dataset can result in inappropriately high ICC values; a method to eliminate these false positive results was used in this

  5. Reliability And Validity Of Turkish Version Of Motor Activity Log-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to adapt the Motor Activity Log-28 (MAL-28 into Turkish and probe the reliability and validity of this questionnaire in stroke patients. METHODS: Following the translation of the MAL-28 into Turkish, its reliability and construct validity was examined in 30 stroke patients. For the reliability study, patients were interviewed twice within a three day period, during which no rehabilitative activities were undertaken. The test-retest reliability was determined by using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and Spearman correlation coefficient (r; internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha (α. The construct validity was examined by comparing MAL-28 Quality Of Movement (QOM scale and Amount Of Use (AOU scale with Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-Performance Time (PT and Functional Ability (FA scores. Furthermore, item-to-scale correlations of AOU and QOM scales were determined and correlation between totol scores of two scales was examined. RESULTS: Turkish version of MAL-28 AOU and QOM scales were reliable (ICC scores were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively and internally consistent (Cronbach’s α value was 0.96 for both scales. Test-retest reliability was supported (AOU, r=0.94; QOM, r=0.93. WMFT FA scores was correlated with both scales (r=0.63. Correlation between WMFT PT and AOU and QOM scales were -0.56 and -0.55. AOU and QOM scales were highly correlated (r=0.95. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that Turkish version of MAL-28 is reliable and valid in individuals with stroke. Further investigation about its responsiveness is needed before using that version as a primary measurement in clinical trials

  6. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation.Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention.Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  7. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mendel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC. Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1–100 μM. At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study.

  8. Stimulatory action of itopride hydrochloride on colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Tadashi; Saito, Takaharu; Mizutani, Fujie; Yamauchi, Toshie; Iwanaga, Yuji

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effects of itopride hydrochloride (itopride, N-[4-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]benzyl]-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide hydrochloride), a gastroprokinetic agent, on the colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo, in comparison with benzamides, cisapride hydrate (cisapride), and mosapride citrate (mosapride). Itopride stimulated both peristaltic and segmental motility induced by applying intraluminal pressure to the isolated guinea pig colon. Although cisapride and mosapride enhanced the segmental motility, they markedly reduced the peristaltic motility. In conscious dogs with implanted strain gauge force transducers, itopride stimulated contractile activity in the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon. Cisapride stimulated contractile activity in the gastric antrum, ileum, and ascending colon. Mosapride stimulated contractile activity only in the gastric antrum and ileum. In guinea pigs and rats, itopride accelerated colonic luminal transit. On the other hand, cisapride and mosapride failed to enhance colonic transit. These results demonstrate that itopride has a stimulatory action on colonic peristalsis, propelling colonic luminal contents, different from that of cisapride and mosapride. Therefore, itopride may be a useful drug for the treatment of functional bowel disorders such as functional constipation.

  9. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliable fuzzy H∞ control for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles with dynamic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxin; Naghdy, Fazel; Du, Haiping

    2017-03-01

    A fault-tolerant fuzzy H∞ control design approach for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles in the presence of sprung mass variation, actuator faults and control input constraints is proposed. The controller is designed based on the quarter-car active suspension model with a dynamic-damping-in-wheel-motor-driven-system, in which the suspended motor is operated as a dynamic absorber. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to model this suspension with possible sprung mass variation. The parallel-distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is deployed to derive a fault-tolerant fuzzy controller for the T-S fuzzy suspension model. In order to reduce the motor wear caused by the dynamic force transmitted to the in-wheel motor, the dynamic force is taken as an additional controlled output besides the traditional optimization objectives such as sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and actuator saturation. The H∞ performance of the proposed controller is derived as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) comprising three equality constraints which are solved efficiently by means of MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The proposed controller is applied to an electric vehicle suspension and its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulation.

  12. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  13. Structure of the active form of human origin recognition complex and its ATPase motor module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocilj, Ante; On, Kin Fan; Yuan, Zuanning; Sun, Jingchuan; Elkayam, Elad; Li, Huilin; Stillman, Bruce; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2017-01-23

    Binding of the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) to origins of replication marks the first step in the initiation of replication of the genome in all eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the structure of the active form of human ORC determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. The complex is composed of an ORC1/4/5 motor module lobe in an organization reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp loader complexes. A second lobe contains the ORC2/3 subunits. The complex is organized as a double-layered shallow corkscrew, with the AAA+ and AAA+-like domains forming one layer, and the winged-helix domains (WHDs) forming a top layer. CDC6 fits easily between ORC1 and ORC2, completing the ring and the DNA-binding channel, forming an additional ATP hydrolysis site. Analysis of the ATPase activity of the complex provides a basis for understanding ORC activity as well as molecular defects observed in Meier-Gorlin Syndrome mutations.

  14. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J.; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia. This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to “prime” motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for “task” switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. PMID:27466134

  15. Motor control patterns during an active straight leg raise in pain-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measures. To investigate motor control (MC) patterns of normal subjects during the low level physical load of the active straight leg raise (ASLR). Aberrant MC patterns, as observed with the ASLR test, are considered to be a mechanism for ongoing pain and disability in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pelvic girdle pain. These patterns may not only affect the provision of lumbopelvic stability, but also respiration and the control of continence. Greater understanding of MC patterns in pain-free subjects may improve the management of pelvic girdle pain. METHODS.: Fourteen pain-free nulliparous women were examined during the ASLR. Electromyography of the anterior abdominal wall, right chest wall and the anterior scaleni, intraabdominal pressure (IAP), intrathoracic pressure (ITP), respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, and downward leg pressure of the nonlifted leg were compared between a left and right ASLR. There was greater activation of obliquus internus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis on the side of the ASLR. The predominant pattern of activation for the chest wall was tonic activation during an ipsilateral ASLR, and phasic respiratory activation lifting the contralateral leg. Respiratory fluctuation of both IAP and ITP did not differ lifting either leg. The baseline shifts of these pressure variables in response to the physical demand of lifting the leg was also the same either side. There was no difference in respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, or downward leg pressure. Pain-free subjects demonstrate a predominant pattern of greater ipsilateral tonic activation of the abdominal wall and chest wall on the side of the ASLR. This was achieved with minimal apparent disruption to IAP and ITP. The findings of this study demonstrate the plastic nature of the abdominal cylinder and the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in controlling load transference during an ASLR.

  16. Relationship between postprandial motor activity in the human small intestine and the gastrointestinal transit of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, N.W.; Al-Janabi, M.N.; Edwards, C.A.; Barber, D.C.

    1984-04-01

    Profiles for gastric emptying and colonic filling were determined in 20 normal volunteers by means of a gamma camera and dedicated minicomputer after ingestion of a radiolabeled solid meal. These were compared with intraluminal pressure activity, recorded simultaneously from three sites (each separated by 50 cm) in the small intestine by infusion manometry. Recordings were continued for at least 8 h or until all the radioactivity appeared in the colon. Colonic filling was approximately linear, occurring at an average rate of 16% of the meal residues per hour. There were significant inverse correlations (p less than 0.01) between the pressure activity in the proximal jejunum during the first 3 h after ingestion and the times taken for 50% and 80% of the meal residues to enter the colon, and direct correlations between total small intestinal pressure activity and the half-time for gastric emptying. Phase III of the interdigestive migrating motor complex appeared between 3 and 9 h after ingestion (when between 15% and 80% of the meal remained in the small intestine), but did not necessarily migrate to the next recording site until much later. The time of appearance of phase III in the proximal jejunum was directly correlated with the half-time for gastric emptying (p less than 0.05) and with the intraluminal pressure activity recorded at that site during the first 3 h after food ingestion (p less than 0.01). The time at which 80% of the meal residues had entered the colon was significantly shorter in 6 subjects, in whom a postprandial activity front appeared to migrate throughout the small bowel, compared with 13 subjects, in whom this did not occur (5.0 +/- 0.5 h vs. 7.0 +/- 0.4 h, p less than 0.01). These studies have shown that gastrointestinal transit of a solid meal is related to both fed and fasted intraluminal pressure activity in the small intestine.

  17. Effects of functional physical activity on the maintenance of motor function in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Fajersztajn

    Full Text Available Abstract It is widely known that older adults, even frail individuals, can improve their physical function using appropriately targeted exercise. Nevertheless, older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD have been excluded from the majority of studies on exercise. The functional-task physical activity program is based on activities of daily living, and may be suited for elderly people with AD because it focuses on the maintenance and stimulation of preserved abilities. In addition, session costs are substantially reduced by adopting a group approach. Furthermore, the group approach may improve the social interaction of the demented patient. Objectives: To determine whether a functional-task physical activity program in groups can maintain motor function in elderly with AD. Methods: 10 elderly diagnosed with mild or moderate AD were assigned into one of two groups: subjects with and without intervention. The intervention consisted of a 12-week function-task physical activity program in groups. Measurements: activities of daily living (Katz and Lawton & Brody questionnaires, mobility (Timed Up and Go Test, Timed Up and Go manual Test and Timed Up and Go Cognitive Test, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, behavioral disturbances (Neuropsychiatric Inventory I-brief and functional balance (Berg Balance Scale. Results: A statistically significant difference between the two groups was found regarding the functional balance mean change measured by Berg scale score (p=0.046. A significant improvement of 1.60 points (95%CI[0.22;2.98] was observed in the intervention group on this scale, while the non-intervention group showed -0.40 points (95%CI[-1.78;0.98], no change. Conclusions: It is possible to treat mild and moderate Alzheimer's patients using a group approach. The functional task physical activity program was efficient in functional balance improvement and also appeared to prevent mobility decline.

  18. Identifying a motor proficiency barrier for meeting physical activity guidelines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Goodway, Jacqueline; True, Larissa; Brian, Ali; Ferkel, Rick; Haerens, Leen

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the existence of a threshold level (proficiency barrier) of actual motor competence (MC) below which a child is not likely to attain 60min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. A cross-sectional study. Actual MC was assessed in 326 children (48.5% boys; age=9.50±1.24years) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2; MVPA was measured with ActiGraph GT3X+accelerometers. Perceived MC, included as a potential mediating variable, was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Binary logistic (mediation) regression analyses controlling for sex and a chi-squared test were used to gain insight into the relationship between (the levels of) actual MC and the percentage of children meeting the MVPA guideline. Actual MC significantly predicted the percentage of children meeting the guideline (B=.03, SE=.01, p<.001), even when controlling for sex. Perceived MC did not mediate this relationship. Children with high actual MC (65-100 percentile) were 2.46 (p=.003) times more likely to meet the guideline than children with low actual MC (0-27 percentile). The present study demonstrates the potential impact of low MC on children's MVPA levels and suggests evidence for the existence of a proficiency barrier for meeting MVPA guidelines. Almost 90% of the children whose actual MC is below the 'average' threshold do not meet the MVPA guideline. As more children with higher levels of actual MC meet the guideline than their less competent peers, it is crucial to provide opportunities to sufficiently develop children's actual MC. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Population calcium imaging of spontaneous respiratory and novel motor activity in the facial nucleus and ventral brainstem in newborn mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karin; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    The brainstem contains rhythm and pattern forming circuits, which drive cranial and spinal motor pools to produce respiratory and other motor patterns. Here we used calcium imaging combined with nerve recordings in newborn mice to reveal spontaneous population activity in the ventral brainstem...... and in the facial nucleus. In Fluo-8AM loaded brainstem-spinal cord preparations, respiratory activity on cervical nerves was synchronized with calcium signals at the ventrolateral brainstem surface. Individual ventrolateral neurons at the level of the parafacial respiratory group showed perfect or partial...... synchrony with respiratory nerve bursts. In brainstem-spinal cord preparations, cut at the level of the mid-facial nucleus, calcium signals were recorded in the dorsal, lateral and medial facial subnuclei during respiratory activity. Strong activity initiated in the dorsal subnucleus, followed by activity...

