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Sample records for motive disposition theory

  1. Wanting, having, and needing: integrating motive disposition theory and self-determination theory.

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schüler, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation ("wanting" particular experiences) predicted corresponding feelings of competence and relatedness ("having" those experiences). Competence and relatedness in turn predicted well-being, again indicating that these 2 experiences may really be "needed." Illuminating how wanting gets to having, in Studies 2 and 3, participants reported greater self-concordance for motive-congruent goals, which, in longitudinal Study 3, predicted greater attainment of those goals and thus enhanced well-being. Study 4 replicated selected earlier results using an implicit as well as an explicit motive disposition measure. Supporting the presumed universality of competence and relatedness needs, in no studies did motive dispositions moderate the effects of corresponding need-satisfaction on well-being. Discussion focuses on a "sequential process" model of psychological needs that views needs as both motives that instigate and outcomes that reward behavior.

  2. An Examination of Motivational Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety among College Students for Exercise: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Ersöz, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory (SDT), the main goal of this study is to analyze dispositional flow and social physique anxiety (SPA) that could be predicted by gender, BMI and motivational regulations and to examine motivational regulations, dispositional flow and SPA of college students in terms of stage of change for exercise. Participants…

  3. Children's theories of motivation.

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  5. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  6. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    1982-02-01

    concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom

  7. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  8. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice.

    Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…

  9. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try to do, then, is to illustrate Matravers theory and claim that it is a good solution to many problems concerning music and its capacity to affect our inner states.

  10. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  11. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  12. Dispositional Flow in Physical Education: Relationships with Motivational Climate, Social Goals, and Perceived Competence

    Gonzalez-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating effects of social goals and perceived competence on students' perceptions of motivational climates and dispositional flow in physical education. At the beginning of the physical education unit, 779 students, 12 to 16 years old, were asked to complete four questionnaires: Perceived Motivational…

  13. Dispositional envy revisited: unraveling the motivational dynamics of benign and malicious envy.

    Lange, Jens; Crusius, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has conceptualized dispositional envy as a unitary construct. Recently however, episodic envy has been shown to emerge in two qualitatively different forms. Benign envy is related to the motivation to move upward, whereas malicious envy is related to pulling superior others down. In four studies (N = 1,094)--using the newly developed Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS)--we show that dispositional envy is also characterized by two independent dimensions related to distinct motivational dynamics and behavioral consequences. Dispositional benign and malicious envy uniquely predict envious responding following upward social comparisons. Furthermore, they are differentially connected to hope for success and fear of failure. Corresponding to these links, dispositional benign envy predicted faster race performance of marathon runners mediated via higher goal setting. In contrast, dispositional malicious envy predicted race goal disengagement. The findings highlight that disentangling the two sides of envy opens up numerous research avenues. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  15. Creative Proactive-Concluding Theory of Motivating

    Blašková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with necessity to change the understanding of human resource philosophy to the new philosophy: philosophy of human potential. In these intentions, it is very important to motivate human potential in the organisations. But, in the area of motivating, situation within the organisations isn't sufficient. Thereto the article gives an introductive presentation of a new theory of motivating: creative proactive-concluding theory of motivating. The theory leads the managers to utili...

  16. Lectures on the theory of pure motives

    Murre, Jacob P; A, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The theory of motives was created by Grothendieck in the 1960s as he searched for a universal cohomology theory for algebraic varieties. The theory of pure motives is well established as far as the construction is concerned. Pure motives are expected to have a number of additional properties predicted by Grothendieck's standard conjectures, but these conjectures remain wide open. The theory for mixed motives is still incomplete. This book deals primarily with the theory of pure motives. The exposition begins with the fundamentals: Grothendieck's construction of the category of pure motives and examples. Next, the standard conjectures and the famous theorem of Jannsen on the category of the numerical motives are discussed. Following this, the important theory of finite dimensionality is covered. The concept of Chow-K�nneth decomposition is introduced, with discussion of the known results and the related conjectures, in particular the conjectures of Bloch-Beilinson type. We finish with a chapter on relative m...

  17. Dispositional sexual motives as the mirror of values in heterosexual interpersonal relations

    Igor A. Fourmanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Values of sexual relations repeatedly changed throughout various culturalhistorical periods. As a result of acquiring values and norms of sexual culture many actual requirements of the personthat were significant at certainontogenetic and sociogeneticstages couldget deprived of the relevance at further stages. As the sociocultural sexual development progresses the subsequent new values, highly significant for the given person are can be shaped. The system of values finds the reflexion in hierarchy and defines dynamics of sexual motives at different stages of the course of life. Objective. The objective is to define hierarchy, sexual and age distinctions in dispositional sexual motives in early adulthood. Design. The paper regards the issue of interrelation between sexual motivation and features of gender interpersonal relations. The sexual motivation was considered as interest in a general class of related incentives, all of which provide the same basic type of satisfaction associated with sexual expression. Eight specific types of incentives intrinsic to sexual expression that motivate sexual behaviourare studied: (1 feeling valued by the partner, (2 reinforcing partners value, (3 obtaining relief from stress or negative psychological states, (4 providing care and custody through sexual interaction to improve a partner’s psychological condition, (5 enhancing feelings of personal power, (6 feeling partner’s power, (7 feeling pleasure, and (8 productive fertility. Conclusion. Disregarding gender and age,the leading position in the hierarchy of sexual disposition motives is occupied by the motives of reinforcing partner’s value, pleasure and care, and subordination position, i.e. motives of comfort, personal value, power and submission. Females in comparison with males differ by higher intensity of submissionmotives and the partner’s significance, while males manifest more force of motive of production fertility. Within the

  18. An evolutionary theory of human motivation.

    Bernard, Larry C; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R Patricia

    2005-05-01

    The authors review psychology's historical, competing perspectives on human motivation and propose a new comprehensive theory. The new theory is based on evolutionary principles as proposed by C. Darwin (1859) and modified by W. D. Hamilton (1964, 1996), R. L. Trivers (1971, 1972), and R. Dawkins (1989). The theory unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to motivation. The theory is neuropsychological and addresses conscious and nonconscious processes that underlie motivation, emotion, and self-control. The theory predicts a hierarchical structure of motives that are measurable as individual differences in human behavior. These motives are related to social problem domains (D. B. Bugental, 2000; D. T. Kenrick, N. P. Li, & J. Butner, 2003), and each is hypothesized to solve a particular problem of human inclusive fitness.

  19. Dispositional mindfulness and reward motivated eating: The role of emotion regulation and mental habit.

    Fisher, Naomi R; Mead, Bethan R; Lattimore, Paul; Malinowski, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Evidence regarding the effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) for eating disorders, weight management and food craving is emerging and further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of MBIs in these domains. The current study was designed to establish the role of specific mechanisms underlying the putative relationship between mindfulness and reward motivated eating. We predicted that mindfulness would be negatively related to features of reward motivated eating and that this association would be mediated by emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking. A cross-sectional survey measuring uncontrolled and emotional eating, mindfulness, emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking was completed by female and male meditators and non-meditators (N = 632). Lower levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with difficulties in emotion regulation, habitual negative self-thinking and both emotional and uncontrolled eating. Difficulties in emotion regulation significantly mediated the mindfulness-uncontrolled eating relationship. Habitual negative self-thinking significantly mediated the mindfulness-emotional eating relationship. Participants with meditation experience reported greater levels of dispositional mindfulness, fewer difficulties with emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking and reduced uncontrolled eating tendencies, compared to non-meditators. The findings suggest that MBIs designed to change reward motivated eating and weight control should focus on emotion regulation and mental habits as underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this defini...

  1. Comparison of Attachment theory and Cognitive-Motivational Structure theory.

    Malerstein, A J

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theory and Cognitive-Motivational Structure (CMS) are similar in most respects. They differ primarily in their proposal of when, during development, one's sense of the self and of the outside world are formed. I propose that the theories supplement each other after about age seven years--when Attachment theory's predictions of social function become unreliable, CMS theory comes into play.

  2. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of Cadets in the Russian Interio Ministry Troops According to the Deviance Disposition: Comparative Analysis

    L. I. Dorfman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for the moral psychological training in military higher schools is enforced by the changing situation both in our country and globally. The potential officers should posses such qualities as fortitude, stability, self-regulation, self-direction, and ability to restrain the undesirable emotions. The paper deals with the psychological investigation of motivational profile of junior cadets at the Military Higher School of the Russian Interior Ministry Troops. The author undertakes the comparative analysis of the cadets’ psychological resistance to adverse situations according to the deviance disposition level. The research methodology combines the psychometrical approach, meta-individual world concept and plural self theory. The research objectives include: studying the self-concept and poly-modal achievement motives of cadets; and comparative analysis of their personal traits with regard to their deviance disposition level – explicit or implicit. The research findings can be applied by psychologists and personnel officers in military higher schools of the Russian Interior Ministry for diagnosing the deviance disposition and its prevention. The materials can be implied in further investigation of personal motivational profiles of potential officers. 

  3. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  4. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  5. Framing Unschooling Using Theories Of Motivation

    Dr. Whitney SHERMAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As more families consider alternative learning approaches such as unschooling, little is known about the role motivation plays in self-directed education. Synthesizing major concepts of several theories of motivation (transformative experience, self-efficacy, self-regulation, expectancy-value theory, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the research demonstrates that unschooling is a viable approach to learning. Motivation requires goals, activity and commitment to achieve outcomes (Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2008 and within the context of unschooling, the literature demonstrates that individuals sustain motivation so they can achieve certain tasks. The findings demonstrate a need to invoke students to follow their aptitudes and curiosity outside of the rigid structures of conventional schooling, potentially altering the current landscape of education.

  6. Implications of Self-Deception for Self-Reported Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Dispositions and Actual Learning Performance: A Higher Order Structural Model

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Thomas, Christopher H.; McNatt, D. Brian

    2008-01-01

    The authors explored implications of individuals' self-deception (a trait) for their self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions and their actual learning performance. In doing so, a higher order structural model was developed and tested in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions were underlying factors that…

  7. Montessori Elementary Philosophy Reflects Current Motivation Theories

    Murray, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Montessori's theories, developed more than 100 years ago, certainly resonate with current psychological research on improving education. Autonomy, interest, competence, and relatedness form the foundation for three contemporary efforts to organize the vast literature on motivation into a parsimonious theory. These four elements also comprise…

  8. Dispositional logic

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  9. Effects of Dispositional Ability Conceptions, Manipulated Learning Environments, and Intrinsic Motivation on Persistence and Performance: An Interaction Approach

    Li, Weidong; Lee, Amelia M.; Solmon, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    The present study used an interaction approach to investigate how individuals' dispositions about ability as incremental or fixed (entity), manipulated learning environments, and intrinsic motivation affect persistence and performance on a challenging, novel motor skill. Seventy-two female college students who were assigned to either an…

  10. The social motivation theory of autism.

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motivation in later life: theory and assessment.

    Vallerand, R J; O'Connor, B P; Hamel, M

    1995-01-01

    A framework that has been found useful in research on young adults, Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory [1, 2], is suggested as a promising direction for research on motivation in later life. The theory proposes the existence of four types of motivation (intrinsic, self-determined extrinsic, nonself-determined extrinsic, and amotivation) which are assumed to have varying consequences for adaptation and well-being. A previously published French measure of motivational styles which is known to be reliable and valid was translated into English and was tested on seventy-seven nursing home residents (aged 60 to 98 years). It was found that the four motivational styles can be reliably measured; that the intercorrelations between the motivational styles are consistent with theoretical predictions; and that the four types of motivation are related to other important aspects of the lives of elderly people in a theoretically meaningful manner. Suggestions are made for further research using self-determination theory and the present scales.

  12. Gamification from the Viewpoint of Motivational Theory

    Kianoosh Karimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gamification is defined as the use of game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts. It is expected that global gamification market will grow to USD $5.5 Billion by 2018. This tremendous market growth relies on basic human instinct to get enticed by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. This study aims to provide insights into gamification approach from motivation perspective. For this purpose, conceptual foundations of gamification described, including the structure and Benefits of Gamification, and then related motivation theories reviewed.

  13. The uncertainty processing theory of motivation.

    Anselme, Patrick

    2010-04-02

    Most theories describe motivation using basic terminology (drive, 'wanting', goal, pleasure, etc.) that fails to inform well about the psychological mechanisms controlling its expression. This leads to a conception of motivation as a mere psychological state 'emerging' from neurophysiological substrates. However, the involvement of motivation in a large number of behavioural parameters (triggering, intensity, duration, and directedness) and cognitive abilities (learning, memory, decision, etc.) suggest that it should be viewed as an information processing system. The uncertainty processing theory (UPT) presented here suggests that motivation is the set of cognitive processes allowing organisms to extract information from the environment by reducing uncertainty about the occurrence of psychologically significant events. This processing of information is shown to naturally result in the highlighting of specific stimuli. The UPT attempts to solve three major problems: (i) how motivations can affect behaviour and cognition so widely, (ii) how motivational specificity for objects and events can result from nonspecific neuropharmacological causal factors (such as mesolimbic dopamine), and (iii) how motivational interactions can be conceived in psychological terms, irrespective of their biological correlates. The UPT is in keeping with the conceptual tradition of the incentive salience hypothesis while trying to overcome the shortcomings inherent to this view. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Breastfeeding motivation and Self-Determination Theory.

    Kestler-Peleg, Miri; Shamir-Dardikman, Merav; Hermoni, Doron; Ginzburg, Karni

    2015-11-01

    In the current social climate, breastfeeding is regarded as the "gold standard" of babies' nutrition and optimal mothering. It is not surprising, therefore, that the vast majority of contemporary women begin breastfeeding after they give birth. This paper presents two separate quantitative studies conducted in Israel which examined breastfeeding motivation and its association with maternal well-being as derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT). In Study I, a new breastfeeding motivation scale reflecting the various SDT-informed motivations was developed. Study II sought to validate the structure of the scale and to examine the hypotheses derived from SDT. In Study I, which took place in 2007, 130 mothers of at least one child under the age of eight years old filled out the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale. In Study II, which took place during the years 2008-2010, a different sample of 236 women were followed at three different time points: during the third trimester of pregnancy, at eight weeks postnatal, and at five months postnatal. The participants completed the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale and maternal well-being, maternal self-efficacy and maternal attachment questionnaires. The findings supported the structure of the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale according to SDT. As predicted, autonomous motivation was positively correlated with maternal well-being and self-efficacy, while controlled motivations were positively associated with distress and inversely correlated with self-efficacy. Anxious attachment predicted both controlled and autonomous breastfeeding motivations. The findings support the validity of the SDT for breastfeeding motivations, and highlight the role of these motivations as differentiating between positive and negative subjective well-being, among breastfeeding women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.

    Wigfield; Eccles

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    Joko Suyono; Sri Wiwoho Mudjanarko

    2017-01-01

    Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that ca...

  17. The Application of Motivational Theories to Business and Industry.

    Clements, Paul; Farrar, Lochia A.