  20. Effects of combining 2 weeks of passive sensory stimulation with active hand motor training in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Marie Ladda

    Full Text Available The gold standard to acquire motor skills is through intensive training and practicing. Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral gains can also be acquired by mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation to drive the plasticity processes. Single application of repetitive electric stimulation (rES of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception in young adults as well as sensorimotor performance in healthy elderly individuals. The combination of repetitive motor training with a preceding rES has not been reported yet. In addition, the impact of such a training on somatosensory tactile and spatial sensitivity as well as on somatosensory cortical activation remains elusive. Therefore, we tested 15 right-handed participants who underwent repetitive electric stimulation of all finger tips of the left hand for 20 minutes prior to one hour of motor training of the left hand over the period of two weeks. Overall, participants substantially improved the motor performance of the left trained hand by 34%, but also showed a relevant transfer to the untrained right hand by 24%. Baseline ipsilateral activation fMRI-magnitude in BA 1 to sensory index finger stimulation predicted training outcome for somatosensory guided movements: those who showed higher ipsilateral activation were those who did profit less from training. Improvement of spatial tactile discrimination was positively associated with gains in pinch grip velocity. Overall, a combination of priming rES and repetitive motor training is capable to induce motor and somatosensory performance increase and representation changes in BA1 in healthy young subjects.

  1. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing acc...

  2. Motor activation in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: research in daily practice in residential facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The total study aims at generating knowledge about the best way to motor activate persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in residential facilities. The purpose of the current poster presentation is to present the results of the first step executed in this project

  3. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  4. Practical Wide-speed-range Sensorless Control System for Permanent Magnet Reluctance Synchronous Motor Drives via Active Flux Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancuti, Mihaela Codruta; Tutelea, Lucian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a control strategy to obtain near-maximum available torque in a wide speed range with sensorless operation via the active flux concept for permanent magnet-reluctance synchronous motor drives. A new torque dq current reference calculator is proposed, with reference torque...

  5. Functional MRI activation of somatosensory and motor cortices in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical sensorimotor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugroschl, C.; Denolin, V.; Schuind, F.; Holder, C. van; David, P.; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory and motor cortical activity with functional MRI (fMRI) in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical recovery. The patient had motor fMRI examinations before transplantation, and motor and passive tactile stimulations after surgery. His normal hand and a normal group were studied for comparison. A patient with complete brachial plexus palsy was studied to assess the lack of a fMRI signal in somatosensory areas in the case of total axonal disconnection. Stimulating the grafted hand revealed significant activation in the contralateral somatosensory cortical areas in all fMRI examinations. The activation was seen as early as 10 days after surgery; this effect cannot be explained by the known physiological mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Although an imagination effect cannot be excluded, the objective clinical recovery of sensory function led us to formulate the hypothesis that a connection to the somatosensory cortex was rapidly established. Additional cases and fundamental studies are needed to assess this hypothesis, but several observations were compatible with this explanation. Before surgery, imaginary motion of the amputated hand produced less intense responses than executed movements of the intact hand, whereas the normal activation pattern for right-handed subjects was found after surgery, in agreement with the good clinical motor recovery. (orig.)

  6. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  7. Proximal gastric motor activity in response to a liquid meal in type I diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Akkermans, L. M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Disordered gastric emptying occurs in 30-50% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Although the rate of gastric emptying is dependent on the integration of motor activity in different regions of the stomach, there is limited information about the function of the proximal stomach in diabetes mellitus.

  8. 24-h actigraphic monitoring of motor activity, sleeping and eating behaviors in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Monica; Carissimi, Alicia; Fabbri, Marco; Filardi, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Within a chronobiological perspective, the present study aimed to describe 24 h of sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and food intake patterns in different body mass index (BMI) categories of children through 7 days of actigraphic recording. Height and weight were objectively measured for BMI calculation in a sample of 115 Italian primary schoolchildren (10.21 ± 0.48 years, 62.61 % females). According to BMI values, 2.60 % were underweight, 61.70 % were of normal weight, 29.60 % were overweight and 6.10 % were obese. Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 7 days to record motor activity and describe sleep-wake patterns. In addition, participants were requested to push the event-marker button of the actigraph each time they consumed food to describe their circadian eating patterns. BMI group differences were found for sleep quantity (i.e. midpoint of sleep and amplitude), while sleep quality, 24-h motor activity and food intake patterns were similar between groups. Regression analyses showed that BMI was negatively predicted by sleep duration on schooldays. BMI was also predicted by motor activity and by food intake frequencies recorded at particular times of day during schooldays and at the weekend. The circadian perspective seems to provide promising insight into childhood obesity, but this aspect needs to be further explored.

  9. Identification of Inhibitory Premotor Interneurons Activated at a Late Phase in a Motor Cycle during Drosophila Larval Locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Itakura

    Full Text Available Rhythmic motor patterns underlying many types of locomotion are thought to be produced by central pattern generators (CPGs. Our knowledge of how CPG networks generate motor patterns in complex nervous systems remains incomplete, despite decades of work in a variety of model organisms. Substrate borne locomotion in Drosophila larvae is driven by waves of muscular contraction that propagate through multiple body segments. We use the motor circuitry underlying crawling in larval Drosophila as a model to try to understand how segmentally coordinated rhythmic motor patterns are generated. Whereas muscles, motoneurons and sensory neurons have been well investigated in this system, far less is known about the identities and function of interneurons. Our recent study identified a class of glutamatergic premotor interneurons, PMSIs (period-positive median segmental interneurons, that regulate the speed of locomotion. Here, we report on the identification of a distinct class of glutamatergic premotor interneurons called Glutamatergic Ventro-Lateral Interneurons (GVLIs. We used calcium imaging to search for interneurons that show rhythmic activity and identified GVLIs as interneurons showing wave-like activity during peristalsis. Paired GVLIs were present in each abdominal segment A1-A7 and locally extended an axon towards a dorsal neuropile region, where they formed GRASP-positive putative synaptic contacts with motoneurons. The interneurons expressed vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT and thus likely secrete glutamate, a neurotransmitter known to inhibit motoneurons. These anatomical results suggest that GVLIs are premotor interneurons that locally inhibit motoneurons in the same segment. Consistent with this, optogenetic activation of GVLIs with the red-shifted channelrhodopsin, CsChrimson ceased ongoing peristalsis in crawling larvae. Simultaneous calcium imaging of the activity of GVLIs and motoneurons showed that GVLIs' wave-like activity lagged

  10. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p < .01), MVPA (7.9%; p < .001), and VPA (5.3%; p < .01) after controlling for weight status. Mediational analysis supports the significant indirect effect of MVPA on the relation between FMS and SB (95% CI: [-0.019, -0.006]). Adequate FMS development during early childhood may result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors.

  11. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of the firing intervals of motor units has been suggested as a diagnostic tool in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Part of the increase in number of turns seen in patients with myopathy could be secondary to the decrease in motor unit firing intervals at threshold force...

  12. Control of Surface Wettability Using Tripodal Light-Activated Molecular Motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Kuang-Yen; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Carroll, Gregory T.; Robertus, Jort; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; London, Gabor; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    Monolayers of fluorinated light-driven molecular motors were synthesized and immobilized on gold films in an altitudinal orientation via tripodal stators. In this design the fimctionalized molecular motors are not interfering and preserve their rotary function on gold. The wettability of the

  13. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  14. The ACTH4–9 analog ORG 2766 ‘normalizes’ the changes in motor activities of rats elicited by housing and test conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, G.; Ree, J.M. van

    1987-01-01

    Motor activities of rats were decreased by short-term (7 days) social isolation as well as by intense light test conditions. The ACTH4-9 analog ORG 2766, s.c. administered 50 min before testing, dose-dependently decreased the high motor activities of group-housed housed rats tested under low light

  15. Effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery is beneficial to treat upper and lower limbs motor impairments in stroke patients, but the effects of imagery in the trunk recovery have not been reported. Hence, the aim is to test the effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke patients. Methods: This pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted in acute stroke unit. Acute stroke patients with hemodynamic stability, aged between 30 and 70 years, first time stroke, and scoring <20 on trunk impairment scale (TIS were included in the study. Patients in the experimental group practiced trunk motor imagery in addition to physical training. Control group was given conventional physical therapy. The treatment intensity was 90 min/day, 6 days a week for 3 weeks duration. Trunk control test, TIS, brunel balance assessment (BBA, and Barthel index (BI were considered as the outcome measures. Results: Among 23 patients included in the study, 12 and 11 patients, respectively, in the control and experimental groups completed the intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA, i.e., timeFNx01 group factor analysis and effect size showed statistically significant improvements (P = 0.001 in the scores of TIS (1.64, BBA (1.83, and BI (0.67. Conclusion: Motor imagery of trunk in addition to the physical practice showed benefits in improving trunk performance, functional balance, and daily living in acute stroke.

  16. Motor imagery training: Kinesthetic imagery strategy and inferior parietal fMRI activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Florent; Horn, Ulrike; Domin, Martin; Lotze, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of action frequently used by professionals in different fields. However, with respect to performance, well-controlled functional imaging studies on MI training are sparse. We investigated changes in fMRI representation going along with performance changes of a finger sequence (error and velocity) after MI training in 48 healthy young volunteers. Before training, we tested the vividness of kinesthetic and visual imagery. During tests, participants were instructed to move or to imagine moving the fingers of the right hand in a specific order. During MI training, participants repeatedly imagined the sequence for 15 min. Imaging analysis was performed using a full-factorial design to assess brain changes due to imagery training. We also used regression analyses to identify those who profited from training (performance outcome and gain) with initial imagery scores (vividness) and fMRI activation magnitude during MI at pre-test (MI pre ). After training, error rate decreased and velocity increased. We combined both parameters into a common performance index. FMRI activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated with MI and increased over time. In addition, fMRI activation in the right IPL during MI pre was associated with high initial kinesthetic vividness. High kinesthetic imagery vividness predicted a high performance after training. In contrast, occipital activation, associated with visual imagery strategies, showed a negative predictive value for performance. Our data echo the importance of high kinesthetic vividness for MI training outcome and consider IPL as a key area during MI and through MI training. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The activity of the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to the exercising hand decreases during repetitive handgrip exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    The brain function controlling muscle force production is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine bilateral primary motor cortex (M1) oxygenation during static-handgrip exercises performed with the right hand (60% maximal voluntary contraction; 10 s exercise/75 s rest; five sets). Twelve healthy, right-handed male subjects participated in this study. Near-infrared spectroscopy probes were positioned over the bilateral M1 to measure cortical oxygenation during handgrip exercises. The maximum values of the changes in concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) across the trials (i) did not change significantly during the contralateral M1 activation (p > 0.05), whereas (ii) in the case of the ipsilateral M1 activation a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in HbO 2 and a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in Hb could be measured. The activation in ipsilateral M1 at the fifth trial was significantly decreased compared with that in the first trial (HbO 2 : p < 0.001; Hb: p < 0.001). The present results suggest that the ipsilateral M1 is recruited during the motor task in compensation for the contralateral M1 and the habituation to motor task might alter the efficiency for interaction of the ipsilateral M1 to the contralateral M1. The interhemispheric interaction might change due to habituation to motor task

  18. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Cairney, John; Eisenmann, Joe; Pfeiffer, Karin; Gould, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years) were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP), body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), motor performance (MP), and perceived athletic competence (PAC) of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model) were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  19. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Morrison

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP, body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status (SES, motor performance (MP, and perceived athletic competence (PAC of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  20. A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.

  1. 5-HT modulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current and calcium- dependent outward current in a crustacean motor neuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O.; Harris-Warrick, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    1. Serotonergic modulation of a hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I(h), and a calcium-dependent outward current, I(o(Ca)), was examined in the dorsal gastric (DG) motor neuron, with the use of intracellular recording techniques in an isolated preparation of the crab stomatogastric....... The time course of activation of I(h) was well fitted by a single exponential function and strongly voltage dependent. 5-HT increased the rate of activation of I(h). 5- HT also slowed the rate of deactivation of the I(h) tail on repolarization to -50 mV. 6. The activation curve for the conductance (G...... reduced or eliminated the 5-HT response in the depolarizing range, suggesting that 5-HT specifically reduces I(o(Ca)). 11. These results demonstrate that 5-HT has dual effects on the DG motor neuron, in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. We suggest that changes in the two conductances are responsible...

  2. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation for heat pain and motor tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiton, Raimi L.; Keaser, Michael L.; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Greenspan, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    As the practice of conducting longitudinal fMRI studies to assess mechanisms of pain-reducing interventions becomes more common, there is a great need to assess the test–retest reliability of the pain-related BOLD fMRI signal across repeated sessions. This study quantitatively evaluated the reliability of heat pain-related BOLD fMRI brain responses in healthy volunteers across 3 sessions conducted on separate days using two measures: (1) intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) calculated based on signal amplitude and (2) spatial overlap. The ICC analysis of pain-related BOLD fMRI responses showed fair-to-moderate intersession reliability in brain areas regarded as part of the cortical pain network. Areas with the highest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis included the anterior midcingulate cortex, anterior insula, and second somatosensory cortex. Areas with the lowest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis also showed low spatial reliability; these regions included pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and posterior insula. Thus, this study found regional differences in pain-related BOLD fMRI response reliability, which may provide useful information to guide longitudinal pain studies. A simple motor task (finger-thumb opposition) was performed by the same subjects in the same sessions as the painful heat stimuli were delivered. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation in cortical motor areas was comparable to previously published findings for both spatial overlap and ICC measures, providing support for the validity of the analytical approach used to assess intersession reliability of pain-related fMRI activation. A secondary finding of this study is that the use of standard ICC alone as a measure of reliability may not be sufficient, as the underlying variance structure of an fMRI dataset can result in inappropriately high ICC values; a method to eliminate these false positive results was used in this

  3. [Neuronal activity of monkey dorso-lateral premotor cortex during tasks of figure recognition guided motor sequence vs memorized spatial motor sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Huang, F D; Chen, N H; Shou, J Y; Wu, L

    1998-04-01

    In the last 2-3 decades the role of the premotor cortex (PM) of monkey in memorized spatial sequential (MSS) movements has been amply investigated. However, it is as yet not known whether PM participates in the movement sequence behaviour guided by recognition of visual figures (i.e. the figure-recognition sequence, FRS). In the present work three monkeys were trained to perform both FRS and MSS tasks. Postmortem examination showed that 202 cells were in the dorso-lateral premotor cortex. Among 111 cells recorded during the two tasks, more than 50% changed their activity during the cue periods in either task. During the response period, the ratios of cells with changes of firing rate in both FRS and MSS were high and roughly equal to each other, while during the image period, the proportion in the FRS (83.7%) was significantly higher than that in the MSS (66.7%). Comparison of neuronal activities during same motor sequence of two different tasks showed that during the image periods PM neuronal activities were more closely related to the FRS task, while during the cue periods no difference could be found. Analysis of cell responses showed that the neurons with longer latency were much more in MSS than in FRS in either cue or image period. The present results indicate that the premotor cortex participates in FRS motor sequence as well as in MSS and suggest that the dorso-lateral PM represents another subarea in function shared by both FRS and MSS tasks. However, in view of the differences of PM neuronal responses in cue or image periods of FRS and MSS tasks, it seems likely that neural networks involved in FRS and MSS tasks are different.

  4. Previous motor activity affects the transition from uncertainty to decision making in snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunova, Tatiana A; Vorontsov, Dmitry D; Dyakonova, Varvara E

    2016-11-15

    One of the most widely accepted benefits of enhanced physical activity is an improvement in the symptoms of depression, including the facilitation of decision making. Up until now, these effects have been shown in rodents and humans only. Little is known about their evolutionary origin or biological basis, and the underlying cellular mechanisms also remain relatively elusive. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that preceding motor activity accelerates decision making in an invertebrate, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis To investigate decision making in a novel environment, snails, which normally live in water, were placed on a flat dry surface to simulate the potentially threatening consequence of being in an arid environment. This stimulus initiated two distinct phases in snail behaviour: slow circular movements, followed by intense locomotion in a chosen direction. The first phase was prolonged when the test arena was symmetrically lit, compared with one with an apparent gradient of light. However, forced muscular locomotion for 2 h prior to the test promoted the transition from random circular motions to a directional crawl, accompanied by an increase in crawling speed but with no effect on the choice of direction. Intense locomotion for 2 h also produced a strong excitatory effect on the activity of serotonergic neurons in L. stagnalis Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive performance in mammals might have deep roots in evolution, granting the opportunity to unravel the origins of such effects at the single-neuron and network levels. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4 and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2. Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN, the hypoglossal nerve (HGN, the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN with the phrenic nerve (PN. Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  6. Bio-mechanical aspects of elite cyclists’ motor system adaptation in process of competition activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kolumbet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose; to study the laws of motor structure adaptation of elite cyclists, specializing in 4 km individual pursuit racing on track. Material: in the research 18 elite athletes participated. We studied special aspects of athletes’ coordination structure in experiment, which simulated competition activity. Results: at start segment of distance high speed depends on effectiveness of right leg’s pulling; on pressing and pushing of left leg. At initial stage of distance high efficiency of pedaling is ensured by pressing and pulling of right and left legs. At middle segment high workability depends on movement of right leg; pressing, pulling and pushing of left leg. On finish speed depends by effectiveness of pressing, pulling and moving of right leg; pressing and pulling of left leg. Conclusions: the presented material creates real pre-conditions for development of bio-mechanical models of cyclists’ pedaling technique. The received data can be used for special searching of optimal movement, considering competition tactic. The received results can be used for choosing of means and methods of athletes’ movements’ pedagogic re-constructions.

  7. Restraint status improves the predictive value of motor vehicle crash criteria for pediatric trauma team activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Recicar, John F; Smith, Samuel D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna R; Nick, Todd G; Maxson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Most trauma centers incorporate mechanistic criteria (MC) into their algorithm for trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that characteristics of the crash are less reliable than restraint status in predicting significant injury and the need for TTA. We identified 271 patients (age, <15 y) admitted with a diagnosis of motor vehicle crash. Mechanistic criteria and restraint status of each patient were recorded. Both MC and MC plus restraint status were evaluated as separate measures for appropriately predicting TTA based on treatment outcomes and injury scores. Improper restraint alone predicted a need for TTA with an odds ratios of 2.69 (P = .002). MC plus improper restraint predicted the need for TTA with an odds ratio of 2.52 (P = .002). In contrast, the odds ratio when using MC alone was 1.65 (P = .16). When the 5 MC were evaluated individually as predictive of TTA, ejection, death of occupant, and intrusion more than 18 inches were statistically significant. Improper restraint is an independent predictor of necessitating TTA in this single-institution study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associating Physical Activity Levels with Motor Performance and Physical Function in Childhood Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Stanley H; Rankin, Anne; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Pritchard, Sheila; Fryer, Christopher; Campbell, Kristin L

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional, observational study investigated whether physical activity (PA) levels are associated with motor performance and physical function in children after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method: Participants aged 8-13 years who had completed treatment for ALL (3-36 months post-treatment) were tested at their oncology long-term follow-up appointment at the British Columbia Children's Hospital. PA level was measured using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Motor performance was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and physical function was measured using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: Thirteen children completed testing. PAQ-C scores were not associated with BOT-2 SF or 6MWT performance. Eleven children (85%) performed below the norm for the 6MWT. Children with elevated body mass index had poorer 6MWT but similar PAQ-C scores. Conclusion: PA was not found to be associated with motor performance and physical function. Participants who were overweight or obese had poorer 6MWT performance, which may indicate the need for closer monitoring of post-treatment weight status and physical function in the oncology follow-up setting.

  9. Synthesis and Investigation of Algorithm for Estimation of Active Stator Resistance of Asynchronous Motor with Fixed Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Odnolko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an algorithm for online identification of active stator resistance. Algorithm synthesis has been developed on the basis of a recursive least squares method. The problem has been solved for induction motor model defined in the stationary stator frame α–β-coordinating system. An analysis of negative factors deteriorating the identifier operation has been made in the paper. The analysis has revealed the following: measured signals are noisy due to quantization and differentiation; dynamic model of an induction motor provides only approximate presentation about actual processes in the electromagnetic system of the machine. The paper presents results of  a system simulation while applying the proposed algorithm that confirm the fact that the estimated value of the active stator resistance tends to a true value with high accuracy. The identification test assumes a fixed rotor and nominal parameters uncertainty, but the flexible structure of the algorithm allows to use it as  for single-phase excitation so for full-phase control of the induction motor with freely rotating motor.

  10. ADRIA: A summary of different tools for motor and generator field service activities in the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krell, M.; Wuehler, H.

    2012-01-01

    AREVA Drive In Application (ADRIA) – is an innovative program for use at sites all over the world. ADRIA is a full package for medium voltage motor and generator services growth in the long-term, which presents a wide range of applications for nuclear- , thermal- , renewable hydro power plants and all industrial plants. ADRIA support our customers with an optimized product in MV motor management systems e.g., dismantling, maintenance, repair, tools, containers with full equipped working tools or measure equipment. Are you planning to open a site? You will need special equipment and very special diagnostic methods for electrical analysis for preventive maintenance scheduling and planning; special support from experts, ADRIA is a good, unitized, and flexible solution which can be adapted to different customer requirements. • Technical modules show low service and maintenance costs due to the life time of electrical machines. • Measurement module – a solution for the actual condition of the MV motors and generators (vibration, partial discharge, infrared technology, cable analysis, motor – current – analysis) • Documentation module – for all projects in joining with quality management • Tools module – support for all activities in service (working tools, office / store containers) • Man power module – for all service in the field (Experts with world wide experience) • For pre-maintenance we use, for example, infrared technology. Experts monitor different cycles and find out which parts are creating problems. The maintenance strategy will be clear, shorter and more effective for the next outage. ADRIA offers great advantages for the global maintenance market providing time, efficiency and preventive scheduling, efforts and saving of costs. This new technology method has been successfully applied in various motor refurbishment projects in German, Spain or Brazil nuclear power plants since 2010. Further follow-up orders in German and

  11. Recruitment and Decruitment of Motor Units Activities of M. Biceps Brachii During Isovelocity Movements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okuno, Ryuhei

    2001-01-01

    ... (from 0 DEG to 120 DEG) of elbow joint angle with a surface electrode array. We identified action potensials of each moitor unit and detected recruitment and decruitment of the identified motor units...

  12. Restauration of age related motor impairment: Role of IGF-1 based gene therapy and microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Falomir Lockhart

    2015-05-01

    In the current study we implemented ICV IGF-I gene therapy in very old rats (28 months and assessed the motor performance pre and 17-days after surgery. Glial immunoreactivity in striatum was evaluated by Iba1 and GFAP markers. Results: As we previously reported, IGF-I restored motor coordination and forelimb grip strength in aged rats (Sanchez et al., 2008. We found that microglia immunoreactivity (Iba-1+ was significantly increased for at least 17 days after treatment with IGF-I (Xm-senil-IGF-I=8.370±0.3297 vs Xm-senil-DsRed= 5.557±0.2553; p<0.0001, astrocytes (GFAP+ showed not changes. Our results identify a novel function of microglia in the maintenance of motor permormance and suggest an original approach for reversing age-associated motor and exploratory performance recorded in rats.