    This workshop, designed to use motivational theories in understanding work behaviors and to increase job satisfaction and performance, deals with cognitive theories in motivation, need theories, and the Equity Theory within the Expectancy Valence Model. Counseling technique areas of communication skills and rational thinking that facilitate the…

  18. Teacher Evaluation Policy and Conflicting Theories of Motivation

    Firestone, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Current interest in teacher evaluation focuses disproportionately on measurement issues and performance-based pay without an overarching theory of how evaluation works. To develop such a theory, I contrast two motivation theories often used to guide thinking about teacher evaluation. External motivation theory relies on economics and extrinsic…

  19. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    Joko Suyono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that can improve performance to both, a motivator must provide different treatment according to their needs.

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION AND STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE

    Ahn, Inok

    2014-01-01

    There is little research that examines impact teachers' motivation on students' motivation due to sparse attention to teachers' motivation. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between teachers' motivation and students' motivation using self-determination theory. Participants were 697 5th and 6th students and 35 of their teachers in Seoul, South Korea. Students completed the questionnaires for motivation, basic psychological needs, and perceptions of teacher's in...

  1. The motivation to care: application and extension of motivation theory to professional nursing work.

    Moody, Roseanne C; Pesut, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe a model of nurses' work motivation relevant to the human caring stance of professional nursing work. The model was derived from selected theories of behavioral motivation and work motivation. Evidence-based theory addressing nurses' work motivation and nurses' motivational states and traits in relation to characteristics of organizational culture and patient health outcomes is suggested in an effort to make a distinct contribution to health services research. An integrated review of selected theories of motivation is presented, including conceptual analyses, theory-building techniques, and the evidence supporting the theoretical propositions and linkages among variables intrinsic to nurses' work motivation. The model of the Motivation to Care for Professional Nursing Work is a framework intended for empirical testing and theory building. The model proposes specific leadership and management strategies to support a culture of motivational caring and competence in health care organizations. Attention to motivation theory and research provides insights and suggests relationships among nurses' motivation to care, motivational states and traits, individual differences that influence nurses' work motivation, and the special effects of nurses' work motivation on patient care outcomes. Suggestions for nursing administrative direction and research are proposed.

  2. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    Ian eMcGregor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered. Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that aggressive religious radicalization is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  3. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis.

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  4. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  5. Hackers' Motivations: Testing Schwartz's Theory of Motivational Types of Values in a Sample of Hackers

    Renushka Madarie

    2017-01-01

    Although much has been written on topic of hacker motivations, little empirical research has been conducted and even less research has attempted to quantify hackers’ motivations. The present study analyses relationships between the frequency of several hacking behaviours and motivations to hack in a sample of male hackers and potential hackers. Motivations frequently recurring in the literature are assessed and Schwartz´s (1992) Theory of Motivational Types of Values is applied. A preference ...

  6. Employee Motivation Theories and their Applications in Modern Organizations

    Drogomyretska Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The essay is dedicated to the determination of the essence of employee motivation in today’s business environment. The main need-based and process-based theories of motivation and the possibility of their application in modern organizations are considered. The existence of the relationship between employee motivation and organizational effectiveness is proved by author.

  7. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  8. Motivation--Hygiene Theory Adapted for Education

    Timmreck, Thomas C.

    1977-01-01

    As educators, are we stifling learning by using non-motivating, dissatisfying factors and concepts to try to motivate our students? According to the work of Dr. Frederick Herzberg, many teachers may be doing the wrong thing for the right reason. Considers what motivates students to enjoy their educational surroundings and to learn. (Author/RK)

  9. The disposition to understand for oneself at university: integrating learning processes with motivation and metacognition.

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2013-06-01

    A re-analysis of several university-level interview studies has suggested that some students show evidence of a deep and stable approach to learning, along with other characteristics that support the approach. This combination, it was argued, could be seen to indicate a disposition to understand for oneself. To identify a group of students who showed high and consistent scores on deep approach, combined with equivalently high scores on effort and monitoring studying, and to explore these students' experiences of the teaching-learning environments they had experienced. Re-analysis of data from 1,896 students from 25 undergraduate courses taking four contrasting subject areas in eleven British universities. Inventories measuring approaches to studying were given at the beginning and the end of a semester, with the second inventory also exploring students' experiences of teaching. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with differing patterns of response on the inventory scales, with a particular focus on students showing high, stable scores. One cluster clearly showed the characteristics expected of the disposition to understand and was also fairly stable over time. Other clusters also had deep approaches, but also showed either surface elements or lower scores on organized effort or monitoring their studying. Combining these findings with interview studies previously reported reinforces the idea of there being a disposition to understand for oneself that could be identified from an inventory scale or through further interviews. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Principals' Leadership and Teachers' Motivation: Self-Determination Theory Analysis

    Eyal, Ori; Roth, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between educational leadership and teacher's motivation. The research described here was anchored in the convergence of two fundamental theories of leadership and motivation: the full range model of leadership and self-determination theory. The central hypotheses were that…

  11. Motivation to Speak English: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2017-01-01

    Based on a modern motivation theory of learning, self-determination theory (SDT), this study aimed to investigate the relationships between English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' motivation to speak, autonomous regulation, autonomy support from teachers, and classroom engagement, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The…

  12. Motivation.

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  13. AN ATTEMPT ON NEW SYSTEMATIZATION OF WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES

    Luděk Kolman; Hana Chýlová; Richar Selby

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with a semiotic analysis of work motivation theories developed in the second half of the twentieth century. These theories stem from different theoretical backgrounds, varying in ideas as well as in their impact to work motivation reality. For a student approaching this field it might seem to provide an overwhelming situation in an area of study filled with contradictory theories. The method used in this study is similar to one historians use when analysing development in a hu...

  14. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories.

    Cook, David A; Artino, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability. Social- cognitive theory emphasises self-efficacy as the primary driver of motivated action, and also identifies cues that influence future self-efficacy and support self-regulated learning. Goal orientation theory suggests that learners tend to engage in tasks with concerns about mastering the content (mastery goal, arising from a 'growth' mindset regarding intelligence and learning) or about doing better than others or avoiding failure (performance goals, arising from a 'fixed' mindset). Finally, self-determination theory proposes that optimal performance results from actions motivated by intrinsic interests or by extrinsic values that have become integrated and internalised. Satisfying basic psychosocial needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness promotes such motivation. Looking across all five theories, we note recurrent themes of competence, value, attributions, and interactions between individuals and the learning context. To avoid conceptual confusion, and perhaps more importantly to maximise the theory-building potential of their work, researchers must be careful (and precise) in how they define, operationalise and measure different motivational constructs. We suggest that motivation research continue to build theory and extend it to health professions domains, identify key outcomes and outcome measures, and test practical educational applications of the principles

  15. Lifelong Learning Theory and Pre-Service Teachers' Development of Knowledge and Dispositions to Work with Australian Aboriginal Students

    Bennet, Maria; Moriarty, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on previous research by the authors and others as well as lifelong learning theory to argue the case for providing pre-service teachers with deep and meaningful experiences over time that help them to build their personal capacity for developing knowledge and dispositions to work with Australian Aboriginal students, their…

  16. Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation

    De Brabander, Cornelis; Martens, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to integrate the current proliferation of motivation theories in a Unified Model of Task-specific Motivation (UMTM). According to this model readiness for action results from an interaction between four relatively independent types of valences that can be classified as affective or

  17. An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion.

    Weiner, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    This article advances an attributional theory of motivation and emotion, with achievement strivings as the theoretical focus. Causes of success and failure share three common properties: locus, stability, and controllability. Stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success. Expectancy and affect guide motivated behavior.…

  18. An Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation: II. Cigarette Addiction

    Solomon, Richard L.; Corbit, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods suggested by opponent-process theory of acquired motivation in helping smokers to quit the habit include use of antagonistic drugs, total cessation from tobacco, and decrease in intensity and frequency of tobacco use. (DS)

  19. Can the Theory of Motivation Explain Migration Decisions?

    Natálie Reichlová

    2005-01-01

    According to Abraham Maslow's motivational theory, human action is motivated by five groups of human needs. The model introduced in this paper exploits Maslow's theory to explain migration flows between regions. In the model, movement from one place to another influences migrant's utility through three various ways. First, through change in wage caused by different wage levels in each location. Second, through changes in utility connected with individuals safety needs and finally, through dis...

  20. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers. 

  2. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.

  3. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  4. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  5. AN ATTEMPT ON NEW SYSTEMATIZATION OF WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES

    Luděk Kolman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a semiotic analysis of work motivation theories developed in the second half of the twentieth century. These theories stem from different theoretical backgrounds, varying in ideas as well as in their impact to work motivation reality. For a student approaching this field it might seem to provide an overwhelming situation in an area of study filled with contradictory theories. The method used in this study is similar to one historians use when analysing development in a human society - semiotic analysis. Based on the historical analysis, an analysis of ideas and clusters of meanings follows. Authors assume that personal experience might determine individual motivation factors. It is quite clear, that on the biological level the processes of motivation should be the same in all humans. However, stimuli or conditions under which the processes of motivation are commenced might be caused by the personal experience of the individuals concerned. Authors believe that the above mentioned analysis of clusters of meaning could help us to better systemize the wide range of work motivation theories and make it more evident for all students of the field.

  6. Andragogy and Motivation: An Examination of the Principles of Andragogy through Two Motivation Theories

    Houde, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Andragogy, originally proposed by Malcolm Knowles, has been criticized as an atheoretical model. Validation of andragogy has been advocated by scholars, and this paper explores one method for that process. Current motivation theory, specifically socioemotional selectivity and self-determination theory correspond with aspects of andragogy. In…

  7. Leadership theory and motivation of medical imaging employees.

    Kalar, Traci; Wright, Donna Lee

    2007-01-01

    *This literature review explores how transactional, transformational, and charismatic leadership theories might be applied in a typical stressful hypothetical department situation. *Transactional department leaders motivate employees using extrinsic rewards, encouraging them to do what is needed to get the minimal results with no encouragement for higher levels of thinking. *Transformational department leaders motivate employees by transforming their beliefs and values to be more in alignment with the organization's values and goals. This alignment helps create higher levels of intrinsic motivation. *Charismatic leaders exhibit the same behaviors as transformational leaders to motivate employees; however; because of their specific characteristics, their effectiveness can be limited to only times of distress or crisis. The situation in the particular department determines which leadership theory is likely to be most successful.

  8. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  9. Motivation, working memory, and decision making: a cognitive-motivational theory of personality vulnerability to alcoholism.

    Finn, Peter R

    2002-09-01

    This article presents a cognitive-motivational theory (CMT) of the mechanisms associated with three basic dimensions of personality vulnerability to alcoholism, impulsivity/novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and excitement seeking. CMT describes the interrelationships between activity in basic motivational systems and attentional, decision-making and working memory processes as the mechanisms associated with variation in each personality trait. Impulsivity/novelty seeking reflects activity in both appetitive and inhibitory motivational systems, greater attention to reward cues, and increased emotional reactivity to reward and frustration. Harm avoidance reflects individual differences in fearfulness and activity in specific inhibitory systems. Excitement seeking reflects the need to engage in appetitive behaviors in less predictable environments to experience positive affect. CMT also describes the impact of working memory and the specific motivational processes underlying each trait dimension on the dynamics of decision making from the perspective of decision field theory.

  10. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: protection motivation theory and implementation intentions.

    Milne, Sarah; Orbell, Sheina; Sheeran, Paschal

    2002-05-01

    This study compared a motivational intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT, Rogers, 1975, 1983) with the same motivational intervention augmented by a volitional intervention based on implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1993). The study had a longitudinal design, involving three waves of data collection over a 2-week period, incorporating an experimental manipulation of PMT variables at Time 1 and a volitional, implementation intention intervention at Time 2. Participants (N=248) were randomly allocated to a control group or one of two intervention groups. Cognitions and exercise behaviour were measured at three time-points over a 2-week period. The motivational intervention significantly increased threat and coping appraisal and intentions to engage in exercise but did not bring about a significant increase in subsequent exercise behaviour. In contrast, the combined protection motivation theory/implementation intention intervention had a dramatic effect on subsequent exercise behaviour. This volitional intervention did not influence behavioural intention or any other motivational variables. It is concluded that supplementing PMT with implementation intentions strengthens the ability of the model to explain behaviour. This has implications for health education programmes, which should aim to increase both participants' motivation and their volition.

  12. What practice can learn from theory: The potential impact of disposition decision factors on organisational performance

    Amanda Badenhorst

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective disposition decisions can lead to a number of value-adding benefits including economic, environmental and marketing benefits. Despite this, many organisations are not aware of the importance of disposition decisions and the impact they can have on organisational performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential impact of disposition decision factors on organisational performance. Method: This study made use of a qualitative content analysis method on previously published scientific articles on reverse logistics. The sample included 67 published scientific articles between 2006 and 2016. ATLAS.ti software was used to assist with the data analysis process. Findings: The findings showed a number of factors for disposition decision-making resulting in a number of value-adding benefits, which can improve organisational performance. From the findings, a conceptual framework was developed linking the disposition decision factors with the value-adding benefits and areas of organisational performance improvements. Conclusion: The framework developed in this article contributes to new insights and can help organisations to identify different performance improvement areas associated with certain disposition decision factors.

  13. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  14. Versatility of field theory motivated nuclear effective Lagrangian approach

    Arumugam, P.; Sharma, B.K.; Sahu, P.K.; Patra, S.K.; Sil, Tapas; Centelles, M.; Vinas, X.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the results for infinite nuclear and neutron matter using the standard relativistic mean field model and its recent effective field theory motivated generalization. For the first time, we show quantitatively that the inclusion in the effective theory of vector meson self-interactions and scalar-vector cross-interactions explains naturally the recent experimental observations of the softness of the nuclear equation of state, without losing the advantages of the standard relativistic model for finite nuclei

  15. Putting Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation in Perspective.

    May, Charles R.; Decker, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores challenges to Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation--a required concept in many administrator preparation programs. Herzberg used modified critical incident (or self-reporting) techniques to illustrate that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction occupied different continua and were not opposed to each other. Criticisms, study…

  16. Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems

    Harpine, Elaine Clanton

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…

  17. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  18. An Expectancy Theory Motivation Approach to Peer Assessment

    Friedman, Barry A.; Cox, Pamela L.; Maher, Larry E.

    2008-01-01

    Group projects are an important component of higher education, and the use of peer assessment of students' individual contributions to group projects has increased. The researchers employed an expectancy theory approach and an experimental design in a field setting to investigate conditions that influence students' motivation to rate their peers'…

  19. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  20. Crowd-Designed Motivation: Motivational Messages for Exercise Adherence Based on Behavior Change Theory

    de Vries, R.A.J.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Kwint, Sigrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Evers, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Developing motivational technology to support long-term behavior change is a challenge. A solution is to incorporate insights from behavior change theory and design technology to tailor to individual users. We carried out two studies to investigate whether the processes of change, from the

  1. Cognition and motivation in the theory of the firm

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    Economics in general, and the theory of the firm more specifically, placesmotivation and cognition in very different analytical boxes, in spite ofcognitive science evidence that the boundaries between the two are inreality blurred. While this analytical assumption has often served thetheory of th...... of the `impossibility of selective intervention.'Keywords: The theory of the firm, cognitive and motivational varialtion,selective intervention.......Economics in general, and the theory of the firm more specifically, placesmotivation and cognition in very different analytical boxes, in spite ofcognitive science evidence that the boundaries between the two are inreality blurred. While this analytical assumption has often served thetheory...... of the firm well, a number of organizational phenomena are betterunderstood if cognition and motivation are allowed to interact, forexample, through framing effects, as organizational scholars have longargued. The paper exemplifies by developing the implications of this forWilliamson's notion...

  2. Models of misbelief: Integrating motivational and deficit theories of delusions.

    McKay, Ryan; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2007-12-01

    The impact of our desires and preferences upon our ordinary, everyday beliefs is well-documented [Gilovich, T. (1991). How we know what isn't so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. New York: The Free Press.]. The influence of such motivational factors on delusions, which are instances of pathological misbelief, has tended however to be neglected by certain prevailing models of delusion formation and maintenance. This paper explores a distinction between two general classes of theoretical explanation for delusions; the motivational and the deficit. Motivational approaches view delusions as extreme instances of self-deception; as defensive attempts to relieve pain and distress. Deficit approaches, in contrast, view delusions as the consequence of defects in the normal functioning of belief mechanisms, underpinned by neuroanatomical or neurophysiological abnormalities. It is argued that although there are good reasons to be sceptical of motivational theories (particularly in their more floridly psychodynamic manifestations), recent experiments confirm that motives are important causal forces where delusions are concerned. It is therefore concluded that the most comprehensive account of delusions will involve a theoretical unification of both motivational and deficit approaches.

  3. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  4. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  5. Theory of endogenous and exogenous motivation in L2 migration

    Kambon, Obadele Bakari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implied in theories of Second Language Acquisition (SLA is the notion that language learning is analogous to obtaining or acquiring a possession – thus the use of the term ‘acquisition.’ While this interpretation has gone relatively unchallenged in the literature, this article introduces a new analogy whereby language learning is seen as analogous to a process of permanent or semi-permanent migration towards a new socio-linguistic L2 space. As such, a theory of endogenous and exogenous motivation is delineated, entailing a dynamic interplay between internal (primarily psychological and external (primarily sociological push-pull factors. Endogenous and exogenous push-pull factors, together with various other personal factors, contribute to learner decisions to migrate towards, move away from or remain inert with regard to the target language. Further, motivation is framed in the larger theoretical context of causation.

  6. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  7. MOTIVATING ENGLISH TEACHERS BASED ON THE BASIC NEEDS THEORY AND AN EXPECTANCY THEORY

    Hidayatus Sholihah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two main motivation theories. a hierarchy of basic needs theory,  and an expectancy theory. In a Hyrarchy of basic needs theory, Maslow has stated that the basic needs as a main behaviour direction are structured into a hierarchy. There are five basic human needs.  The first: Physiological needs such as: salary, bonus or working condition. The second: the safety needs, such as: safe job environment, job security or health cover. The third, social needs, such as  union and team work. The next is self esteem, such as getting an award, medal, certificate or any other recognisition. Then the last is self actualization, for example is by providing an opportunity to share knowledge, skills and eprerience. The evaluation of this theory are: there is no spiritual needs as human basic needs is a main weakness of this theory. Then it is possible that different level of  needs  have to be satisfied in the same time, or not in hierarchy level or, not always have to be fulfilled in order. The next motivation theory is an Expectancy Theory. This theory is based on three main factors. The first factor is: English teachers will be motivated to work harder if they have a good perception to their own competences in accordance with their job. The second, individual motivation depends on the rewards given when they finish a  particular job. Finally, it also depends on their regards to the rewards given from the job that they do. Expectancy theory is a good theory, however, it is not easy to be implemented because the principals should provide various types of reward to satisfy the expectation of their English teachers. Considering the strengths and weaknesses of these two theories, it is better to combine both of them in the practice to get more effective results.

  8. Motivational theory and knowledge sharing in the public service

    Nthabiseng N. Mosala-Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore factors that motivated knowledge sharing practices in a South African public service CoP. Method: This study used the mixed methods design through the lens of the motivational theory. Primary quantitative data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires returned by 23 of the 31 KwaZulu-Natal (KZN Provincial Human Resource Development Forum (PHRDF members to whom the questionnaires were distributed. In addition, primary qualitative data were collected from the senior managers of Human Resource Development (HRD units from 10 different KZN Provincial Departments of the 14 managers requested. The quantitative analysis was established using SPSS software, whereas qualitative analysis was established using thematic codes with the NVIVO software. Results: The findings from the results revealed that PHRDF members were intrinsically motivated to share their knowledge rather than extrinsically motivated. Conclusion: Although literature confirmed the main barrier to knowledge sharing in organisations as being the unwillingness to share, CoPs were likely to reduce the extent to which knowledge sharing was hindered. Members of a CoP ultimately related to one another as homogeneous groups despite representing different departments. To this end, hedonic intrinsic motivation occurred as members shared knowledge for the good of the whole regardless of the absence of extrinsic motivation. Departmental silos fell away, and there was no anticipation of rewards or incentives for knowledge sharing. It is, therefore, imperative that the South African public service strategically positions CoPs as knowledge sharing platforms to curb the loss of knowledge when employees leave its employ for whatever reason.

  9. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure.

    Mischel, W; Shoda, Y

    1995-04-01

    A theory was proposed to reconcile paradoxical findings on the invariance of personality and the variability of behavior across situations. For this purpose, individuals were assumed to differ in (a) the accessibility of cognitive-affective mediating units (such as encodings, expectancies and beliefs, affects, and goals) and (b) the organization of relationships through which these units interact with each other and with psychological features of situations. The theory accounts for individual differences in predictable patterns of variability across situations (e.g., if A then she X, but if B then she Y), as well as for overall average levels of behavior, as essential expressions or behavioral signatures of the same underlying personality system. Situations, personality dispositions, dynamics, and structure were reconceptualized from this perspective.

  10. The Importance of Motivation Theories for Understanding Washback to the Learner

    WATANABE, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The present paper portrays three theories of motivation in the expectation that it will help to understand the washback effect of language tests on learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The three theories that are identified involve attribution theories of motivation, flow, and functional theories of motivation. The characteristics of these theories are described in a way in which they may help understand the meaning of the recent attempt by the Japanese Ministry of Education to innov...

  11. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    Kotliarov,Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of sp...

  12. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  13. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  14. Properties of some nonlinear Schroedinger equations motivated through information theory

    Yuan, Liew Ding; Parwani, Rajesh R

    2009-01-01

    We update our understanding of nonlinear Schroedinger equations motivated through information theory. In particular we show that a q-deformation of the basic nonlinear equation leads to a perturbative increase in the energy of a system, thus favouring the simplest q = 1 case. Furthermore the energy minimisation criterion is shown to be equivalent, at leading order, to an uncertainty maximisation argument. The special value η = 1/4 for the interpolation parameter, where leading order energy shifts vanish, implies the preservation of existing supersymmetry in nonlinearised supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Physically, η might be encoding relativistic effects.

  15. Establishing cooperation in a mixed-motive social dilemma. An fMRI study investigating the role of social value orientation and dispositional trust.

    Emonds, Griet; Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Seurinck, Ruth; Achten, Rik

    2014-02-01

    When people are confronted with social dilemmas, their decision-making strategies tend to be associated with individual social preferences; prosocials have an intrinsic willingness to cooperate, while proselfs need extrinsic motivators signaling personal gain. In this study, the biological roots for the proselfs/prosocials concept are explored by investigating the neural correlates of cooperative versus defect decisions when participants engage in a series of one-shot, anonymous prisoner's dilemma situations. Our data are in line with previous studies showing that prosocials activate several social cognition regions of the brain more than proselfs (here: medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and precuneus BA 7 (Brodmann area 7), and that dispositional trust positively affects prosocials' decisions to cooperate. At the neural level, however, dispositional trust appears to exert a greater marginal effect on brain activity of proselfs in three social cognition regions, which does not translate into an increase in cooperation. An event-related analysis shows that cooperating prosocials show significantly more activation in the precuneus (BA 7) than proselfs. Based on previous research, we interpret this result to be consistent with prosocials' enhanced tendency to infer the intentions of others in social dilemma games, and the importance of establishing norm congruence when they decide to cooperate.

  16. What motivates health professionals? Opportunities to gain greater insight from theory.

    Buetow, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Health care policy-makers and researchers need to pay more attention to understanding the influence of motivation on professional behaviour. Goal setting theory, including two hypotheses - the business case and the pride case - dominates current attempts to motivate professionals. However, the predominance of goal setting theory stifles other approaches to conceptualizing professional motivation. These approaches include other cognitive theories of motivation, such as self-determination theory (concerned with how to use extrinsic rewards that enhance intrinsic motivation), as well as content, psychoanalytic and environmental theories. A valuable opportunity exists to develop and test such theories in addition to possible hybrids, for example, by elaborating goal setting theory in health care. The results can be expected to inform health policy and motivate individual professionals, groups, organizations and workforces to improve and deliver high quality care.

  17. An Introduction of Zoltán D?rnyei's L2 Motivational Theories%An Introduction of Zoltán Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Theories

    王晓磊; 周密

    2016-01-01

    Professor Zoltán D?rnyei is an influential researcher of L2 learning motivation. Since 1990s, he put forward several important L2 learning motivational theories and made special contribution to this field. This paper introduces his four L2 learn-ing motivational theories:1)Three-level framework of L2 motivation;2) Process model of L2 motivation;3)The L2 Motivation-al Self System;4) Directed Motivational Currents (DMC).

  18. Motivation in rehabilitation and acquired brain injury: can theory help us understand it?

    Kusec, Andrea; Velikonja, Diana; DeMatteo, Carol; Harris, Jocelyn E

    2018-04-25

    In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI. Using a narrative review of the Self-determination Theory literature and clinical rehabilitation research, this paper discusses the unique role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has in healthcare settings and the importance of understanding both when providing rehabilitation in ABI. Based on the extant literature, it is possible that two independently developed measures of motivation for ABI populations, the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Motivation Questionnaire-Self and the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, may assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in ABI may be two equally important but independent factors that could provide a comprehensive understanding of motivation in individuals with ABI. This increased understanding could help facilitate behavioural approaches in rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Conceptualization of motivation in ABI would benefit from drawing upon Self-determination Theory. External factors of motivation such as the therapeutic environment or social support should be carefully considered in rehabilitation in order to increase engagement. Assessing motivation as a dual rather than a global construct may provide more precise information about the extent to which a patient is motivated.

  19. Teachers' Conceptions of Motivation and Motivating Practices in Second-Language Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Muñoz, Ana; Ramirez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, we conducted an exploratory study aimed at identifying teachers' beliefs about motivation and motivating practices in second-language teaching at a private language center in Medellin, Colombia. To gather data, 65 teachers were surveyed; from this initial group, 11 were interviewed and observed in class during…

  20. Managing for Motivation: Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Its Application to 4-H Leadership. National Intern Report.

    Freeman, Walter J.

    A study examined the organizational factors contributing to the motivation of 4-H volunteer leaders. A modified form of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the research design of the study. A total of 149 4-H leaders were interviewed regarding thirteen job factors: recognition; personal growth; relationships with other 4-H leaders,…

  1. EMPLOYEES MOTIVATION THEORIES DEVELOPED AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Manolescu Aurel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available International specialized literature speaks about motivational strategies, about methods of increasing the employees\\' satisfaction at work and of obtaining the best results by increasing work motivation. But what does motivation really represent? Whic

  2. Placing Motivation and Future Time Perspective Theory in a Temporal Perspective

    Simons, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Lacante, Marlies

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual development of future time perspective theory [Nuttin, J. R. (1984). "Motivation, Planning and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Nuttin, J., and Lens, W. (1985). "Future Time Perspective and Motivation: Theory and Research Method," Leuven University Press and Erlbaum, Leuven, Belgium…

  3. The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas

    Weiner, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a "grand" theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the…

  4. The Importance of Emotion in Theories of Motivation: Empirical, Methodological, and Theoretical Considerations from a Goal Theory Perspective

    Turner, Julianne C.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schweinle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Despite its importance to educational psychology, prominent theories of motivation have mostly ignored emotion. In this paper, we review theoretical conceptions of the relation between motivation and emotion and discuss the role of emotion in understanding student motivation in classrooms. We demonstrate that emotion is one of the best indicators…

  5. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  6. To travel or not to travel: towards understanding the theory of nativistic motivation

    George, Babu P.; Inbakaran, Robert; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy

    2010-01-01

    Largely employing the frameworks provided by the opponent process theory, the trans-theoretical model of change, and the two factor theory of motivation, the present paper introduces the concept of ‘nativistic motivation’ into the tourism literature. Although nativistic motivation might turn out to be an important category in the nomological network of tourism theory, it has thus far escaped the attention of tourism researchers. The traditional conceptualization of tourism motivation included...

  7. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on a Weight Loss Program Based on the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Eshghinia, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Aryaie, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the increase the world over, which imposes an ever-increasing burden on societies and health care systems. This study sought to investigate the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) on a weight-loss program based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). This randomized clinical trial study, comprising pretest-posttest with a control group, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese women attending a private nutrition clinic for the first time. Samples were randomly selected using the clinic's records and then allocated to three groups (50 women in each group) receiving: 1) a standard weight-control program; 2) motivational interviewing; and 3) MI plus intention intervention. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire through in-person interviews and were analyzed using SPSS (version 11) and statistical tests, including the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test, and linear regression model. In the two intervention groups, the PMT construct scores, namely susceptibility (P = 0.001), severity (P = 0.001), rewards (P =0.004), self-efficacy (P = 0.001), response efficacy (P = 0.001), and costs (P = 0.014), were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. The anthropometric status was statistically significant in the MI group (P = 0.001) and the MI plus intention-intervention group (P = 0.001) at 2 months' follow-up, while in the control group, weight was meaningfully different after the intervention (P = 0.027). Weight was different between the groups after the intervention, with the Tukey test demonstrating that the differences were statistically significant between the control group and the MI group. Our results demonstrated that MI, combined with the implementation of intention intervention, increased weight loss and PMT construct scores in our study population.

  8. Intentions to consume omega-3 fatty acids: a comparison of protection motivation theory and ordered protection motivation theory.

    Calder, Samuel Christian; Davidson, Graham R; Ho, Robert

    2011-06-01

    There has been limited research to date into methods for increasing people's intentions to use omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which have been linked with decreased risk of suffering from numerous major diseases. The present study employed a cross-sectional design with 380 university students, employees, and visitors to investigate the efficacy of the protection motivation (PM) theory and the ordered protection motivation (OPM) theory, to predict behavioral intention to consume omega-3 rich foods and dietary supplements. Analysis of model fit indicated that both the PM model and the OPM model adequately represented the structural relationships between the cognitive variables and intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Further evaluation of relative fit of the two competing models suggested that the PM model might provide a better representation of decision-making following evaluation of the health threat of n-3 PUFA deficiency. Path analysis indicated that the component of coping appraisal was significantly associated with the behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Threat appraisal was found to be significantly associated with behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA only for the OPM model. Overall, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the roles that cognitive appraisal processes play in young and healthy individuals' protective health decision-making regarding consumption of n-3 PUFA. Implications of the findings and recommendations, which include (a) encouraging the consumption of n-3 PUFA as an effective barrier against the incidence of disease, and (b) effective health messaging that focuses on beliefs about the effectiveness of n-3 PUFA in reducing health risks, are discussed.