  13. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B; Stodden, D F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven-year longitudinal study with three measuring points (mean ages [in years] and respective sample size: 6.75±0.37, n=696; 9.59±1.07, n=617; 13.35±0.34, n=513). PA (moderate-to-vigorous PA-MVPA and vigorous PA-VPA) was monitored using accelerometers. MC was assessed by the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-KTK" test battery. VO 2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO 2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak . All coefficients presented were standardized (z-scores). MC and VO 2peak directly influenced the development of body fatness, and VO 2peak mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, MC, and body fatness. MC also mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, and body fatness. In addition, VO 2peak had the largest total association with body fatness (β=-0.431; Pfitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analysis of male volleyball players' motor activities during a top level match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Dariusz; Januszkiewicz, Aleksander; Kawczyński, Adam S; Borysiuk, Zbigniew; Chmura, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims to assess motor activity of volleyball players using an original video recording method developed by the authors. Twenty-eight volleyball players taking part in 4 matches of the Polish Volleyball League were examined. The recorded data were analyzed in view of the mean total distance covered by volleyball players on different court positions during a match, set, and rally. The results showed that volleyball players cover the mean total distance of 1221 ± 327 m (mean ± SD) in a 3-set match, and 1757 ± 462 m in a 4-set match. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.005) was found between the distance covered by the middle blockers and setters, defenders, spikers, and libero players in a match and in a set. The study revealed a tendency to lengthen the distance by the players in the final sets, which is indicative of the extended time of individual rallies. The mean distance covered in a single rally amounted to 10.92 ± 0.9 m in 4 matches (between 9.12 and 12.56 m). Considering the limited size of the field of play, volleyball players cover relatively long distances during a match and individual sets, with the shortest distance covered by middle blockers, and the longest by setters. From a practical application point of view, detailed topographic analysis of a player's movements on the court as well as precise data on the time of activity and rest breaks provide the coach with valuable information on the ways of development of arrhythmic, changing and dynamic training loads.

  15. Synchronization of lower limb motor unit activity during walking in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Naja L; Hansen, S; Christensen, L. O. D.

    2001-01-01

    lateralis and medialis of quadriceps), but not or rarely for paired recordings from ankle and knee muscles. The data demonstrate that human motor units within a muscle as well as synergistic muscles acting on the same joint receive a common synaptic drive during human gait. It is speculated that the common...... drive responsible for the motor unit synchronization during gait may be similar to that responsible for short-term synchronization during tonic voluntary contraction....

  16. The Effect of Sport Activities on Perceptual-motor Skills among Obese Children with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks selected sport trainings on perceptual- motor skills among typical obese girls and girls with Down syndrome (aged 7-13. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with control group, 22 obese children with Down syndrome and 22 typical obese children who were selected purposefully participated in 24 purposeful sport training sessions. All groups were assessed with Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency before and after training sessions. Results: The findings showed that both groups of participants significantly developed in their gross motor skills (P<0.05 but not in fine skills. Also, the results indicated that obese children with Down syndrome had significantly (P<0.05 higher progress in both gross and fine motor skills than typical children. Conclusion: Despite of the variety of influential genetic and environmental constraints on obese children with Down syndrome they can develop their perceptual-motor skills via purposeful sport trainings such as play and leisure. Necessity of early perceptual-motor training is discussed.

  17. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-02

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deletion of Gpr55 Results in Subtle Effects on Energy Metabolism, Motor Activity and Thermal Pain Sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid molecules and has been speculated to play a modulatory role in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in metabolically perturbed states. We therefore generated male mice deficient in the gene coding for the cannabinoid/lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI receptor Gpr55 and characterized them under normal dietary conditions as well as during high energy dense diet feeding followed by challenge with the CB1 receptor antagonist/GPR55 agonist rimonabant. Gpr55 deficient male mice (Gpr55 KO were phenotypically indistinguishable from their wild type (WT siblings for the most part. However, Gpr55 KO animals displayed an intriguing nocturnal pattern of motor activity and energy expenditure (EE. During the initial 6 hours of the night, motor activity was significantly elevated without any significant effect observed in EE. Interestingly, during the last 6 hours of the night motor activity was similar but EE was significantly decreased in the Gpr55 KO mice. No significant difference in motor activity was detected during daytime, but EE was lower in the Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. The aforementioned patterns were not associated with alterations in energy intake, daytime core body temperature, body weight (BW or composition, although a non-significant tendency to increased adiposity was seen in Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. Detailed analyses of daytime activity in the Open Field paradigm unveiled lower horizontal activity and rearing time for the Gpr55 KO mice. Moreover, the Gpr55 KO mice displayed significantly faster reaction time in the tail flick test, indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. The BW-decreasing effect of rimonabant in mice on long-term cafeteria diet did not differ between Gpr55 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, Gpr55 deficiency is associated with subtle effects on diurnal/nocturnal EE and motor activity behaviours but does not

  19. Motor Skills and Free-Living Physical Activity Showed No Association Among Preschoolers in 2012 U.S. National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.

  20. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  1. The relationship between physical growth, the level of activity and the development of motor skills in adolescence : Differences between children with DCD and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Geuze, R.H.; Kalverboer, A.F.

    This study uses a longitudinal design to explore the relationships between physical growth, motor competence and level of participation in physical activity, during the adolescent growth spurt. Thirty boys were selected, representing the range of motor competence. Out of this sample two groups were

  2. [CHANGE OF CHARACTER OF INTERSYSTEMIC INTERACTIONS IN NEWBORN RAT PUPS UNDER CONDITIONS OF A DECREASE OF MOTOR ACTIVITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E; Kuznetsov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of slow-wave.rhythmic components of cardiac, respiratory.and motor activity was investigated in newborn rat pups on the first day after birth under normal conditions and after pharmacological depression of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA) produced by injecting myocuran (myanesin) at low (100 mg/pg, i/p) and maximal (235 mg/pg, i/p) dosages. The data obtained allow to infer that in rat pups after birth the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly via slow-wave oscillations of about-one- and many-minute ranges whereas the rhythms of decasecond range do not play a significant role in integrative processes. Injection of miocuran at a dose causing no muscle relaxation and no inhibition of motor activity produces changes of the cardiac and respiratory rhythms as well as a transitory decrease of the magnitude of coordinate relations mediated by the rhythms of about-one- and many-minute ranges. The consequences of muscle relaxant injection were found to be more significant for intersystemic interactions with participation of the respiratory system. An increase of the dosage and, correspondingly, the total inhibition of SPMA is accompanied by reduction of the slow-wave components from the pattern of cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more expressed in intact rat pups, are reduced in the about-one- and many-minute ranges of modulation whereas in the decasecond range of modulation they are slightly increased. Key words: early ontogenesis, intersystemic interactions, cardiac rhythm, respiration, motor activity, myocuran (myanesin).

  3. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-10-10

    Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry) was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence). General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills), both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033) and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044). MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  4. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (accelerometry was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills, both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Results Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033 and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044. MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Conclusion Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  5. Analysis of activity and motor coordination in rats undergoing stereotactic surgery and implantation of a cannula into the dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, F; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Puga-Olguín, A; Germán-Ponciano, L J; Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Bernal-Morales, B

    Stereotactic surgery is used to place electrodes or cannulas in the brain in order to study the function of several brain structures in preclinical research. The hippocampus has been extensively studied with this methodology due to its involvement in a wide range of neurological, cognitive, emotional, and affective disorders. However, the effects of stereotactic surgery on coordination and motor activity should be evaluated in order to determine whether this surgical procedure causes any neurological alterations that may bias the results of studies incorporating this technique. We evaluated the effects of stereotactic surgery and implantation of a cannula into the hippocampus of female Wistar rats on the motor activity, forced swim, and rotarod tests. The stage of the oestrous cycle was included in the statistical analysis. Stereotactic surgery had no impact on any of the motor activity variables assessed in the open field (squares crossed, time spent in grooming, and rearing), forced swim (turning behaviour, lateral swimming, latency to first immobility, and time spent immobile), and rotarod (latency to fall) tests, compared with intact rats. Regardless of surgical manipulation, rats in the metestrus and diestrus stages crossed a greater number of squares and displayed longer immobility times than those in the proestrus and estrus stages. Stereotactic surgery for cannula placement in the dorsal hippocampus does not affect coordination and motor activity in rats. We can therefore conclude that this procedure has no neurological complications that may interfere in the interpretation of results of studies applying this technique. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  7. Mathematical modeling of alignment dynamics in active motor-filament systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sumanth

    The formation of the cytoskeleton, via motor-mediated microtubule self-organization, is an important subject of study in the biological sciences as well as in nonequilibrium, soft matter physics. Accurate modeling of the dynamics is a formidable task as it involves intrinsic nonlinearities, structural anisotropies, nonequilibrium processes, and a broad window of time scales, length scales, and densities. In this thesis, we study the ordering dynamics and pattern formations arising from motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model in which microtubules interact through motor induced, inelastic binary collisions. This model shows that initially disordered filament solutions exhibit an ordering transition resulting in the emergence of well aligned rod bundles. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results show a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In the semi-dilute case, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered state with a nonzero mean orientation. We develop a spatially homogeneous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for motor forcing and thermal fluctuations which enter into the model as multiplicative and additive noises respectively. Our model further incorporates a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We demonstrate that the transition to the oriented state changes from second order to first order when the force-dependent detachment becomes important. In our final analysis, we add complex spatial inhomogeneities to our mean field theory. The revised model consists of a system

  8. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Yoshida, Akihiro; Ueno, Mika; Terabe, Kazunori; Kato, Shohei; Isoda, Haruo; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain-computer/brain-machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF) during training. The participants' performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  9. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Bagarinao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI, a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain–computer/brain–machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF during training. The participants’ performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  10. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  11. Application of CMAC Neural Network Coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control Strategy on Three-motor Synchronization Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-motor synchronous coordination system is a MI-MO nonlinear and complex control system. And it often works in poor working condition. Advanced control strategies are required to improve the control performance of the system and to achieve the decoupling between main motor speed and tension. Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control (CMAC-ADRC control strategy is proposed. The speed of the main motor and tensions between two motors is decoupled by extended state observer (ESO in ADRC. ESO in ADRC is used to compensate internal and external disturbances of the system online. And the anti interference of the system is improved by ESO. And the same time the control model is optimized. Feedforward control is implemented by the adoption of CMAC neural network controller. And control precision of the system is improved in reason of CMAC. The overshoot of the system can be reduced without affecting the dynamic response of the system by the use of CMAC-ADRC. The simulation results show that: the CMAC- ADRC control strategy is better than the traditional PID control strategy. And CMAC-ADRC control strategy can achieve the decoupling between speed and tension. The control system using CMAC-ADRC have strong anti-interference ability and small regulate time and small overshoot. The magnitude of the system response incited by the interference using CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system using conventional PID control 6.43 %. And the recovery time of the system with CMAC-ADRC is shorter than the system with traditional PID control 0.18 seconds. And the triangular wave tracking error of the system with CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system with conventional PID control 0.24 rad/min. Thus the CMAC-ADRC control strategy is a good control strategy and is able to fit three-motor synchronous coordinated control.

  12. The Effects of an Early Motor Skill Intervention on Motor Skills, Levels of Physical Activity, and Socialization in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor…

  13. Comparison of adult physical activity levels in three Swiss alpine communities with varying access to motorized transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombois, Oliver Thommen; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Martin-Diener, Eva

    2007-09-01

    To compare physical activity levels of residents of three Swiss alpine communities with varying access to motorized transport and to investigate whether socio-demographic factors, the settlement structure or means of transport affect these levels. Between January and February 2004 a computer assisted telephone interview was conducted with 901 randomly selected adults aged 18 years or older living in three Swiss alpine communities. In particular, information on moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities and on transport behaviour was collected. Respondents were categorized as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' according to self-reported physical activity. People living in community 1 without access to motorized traffic were significantly more likely to be sufficiently active (Sex- and age-adjusted prevalences of sufficient total physical activity, 43.9% 95% CI: 38.3%-49.8%) compared to individuals living in the other two communities (community 2: 35.9%, 95% CI: 30.6%-41.6%, community 3: 32.7%, 95% CI: 27.5%-38.3%). The differences were due to higher levels of moderate physical activities. Vigorous physical activity levels did not differ between the communities. Community differences were explained by passive means of transport to work and for leisure time activities. Although the environment encountered in the three alpine communities is generally conducive to physical activity the majority of the participants did not achieve recommended activity levels. Passive mode of transport to work and during leisure time was strongly associated with insufficient total physical activity. Walking and cycling for transportation is thus a promising approach to promote health enhancing physical activity.