  9. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions. This description may be a good basis for HR software and may be useful for business and management.

  10. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  11. Academic Motivation of the First-Year University Students and the Self-Determination Theory

    Koseoglu, Yaman

    2013-01-01

    The Self Determination Theory has identified various types of motivation along a continuum from weakest to strongest. Yet, until recently, no reliable method existed to measure accurately the strength of motivation along this continuum. Vallerand et al. (1992) developed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) to measure the validity of the Self…

  12. A Profile Approach to Self-Determination Theory Motivations at Work

    Moran, Christina M.; Diefendorff, James M.; Kim, Tae-Yeol; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) posits the existence of distinct types of motivation (i.e., external, introjected, identified, integrated, and intrinsic). Research on these different types of motivation has typically adopted a variable-centered approach that seeks to understand how each motivation in isolation relates to employee outcomes. We…

  13. The Dispositions of Elementary School Children of Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures Who Are Intrinsically Motivated to Seek Information

    Crow, Sherry R.; Kastello, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on two studies conducted in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 2008 and in Kampala, Uganda, in 2014. The basic research question addressed in both studies was: "What are the experiences in the lives of upper elementary-aged children that foster an intrinsic motivation to seek information?" The secondary question was:…

  14. Dispositional greed.

    Seuntjens, Terri G; Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Ven, Niels; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2015-06-01

    Greed is an important motive: it is seen as both productive (a source of ambition; the motor of the economy) and destructive (undermining social relationships; the cause of the late 2000s financial crisis). However, relatively little is known about what greed is and does. This article reports on 5 studies that develop and test the 7-item Dispositional Greed Scale (DGS). Study 1 (including 4 separate samples from 2 different countries, total N = 6092) provides evidence for the construct and discriminant validity of the DGS in terms of positive correlations with maximization, self-interest, envy, materialism, and impulsiveness, and negative correlations with self-control and life satisfaction. Study 2 (N = 290) presents further evidence for discriminant validity, finding that the DGS predicts greedy behavioral tendencies over and above materialism. Furthermore, the DGS predicts economic behavior: greedy people allocate more money to themselves in dictator games (Study 3, N = 300) and ultimatum games (Study 4, N = 603), and take more in a resource dilemma (Study 5, N = 305). These findings shed light on what greed is and does, how people differ in greed, and how greed can be measured. In addition, they show the importance of greed in economic behavior and provide directions for future studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  16. Hierarchical Active Inference: A Theory of Motivated Control.

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J

    2018-04-01

    Motivated control refers to the coordination of behaviour to achieve affectively valenced outcomes or goals. The study of motivated control traditionally assumes a distinction between control and motivational processes, which map to distinct (dorsolateral versus ventromedial) brain systems. However, the respective roles and interactions between these processes remain controversial. We offer a novel perspective that casts control and motivational processes as complementary aspects - goal propagation and prioritization, respectively - of active inference and hierarchical goal processing under deep generative models. We propose that the control hierarchy propagates prior preferences or goals, but their precision is informed by the motivational context, inferred at different levels of the motivational hierarchy. The ensuing integration of control and motivational processes underwrites action and policy selection and, ultimately, motivated behaviour, by enabling deep inference to prioritize goals in a context-sensitive way. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  18. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  19. Expectancy Theory as a Predictor of Faculty Motivation to Use a Course Management System

    Turcan, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the elements of the Expectancy theory and faculty motivation to use a course management system. Specifically it analyzed if the elements of the Expectancy theory (Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy) were useful in predicting faculty motivation when using Blackboard tools in…

  20. Organizational Communication Based on Organizational Justice Theory for Motivating Workers with Different Cultural Values

    山口,生史

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.,organizational communication).

  1. Memory for performance feedback :a test of three self- motivation theories

    Donlin, Joanne Mac

    1990-01-01

    The current study tests the adequacy of three self-motive theories to predict recall of performance feedback, memory sensitivity, and ratings of perceived accuracy. Self-enhancement (Jones, 1973) predicts individuals are motivated to maintain their self-esteem. Individuals will therefore recall positive relative to negative feedback and will rate positive feedback as more accurate. Self-consistency theory (Swann, 1985) predicts individuals are motivated to maintain their self-conceptions. The...

  2. Individuals’ Motivation to Participate in Sport Tourism: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Thomas J. Aicher; Jessica Brenner

    2015-01-01

    Using self-determination theory (SDT) as a conceptual framework, we utilized previous research to develop a conceptual model to better understand individuals’ motivation to participate in sport tourism and events. The model represents the six propositions we put forward that depict the relationships between motivational factors associated with sport tourism and event participation and individuals’ controlled or autonomous motivation. Specifically, organizational motivations are proposed to en...

  3. There's nothing more practical than a good theory: integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory.

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2006-03-01

    In this article we compare and integrate two well-established approaches to motivating therapeutic change, namely self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, ) and motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 1991, ). We show that SDT's theoretical focus on the internalization of therapeutic change and on the issue of need-satisfaction is fully compatible with key principles and clinical strategies within MI. We further suggest that basic need-satisfaction might be an important mechanism accounting for the positive effects of MI. Conversely, MI principles may provide SDT researchers with new insight into the application of SDT's theoretical concept of autonomy-support, and suggest new ways of testing and developing SDT. In short, the applied approach of MI and the theoretical approach of SDT might be fruitfully married, to the benefit of both.

  4. Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia: The ‘Why’ of Motivated Behavior

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  5. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Gawel, Joseph E.

    Among the behavioral theories embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees, and Maslow developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of human needs and how people pursue those needs. This digest briefly outlines both theories and then…

  6. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  7. Motives and chances of firm diversification: theory and empirical evidence

    Briglauer, W.

    2001-11-01

    It is beyond controversy that the majority of the largest companies in the industrialized countries perform to a certain extent product diversification strategies. Tying up to this finding the underlying work firstly deals with alternative theoretical and empirical definitions of corporate diversification. Subsequently the theoretical part mainly elaborates an industrial economic framework for categorizing motives of firm diversification. Despite of some inevitable degree of arbitrariness, a relatively widespread and sufficient categorization can be presented. With regards to the relevant economic literature most explanations of product diversification can be classified appropriately. Observing diversification activities one would prima facie infer a positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance, but both, theory and empirical evidence, yield ambiguous results. The empirical part provides a list of existing studies, classified according to the theoretical categorization. In an overview some stylised facts are filtered and discussed consecutively. Most notably, it was found that related diversification strategies significantly outperform strategies of unrelated diversification. At the end of the empirical section econometric methods are applied to agricultural and industrial economic (relating to telecommunication markets) data sets. For the agricultural studies a significantly positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance was found. In contrast no significant results were obtained for the telecommunication markets. (author)

  8. Foucaults Dispositive

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    While Foucault’s work has had a crucial impact on organizational research, the analytical potential of the dispositive has not been sufficiently developed. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct the notion of the dispositive as a key conception in Foucault’s thought, particularly in his...

  9. Representing dispositions

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  10. Motivation of Academics: An Empirical Assessment of Herzberg's Theory

    Saglam, Aycan Cicek

    2007-01-01

    This study examined academics' viewpoints according to sex, academic title, and professional seniority to establish how much the university presented to its staff hygiene and motivation factors and to find out the effect of these factors in motivating the staff. The findings show that there is not a statistical difference among the academics'…

  11. Motivational Determinants of Alcohol Use: A Theory and Its Applications.

    Cox, W. Miles

    This transcript of a conference presentation describes a motivational model of alcohol use that shows the interrelationship between the various factors that affect drinking. First, a flow diagram is presented and described that shows how complex biological, psychological, and environmental variables contribute to a person's motivation for…

  12. The Motivation to Volunteer: A Systemic Quality of Life Theory

    Shye, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…

  13. A prospect theory explanation of the disposition to trade losing investments for less than market price.

    Johnstone, D J

    2002-06-01

    Investors have a proven general reluctance to realize losses. The theory of "mental accounting" suggests that losses are easier to accept when mentally integrated with either preceding losses or with compensatory gains. Mental integration is made easier when a failed asset is exchanged against a new, apparently profitable, acquisition. The alternative is to sell the existing asset on the open market before re-investing the proceeds as desired. This is emotionally less appealing than "rolling over" a losing investment into a new venture by way of an asset trade. The psychological benefits of exchanging rather than selling a failed asset come at a cost. It is typical of trade-in arrangements, e.g., where one trades an old car against a new one, that the effective sale price of the existing asset is less than current market value. Acceptance of this low price adds to the investor's total monetary loss on the existing asset but is essential to an overall package deal apart from which that asset would often remain belatedly unsold.

  14. Geertz versus Levi-Strauss: latent structural dispositions in Geertz "theory of culture"?

    Gordana Gorunović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available These are two authors, in Foucauldian terms that certainly belong to the most influential individuals in socio-cultural anthropology, as well as in the social sciences and interdisciplinary research more broadly. Claude Levi- Strauss became some kind of an "intellectual hero" during the domination of structuralism in the mid-twentieth century and during the 1960s, while Clifford Geertz was an ‘icon and ambassador’ of anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century. They are both one of the founders of the discourse theory. They not only established a distinct theoretical approaches and methods – structural (Levi-Strauss and interpretative anthropology (Clifford Geertz, but through their intellectual authority they also inspired paradigms and intellectual movements making structuralism and "interpretation of culture" more than some passing episodes in the history of social though (in terms of "trendy ideas". My aim is to make some parallels between these two authors, who despite all the differences that are evident in their epistemological discourses, theoretical approaches and methods (as well as in their ethnographic and anthropological writings itself still have some similarities in their theorisation and interpretation of culture, which I would like to stress in this paper.

  15. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  16. Variables Affecting Students' Intrinsic Motivation for School Mathematics: Two Empirical Studies Based on Deci and Ryan's Theory on Motivation.

    Valas, Harald; Sovik, Nils

    1993-01-01

    Effects of the controlling strategies of the mathematics teacher on student achievement, interest, and mathematics self-concept were demonstrated in a longitudinal study involving 161 seventh graders and 164 eighth graders. This empirical test of the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan provides insight into student motivation. (SLD)

  17. The implications of Herzberg's "motivation-hygiene" theory for management in the Irish health sector.

    Byrne, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Given that they create what it sells, employees are the Irish Health service's most valuable asset. They are increasingly being asked to embrace change on many different levels. In order to facilitate this process, it behooves management to actively promote employee motivation. Herzberg et al's "motivation-hygiene" theory of motivation proposes that certain "motivator" and "hygiene" factors can respectively affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Considering "motivators," better on-the-job performance may increase motivation. However, work overload can become a dissatisfier. Devolving equal levels of authority and responsibility and providing appropriate recognition may also serve to motivate. Likewise, providing opportunities for promotion and personal growth may maintain motivation, as might re-engineering of jobs so that work remains meaningful. Over time both salary and incentives may come to be viewed as entitlements and lose their ability to motivate. Other "hygiene" factors such as organizational policy and administrative structure, relations with others, job insecurity, physical working conditions, and quality of supervision can lead to job dissatisfaction. Hence, the theory of Herzberg et al usefully highlights many factors that may serve to motivate or demotivate employees. However, this theory does not reflect some of the realities of the modern health care work environment.

  18. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism : Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and

  19. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  20. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience.

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years) completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes' scores in these constructs.

  1. Self-determination theory and understanding of student motivation in physical education instruction

    Đorđić Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.

  2. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  3. MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THEIR RELATION TO THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP. Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined" profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined" profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined" profile

  4. Modifying attitude and intention toward regular physical activity using protection motivation theory: a randomized controlled trial.

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Eri, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohammad R; Kabir, Mohammad J; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman B; Aryaie, Mohammad; Charkazi, Abdurrahman

    2017-10-30

    We were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory to test the motivational interviewing effects on attitude and intention of obese and overweight women to do regular physical activity. In a randomized controlled trial, we selected using convenience sampling 60 overweight and obese women attending health centres. The women were allocated to 2 groups of 30 receiving a standard weight-control programme or motivational interviewing. All constructs of the theory (perceived susceptibility, severity, self-efficacy and response efficacy) and all anthropometric characteristics (except body mass index) were significantly different between the groups at 3 study times. The strongest predictors of intention to do regular physical exercise were perceived response efficacy and attitude at 2- and 6-months follow-up. We showed that targeting motivational interviewing with an emphasis on Protection Motivation Theory constructs appeared to be beneficial for designing and developing appropriate intervention to improve physical activity status among women with overweight and obesity.

  5. MOTIVATION

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  6. Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke and Globalhagen -Theories of leadership and motivation

    Mannonen, Lida Sofia

    2017-01-01

    This report is a documentation of qualitative research project, about volunteer motivation and leadership within a non-profit organization Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke’s social enterprise - Globalhagen. It draws on findings from interviews and observations of a group of volunteers, part of a non-profit café and a hostel. Findings of the study are analyzed in the light of servant leadership and co-creation leadership, together with theoretical considerations on volunteer motivation.

  7. Rewarding my Self. The role of Self Esteem and Self Determination in Motivation Crowding Theory

    Bruno, B.

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to reconcile different explanations (and consequences) of the motivation crowding theory in a unique theoretical framework where the locus of control is introduced in a one period maximisation problem and the intrinsic motivation is assumed as an exogenous psychological attitude. The analysis is based on the distinction among different types of objectives of the intrinsic motivation. For each type of objective, the different role of self esteem and self determination mechanisms...

  8. Ethnic Differences And Motivation Based On Maslow’s Theory At a MedicaL University

    Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Motivation in Malaysia is to a largeextent influenced by the value system amongst allMalaysians. Being able to motivate employees is one ofthe important keys to the success of the organization.In this paper, an attempt was made to look into theneeds of employees in organizations and in particular,the needs based on Maslow’s theory on motivation. Subjects and Methods: Employees which consisted ofboth academic and administrative employees of theInternational Medical University (...

  9. Toward a Reconstruction of Organizational Theory: Androcentric Bias in A. H. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and Self-Actualization.

    Tietze, Irene Nowell; Shakeshaft, Charol

    An exploration in the context of feminist science of one theoretical basis of educational administration--Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation and self-actualization--finds an androcentric bias in Maslow's methodology, philosophical underpinnings, and theory formulation. Maslow's hypothetico-deductive methodology was based on a…

  10. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    Ian eMcGregor; Joseph eHayes; Mike ePrentice; Mike ePrentice

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxi...

  11. The Lack of Motivation to Pursue Postsecondary Education among Hmong Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    Lee, Xang

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…

  12. Using Achievement Motivation Theory to Explain Student Participation in a Residential Leadership Learning Community

    Moore, Lori L.; Grabsch, Dustin K.; Rotter, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to examine student motives for participating in a residential leadership learning community for incoming freshmen using McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory (McClelland, 1958, 1961). Eighty-nine students began the program in the Fall 2009 semester and were administered a single, researcher-developed instrument. Responses to…

  13. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  14. Motivation and Exercise Dependence: A Study Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Gonzalez-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to different questionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic…

  15. Mathematical Formalization Of Theories Of Motivation Proposed By Abraham Maslow And Frederick Herzberg

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-01-01

    the present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions.

  16. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: The Effects of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation of Gifted Students.

    Rogers, Brenda T.