  14. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  15. Physical activity in community-dwelling stroke survivors and a healthy population is not explained by motor function only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna; Meirelles, Cristiane; Willen, Carin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant

    2014-02-01

    To explore the relationship between self-reporting and physical measures and compare self-reported physical activity (PA) levels in persons who have had a stroke with self-reported PA levels in a control population. Cross-sectional assessment of a convenience sample of survivors of a stroke living in the community and a population-based sample from the same community. University hospital. Seventy persons (48 men and 22 women; average age, 60 years) who had a stroke a mean of 6 years earlier and 141 persons (70 men and 71 women; average age, 59 years) who served as control subjects. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was used, and self-selected and maximum walking speeds were measured. Motor function after stroke was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment. The median Fugl-Meyer score for motor function in the leg was 29. Mean self-selected and maximum walking speeds after having a stroke were 1.0 m/s and 1.3 m/s, corresponding to 72% and 65% of control values. A regression model with PASE as the dependent variable and age and walking speed as independent variables explained 29% (P physically active than the population of the same age who have not had a stroke. However, it appears that factors other than motor impairment have an impact on a person's PA level, because only a low association was found between PA level and motor function, with a large dispersion in PA levels in persons with a history of stroke who were physically well recovered. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased motor preparation activity during fluent single word production in DS: A correlate for stuttering frequency and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Santens, Patrick; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal speech motor preparation is suggested to be a neural characteristic of stuttering. One of the neurophysiological substrates of motor preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). The CNV is an event-related, slow negative potential that occurs between two defined stimuli. Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely studied in developmental stuttering (DS). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate motor preparation in DS by use of a CNV task. Twenty five adults who stutter (AWS) and 35 fluent speakers (FS) were included. They performed a picture naming task while an electro-encephalogram was recorded. The slope of the CNV was evaluated at frontal, central and parietal electrode sites. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed with stuttering severity and frequency measures. There was a marked increase in CNV slope in AWS as compared to FS. This increase was observed over the entire scalp with respect to stimulus onset, and only over the right hemisphere with respect to lip movement onset. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between CNV slope and stuttering frequency and severity. As the CNV is known to reflect the activity in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical-network, the present findings confirm an increased activation of this loop during speech motor preparation in stuttering. The more a person stutters, the more neurons of this cortical-subcortical network seem to be activated. Because this increased CNV slope was observed during fluent single word production, it is discussed whether or not this observation refers to a successful compensation strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of common principles for the evaluation of quality characteristics of motor activity in the fitness and sports aerobics aesthetic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Artemyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitative characteristics of motor activity in special physical training, which allow an assessment of motor talent of the athlete and to provide objective guidance to training in particular sport. Conclusions: the presented methods quantify the qualitative indicators of the special motor preparation allow us to estimate a measure of motor gifted individual and his susceptibility to training in particular sport

  18. Single to Two Cluster State Transition of Primary Motor Cortex 4-posterior (MI-4p Activities in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nakada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human primary motor cortex has dual representation of the digits, namely, area 4 anterior (MI-4a and area 4 posterior (MI-4p. We have previously demonstrated that activation of these two functional subunits can be identified independently by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI using independent component-cross correlation-sequential epoch (ICS analysis. Subsequent studies in patients with hemiparesis due to subcortical lesions and monoparesis due to peripheral nerve injury demonstrated that MI-4p represents the initiation area of activation, whereas MI-4a is the secondarily activated motor cortex requiring a “long-loop” feedback input from secondary motor systems, likely the cerebellum. A dynamic model of hand motion based on the limit cycle oscillator predicts that the specific pattern of entrainment of neural firing may occur by applying appropriate periodic stimuli. Under normal conditions, such entrainment introduces a single phase-cluster. Under pathological conditions where entrainment stimuli have insufficient strength, the phase cluster splits into two clusters. Observable physiological phenomena of this shift from single cluster to two clusters are: doubling of firing rate of output neurons; or decay in group firing density of the system due to dampening of odd harmonics components. While the former is not testable in humans, the latter can be tested by appropriately designed fMRI experiments, the quantitative index of which is believed to reflect group behavior of neurons functionally localized, e.g., firing density in the dynamic theory. Accordingly, we performed dynamic analysis of MI-4p activation in normal volunteers and paretic patients. The results clearly indicated that MI-4p exhibits a transition from a single to a two phase-cluster state which coincided with loss of MI-4a activation. The study demonstrated that motor dysfunction (hemiparesis in patients with a subcortical infarct is not simply due to afferent

  19. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  20. Modulation of motor area activity by the outcome for a player during observation of a baseball game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors. However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers, watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher and the outcome (a hit or an out. When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system.

  1. Registration and Analysis of Bioelectric Activity of Sensory-Motor Cortex During the Electrical Stimulation of Nucleus Caudate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Medenica-Milanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe caudate circuit takes part in cognitive control of motor activity The purpose of the present work was registration and analysis of basic bioelectrical activity of ventral and dorsal sensory-motor cortex and nucleus caudate, study of the changes in EEG after nucleus caudate electrical stimulation and to identify of threshold level of electrical stimuli responsible for changes of electrical activity in registered brain area.Materials and methodsWe used 28 albino Wistar rat of both genders. After the animal fixation on stereotaxic apparatus to dry bone, the places for electrode fixation were marked. Two days after the electrodes had been implanted an EEG was registered so that the animals would adjust to the conditions and so they would repair the tissue reactions. EEG was registered with bipolar electrodes with ten-channeled apparatus. For first half an hour spontaneous activity of the brain was registered, and after that the head of nucleus caudate was stimulated with altered impulses of various voltages, frequency and duration.Results and conclusionsThreshold values of electric stimulus intensity from 3 to 5 V, frequency from 3 to 5 Hz, duration from 3 to 5 ms, by stimulation the head of nucleus caudate of rat, lead to the change of basal bioelectric activity of cerebrum. The change of bioelectric activity is firstly recorded in equilateral cortex, and with the higher intensity of the stimulus the changes overtake the contra lateral cortex.

  2. Hippocampal EEG and motor activity in the cat: The role of eye movements and body acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Boeijinga, P.; Aitink, W.

    1984-01-01

    In cat the relation between various behaviours and the spectral properties of the hippocampal EEG was investigated. Both EEG and behaviour were quantified and results were evaluated statistically. Significant relationships were found between the properties of the hippocampal EEG and motor acts

  3. Myosin II Motor Activity in the Lateral Amygdala Is Required for Fear Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Cristin F.; Rubio, Maria D.; Young, Erica; Miller, Courtney; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Learning induces dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton that are required to support memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics during learning and memory are poorly understood. Myosin II motors are highly expressed in actin-rich growth structures including dendritic spines, and we have…

  4. Manual activity shapes structure and function in contralateral human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granert, Oliver; Peller, Martin; Gaser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    which was designed to improve handwriting-associated dystonia. Initially the dystonic hand was immobilized for 4 weeks with the intention to reverse faulty plasticity. After immobilization, patients accomplished a motor re-training for 8 weeks. T1-weighted MRIs of the whole brain and single-pulse TMS...

  5. Association between physical activity and motor skills and coordination in Portuguese children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is growing evidence in literature that Health benefits from regular physical activity (PA. The variance in PA among children is caused by a number of factors including their motor abilities and coordination. The aim of the study was to analyse the relation between usual PA and gross motor abilities and motor coordination in children aged 6 to 7 years. The sample comprised 21 children, aged in average 6,38±0,50 years. Physical activity was accessed by accelerometry, gross motor abilities by using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and motor coordination by using the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (KTK. Subjects met the international recommendations for daily PA; in motor coordination 47,6% of children met normal coordination, nobody reach good or very good coordination, the majority (52,4% revelled disturbances or insufficiencies of coordination; in locomotion TGMD-2 76,2% of the children met percentile 50 or superior (P50, in object control TGMD-2 28,6% of the children reach P50 or superior, in total TGMD-2 38,1% of the children met P50 or superior. PA was positively correlated with TGMD-2 object control. Low performance attributed to the children in TGMD-2 and KTK tests could be an indicative of insufficient in the development of coordination and gross motor abilities; therefore we believe that this kind of intervention should be targeted at school children mainly in Physical Education classes.

  6. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  7. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey R.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ∼120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types. PMID:23221403

  8. Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Spinal NMDA receptor activation constrains inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation in Charles River Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K A; Baker-Herman, T L

    2014-10-01

    Reduced spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit a unique form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). iPMF requires tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activity within spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus to stabilize early, transient increases in phrenic burst amplitude into long-lasting iPMF. Here we tested the hypothesis that spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation constrains long-lasting iPMF in some rat substrains. Phrenic motor output was recorded in anesthetized, ventilated Harlan (HSD) and Charles River (CRSD) Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a 30-min central neural apnea. HSD rats expressed a robust, long-lasting (>60 min) increase in phrenic burst amplitude (i.e., long-lasting iPMF) when respiratory neural activity was restored. By contrast, CRSD rats expressed an attenuated, transient (∼15 min) iPMF. Spinal NMDAR inhibition with DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) before neural apnea or shortly (4 min) prior to the resumption of respiratory neural activity revealed long-lasting iPMF in CRSD rats that was phenotypically similar to that in HSD rats. By contrast, APV did not alter iPMF expression in HSD rats. Spinal TNF-α or aPKC inhibition impaired long-lasting iPMF enabled by NMDAR inhibition in CRSD rats, suggesting that similar mechanisms give rise to long-lasting iPMF in CRSD rats with NMDAR inhibition as those giving rise to long-lasting iPMF in HSD rats. These results suggest that NMDAR activation can impose constraints on TNF-α-induced aPKC activation after neural apnea, impairing stabilization of transient iPMF into long-lasting iPMF. These data may have important implications for understanding differential responses to reduced respiratory neural activity in a heterogeneous human population. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  11. Changes in ipsilateral motor cortex activity during a unilateral isometric finger task are dependent on the muscle contraction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Kuboyama, Naomi; Tanaka, Junya

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to examine bilateral primary motor cortex (M1) activation during a sustained motor task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in which it is assumed that increased oxygenation reflects cortical activation. The purpose of this study was to examine bilateral M1 activation in response to graded levels of force production during a unilateral finger task. Ten healthy right-handed male subjects participated in this study. NIRS probes were placed over the cortex to measure M1 activity while the subjects performed the finger task. The subjects performed a 10 s finger task at 20%, 40%, and 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Symmetrical activation was found over both M1 areas at all force levels investigated. In the contralateral M1, there were significant differences in oxygenation between 20% and 60% MVC, as well as between 40% and 60% MVC. In the ipsilateral M1, there were significant differences among all force levels. These results indicate the ipsilateral M1 takes part in muscle force control. (paper)

  12. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-08-08

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  13. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile, physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw, and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57% were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4% with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs. Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6% students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3% for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18 of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30 of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  14. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth. PMID:18687148

  15. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.

  16. A functional model and simulation of spinal motor pools and intrafascicular recordings of motoneuron activity in peripheral nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decoding motor intent from recorded neural signals is essential for the development of effective neural-controlled prostheses. To facilitate the development of online decoding algorithms we have developed a software platform to simulate neural motor signals recorded with peripheral nerve electrodes, such as longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs. The simulator uses stored motor intent signals to drive a pool of simulated motoneurons with various spike shapes, recruitment characteristics, and firing frequencies. Each electrode records a weighted sum of a subset of simulated motoneuron activity patterns. As designed, the simulator facilitates development of a suite of test scenarios that would not be possible with actual data sets because, unlike with actual recordings, in the simulator the individual contributions to the simulated composite recordings are known and can be methodically varied across a set of simulation runs. In this manner, the simulation tool is suitable for iterative development of real-time decoding algorithms prior to definitive evaluation in amputee subjects with implanted electrodes. The simulation tool was used to produce data sets that demonstrate its ability to capture some features of neural recordings that pose challenges for decoding algorithms.