    1985-01-01

    E. Deci's cognitive evaluation theory, which suggests that external rewards undermine intrinsic interest in an activity, is applied to the decline of instrinsic motivation in gifted students. Implications for feedback, rewards, and teacher role are noted. (CL)

  17. Age and motives for volunteering: testing hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Okun, Morris A; Schultz, Amy

    2003-06-01

    Following a meta-analysis of the relations between age and volunteer motives (career, understanding, enhancement, protective, making friends, social, and values), the authors tested hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory regarding the effects of age on these volunteer motives. The Volunteer Functions Inventory was completed by 523 volunteers from 2 affiliates of the International Habitat for Humanity. Multiple regression analyses revealed, as predicted, that as age increases, career and understanding volunteer motivation decrease and social volunteer motivation increases. Contrary to expectations, age did not contribute to the prediction of enhancement, protective, and values volunteer motivations and the relation between age and making friends volunteer motivation was nonlinear. The results were discussed in the context of age-differential and age-similarity perspectives on volunteer motivation.

  18. Evidence against the continuum structure underlying motivation measures derived from self-determination theory.

    Chemolli, Emanuela; Gagné, Marylène

    2014-06-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation in which the different regulations are said to fall along a continuum of self-determination. The continuum has been used as a basis for using a relative autonomy index as a means to create motivational scores. Rasch analysis was used to verify the continuum structure of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and of the Academic Motivation Scale. We discuss the concept of continuum against SDT's conceptualization of motivation and argue against the use of the relative autonomy index on the grounds that evidence for a continuum structure underlying the regulations is weak and because the index is statistically problematic. We suggest exploiting the full richness of SDT's multidimensional conceptualization of motivation through the use of alternative scoring methods when investigating motivational dynamics across life domains.

  19. Why do young people consume marijuana? Extending motivational theory via the Dualistic Model of Passion.

    Davis, Alan K; Arterberry, Brooke J; Bonar, Erin E; Bohnert, Kipling M; Walton, Maureen A

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated an extended model of motivation for consuming marijuana by combining motivational theory and the dualistic model of passion. An online sample of 524 young, frequent marijuana consumers (M age = 24; 88% male; M past-30-days =21; Mode=31; 50% used 25-31 days) self-administered several questionnaires including the Marijuana-Harmonious and Obsessive Passion Scale and the Marijuana Motives Measure. Intercorrelations among the obsessive and harmonious passion and motives subscales were small-to-medium. A canonical correlation analysis revealed that obsessive passion was significantly positively associated with coping and conformity motives, while controlling for marijuana use, other motives, and harmonious passion scores. Additionally, harmonious passion was significantly positively associated with expansion, social, enhancement, and coping motives, while controlling for marijuana use and obsessive passion scores. A second canonical correlation analysis revealed that, when motive and passion subscales were included as independent predictors of recent marijuana use and related consequences, high obsessive passion and coping motives emerged as significant predictors of recent use and related consequences. Moreover, high harmonious passion and using less for conformity motives emerged as significant predictors of recent marijuana use. These results demonstrate that passion is related to, but not a proxy for, previously established motives for marijuana use and that, when examined simultaneously, both types of passion predict recent consumption but appear to differentiate whether one will experience use-related consequences. Researchers and clinicians could evaluate whether addressing obsessive passion and coping motives reduces or ameliorates negative outcomes associated with consumption.

  20. Impact of Theory of Consumption Values Motives on Intention to Use Deal Sites

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Deal sites became a widely used over the period of last several years. But there is still only a limited number of papers investigating their adoption and use from a customer perspective. Most of the research published on the topic is rather exploratory than using existing theories. The Theory of...... of Consumption Values is a marketing theory that explains purchase behavior. The aim of this paper is to test if the Theory of Consumption Values motives influence intention to use deal sites....

  1. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism: Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van, Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    2016-01-01

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and propelled to take a stand as a universal theory determining human wants and needs across the world, little has been done to critically examine its seemingly perceived universality and applicability...

  2. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  3. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... that motivations among staff are rooted in both intrinsic as well as extrinsic motives and the provision of extrinsic incentives through the performance management scheme provokes different motivational reactions among staff with importance for both performance and management....

  4. Employee Safety Motivation: perspectives and measures on the basis of the Self-Determination theory.

    Mariani, M G; Soldà, Bianca Lara; Curcuruto, M

    2015-09-09

    There is a growing body of literature demonstrating that employee's safety behaviour is largely influenced by their motivation to work safely. The Self-Determination Theory, which proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation, is now established in various domains of the academic field (Healthcare, Education, Psychopathology, Organizations, Sport etc.). However, there are few publications concerning its use in the analysis of motivation in a safety context, where it constitutes a new topic of study. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Italian version of the Self-Determined Safety Motivation Scale and analyze the psychometric properties of the scale in terms of construct validity. The research involved 387 Italian employees from three companies, who occupied medium-low levels in the organizational hierarchy. A good level of psychometric properties was shown. The Italian version of the Self-Determined Safety Motivation Scale is a reliable and valid instrument to assess safety motivation.

  5. Motivational journey of Iranian bachelor of nursing students during clinical education: a grounded theory study.

    Hanifi, Nasrin; Parvizy, Soroor; Joolaee, Soodabeh

    2013-09-01

    This study explored how nursing students can be kept motivated throughout their clinical education. Motivation is a key issue in nursing clinical education for student retention. The study was conducted using grounded theory methods, which are appropriate when studying process in a social context. Sixteen students and four instructors, who were purposefully selected, participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Students' motivational journey occurred in three steps: (i) social condition; (ii) encountering the clinical education challenges; and (iii) looking for an escape from nursing, or simply tolerating nursing. Struggling with professional identity emerged as the core variable. Iran's social context and many other conditions in the clinical education setting affect students' motivation. Identifying motivational process might assist educational authorities in offering solutions to promote motivation among students. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Humoral theory as motivation for anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible

    This article reviews the role of the ancient Israelite humoral theory in the motivation of anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible. It is argued that the role of the folk theory of bodily fluids on the cognitive interpretation of anger in the Hebrew Bible has been underestimated. While the study of universal bodily experience as ...

  7. Insights into Participants' Behaviours in Educational Games, Simulations and Workshops: A Catastrophe Theory Application to Motivation.

    Cryer, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Develops models for participants' behaviors in games, simulations, and workshops based on Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Examples are given of how these models can be used, both for describing and understanding the behaviors of individuals, and for eliciting insights into why participants behave as they do. (11…

  8. A mapping between Feynman and string motivated one-loop rules in gauge theories

    Bern, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, computationally efficient rules for one-loop gauge theory amplitudes have been derived from string theory. We demonstrate the relationship of the compact string organization of the amplitude to Feynman diagrams. In particular, we explicitly show how large cancellations inherent in conventional Feynman diagram computations are avoided by the string motivated rules. (orig.)

  9. The TEACH Method: An Interactive Approach for Teaching the Needs-Based Theories Of Motivation

    Moorer, Cleamon, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive approach for explaining and teaching the Needs-Based Theories of Motivation. The acronym TEACH stands for Theory, Example, Application, Collaboration, and Having Discussion. This method can help business students to better understand and distinguish the implications of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,…

  10. Applicability of Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory in Studying Academic Motivation.

    Magoon, Robert A.; James, Aaron

    1978-01-01

    Forty-one community college students were asked to recall one college-related event which made them feel good and one which made them feel bad, and provide additional information about each. Results were analyzed using Herzberg's methods to identify factors related to student motivation, as "satisfiers" or "dissatisfiers" and…

  11. Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Orientations: An Evaluation of Jingle-Jangle Fallacies.

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; McInerney, Dennis; Debus, Raymond L.

    Motivation orientation research consistently finds two factors, Performance and Learning, that overlap substantially with other factors coming from different theoretical perspectives of motivation. Similar to related work in the Big-Five Theory of Personality, researchers posited a Big-Two-Factor Theory of motivation orientation and evaluated the…

  12. Examining International Students' Motivation to Read in English from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Komiyama, Reiko; McMorris, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is thought to contribute to better text comprehension (Grabe, 2009), but L2 reading motivation of adult ESL students in the US is an underexplored area of research. The current study adopted self-determination theory--the concepts of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and controlled motivation, in particular--to examine IEP…

  13. Analysis of Generation Y Workforce Motivation Using Multiattribute Utility Theory

    2011-01-01

    the Berlin Wall, the induction of music television (MTV) into society, Columbine High School shootings , 9/11 terrorist attacks, more frequent... high inflation of the 1980s (Dries et al., 2008; Crumpacker & Crumpacker, 2007; Weingarten, 2009). 66 Analysis of Generation Y Workforce Motivation...January 2011 and abhors slowness (Weingarten, 2009). To some, Generation Y’s work values and attributes paint a picture of being high main- tenance

  14. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  15. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-we...

  16. Motivation for the Study of Music Based on the Interactionist Theories of Piaget

    Marcelo de Magalhães Cunha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the psychology of education and psychology of music through the study of the motivation for music learning. The theoretical framework is based on certain points of the interactionist theory of Jean Piaget. The main objective was to analyze in which way family and members of the school environment motivate the study of music. A case study of two individuals--a student and a professional musician--was conducted by interviewing them on the affective issues in social relations during the musical training process. The findings shed light on the role of the mother and father as the main motivators for learning music. In the absence of such family support, the student can be motivated at school since teachers or classmates may represent or symbolize the family figure. In this way, the study and mastering of music may be motivated by means of creating social ties.

  17. Microfoundations for stakeholder theory: Managing stakeholders with heterogeneous motives

    Bridoux, F.; Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental stakeholder theory proposes a positive relationship between fairness toward stakeholders and firm performance. Yet, some firms are successful with an arms-length approach to stakeholder management, based on bargaining power rather than fairness. We address this puzzle by relaxing the

  18. Motivated doubts : A comment on Walton's theory of criticism

    van Laar, Jan Albert

    2014-01-01

    In his theory of criticism, D. N. Walton presupposes that an opponent either critically questions an argument, without supplementing this questioning with any reasoning of her own, or that she puts forward a critical question and supplements it with a counterargument, that is, with reasoning in

  19. Violations of Einstein's Relativity: Motivations, Theory, and Phenomenology

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult questions in present-day physics concerns a fundamental theory of space, time, and matter that incorporates a consistent quantum description of gravity. There are various theoretical approaches to such a quantum-gravity theory. Nevertheless, experimental progress is hampered in this research field because many models predict deviations from established physics that are suppressed by some power of the Planck scale, which currently appears to be immeasurably small. However, tests of relativity theory provide one promising avenue to overcome this phenomeno-logical obstacle: many models for underlying physics can accommodate a small breakdown of Lorentz symmetry, and numerous feasible Lorentz-symmetry tests have Planck reach. Such mild violations of Einstein's relativity have therefore become the focus of recent research efforts. This mini course provides a brief survey of the key ideas in this research field and is geared at both experimentalists and theorists. In particular, several theoretical mechanisms leading to deviations from relativity theory are presented; the standard theoretical framework for relativity violations at currently accessible energy scales (i.e., the SME) is reviewed, and various present and near-future experimental efforts within this field are discussed.

  20. Recent experiments testing an opponent-process theory of acquired motivation.

    Solomon, R L

    1980-01-01

    There are acquired motives of the addiction type which seem to be non-associative in nature. They all seem to involve affective phenomena caused by reinforcers, unconditioned stimuli or innate releasers. When such stimuli are repeatedly presented, at least three affective phenomena occur: (1) affective contrast effects, (2) affective habituation (tolerance), and (3) affective withdrawal syndromes. These phenomena can be precipitated either by pleasant or unpleasant events (positive or negative reinforcers). Whenever we see these three phenomena, we also see the development of an addictive cycle, a new motivational system. These phenomena are explained by an opponent-process theory of motivation which holds that there are affect control systems which oppose large departures from affective equilibrium. The control systems are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. Current observations and experiments testing the theory are described for: (1) the growth of social attachment (imprinting) in ducklings; and (2) the growth of adjunctive behaviors. The findings so far support the theory.

  1. Motivating quantum field theory: the boosted particle in a box

    Vutha, Amar C

    2013-01-01

    It is a maxim often stated, yet rarely illustrated, that the combination of special relativity and quantum mechanics necessarily leads to quantum field theory. An elementary illustration is provided using the familiar particle in a box, boosted to relativistic speeds. It is shown that quantum fluctuations of momentum lead to energy fluctuations, which are inexplicable without a framework that endows the vacuum with dynamical degrees of freedom and allows particle creation/annihilation. (letters and comments)

  2. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  3. Do implicit motives and basic psychological needs interact to predict well-being and flow? : Testing a universal hypothesis and a matching hypothesis

    Schüler, Julia; Brandstätter, Veronika; Sheldon, Kennon M.

    2013-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan in Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum Press, New York, 1985) suggests that certain experiences, such as competence, are equally beneficial to everyone’s well-being (universal hypothesis), whereas Motive Disposition Theory (McClelland in Human motivation. Scott, Foresman, Glenview, IL, 1985) predicts that some people, such as those with a high achievement motive, should benefit particularly from such experiences (match...

  4. The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory.

    Carton, J S

    1996-01-01

    Substantial research indicates that tangible rewards, such as money, prizes, and tokens, decrease response rates by undermining intrinsic motivation. In contrast, praise appears to increase response rates by enhancing intrinsic motivation. Based on their interpretation of available evidence, many social-cognitive researchers warn not to use tangible rewards in applied settings and to use praise instead. Furthermore, they suggest that the differential effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation cannot be explained using principles of operant psychology. Cognitive evaluation theory provides one of the most recent and widely cited social-cognitive explanations for the different effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). However, a review of existing research found little support for the explanations based on this theory and revealed three potential confounding effects: (a) temporal contiguity, (b) the number of reward administrations, and (c) discriminative stimuli associated with reward availability. These three confounding factors provide explanations for the effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation that are consistent with principles of operant psychology.

  5. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  6. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  7. Mothers' daily person and process praise: implications for children's theory of intelligence and motivation.

    Pomerantz, Eva M; Kempner, Sara G

    2013-11-01

    This research examined if mothers' day-to-day praise of children's success in school plays a role in children's theory of intelligence and motivation. Participants were 120 children (mean age = 10.23 years) and their mothers who took part in a 2-wave study spanning 6 months. During the first wave, mothers completed a 10-day daily interview in which they reported on their use of person (e.g., "You are smart") and process (e.g., "You tried hard") praise. Children's entity theory of intelligence and preference for challenge in school were assessed with surveys at both waves. Mothers' person, but not process, praise was predictive of children's theory of intelligence and motivation: The more person praise mothers used, the more children subsequently held an entity theory of intelligence and avoided challenge over and above their earlier functioning on these dimensions.

  8. Determinants of Preventive Intentions for Endocrine Disrupters : An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    Tozuka, Tadashi; Hayakawa, Masanori; Fukada, Hiromi

    2001-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) suggested by Rogers (1983) is one of the theories concerning threat appeal. The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of preventive intentions for endocrine disrupters (estrogen mimics), by using the PMT framework. Independent variables were (1) threat (high or low), (2) response efficacy (high or low), (3) response cost (high or low), and (4) gender (men or women). Four hundred university students (200 men and 200 women) were assigned to one...

  9. Students' perceptions of motivation in high school biology class: Informing current theories

    McManic, Janet A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of motivation to achieve while participating in general level high school biology classes. In a national poll of teacher's attitudes, student's motivation was a top concern of teachers (Elam, 1989). The student's perceptions of motivation are important to understand if improvements and advancements in motivation are to be implemented in the science classroom. This qualitative study was conducted in an urban high school that is located in a major metropolitan area in the southeast of the United States. The student body of 1100 is composed of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian students. The focus question of the study was: What are students' perceptions of their motivation in biology class? From general level biology classes, purposeful sampling narrowed the participants to fifteen students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants having varying measurements of motivation on the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (Harter, 1980). The interviews were recorded and transcribed. After transcription, the interviews were coded by the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The coded data of students' responses were analyzed and compared to current theories of motivation. The current theories are the social-cognitive model (Bandura, 1977), attribution theory (Weiner, 1979), basic needs theory (Maslow, 1954) and choice theory (Glasser, 1986). The results of this study support the social cognitive model of motivation (Bandura, 1977) through the description of family structure and its relationship to motivation (Gonzalez, 2002). The study upheld previous research in that extrinsic orientation was shown to be prevalent in older students (Harter, 1981; Anderman & Maehr, 1994). In addition, the students' responses disclosed the difficulties encountered in studying biology. Students expressed the opinion that biology terms are

  10. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use Among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Ghasemi, Mahmood; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, Mosharafeh

    2018-01-09

    Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016. A questionnaire about tobacco use based on protection motivation theory was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. The questionnaire included the demographic information, the constructs of theory, and tobacco use behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test the associations between the constructs with intention and tobacco use. The variables of perceived vulnerability (β = 0/137, P theory provides a useful framework for investigating factors of tobacco use among male students. Future tobacco prevention interventions should focus on increasing the vulnerability and fear, decreasing intrinsic reward, and improving self-efficacy to reduce tobacco use.

  11. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  12. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  13. Utilization of variation theory in the classroom: Effect on students' algebraic achievement and motivation

    Jing, Ting Jing; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Aralas, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of utilizing Variation Theory Based Strategy on students' algebraic achievement and motivation in learning algebra. The study used quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group research design and involved 56 Form Two (Secondary Two) students in two classes (28 in experimental group, 28 in control group) in Malaysia The first class of students went through algebra class taught with Variation Theory Based Strategy (VTBS) while the second class of students experienced conventional teaching strategy. The instruments used for the study were a 24-item Algebra Test and 36-item Instructional Materials Motivation Survey. Result from analysis of Covariance indicated that experimental group students achieved significantly better test scores than control group. Result of Multivariate Analysis of Variance also shows evidences of significant effect of VTBS on experimental students' overall motivation in all the five subscales; attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. These results suggested the utilization of VTBS would improve students' learning in algebra.

  14. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Painter, Jason

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in science, intrinsic motivation, and science achievement related to each other. Mother's education and student gender were used as controls. Findings showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. The strongest direct effect on science achievement was students' perceived competence in science. Student intrinsic motivation was shown to have a surprisingly negative effect on science achievement. Autonomy support had positive direct effects on students' perceived competence in science and intrinsic motivation and had indirect positive effects to science achievement. Results and implications for science education are discussed.

  15. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.

    Ryan, R M; Deci, E L

    2000-01-01

    Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.

  16. Parental support and adolescent motivation for dieting: the Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    Katz, Idit; Madjar, Nir; Harari, Adi

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on parents' role in overweight adolescents' motivation to diet and successful weight loss. The study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2011). Ninety-nine participants (ages 20-30) who had been overweight during adolescence according to their Body Mass Index (BMI mean = 25, SD = 1.6), completed retrospective questionnaires about their motivation to diet and their parents' behavior in the context of dieting. Findings from a structural equation modeling analysis suggested that participants who viewed their parents' as more need-supportive demonstrated more autonomous motivation to diet, which, in turn, contributed to their successful weight loss. The findings highlight the importance of parental support of adolescents' psychological needs in the quality of their motivation to diet. This is an important insight for parents and professionals who aim to encourage more constructive parent involvement in adolescents' dieting and well-being.

  17. Motivation and exercise dependence: a study based on self-determination theory.

    González-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to differentquestionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, motivation types, and exercise dependence. The results of multiple mediation analysis revealed that ego-involving climate and perceived competence positively predicted exercise dependence in a directed and mediated manner through introjected and external regulation. Gender and age did not moderate the analyzed relationships. These results allow us to better understand the motivational process explaining exercise dependence, demonstrating the negative influence of the ego-involving climate in the context of exercise.

  18. Self-Determination Theory and Middle School Mathematics Teachers: Understanding the Motivation to Attain Professional Development

    Crawford, Amy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to use Self-Determination Theory as a framework to analyze middle school mathematics teachers' motivation to attain effective professional development concerning Ohio's Learning Standards as well as other instructional aspects that affect the classroom. Teachers are exceptionally busy meeting…

  19. Physical Activity Motivation: A Practitioner's Guide to Self-Determination Theory.

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Jacobsen, Dee

    2002-01-01

    Describes the relationship of self-determination theory to elective physical activity motivation, offering the following recommendations for physical activity practitioners: give positive feedback, promote moderately difficult goals, provide choice of activities, provide a rational for activities, promote the development of social relationships,…

  20. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Painter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in…

  1. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    Dickens, Durrell

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of course…

  2. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance

    Burguillo, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  3. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory log...

  4. Rhetorical Dissent as an Adaptive Response to Classroom Problems: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…

  5. Enhancing Student Motivation: A Longitudinal Intervention Study Based on Future Time Perspective Theory

    Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

  6. Performance grading and motivational functioning and fear in physical education: A self-determination theory perspective

    Krijgsman, C.A.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; van Tartwijk, J.W.F.; Maes, Jolien; Borghouts, Lars; Cardon, Greet; Mainhard, M.T.; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study examines the explanatory role of students' perceived need satisfaction and need frustration in the relationship between performance grading (versus non-grading) and students' motivation and fear in a real-life educational physical education

  7. Situational State Balances and Participation Motivation in Youth Sport: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Sit, Cindy H. P.; Lindner, Koenraad J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Reversal theory (Apter, 1982, 1989, ) is one of the motivational frameworks which attempts to examine human subjective experiences and behaviours. There are four dyads of metamotivational states (telic-paratelic, conformist-negativistic, autic-alloic, and mastery-sympathy) and individuals may prefer to be in one rather than the other…

  8. Impact of Mcgregor's X and Y Motivation Theory on the Job ...

    This study investigated the impact of McGregor's X and Y motivation theory in the job performance of staff in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The design was a descriptive survey. The population was 2632 and a sample of 100 was randomly selected. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  9. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  10. Why We Do What We Do: A Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation.

    Gove, Walter R.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a theory of human motivation that focuses on the unpredictability of life, innate and noninnate differences in individual characteristics, individual responsibility for actions, importance of a meaningful life, intrinsic physiologic rewards of behavior, gender differences in behavior, adult psychological maturation, and limitations of the…

  11. Factors that Motivate Business Faculty to Conduct Research: An Expectancy Theory Analysis

    Chen, Yining; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used expectancy theory to examine key factors that motivate business faculty to conduct research. The survey results, from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, showed that faculty members who assign higher importance ratings to both the extrinsic and the intrinsic rewards of research exhibit higher research…

  12. The Reconciliation of W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey: An Exploration of Similarities in Motivation Theory.

    Towns, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Interrogates similarities and misconceptions common to W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey, examining a reconciliation of the two within the context of motivation theory and concluding that Deming and Dewey are very similar in general outlook and the shared belief in the integrity of the individual within the social system. (SM)

  13. Academic motivation in early adolescence based on self-determination theory

    Šarčević Dušana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has tested the most frequently used instrument for assessing academic motivation in adolescents, which measures seven aspects of motivation in accordance with the self-determination theory. In the first version of this questionnaire, four factors were singled out in the Serbian sample. Based on the first version, the second one was made under the name AMS, containing 32 items with five-degree categories of answers ranging from total disagreement to total agreement. The AMS questionnaire was administered on the convenient sample of 1.106 respondents aged 10 to 15 of both genders (51% female. Four factors were extracted, defined as Internal motivation, External motivation, Introjected motivation and Amotivation. The self-determination continuum has not been confirmed completely since some dimensions have a different status of self-determination than it was expected, while psychometric characteristics of the scales proved to be very good. Compared to the first version, this version of the questionnaire has better psychometric characteristics, reflects more clearly the theoretical assumption about the aspects of academic motivation and partially confirms its continuum. Hence, it can be stated that the AMS questionnaire is a good enough indicator of academic motivation in early adolescence.

  14. The Diagonal Model of Job Satisfaction and Motivation: Extracted from the Logical Comparison of Content and Process Theories

    Sahito, Zafarullah; Vaisanen, Pertti

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the strongest areas of all prime theories of job satisfaction and motivation to create a new multidimensional model. This model relies on all explored areas from the logical comparison of content and process theories to understand the phenomenon of job satisfaction and motivation of employees. The model…

  15. Evaluation of the Big Two-Factor Theory of Academic Motivation Orientations: An Evaluation of the Jingle-Jangle Fallacies.

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hinkley, John W.; Debus, Raymond L.

    2003-01-01

    Collected test-retest data from 606 students in grades 3 through 6 in Australia to evaluate a Big Two-Factor Theory of academic motivation orientation. Findings provide reasonable support for the Big Two-Factor theory but suggest it is still useful to collect data from different motivation scales. (SLD)

  16. Happiness, Dispositions and the Self

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2016-01-01

    I argue that happiness is an exclusively categorical mental state. Daniel Haybron’s inclusion of dispositions into his emotional state theory rests of a confusion of constituents of happiness in the narrow psychological sense with objects of prudential concern, to which obviously belong “mood...... propensities” and other dispositional states. I further argue that while it is probably correct to require of a constituent of happiness that it must in some sense be “deep” and belong to, or directly impact on, a persons’ self, the importance of depth may be overrated by the emotional state theory, which also...

  17. Motivation, management, and mastery: a theory of resilience in the context of HIV infection.

    De Santis, Joseph P; Florom-Smith, Aubrey; Vermeesch, Amber; Barroso, Susana; DeLeon, Diego A

    2013-01-01

    Clients with HIV infection have been conceptualized as a resilient population. Although a few researchers have documented resilience among clients with HIV infection, a theory of resilience in the context of HIV infection has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to describe the process by which resilience occurs for clients in the context of HIV infection. Grounded theory methodology was used to sample and analyze data from 15 qualitative interviews with adults with HIV infection. Data were collected until saturation was reached. A theory, motivation, management, and mastery, a description of the process by which resilience occurs in the context of HIV infection, emerged from the data. Many clients living with HIV infection are resilient, despite the physical, psychological, and social challenges of this chronic illness. Nursing interventions to promote resilience among clients with HIV infection should be directed toward identification of client motivation factors and disease management strategies that may influence health outcomes of people living with HIV infection.

  18. Exploiting attractiveness in persuasion: senders' implicit theories about receivers' processing motivation.

    Vogel, Tobias; Kutzner, Florian; Fiedler, Klaus; Freytag, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests a positive correlation between physical attractiveness and the expectation of positive outcomes in social interactions, such as successful persuasion. However, prominent persuasion theories do not imply a general advantage of attractive senders. Instead, the persuasion success should vary with the receivers' processing motivation and processing capacity. Focusing on the perspective of the sender, the authors elaborate on lay theories about how attractiveness affects persuasion success. They propose that lay theories (a) match scientific models in that they also comprise the interaction of senders' attractiveness and receivers' processing characteristics, (b) guide laypersons' anticipation of persuasion success, and (c) translate into strategic behavior. They show that anticipated persuasion success depends on the interplay of perceived attractiveness and expectations about receivers' processing motivation (Experiment 1 and 2). Further experiments show that laypersons strategically attempt to exploit attractiveness in that they approach situations (Experiment 3) and persons (Experiment 4) that promise persuasion success.

  19. Implicit Theories, Expectancies, and Values Predict Mathematics Motivation and Behavior across High School and College.

    Priess-Groben, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-06-01

    Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college mathematics outcomes. Implicit theories and expectancy-value variables were assessed in 165 American high school students (47 % female; 92 % White), who were then followed into their college years, at which time mathematics courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value were assessed. Implicit theories predicted course-taking intentions and utility value, but only self-concept of ability predicted courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value after controlling for prior mathematics achievement and baseline values. Expectancy for success in mathematics mediated associations between self-concept of ability and college outcomes. This research identifies self-concept of ability as a stronger predictor than implicit theories of mathematics motivation and behavior across several years: math self-concept is critical to sustained engagement in mathematics.

  20. Plasticity in older adults' theory of mind performance: the impact of motivation.

    Zhang, Xin; Lecce, Serena; Ceccato, Irene; Cavallini, Elena; Zhang, Linfang; Chen, Tianyong

    2017-09-08

    Recently, motivation has been found to attenuate the age-related decline in Theory of Mind (ToM) performance (i.e. faux pas recognition). However, whether or not this effect could be generalized to other ToM tasks is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether and how motivation could enhance older adults' performance and reduce age differences in ToM tasks (Faux Pas vs. Animation task) that differ in familiarity. Following a previous paradigm, 171 Chinese adults (87 younger adults and 84 older adults) were recruited, and we experimentally manipulated the level of perceived closeness between participants and the experimenter before administering the ToM tasks in order to enhance participants' motivation. Results showed that, for the Faux Pas task, we replicated previous findings such that older adults under the enhanced motivation conditions performed equally well as younger adults. Conversely, for the Animation task, younger adults outperformed older adults, regardless of motivation. These results indicate that motivation can enhance older adults' performance in ToM tasks, however, this beneficial effect cannot be generalized across ToM tasks.

  1. Dispositions, Emotions, Episodes and the Autonomous Learner.

    Wesson, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relationship between dispositions (i.e., continuities of inclinations and habits), episodic behavior, emotions, and desires; and the development of moral autonomy. Argues that autonomy requires a settled disposition toward the good. Contrasts theories of autonomy based on wants/desires and on ideals. (AYC)

  2. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  3. The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation*.

    Markwell, John

    2004-09-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching. Copyright © 2004 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Towards a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: The SIMON framework

    Christopher R Madan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work towards a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation.

  5. Toward a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: the SIMON framework.

    Madan, Christopher R

    2013-10-07

    While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work toward a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation.