  17. Model of Transient Process Where Three-Phase Transducer Feeds Induction Motor Equivalent as a Variable Active-Inductive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach in the analysis of a transient state in a system where the feeding source is a transducer-IGBT inverter and load is introduced through the induction motor with its R-L parameters. Induction motors with different parameters of powers and power factors are tested. MATLAB simulation of the three-phase inverter that feeds the induction machine has replaced the missing lab equipment with which mathematical model of this system was verified. According to the selected parameters of the inverter and induction machine and through the simulation in the MATLAB program, the results are obtained in the form of diagrams that verify the model of a transient state of the induction machine operation when it operates as a motor which is presented as a variable R-L load. The transient process of the system three-phase bridge inverter whose active-inductive load is the induction machine in the conditions of the change of the load parameters is analyzed. The model of the transient process in the system formed by the inverter in PWM (Pulse Width Modulation converter and induction machine is developed in the time domain and phase coordinates.

  18. Postnatal caffeine exposure: effects on motor skills and locomotor activity during ontogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0464 Grant - others:CZ-BG(CZ) Joint research project (2002-2004); NATO(XX) Science Fellowships Programme (2001-2002) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : caffeine * ontogenesis * motor skills Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2005

  19. Periodic modulation of motor-unit activity in extrinsic hand muscles during multidigit grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A; Winges, Sara A; Santello, Marco

    2005-07-01

    We recently examined the extent to which motor units of digit flexor muscles receive common input during multidigit grasping. This task elicited moderate to strong motor-unit synchrony (common input strength, CIS) across muscles (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP, and flexor pollicis longus, FPL) and across FDP muscle compartments, although the strength of this common input was not uniform across digit pairs. To further characterize the neural mechanisms underlying the control of multidigit grasping, we analyzed the relationship between firing of single motor units from these hand muscles in the frequency domain by computing coherence. We report three primary findings. First, in contrast to what has been reported in intrinsic hand muscles, motor units belonging to different muscles and muscle compartments of extrinsic digit flexors exhibited significant coherence in the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-Hz frequency ranges and much weaker coherence in the higher 10-20 Hz range (maximum 0.0025 and 0.0008, respectively, pooled across all FDP compartment pairs). Second, the strength and incidence of coherence differed considerably across digit pairs. Third, contrary to what has been reported in the literature, across-muscle coherence can be stronger and more prevalent than within-muscle coherence, as FPL-FDP2 (thumb-index digit pair) exhibited the strongest and most prevalent coherence in our data (0.010 and 43% at 3 Hz, respectively). The heterogeneous organization of common input to these muscles and muscle compartments is discussed in relation to the functional role of individual digit pairs in the coordination of multiple digit forces in grasping.

  20. Electrophysiological Brain Activity during the Control of a Motor Imagery-Based Brain–Computer Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Aziatskaya, G.A.; Bobrov, P.D.; Luykmanov, R. Kh.; Fedotova, I.R.; Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2017), s. 501-511 ISSN 0362-1197 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain–computer interface * neurointerface * EEG * motor imagery * EEG rhythm synchronization and desynchronization * independent component analysis * EEG inverse problem * neurorehabilitation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8)

  1. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  2. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  3. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  4. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  5. Prospective associations between measures of gross and fine motor coordination in infants and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo F López; Williams, Genevieve; Aggio, Daniel; Vicinanza, Domenico; Stubbs, Brendon; Kerr, Catherine; Johnstone, James; Roberts, Justin; Smith, Lee

    2017-11-01

    One important determinant of childhood physical activity and sedentary behavior may be that of motor development in infancy. The present analyses aimed to investigate whether gross and fine motor delays in infants were associated with objective and self-reported activity in childhood. Data were from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study, involving UK children born on or around the millennium (September 2000 and January 2002). When children were 9 months old, parents reported children's fine and gross motor-coordination, and at 7 years, sports club attendance and daily TV viewing time. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometers at 7 years. Adjusted regression models were used to examine associations between delayed motor development and accelerometry measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior, and parent-reported sport club attendance and TV viewing time. In this sample (n = 13,021), gross motor delay in infancy was associated with less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (B -5.0 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.8, -3.2) and more time sedentary (B 13.5 95% CI 9.3, 17.8) in childhood. Gross and fine motor delays during infancy were associated with a reduced risk of having high attendance at sports clubs in childhood (both relative risk [RR] 0.7, 95% CI 0.6, 0.9). Fine motor delays, but not gross delays, were also associated with an increased risk of having high TV viewing time (RR 1.3 95% CI 1.0, 1.6). Findings from the present study suggest that delays in motor development in infancy are associated with physical activity and sedentary time in childhood.

  6. Implicit sequence-specific motor learning after sub-cortical stroke is associated with increased prefrontal brain activations: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean K.; Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Wessel, Brenda; Boyd, Lara A.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke, but how the brain compensates for damage to facilitate learning is unclear. We used a random effects analysis to determine how stroke alters patterns of brain activity during implicit sequence-specific motor learning as compared to general improvements in motor control. Nine healthy participants and 9 individuals with chronic, right focal sub-cortical stroke performed a continuous joystick-based tracking task during an initial fMRI session, over 5 days of practice, and a retention test during a separate fMRI session. Sequence-specific implicit motor learning was differentiated from general improvements in motor control by comparing tracking performance on a novel, repeated tracking sequences during early practice and again at the retention test. Both groups demonstrated implicit sequence-specific motor learning at the retention test, yet substantial differences were apparent. At retention, healthy control participants demonstrated increased BOLD response in left dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) but decreased BOLD response left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 9) during repeated sequence tracking. In contrast, at retention individuals with stroke did not show this reduction in DLPFC during repeated tracking. Instead implicit sequence-specific motor learning and general improvements in motor control were associated with increased BOLD response in the left middle frontal gyrus BA 8, regardless of sequence type after stroke. These data emphasize the potential importance of a prefrontal-based attentional network for implicit motor learning after stroke. The present study is the first to highlight the importance of the prefrontal cortex for implicit sequence-specific motor learning after stroke. PMID:20725908

  7. Relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: temporal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Silbiger, S; Lifshitz, N; Katz, N; Steinhart, S; Cermak, S A; Weintraub, N

    2015-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life (QOL), within a temporal context (school year vs. summer vacation and school days vs. weekends). Parents of 22 children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and of 55 typically developing children, aged 6-11, filled out two questionnaires relating to their children's participation in leisure activities (vigorous, moderate and sedentary) and QOL. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was administered to their children. Results showed that among the children with DCD, balance scores positively correlated with participation in sedentary activities, and in both groups both balance and aiming and catching were related to the physical and school aspects of QOL. Furthermore, participation in vigorous activities in the summer was positively correlated with social and school QOL. In contrast, among typically developing children, participation in vigorous activities during the school year was negatively correlated with school QOL. Finally, in both groups, participation in sedentary activities during school days was negatively correlated with school QOL. These results suggest that the parents' perceptions of their children's QOL may be related to the level of activeness of the leisure activities but also to temporal aspects. Therefore, it is important that therapists and educators consider the temporal aspects, when consulting with parents and their children regarding participation in leisure activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Multi-Session Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor Control and Spontaneous Brain Activity in Multiple System Atrophy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired motor control is one of the most common symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA. It arises from dysfunction of the cerebellum and its connected neural networks, including the primary motor cortex (M1, and is associated with altered spontaneous (i.e., resting-state brain network activity. Non-invasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS selectively facilitates the excitability of supraspinal networks. Repeated rTMS sessions have been shown to induce long-term changes to both resting-state brain dynamics and behavior in several neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we hypothesized that a multi-session rTMS intervention would improve motor control in patients with MSA, and that such improvements would correlate with changes in resting-state brain activity.Methods: Nine participants with MSA received daily sessions of 5 Hz rTMS for 5 days. rTMS targeted both the cerebellum and the bilateral M1. Before and within 3 days after the intervention, motor control was assessed by the motor item of the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS. Resting-state brain activity was recorded by blood-oxygen-level dependency (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging. The “complexity” of resting-state brain activity fluctuations was quantified within seven well-known functional cortical networks using multiscale entropy, a technique that estimates the degree of irregularity of the BOLD time-series across multiple scales of time.Results: The rTMS intervention was well-attended and was not associated with any adverse events. Average motor scores were lower (i.e., better performance following the rTMS intervention as compared to baseline (t8 = 2.3, p = 0.003. Seven of nine participants exhibited such pre-to-post intervention improvements. A trend toward an increase in resting-state complexity was observed within the motor network (t8 = 1.86, p = 0.07. Participants who exhibited greater increases in motor network resting

  9. Extraction of motor activity from the cervical spinal cord of behaving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhishek; Sahin, Mesut

    2006-12-01

    Injury at the cervical region of the spinal cord results in the loss of the skeletal muscle control from below the shoulders and hence causes quadriplegia. The brain-computer interface technique is one way of generating a substitute for the lost command signals in these severely paralyzed individuals using the neural signals from the brain. In this study, we are investigating the feasibility of an alternative method where the volitional signals are extracted from the cervical spinal cord above the point of injury. A microelectrode array assembly was implanted chronically at the C5-C6 level of the spinal cord in rats. Neural recordings were made during the face cleaning behavior with forelimbs as this task involves cyclic forelimb movements and does not require any training. The correlation between the volitional motor signals and the elbow movements was studied. Linear regression technique was used to reconstruct the arm movement from the rectified-integrated version of the principal neural components. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of extracting the motor signals from the cervical spinal cord and using them for reconstruction of the elbow movements.

  10. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  11. Acute food deprivation separates motor-activating from anxiolytic effects of caffeine in a rat open field test model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela

    2018-03-14

    Similar doses of caffeine have been shown to produce either anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects in rats. The reasons for these conflicting results are not known. We hypothesized that food deprivation stress interacts with the stimulant effects of caffeine to increase anxiety-like behavior. We tested 32 female Sprague Dawley rats in a dim open field for 10 min. Half of the animals were food deprived for 24 h and injected (intraperitoneal) with caffeine (30 mg/kg; n=7) or deionized water (n=8) 20 min before the open field test. The other half was nondeprived and injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg; n=8) or deionized water (n=9). Results showed that nondeprived rats injected with caffeine moved longer distances and at a greater speed in the periphery and moved longer distances and spent more time in the center than rats treated with vehicle, indicative of motor-activating and/or anxiolytic effects of caffeine. Rats that were food deprived and injected with caffeine moved longer distances in the center and tended to spend more time there, indicative of anxiolysis. We conclude that caffeine had two effects on behavior, motor activation and a reduction of anxiety, and that food deprivation separated these effects.

  12. Motor and Nonmotor Circuitry Activation Induced by Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Intraoperative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M; Clayton, Daniel A; Klassen, Bryan T; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease would affect the activity of motor and nonmotor networks, we applied intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to patients receiving DBS. Ten patients receiving STN DBS for Parkinson disease underwent intraoperative 1.5-T fMRI during high-frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. We observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes (false discovery rate <0.001) in the motor circuitry (including the primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices; thalamus; pedunculopontine nucleus; and cerebellum) and in the limbic circuitry (including the cingulate and insular cortices). Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (P<.001) to the data set, suggesting that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared with those occurring in the nonmotor network. These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and nonmotor networks and suggest complex mechanisms as the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent than those in the nonmotor network. With further studies combining the use of real-time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809613. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Stina; Bell, Kristie L.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. PMID:22927865

  14. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Oftedal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC. Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group.

  15. [Motor skills and safety of patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury : Comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Benkenstein, Monique; Derlien, Steffen; Best, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Do patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury show differences in motor skills and safety in comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects? Prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 17 patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury (mean 1.5 years postsurgery) and 23 healthy, active subjects of comparable age (fitness studio). Measurement instruments: motor test procedures and questionnaires. Comparison of patients and control subjects by routine daily motor function: patients  0.05), fear of falling: patients > controls (p = 0.003) and physical activity: patients motor deficits in activities of daily life between the patients and controls, only tendencies; however, the patients showed definite limitations with an increased fear of falling and a reduced physical activity compared with the healthy control group. The resulting differences should be positively influenced by appropriate enhancement of training or participation in sports courses. The aim is to achieve a similar quality of life by a perception of safety and trust in one's own motor skills.