  6. Social motivation and implicit theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Burnside, Kimberly; Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-11-01

    According to the social motivation theory of autism, children who develop Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have early deficits in social motivation, which is expressed by decreased attention to social information. These deficits are said to lead to impaired socio-cognitive development, such as theory of mind (ToM). There is little research focused on the relation between social motivation and ToM in this population. The goal of the present study was to investigate the link between one aspect of social motivation, social orienting, and ToM in preschoolers with ASD. It was expected that, in contrast to typically developing (TD) children, children with ASD would show impaired performance on tasks measuring social orienting and ToM. It was also expected that children's performance on the social orienting tasks would be correlated with their performance on the ToM task. A total of 17 children with ASD and 16 TD children participated in this study. Participants completed two social orienting tasks, a face preference task and a biological motion preference task, as well an implicit false belief task. Results reveal that TD children, but not children with ASD, exhibited social preference as measured by a preference for faces and biological motion. Furthermore, children with ASD tended to perform worse on the ToM task compared to their TD counterparts. Performance on the social motivation tasks and the ToM task tended to be related but only for the TD children. These findings suggest that ToM is multifaceted and that motivational deficits might have downstream effects even on implicit ToM. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1834-1844. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The goal of the present study was to examine the link between poor attention to social information and mindreading abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results demonstrated that children with ASD tended to perform worse than neurotypical children on both social

  7. Testing a self-determination theory model of children's physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-09-26

    Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical

  8. Testing a self-determination theory model of children’s physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children’s physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. Results The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children’s minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children’s motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is

  9. Using the theory of planned behaviour to measure motivation for recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Dawson, Lisa; Mullan, Barbara; Sainsbury, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a difficult to treat mental illness associated with low motivation for change. Despite criticisms of the transtheoretical stages of change model, both generally and in the eating disorders (EDs), this remains the only model to have been applied to the understanding of motivation to recover from AN. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) would provide a good fit for understanding and predicting motivation to recover from AN. Two studies were conducted - in the first study eight women who had recovered from chronic AN were interviewed about their experiences of recovery. The interview data were subsequently used to inform the development of a purpose-designed questionnaire to measure the components of the TPB in relation to recovery. In the second study, the resultant measure was administered to 67 females with a current diagnosis of AN, along with measures of eating disorder psychopathology, psychological symptoms, and an existing measure of motivation to recover (based on the transtheoretical model). Data from the interview study confirmed that the TPB is an appropriate model for understanding the factors that influence motivation to recover from AN. The results of the questionnaire study indicated that the pre-intention variables of the TPB accounted for large proportions of variance in the intention to recover (72%), and more specifically the intention to eat normally and gain weight (51%). Perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor of intention to recover, while attitudes were more important in the prediction of the intention to eat normally/gain weight. The positive results suggest that the TPB is an appropriate model for understanding and predicting motivation in AN. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  11. From needs to goals and representations: Foundations for a unified theory of motivation, personality, and development.

    Dweck, Carol S

    2017-11-01

    Drawing on both classic and current approaches, I propose a theory that integrates motivation, personality, and development within one framework, using a common set of principles and mechanisms. The theory begins by specifying basic needs and by suggesting how, as people pursue need-fulfilling goals, they build mental representations of their experiences (beliefs, representations of emotions, and representations of action tendencies). I then show how these needs, goals, and representations can serve as the basis of both motivation and personality, and can help to integrate disparate views of personality. The article builds on this framework to provide a new perspective on development, particularly on the forces that propel development and the roles of nature and nurture. I argue throughout that the focus on representations provides an important entry point for change and growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Longitudinal changes in academic motivation in Japan: Self-determination theory and East Asian cultures

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined changes in the academic motivation of Japanese junior high school students through a two-year longitudinal survey, based on self-determination theory. Japanese students (N = 410; 215 boys and 195 girls aged 12–13 years at the time of the first survey) completed the Japanese short-version of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire once each year during three consecutive grades (seventh, eighth, and ninth). The results of a latent curve model indicated that intrinsic and identifie...

  13. Motivational changes in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time: testing alternatives to socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Fung, Helene H; Carstensen, Laura L

    2004-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: (a) emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and (b) emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning. This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.

  14. Motivation to quit or reduce gambling: Associations between Self-Determination Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Change.

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-01-01

    Motivation for change and recovery from addiction has been commonly assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Analogous to readiness for change, this measure of motivation may not recognize other elements of motivation relevant to successful change. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stages of change and reasons for change according to the Self-Determination Theory among problem gamblers motivated to quit. Motivations for change were examined for 200 adult problem gamblers with intent to quit in the next 6 months (contemplation stage) or 30 days (preparation stage). Analyses revealed that higher autonomous motivation for quitting gambling predicted greater likelihood of being in the preparation stage, whereas those with higher external motivation for change were less likely to be farther along the stage of change continuum. The findings suggest that autonomous motivations relate to readiness for quitting gambling, and may predict successful resolution from problem gambling.

  15. Who confronts prejudice?: the role of implicit theories in the motivation to confront prejudice.

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-07-01

    Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.

  16. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Madjar Nir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  17. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma

    2012-01-12

    Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  18. Implicit need for achievement moderates the relationship between competence need satisfaction and subsequent motivation

    Schüler, Julia; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Fröhlich, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes that all humans have a need for competence. But is this need modulated by individual differences? Our research integrated SDT, which defines psychological needs (including competence) as universally essential experiences, and motive disposition theories, which define psychological needs as individually varying non-conscious motives. A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study showed that felt competence in a sports activity has especially positive effec...

  19. Using Learning and Motivation Theories to Coherently Link Formative Assessment, Grading Practices, and Large-Scale Assessment

    Shepard, L. A.; Penuel, W. R.; Pellegrino, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    To support equitable and ambitious teaching practices, classroom assessment design must be grounded in a research-based theory of learning. Compared to other theories, sociocultural theory offers a more powerful, integrative account of how motivational aspects of learning--such as self-regulation, self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and…

  20. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  1. Have motivation theories guided the development and reform of medical education curricula? A review of the literature.

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Mann, Karen V; Custers, Eugene; Ten Cate, Olle

    2012-06-01

    Educational psychology indicates that learning processes can be mapped on three dimensions: cognitive (what to learn), affective or motivational (why learn), and metacognitive regulation (how to learn). In a truly student-centered medical curriculum, all three dimensions should guide curriculum developers in constructing learning environments. The authors explored whether student motivation has guided medical education curriculum developments. The authors reviewed the literature on motivation theory related to education and on medical education curriculum development to identify major developments. Using the Learning-Oriented Teaching model as a framework, they evaluated the extent to which motivation theory has guided medical education curriculum developers. Major developments in the field of motivation theory indicate that motivation drives learning and influences students' academic performance, that gender differences exist in motivational mechanisms, and that the focus has shifted from quantity of motivation to quality of motivation and its determinants, and how they stimulate academic motivation. Major developments in medical curricula include the introduction of standardized and regulated medical education as well as problem-based, learner-centered, integrated teaching, outcome-based, and community-based approaches. These curricular changes have been based more on improving students' cognitive processing of content or metacognitive regulation than on stimulating motivation. Motivational processes may be a substantially undervalued factor in curriculum development. Building curricula to specifically stimulate motivation in students may powerfully influence the outcomes of curricula. The elements essential for stimulating intrinsic motivation in students, including autonomy support, adequate feedback, and emotional support, appear lacking as a primary aim in many curricular plans.

  2. Encouraging intrinsic motivation in the clinical setting: teachers' perspectives from the self-determination theory.

    Orsini, C; Evans, P; Binnie, V; Ledezma, P; Fuentes, F

    2016-05-01

    Self-determination theory postulates that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness have to be satisfied for students to achieve intrinsic motivation and internalisation of autonomous self-regulation towards academic activities. Consequently, the influence of the clinical teaching environment becomes crucial when satisfying these needs, particularly when promoting or diminishing students' intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to describe and understand how clinical teachers encourage intrinsic motivation in undergraduate dental students based on the three basic psychological needs described by the self-determination theory. A qualitative case study approach was adopted, and data were collected through semistructured interviews with nine experienced undergraduate clinical teachers of one dental school in Santiago, Chile. Interview transcripts were analysed by two independent reviewers using a general inductive approach. Several themes emerged outlining teaching strategies and behaviours. These themes included the control of external motivators; gradual transference of responsibility; identification and encouragement of personal interests; timely and constructive feedback; delivery of a vicarious learning experience; teamwork, team discussion, and presence of a safe environment, amongst others. Overall, teachers stressed the relevance of empowering, supporting and building a horizontal relationship with students. Our findings regarding dental education expand on the research outcomes from other health professions about how teachers may support students to internalise behaviours. An autonomy-supportive environment may lead students to value and engage in academic activities and eventually foster the use of an autonomy-supportive style to motivate their patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Needs and Motivation of Japanese University Students with Low English Proficiency within the Framework of Self-determination Theory

    杉森, 建太郎; Kentaro, Sugimori; 昭和女子大学総合教育センター

    2007-01-01

    Self-determination theory explains that the fulfillment of the three basic psychological needs-autonomy, competence, and relatedness-will lead to intrinsic motivation or the internalization of extrinsic motivation, which can result in successful learning. In this pilot study, I focused on non-English major Japanese university students with low English proficiency to find out the relationships between their basic psychological needs and motivation. Unlike the initial expectation, the autonomy ...

  4. The role of individualist and collectivist orientations on self-determined motivation: integrating self-determination theory and group processes

    Rentzelas, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to examine the role of individualism and collectivism as situational group norms on intrinsic motivation. A further aim was to examine the effect of individual differences in individualist and collectivist orientations on the effect of autonomous motivation on intention and behaviour. This research integrated the concept of self-determined and intrinsic motivation as postulated in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 2000,2002), individualism and coll...

  5. On the nature of motivational orientations: implications of assessed goals and gender differences for motivational goal theory.

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Huertas, Juan A; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    In a historical revision of the achievement goal construct, Elliot (2005) recognized that there is little consensus on whether the term "goal" in "achievement goal orientations" (GO) is best represented as an "aim", as an overarching orientation encompassing several "aims", or as a combination of aims and other processes -self-regulation, etc.-. Elliot pointed also that goal theory research provides evidence for different models of GO. As there were no consensus on these issues, we decided to get evidence about the nature and structure of GO, about the role of gender differences in the configuration of such structure, and about relations between GO, expectancies, volitional processes and achievement. A total of 382 university students from different faculties of two public universities of Madrid (Spain) that voluntarily accepted to fill in a questionnaire that assessed different goals, expectancies and self-regulatory processes participated in the study. Scales reliability, confirmatory factor analyses, multiple-group analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Results support the trichotomous model of GO, the consideration of GO as a combination of aims and other psychological processes, showed some gender differences and favour the adoption of a multiple goal perspective for explaining students' motivation.

  6. Preventive health psychology from a developmental perspective: an extension of protection motivation theory.

    Sturges, J W; Rogers, R W

    1996-05-01

    Theories of health psychology developed to explain adults' rational decision making were applied to 10-year-old children (n = 112), who had not reached the stage of formal operational thought; 15-year-olds (n = 67); and 20-year-olds (n = 93), extending the protection motivation theory developed by R. W. Rogers (1983). Among the adolescents and young adults, the threat appeals worked only if people believed they could cope effectively with the danger; if they believed they could not cope, higher levels of the threat resulted in decreased intentions to refrain from tobacco use. Although children elaborated and integrated the information about threat severity, personal vulnerability, and response efficacy, the fragility and malleability of the children's beliefs in self-efficacy demonstrated the importance of adding a developmental perspective to theories of preventive health psychology.

  7. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  8. Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Contents in Self-Determination Theory: Another Look at the Quality of Academic Motivation

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Deci, Edward L.

    2006-01-01

    Examination of motivational dynamics in academic contexts within self-determination theory has centered primarily around both the motives (initially intrinsic vs. extrinsic, later autonomous vs. controlled) that regulate learners' study behavior and the contexts that promote or hinder these regulations. Less attention has been paid to the goal…

  9. Achieving compliance with environmental health-related land use planning conditions in Hong Kong: perspectives from traditional motivation theories.

    Man, Rita Li Yi

    2009-11-01

    Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.

  10. How youth get engaged: grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs.

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.

  11. Applications of the Motivation Theories in the Management of the Romanian Police

    Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a world tendency to rejuvenate police units. This trend is compounded by thefact that this category of staff is subject to intensive fluctuations, which is an issue for the police system in theU.S., Canada and not only, even if this problem has varying degrees of severity from one country to anotheror from one unit to another. One of the reasons explaining the fluctuation of the staff is the lack of motivationin the police service employees (Brodeur, 2003, p 301. Given these issues, as well as the fact that meetingthe aims of the Romanian police is not possible without the management in this field laying the „foundations”of effective motivation strategies, this article aims to analyze the motivational theories and models applicablein the management of the Romanian police, their advantages and disadvantages, so as to provide thoseinterested a clear view of the phenomenon of motivation and the necessary elements to develop coherentprograms to motivate the special public servants of this institution.

  12. Theory of Mind and social relationships in older adults: the role of social motivation.

    Lecce, Serena; Ceccato, Irene; Bianco, Federica; Rosi, Alessia; Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in Theory of Mind (ToM) are crucial for people's social relationships. However, very few studies have investigated this issue in ageing. The present study was designed to fill this gap and examine the associations between ToM and social relationships in elderly adults. In doing so, this study considered people's relationships with their relatives and friends, and examined the possible moderating role of social motivation. The study involved 53 healthy older adults (age: M = 67.91; SD = 6.93; range: 60--85 years). All participants were tested collectively during a 2-hr session and completed a demographic questionnaire as well as a battery of tests assessing verbal ability (vocabulary and word fluency), ToM and social relationships. They also answered a social motivation question. Results showed that individual differences in older people's ToM were overall significantly associated with those in relationships with friends, but not relatives. In addition, the Hayes moderating procedure showed that individual differences in ToM were related to those in friendships only for those people who had a high or medium level of social motivation. These findings underline the importance of motivation in guiding the use of ToM in everyday social interactions.

  13. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nursing Challenges in Motivating Nursing Students through Clinical Education: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Nasrin, Hanifi; Soroor, Parvizy; Soodabeh, Joolaee

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are the first role models for students in clinical settings. They can have a significant role on students' motivation. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of nursing students and instructors concerning the role of nurses in motivating nursing students through clinical education. The sampling was first started purposefully and continued with theoretical sampling. The study collected qualitative data through semistructured and interactive interviews with 16 nursing students and 4 nursing instructors. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory approach. One important pattern emerged in this study was the "concerns of becoming a nurse," which itself consisted of three categories: "nurses clinical competency," "nurses as full-scale mirror of the future," and "Monitoring and modeling through clinical education" (as the core variable). The findings showed that the nurses' manners of performance as well as the profession's prospect have a fundamental role in the process of formation of motivation through clinical education. Students find an insight into the nursing profession by substituting themselves in the place of a nurse, and as result, are or are not motivated towards the clinical education.

  15. A further extension of the Extended Parallel Process Model (E-EPPM): implications of cognitive appraisal theory of emotion and dispositional coping style.

    So, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    For two decades, the extended parallel process model (EPPM; Witte, 1992 ) has been one of the most widely used theoretical frameworks in health risk communication. The model has gained much popularity because it recognizes that, ironically, preceding fear appeal models do not incorporate the concept of fear as a legitimate and central part of them. As a remedy to this situation, the EPPM aims at "putting the fear back into fear appeals" ( Witte, 1992 , p. 330). Despite this attempt, however, this article argues that the EPPM still does not fully capture the essence of fear as an emotion. Specifically, drawing upon Lazarus's (1991 ) cognitive appraisal theory of emotion and the concept of dispositional coping style ( Miller, 1995 ), this article seeks to further extend the EPPM. The revised EPPM incorporates a more comprehensive perspective on risk perceptions as a construct involving both cognitive and affective aspects (i.e., fear and anxiety) and integrates the concept of monitoring and blunting coping style as a moderator of further information seeking regarding a given risk topic.