  16. The effects of gender, motor skills and play area on the free play activities of 8-11 year old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Nathan; Olds, Tim; Dollman, Jim

    2008-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the interactions between gender, play area, motor skills and free play activity in 8-11 year old school children. In both studies, boys were more active than girls. In boys, but not in girls, energy expenditure was greater for high-skill than for low-skill children (p = 0.0002), and increased as play area increased (p = 0.01). These results suggest that motor skills and play space are important variables in determining the free play activity of boys, but not of girls. This may be related to widely different play styles among boys and girls.

  17. External pallidal stimulation improves parkinsonian motor signs and modulates neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Jerrold L; Zhang, Jianyu; Hashimoto, Takao; Russo, Gary S; Baker, Kenneth B

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are effective for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We have shown previously that DBS of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) is associated with improvements in parkinsonian motor signs; however, the mechanism of this effect is not known. In this study, we extend our findings on the effect of STN and GPi DBS on neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network to include GPe DBS using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1.2.3.6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model. Stimulation parameters that improved bradykinesia were associated with changes in the pattern and mean discharge rate of neuronal activity in the GPi, STN, and the pallidal [ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)] and cerebellar [ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)] receiving areas of the motor thalamus. Population post-stimulation time histograms revealed a complex pattern of stimulation-related inhibition and excitation for the GPi and VA/VLo, with a more consistent pattern of inhibition in STN and excitation in VPLo. Mean discharge rate was reduced in the GPi and STN and increased in the VPLo. Effective GPe DBS also reduced bursting in the STN and GPi. These data support the hypothesis that therapeutic DBS activates output from the stimulated structure and changes the temporal pattern of neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network and provide further support for GPe as a potential therapeutic target for DBS in the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ward, Nick S; Lee, Lucy; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Frackowiak, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (+/-1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function.

  19. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  20. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  1. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Giordano

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  2. Understanding why an active video game intervention did not improve motor skill and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A quantity or quality issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; Campbell, Amity C; Abbott, Rebecca A; Straker, Leon M

    2017-01-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been identified as a novel strategy to improve motor skill and physical activity in clinical populations. A recent cross-over randomized trial found AVGs to be ineffective at improving motor skill and physical activity in the home-environment for children with or at-risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study purpose was to better understand why the intervention had been ineffective by examining the quantity and quality of AVG play during an AVG intervention for children with or at-risk for DCD. Participants (n=21, ages 9-12) completed the 16 week AVG intervention. Detailed quantitative and qualitative data were systematically triangulated to obtain the quantity of exposure (AVG exposure over time, patterns of exposure) and quality of use (game selection, facilitators and barriers to play). The median AVG dose (range 30-35min/day) remained relatively stable across the intervention and met the prescribed dose. Play quality was impacted by game selection, difficulty playing games, lack of time, illness, technical difficulties and boredom. The ineffectiveness of a home-based AVG intervention may be due to quality of play. Strategies to improve the quality of game play may help realize the potential benefits of AVGs as a clinical tool for children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NaV1.6a is required for normal activation of motor circuits normally excited by tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sean E.; Zhou, Weibin; Choong, Xinling; Saint-Amant, Louis; Sprague, Shawn M.; Hirata, Hiromi; Cui, Wilson W.; Hume, Richard I.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    A screen for zebrafish motor mutants identified two non-complementing alleles of a recessive mutation that were named non-active (navmi89 and navmi130). nav embryos displayed diminished spontaneous and touch-evoked escape behaviors during the first three days of development. Genetic mapping identified the gene encoding NaV1.6a (scn8aa) as a potential candidate for nav. Subsequent cloning of scn8aa from the two alleles of nav uncovered two missense mutations in NaV1.6a that eliminated channel activity when assayed heterologously. Furthermore the injection of RNA encoding wild type scn8aa rescued the nav mutant phenotype indicating that scn8aa was the causative gene of nav. In vivo electrophysiological analysis of the touch-evoked escape circuit indicated that voltage-dependent inward current was decreased in mechanosensory neurons in mutants, but they were able to fire action potentials. Furthermore tactile stimulation of mutants activated some neurons downstream of mechanosensory neurons but failed to activate the swim locomotor circuit in accord with the behavioral response of initial escape contractions but no swimming. Thus mutant mechanosensory neurons appeared to respond to tactile stimulation but failed to initiate swimming. Interestingly fictive swimming could be initiated pharmacologically suggesting that a swim circuit was present in mutants. These results suggested that NaV1.6a was required for touch-induced activation of the swim locomotor network. PMID:20225246

  4. Non-stationarity and power spectral shifts in EMG activity reflect motor unit recruitment in rat diaphragm muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

    2013-01-15

    We hypothesized that a shift in diaphragm muscle (DIAm) EMG power spectral density (PSD) to higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units and motor unit recruitment is reflected by EMG non-stationarity. DIAm EMG was recorded in anesthetized rats during eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O(2)-5% CO(2)), airway occlusion, and sneezing (maximal DIAm force). Although power in all frequency bands increased progressively across motor behaviors, PSD centroid frequency increased only during sneezing (pmotor units were recruited during different motor behaviors. Motor units augmented their discharge frequencies progressively beyond the non-stationary period; yet, EMG signal became stationary. In conclusion, non-stationarity of DIAm EMG reflects the period of motor unit recruitment, while a shift in the PSD towards higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor-related brain activity during action observation: a neural substrate for electrocorticographic brain-computer interfaces after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Collinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury (SCI, motor commands from the brain are unable to reach peripheral nerves and muscles below the level of the lesion. Action observation, in which a person observes someone else performing an action, has been used to augment traditional rehabilitation paradigms. Similarly, action observation can be used to derive the relationship between brain activity and movement kinematics for a motor-based brain-computer interface (BCI even when the user cannot generate overt movements. BCIs use brain signals to control external devices to replace functions that have been lost due to SCI or other motor impairment. Previous studies have reported congruent motor cortical activity during observed and overt movements using magnetoencephalography (MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recent single-unit studies using intracortical microelectrodes also demonstrated that a large number of motor cortical neurons had similar firing rate patterns between overt and observed movements. Given the increasing interest in electrocorticography (ECoG-based BCIs, our goal was to identify whether action observation-related cortical activity could be recorded using ECoG during grasping tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify congruent neural activity during observed and executed movements in both the sensorimotor rhythm (10-40 Hz and the high-gamma band (65-115 Hz which contains significant movement-related information. We observed significant motor-related high-gamma band activity during action observation in both able-bodied individuals and one participant with a complete C4 SCI. Furthermore, in able-bodied participants, both the low and high frequency bands demonstrated congruent activity between action execution and observation. Our results suggest that action observation could be an effective and critical procedure for deriving the mapping from ECoG signals to intended movement for an ECoG-based BCI system for individuals with

  6. Self-perceptions and physical activity in children with and without motor problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Self-perceptions influence global self-esteem and intrinsic motivation for achievement behavior (e.g., physical activity). Physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Participation in physical activity is preventive against obesity and positively influences mental health

  7. Contribution of Organized and Nonorganized Activity to Children's Motor Skills and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…

  8. A common neonicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, alters honey bee activity, motor functions, and movement to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, S; Nieh, J C

    2017-11-09

    Honey bees provide key ecosystem services. To pollinate and to sustain the colony, workers must walk, climb, and use phototaxis as they move inside and outside the nest. Phototaxis, orientation to light, is linked to sucrose responsiveness and the transition of work from inside to outside the nest, and is also a key component of division of labour. However, the sublethal effects of pesticides on locomotion and movement to light are relatively poorly understood. Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a common neonicotinoid pesticide that bees can consume in nectar and pollen. We used a vertical arena illuminated from the top to test the effects of acute and chronic sublethal exposures to TMX. Acute consumption (1.34 ng/bee) impaired locomotion, caused hyperactivity (velocity: +109%; time moving: +44%) shortly after exposure (30 min), and impaired motor functions (falls: +83%; time top: -43%; time bottom: +93%; abnormal behaviours: +138%; inability to ascend: +280%) over a longer period (60 min). A 2-day chronic exposure (field-relevant daily intakes of 1.42-3.48 ng/bee/day) impaired bee ability to ascend. TMX increased movement to light after acute and chronic exposure. Thus, TMX could reduce colony health by harming worker locomotion and, potentially, alter division of labour if bees move outside or remain outdoors.

  9. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  10. Evolution of surface motor activation zones in hemiplegic patients during 20 sessions of FES therapy with multi-pad electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Malešević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine surface motor activation zones for wrist, fingers and thumb extension movements and their temporal change during 20 therapy sessions using advanced multi-pad functional electrical stimulation system. Results from four hemiplegic patients indicate that certain zones have higher probability of eliciting each of the target movements. However, mutual overlap and variations of the zones are present not just between the subjects, but also on the intrasubject level, reflected through these session to session transformations of the selected virtual electrodes. The obtained results could be used as a priori knowledge for semi-automated optimization algorithm and could shorten the time required for calibration of the multi-pad electrode.

  11. The cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain: an application of event-related fMRI study of the voluntary motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Enzhong; Tian Jie; Dai Ruwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain using event-related fMRI technique developed in recent years. Methods: Forty-four subjects were selected in this experiment and scanned by GE Signa Horizon 1.5 Tesla superconductive MR system. A CUE-GO paradigm was used in this experiment. The data were analyzed in SUN and SGI workstation. Results: The activation areas were found in contralateral primary motor area (Ml), bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMA), pre-motor areas (PMA), basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices. The time-signal curve of Ml was a typical single-peak curve, but the curves in PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were double-peak curves. SMA had 2 parts, one was Pre-SMA, and another was SMA Proper. The curve was double-peak type in Pre-SMA and single-peak type in SMA Proper. There was difference between the time-signal intensity curves in above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: (1) Ml is mainly associated with motor execution, while others with both motor preparation and execution. There are differences in the function at the variant areas in the brain. (2) The fact that bilateral SMA, PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were activated, is different from what the classical theories told. (3) Event-related fMRI technique has higher temporary and spatial resolutions. (4) There is cooperation among different cortical areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

  12. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , A. Johnstone , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , M. Schladweiler , S. Snow, and U. Kodavanti. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28(5): 203-15, (2016).

  13. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  14. The 11S Proteasomal Activator REGγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation and Motor Neuron Viability through Distinct Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Yersak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR. The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR aggregation and contributed to polyQ-expanded AR toxicity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. These effects of REGγ were independent of its association with the proteasome and may be due, in part, to the decreased binding of polyQ-expanded AR by the E3 ubiquitin-ligase MDM2. Unlike its effects in PC12 cells, REGγ overexpression rescued transgenic SBMA motor neurons from DHT-induced toxicity in a proteasome binding-dependent manner, suggesting that the degradation of a specific 11S proteasome substrate or substrates promotes motor neuron viability. One potential substrate that we found to play a role in mutant AR toxicity is the splicing factor SC35. These studies reveal that, depending on the cellular context, two biological roles for REGγ impact cell viability in the face of polyQ-expanded AR; a proteasome binding-independent mechanism directly promotes mutant AR aggregation while a proteasome binding-dependent mechanism promotes cell viability. The balance between these functions likely determines REGγ effects on polyQ-expanded AR-expressing cells.

  15. Piezoelectric self-sensing actuator for active vibration control of motorized spindle based on adaptive signal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Chen, Xiaoan; Liu, Zhi; Qin, Yi

    2018-06-01

    The motorized spindle is the core component of CNC machine tools, and the vibration of it reduces the machining precision and service life of the machine tools. Owing to the fast response, large output force, and displacement of the piezoelectric stack, it is often used as the actuator in the active vibration control of the spindle. A piezoelectric self-sensing actuator (SSA) can reduce the cost of the active vibration control system and simplify the structure by eliminating the use of a sensor, because a SSA can have both actuating and sensing functions at the same time. The signal separation method of a SSA based on a bridge circuit is widely applied because of its simple principle and easy implementation. However, it is difficult to maintain dynamic balance of the circuit. Prior research has used adaptive algorithm to balance of the bridge circuit on the flexible beam dynamically, but those algorithms need no correlation between sensing and control voltage, which limit the applications of SSA in the vibration control of the rotor-bearing system. Here, the electromechanical coupling model of the piezoelectric stack is established, followed by establishment of the dynamic model of the spindle system. Next, a new adaptive signal separation method based on the bridge circuit is proposed, which can separate relative small sensing voltage from related mixed voltage adaptively. The experimental results show that when the self-sensing signal obtained from the proposed method is used as a displacement signal, the vibration of the motorized spindle can be suppressed effectively through a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) algorithm.

  16. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Associations of object control motor skill proficiency, game play competence, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Eather, Narelle; Duncan, Mitch; Lubans, David Revalds

    2018-06-18

    This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations. Object control competence was positively associated with game play competence (Std. B = 0.25, t (104.77) = 2.38, p = 0.001). Game play competence (Std. B = 0.33, t (99.81) = 5.21, p competence (Std. B = 0.20, t (106.93) = 2.96, p = 0.003). Likewise, game competence (Std. B = 0.39, t (104.41) = 4.36, p fitness than object control competence (Std. B = 0.22, t (106.69) = 2.63, p = 0.002). Object control and game competence are both important as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

  18. Short-term memory of motor network performance via activity-dependent potentiation of Na+/K+ pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sillar, Keith T

    2012-03-20

    Brain networks memorize previous performance to adjust their output in light of past experience. These activity-dependent modifications generally result from changes in synaptic strengths or ionic conductances, and ion pumps have only rarely been demonstrated to play a dynamic role. Locomotor behavior is produced by central pattern generator (CPG) networks and modified by sensory and descending signals to allow for changes in movement frequency, intensity, and duration, but whether or how the CPG networks recall recent activity is largely unknown. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, swim bout duration correlates linearly with interswim interval, suggesting that the locomotor network retains a short-term memory of previous output. We discovered an ultraslow, minute-long afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) in network neurons following locomotor episodes. The usAHP is mediated by an activity- and sodium spike-dependent enhancement of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump function. By integrating spike frequency over time and linking the membrane potential of spinal neurons to network performance, the usAHP plays a dynamic role in short-term motor memory. Because Na(+)/K(+) pumps are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of all animals and because sodium spikes inevitably accompany network activity, the usAHP may represent a phylogenetically conserved but largely overlooked mechanism for short-term memory of neural network function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rational for the use of children's motor activity as a criterion for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Platonova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – justified the use of physical activity for children as a criterion for recreation. Studied the relationship of this index with morphological and functional features of development and the level of hygiene knowledge. The study involved 54 pupils aged 10-14 years. Results: It is shown that the level of physical activity (1282,37 ± 289,20 locomotion per day. The value of basal metabolism reaches (1350,51 ± 33,69 kcal. Established direct correlation with the main motor activity exchange (r = 0,81; body weight (r = 0,80; circumference of the chest in the pause / inspiratory / expiratory (r = 0,70-0,71; vital capacity (r = 0,37; hand muscular strength (r = 0,51-0,58. The estimation of the physical development of children by Quetelet index: mass deficit is set at 12.96%, 29.63% obese, normal physical development at 51.85% overweight at 5.56%. Conclusions: The recommended value of physical activity as a criterion for recreation and health of school children. Its definition reflects the functional state of the school, as one of the criteria for defining the health, predicts its changes, which is especially valuable in monitoring.

  20. Phrenic motor outputs in response to bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze

    2016-10-15

    Activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres, the main chemosensitive afferents in the lung, can induce pulmonary chemoreflexes to modulate respiratory activity. Following chronic cervical spinal cord injury, bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation-induced inhibition of phrenic activity was exaggerated. Supersensitivity of phrenic motor outputs to the inhibitory effect of bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation is due to a shift of phrenic motoneuron types and slow recovery of phrenic motoneuron discharge in cervical spinal cord-injured animals. These data suggest that activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres may retard phrenic output recovery following cervical spinal cord injury. The alteration of phenotype and discharge pattern of phrenic motoneuron enables us to understand the impact of spinal cord injury on spinal respiratory activity. Cervical spinal injury interrupts bulbospinal pathways and results in cessation of phrenic bursting ipsilateral to the lesion. The ipsilateral phrenic activity can partially recover over weeks to months following injury due to the activation of latent crossed spinal pathways and exhibits a greater capacity to increase activity during respiratory challenges than the contralateral phrenic nerve. However, whether the bilateral phrenic nerves demonstrate differential responses to respiratory inhibitory inputs is unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined bilateral phrenic bursting in response to capsaicin-induced pulmonary chemoreflexes, a robust respiratory inhibitory stimulus. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats at 8-9 weeks after C2 hemisection (C2Hx) or C2 laminectomy. Intra-jugular capsaicin (1.5 μg kg -1 ) injection was performed to activate the bronchopulmonary C-fibres to evoke pulmonary chemoreflexes. The present results indicate that capsaicin-induced prolongation of expiratory duration was significantly attenuated in C2Hx animals. However, ipsilateral phrenic

  1. Clean copy association of production diseases with motor activity-sensing devices and milk progesterone concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Ntallaris, T; Routly, J E; Jones, D N; Cameron, J; Holman-Coates, A; Smith, R F; Humblot, P; Dobson, H

    2018-05-31

    We have previously established that the efficiency of identifying oestrus with activity-sensing devices can be compromised by common production diseases; the present study was undertaken to determine how these diseases may affect device readings. A total of 67 Holstein-Friesian cows, >20 days postpartum, were equipped with activity-sensing neck collars and pedometers, and simultaneous milk progesterone profiles were also monitored twice a week. The influences of common production stressors on maximum activity and progesterone values were analysed. Approximately 30% potential oestrus events (low progesterone value between two high values) remained unrecognised by both activity methods, and progesterone values in these animals were higher on the potential day of oestrus when both activity methods did not detect an event (0.043 ± 0.004 versus 0.029 ± 0.004 ng/mL; P = 0.03). Data from a subset of 45 cows (two events each) were subjected to mixed models and multiple regression modelling to investigate associations with production diseases. Cow motor activity was lower in lame cows. Maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus increased as time postpartum and body condition score (BCS) increased. There were also fewer days of low progesterone prior to oestrus associated with increases in BCS and maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus. In conclusion, lameness was associated with lower activity values, but this suppression was insufficient to account for lowered oestrus detection efficiency of either device. However, associations were identified between production diseases and progesterone profiles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Suspected Motor Problems and Low Preference for Active Play in Childhood Are Associated with Physical Inactivity and Low Fitness in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Purtsi, Jarno; Taanila, Anja M.; Remes, Jouko; Viholainen, Helena; Rintala, Pauli; Ahonen, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) composed of 5,767 children whose parents responded to a postal inquiry concerning their children's motor skills at age 8 years and who themselves reported their physical activity at age 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer test at age 16 years. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the level of physical activity and fitness were obtained from multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for socio-economic position and body mass index. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity (boys: OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.42–4.53; girls: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36–2.36) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.27–2.74; girls: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09–2.11) in adolescence. Suspected gross (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33–3.49) and fine (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35–2.60) motor problems were associated with physical inactivity among boys. Children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Conclusions/Significance Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Furthermore, children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Identification of children who do not prefer active play and who have motor problems may allow targeted interventions to support their motor learning and participation in active play and thereby promote their physical activity and fitness in later life

  3. Phrenic motor outputs in response to bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation following chronic cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Key points Activation of bronchopulmonary C‐fibres, the main chemosensitive afferents in the lung, can induce pulmonary chemoreflexes to modulate respiratory activity.Following chronic cervical spinal cord injury, bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation‐induced inhibition of phrenic activity was exaggerated.Supersensitivity of phrenic motor outputs to the inhibitory effect of bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation is due to a shift of phrenic motoneuron types and slow recovery of phrenic motoneuron discharge in cervical spinal cord‐injured animals.These data suggest that activation of bronchopulmonary C‐fibres may retard phrenic output recovery following cervical spinal cord injury.The alteration of phenotype and discharge pattern of phrenic motoneuron enables us to understand the impact of spinal cord injury on spinal respiratory activity. Abstract Cervical spinal injury interrupts bulbospinal pathways and results in cessation of phrenic bursting ipsilateral to the lesion. The ipsilateral phrenic activity can partially recover over weeks to months following injury due to the activation of latent crossed spinal pathways and exhibits a greater capacity to increase activity during respiratory challenges than the contralateral phrenic nerve. However, whether the bilateral phrenic nerves demonstrate differential responses to respiratory inhibitory inputs is unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined bilateral phrenic bursting in response to capsaicin‐induced pulmonary chemoreflexes, a robust respiratory inhibitory stimulus. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats at 8–9 weeks after C2 hemisection (C2Hx) or C2 laminectomy. Intra‐jugular capsaicin (1.5 μg kg−1) injection was performed to activate the bronchopulmonary C‐fibres to evoke pulmonary chemoreflexes. The present results indicate that capsaicin‐induced prolongation of expiratory duration was significantly attenuated in C2Hx

  4. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chou; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on gross motor outcomes representing the ICF component of body functions and activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy (HPOT) and therapeutic horseback riding (TR) for children with spastic CP. Gross motor outcomes, assessed via muscle activity and muscle tone, gait, posture and Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM) were evaluated. Five TR studies and nine HPOT studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that short-term HPOT (total riding time 8-10 min) significantly reduced asymmetrical activity of the hip adductor muscles. HPOT could improve postural control in children with spastic CP, GMFCS level < 5. However, the evidence did not show a statistically significant effect on GMFM after long-term HPOT or TR (total riding time, 8-22 h) in children with spastic CP. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP. We found no statistically significant evidence of either therapeutic effect or maintenance effects on the gross motor activity status in CP children.

  6. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The connection of hemispheric activity in the field of audioverbal perception and the progressive lateralization of speech and motor processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovyazina, M.S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the connection of hemispheric control over audioverbal perception processes and such individual features as “leading hand” (right-handedness and lefthandedness. We present a literature review and description of our research to provide evidence of the complexity and ambiguity of this connection. The method of dichotic listening was used for diagnosing audioverbal perception lateralization. This method allows estimation of the right-ear coefficient (REC, the efficiency coefficient (EC, and the effectiveness ratio (ER of different aspects of audioverbal perception. Our research involved 47 persons with a leading right hand (mean age, 29.04±9.97 years and 32 persons with a leading left hand (mean age, 29.41±10.34 years. Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of hemispheric control over audioverbal and motor processes were assessed. The research showed that both the leftand right-handers’ audioverbal perception characteristics depended mainly on right-hemisphere activity. The most dynamic and sensitive index of the functioning of the two hemispheres during dichotic listening was the efficiency coefficient of stimuli reproduction through the left ear (EC of the left ear. It turns out that this index depends on the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes. The highest efficiency of audioverbal perception revealed itself in the left-handers with a leading left ear (the hemispheric-control coincidence, and the lowest efficiency was in the left-handers with a leading right ear (the hemispheric-control divergence. The right-handers were characterized by less variation in values, although the influence of the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes also revealed itself as a tendency. This consistent pattern points out the necessity for further research on asymmetries of the different modalities that takes into account their probable

  8. Trunk Robot Rehabilitation Training with Active Stepping Reorganizes and Enriches Trunk Motor Cortex Representations in Spinal Transected Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oza, Chintan S.; Giszter, Simon F.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we e...

  9. A hybrid brain-machine interface based on EEG and EMG activity for the motor rehabilitation of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasola-Sanz, Andrea; Irastorza-Landa, Nerea; Lopez-Larraz, Eduardo; Bibian, Carlos; Helmhold, Florian; Broetz, Doris; Birbaumer, Niels; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander

    2017-07-01

    Including supplementary information from the brain or other body parts in the control of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has been recently proposed and investigated. Such enriched interfaces are referred to as hybrid BMIs (hBMIs) and have been proven to be more robust and accurate than regular BMIs for assistive and rehabilitative applications. Electromyographic (EMG) activity is one of the most widely utilized biosignals in hBMIs, as it provides a quite direct measurement of the motion intention of the user. Whereas most of the existing non-invasive EEG-EMG-hBMIs have only be