  16. Financial Literacy; Strategies and Concepts in Understanding the Financial Planning With Self-EfficacyTheory and Goal SettingTheory of Motivation Approach

    Mu’izzuddin, -; Taufik, -; Ghasarma, Reza; Putri, Leonita; Adam, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies and concepts in understanding the financial literacy with the approach of self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of motivation. The discussion begins with the concept of behavioral finance that discusses links between financial concepts to the behavior, and then proceed with the concept and measurement of financial literacy of individuals altogether with some approaches and factors that may affect it. Self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of ...

  17. Usefulness of the protection motivation theory in explaining hearing protection device use among male industrial workers.

    Melamed, S; Rabinowitz, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-05-01

    The present study examined the usefulness of personal variables: noise annoyance, and components of the protection motivation theory (R. W. Rogers, 1983) along with social-organizational factors in explaining hearing protection device (HPD) use among Israeli manufacturing workers. Participants were 281 men exposed to harmful noise levels for which routine HPD use is required by regulation. In practice, 3 HPD user groups were identified: nonusers (n = 38), occasional users (n = 125), and regular users (n = 118). HPD use was objectively verified. HPD use was primarily related to the personal variables but not to management pressure, coworker pressure, or family support. The most powerful predictors of HPD use were perceived self-efficacy (for long-term HPD use), perceived susceptibility (to hearing loss), and noise annoyance, together explaining 48% of the outcome variance. These findings have implications for interventions aimed at motivating workers to use HPDs regularly.

  18. Optimising motivation and reducing burnout for radiation oncology trainees: A framework using self-determination theory.

    Poulsen, Michael; Poulsen, Anne A

    2018-05-02

    Radiation oncology trainees in Australia and New Zealand have relatively high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation which are core components of burnout. The stresses of a demanding clinical load, studying for exams as well as family commitments are all contributing factors. Self-Deter mination Theory (SDT) provides a framework for optimising motivation which may be intrinsic or extrinsic. The three core components of SDT are competence, relatedness and autonomy. These factors should be addressed at a college level, Institutional and a personal level if the best outcomes are to be achieved. An environment that supports the individual's experience of competency, relatedness and autonomy will foster motivation and work engagement which in turn will improve performance, energy, resilience and creativity and reduce levels of burnout. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory

    Piers Steel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1 as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2. The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  20. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

    Steel, Piers; Svartdal, Frode; Thundiyil, Tomas; Brothen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set ( N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People's pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  1. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    Daniel J. O'Rourke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season, mastery climate scores on the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 scale were positively related to global self-esteem scores and to a measure of relative motivational autonomy that reflects the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation continuum, whereas ego climate scores were negatively related to self-esteem and autonomy. Longitudinal analyses revealed that early-season mastery climate predicted positive changes in self-esteem over the course of the season, whereas ego climate predicted decreased self-esteem. Consistent with predictions derived from Self-Determination Theory, a meditational analysis revealed that these self-esteem changes were mediated by changes in autonomous motivation.

  2. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    O'Rourke, Daniel J.; Smith, Ronald E.; Smoll, Frank L.; Cumming, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season), mastery climate scor...

  3. Intrinsic motivation, performance, and the mediating role of mastery goal orientation: a test of self-determination theory.

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Ford, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Although intrinsic motivation has been linked repeatedly to performance and outcomes, the causal relationship between the two has remained unclear. To explain the link, this study considered the focusing influence of mastery goals. Using a three-wave panel study and hypotheses drawn from self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the current study sought to clarify the relationships between intrinsic motivation, mastery goal orientation, and performance. Specifically, the current study hypothesized and found that mastery goals mediated (explained) the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance.

  4. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors ap-plying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Ira...

  5. Protection motivation theory and stages of change in sun protective behavior.

    Prentice-Dunn, Steven; McMath, Ben F; Cramer, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the usefulness of the stage of change model and protection motivation theory (PMT) in creating brief persuasive appeals to promote healthy sun-behavior. College women (N = 254) read one of four essays that manipulated the level of threat and coping appraisal. The transition from the precontemplation to contemplation stage was promoted by threat appraisal information, but transition from contemplation to the preparation stage occurred only when individuals were provided with both high threat and high coping information. Thus, brief communications based on PMT may create attitudes leading to behavior change when later, more intensive, interventions are introduced.

  6. Goal-Setting Theory: Motivating Students Through the Use of Dharma Dolls

    L'Shawn, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The question of what motivates students has been explored by many researchers and teachers over the years( Marandos and Randall, 2012; Irie, 2003; Lee, 2012). Goal-setting theory is one concept that many English language educators have applied to their classroom practices and have found effective (Rivers, 2012; Chang, 2012; Zhao et al., 2012; Koda-Dallow and Hobbs, 2005).This paper will report the results of action research done in Spring 2012 during the months of May to August. The study rev...

  7. Preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the role of protection motivation theory.

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Deshpande, Sameer; Thurmeier, Robin; Lavack, Anne M; Agrey, Noreen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines health communication campaigns aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or attempting to become pregnant. Relevant communication materials were gathered and a qualitative review was conducted. A majority of the campaigns followed the tenets of protection motivation theory by focusing on the threat variables of severity and vulnerability, as well as emphasizing response efficacy. Few campaigns focused on costs or self-efficacy. Future fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevention initiatives should attempt to reduce perceived costs, as well as include self-efficacy messages in order to increase women's confidence that they can carry out the recommended actions.

  8. Motivation to change in eating disorder patients: a conceptual clarification on the basis of self-determination theory.

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Vandereycken, Walter

    2005-04-01

    The current study critically reviews the different motivational frameworks that are applied in the study of eating disorders and provides a more comprehensive conceptualization of motivation to change on the basis of self-determination theory. The most important conceptualizations of motivation to change among eating disorder patients are identified. Eating disorder patients' motivation to change has been defined very differently, adding confusion to the field and preventing research from being cumulative. On the basis of self-determination theory we argue (a) that the quality of motivation to change is primarily reflected in the degree of internalization of change rather than by the intrinsic motivation to change; (b) that the internalization of change suggests more than only the change being initiated from within the person (internal motivation) for it requires an acceptance of the personal importance of change; and (c) that, in addition to its quality, the quantity of motivation to change should be considered too. These three conceptual issues are applied to the study of motivational dynamics in eating-disordered patients. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dispositional Optimism

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  10. Psychological motives and online games addiction: a test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents.

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-06-01

    Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.

  11. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  12. The Dispositions Improvement Process

    Brewer, Robin D.; Lindquist, Cynthia; Altemueller, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Globally, teacher dispositions along with knowledge and skills continue to be the focal point of teacher education programs. Teachers influence children's development and therefore dispositions are a universal concern. For the past 20 years in the United States, teacher education programs have assessed dispositions. We, however, must now also use…

  13. Reducing skin cancer risk: an intervention based on protection motivation theory.

    McClendon, B T; Prentice-Dunn, S

    2001-05-01

    Caucasian college students who intentionally tanned participated in a brief skin cancer intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT). This intervention targeted skin appearance and consisted of brief lectures, a comprehensive essay, video clips about a young man who died of melanoma, and short discussions. Compared to a waitlist control group, the intervention group showed increases on PMT variables and intentions at post-test. The waitlist group later received the intervention and showed similar increases. Additionally, all but one PMT variable maintained post-test levels at a one-month follow-up. Photographs taken at post-test and at the one-month follow-up were judged by raters blind to the hypothesis. Seventy-two percent of participants were judged to have lighter skin whereas only 16 percent had darker skin. These results provide additional support for theory-based methods for changing maladaptive attitudes and behaviors associated with skin cancer risk.

  14. Children's theories of intelligence: beliefs, goals, and motivation in the elementary years.

    Kinlaw, C Ryan; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2007-07-01

    The authors tested a developmental model of children's theories about intelligence in kindergarten, second grade, and fourth grade children by using paper-and-pencil maze tasks. Older children were more likely than younger children to espouse learning goals (e.g., that they preferred difficult mazes to improve their skill), and less likely to espouse performance goals (e.g., that they preferred easy mazes to be successful). Children in all 3 age groups reported stronger beliefs in the malleability of intelligence than the stability of intelligence. In general, the results supported the authors' hypotheses about developmental change in children's theory-like conceptions of intelligence: Beliefs, goals, and motivation were related in expected ways for second and fourth graders more than for kindergartners. The authors discussed contextual influences on children's beliefs and the development of children's conceptualizations of intelligence.

  15. An examination of measures designed to encourage energy conservation from the perspective of motivation theory

    1975-10-01

    This report addresses itself to the insights offered by the psychology of motivation to those wishing to encourage the conservation of energy. After an extensive review of the relevant literature, it was found that the bulk of the psychological literature offers little that can be adapted for immediate practical application to a large scale motivational campaign. There are, nevertheless, some well-supported conclusions that can be drawn from the theory and experimentation of psychology that are of direct relevance to the efficient and effective planning and execution of a campaign to encourage conservation of energy. This report addresses itself to these conclusions. The contents of the report include comments on the efficacy of various types of programs, the conditions under which those programs are most likely to succeed, and the critical elements which should be included in those programs if they are to exert their maximum effect. These types of programs include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, i.e. creating new behavior patterns with internally or externally generated rewards, fear inducement (threats of energy shortages), and cogenitive dissonance, involving images of oneself and one's cultural environment. 66 refs.

  16. Intention to Drive After Drinking Among Medical Students: Contributions of the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; Malbergier, André; Lima, Danielle Ruiz; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor; Gorenstein, Clarice; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model. Fifty-two students (33%) had previous experience of driving after drinking during the last year, and 54 students (35%) reported intention to drive after drinking within the next year. Regression analysis showed that higher scores in perception of personal vulnerability to risks were associated with occasional and frequent intention to continue pursuing this particular behavior. Poorer evaluations about short-term consequences of alcohol consumption and cognitions regarding external rewards were significantly associated with reported intention to continue driving after drinking. Considering the social and health impact of alcohol-impaired behaviors, our findings suggest the need of interventional efforts focused in increasing students' awareness about the negative consequences of drinking and driving aiming to enhance their motivation towards more adaptive behaviors.

  17. An examination of measures designed to encourage energy conservation from the perspective of motivation theory

    1975-10-01

    This report addresses itself to the insights offered by the psychology of motivation to those wishing to encourage the conservation of energy. After an extensive review of the relevant literature, it was found that the bulk of the psychological literature offers little that can be adapted for immediate practical application to a large scale motivational campaign. There are, nevertheless, some well-supported conclusions that can be drawn from the theory and experimentation of psychology that are of direct relevance to the efficient and effective planning and execution of a campaign to encourage conservation of energy. This report addresses itself to these conclusions. The contents of the report include comments on the efficacy of various types of programs, the conditions under which those programs are most likely to succeed, and the critical elements which should be included in those programs if they are to exert their maximum effect. These types of programs include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, i.e. creating new behavior patterns with internally or externally generated rewards, fear inducement (threats of energy shortages), and cogenitive dissonance, involving images of oneself and one's cultural environment. 66 refs.

  18. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning.

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. We provide explanations for the performance and learning advantages of these variables on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. We describe a plausible mechanism for expectancy effects rooted in responses of dopamine to the anticipation of positive experience and temporally associated with skill practice. Learner autonomy acts perhaps largely through an enhanced expectancy pathway. Furthermore, we consider the influence of an external focus for the establishment of efficient functional connections across brain networks that subserve skilled movement. We speculate that enhanced expectancies and an external focus propel performers' cognitive and motor systems in productive "forward" directions and prevent "backsliding" into self- and non-task focused states. Expected success presumably breeds further success and helps consolidate memories. We discuss practical implications and future research directions.

  19. Successful Language Learning in a Corporate Setting: The Role of Attribution Theory and Its Relation to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Kálmán, Csaba; Eugenio, Esther Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001) but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students' attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a…

  20. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour.

  1. The Role of Self-Determination Theory in Explaining Teachers' Motivation to Continue to Use E-Learning Technology

    Sorebo, Oystein; Halvari, Hallgier; Gulli, Vebjorn Flaata; Kristiansen, Roar

    2009-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study proposes an extended information systems continuance theory in the context of teachers' utilization of e-learning technology in connection with on-site courses. In the proposed model teachers' extrinsic motivation (i.e. perceived usefulness), confirmation of pre-acceptance expectations and intrinsic…

  2. The motivation to breastfeed: a fit to the opponent-process theory?

    Myers, H H; Siegel, P S

    1985-07-01

    The opponent-process theory, a dynamic model of acquired motivation presented by Solomon and Corbit (1974), was applied to the process of breastfeeding. A modified form of the Nowlis Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL, Nowlis, 1965, 1970) and a discomfort measure were used in assessing through recall the affective course predicted by the theory. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and correlational procedures. Results were highly significant: Women who breastfed for relatively long periods recalled positive affective responses while the baby was at breast and a subsequent negative or dysphoric response. The additional characteristics of acquired motivation, habituation, and withdrawal, were also evidenced in the data. As a control for possible confounding demand characteristics inherent in the methodology, a sample of childless women was surveyed using an "as-if" form of the same questionnaire. Very little similarity to the breastfeeders was found in the pattern of responses yielded by this group. It was concluded that our major findings are quite likely free of influence from this source.

  3. Identification and Alignment of the Social Aspects of Sustainable Manufacturing with the Theory of Motivation

    Mijoh A. Gbededo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of adopting environmentally friendly manufacturing process to economic development has been studied and established in many research. Empirical studies have also confirmed that organisations adopting green technology or clean production are benefiting from increasing economic growth and job creation. However, the studies of the benefits of social development to economic growth and manufacturing sustainability have not been adequately captured or itemised in the literature. With the aim of contributing to this research streams, this paper applied the principles of social economy and reciprocity, and the theories of motivation and social exchange to guide the integration of social aspects into sustainability analytical equations. The Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation was adopted to classify the negative and positive social impacts of the workers’ stakeholder category. Further, the approach aligns the Herzberg extrinsic factors with the negative and regulated social aspects and intrinsic factors with the positive and unregulated social aspects. This contribution provides an initial theoretical framework that will enable practitioners to capture and calculate the social impact coefficient of an organisation. The result can be used to assess the social impacts on productivity, and corporate social responsibility towards the employees. It will also provide an input for analytical or simulation models to assess the consequential effects of social aspects on other sustainability dimensions.

  4. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  5. Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    Smillie, Luke D; Dalgleish, Len I; Jackson, Chris J

    2007-04-01

    According to Gray's (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. BIS functioning has been linked with individual differences in trait anxiety and BAS functioning with individual differences in trait impulsivity. In this article, it is argued that behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and that these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias. In Experiment 1, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under goal conflict, whereas one measure of BAS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under reward. In Experiment 2, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted response-bias under goal conflict, whereas a measure of BAS-reactivity predicted motivation response-bias under reward. In both experiments, impulsivity measures did not predict criteria for BAS-reactivity as traditionally predicted by RST.

  6. Effective Factors in Job Motivation of Faculty Members of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in 1394

    Somaie Ziar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The most important factor for success in every organization, s its human resources. Human resources with the power of creativity, imagination, faith and commitment, have a great impact on the performance of the organization. University faculty members are the main pillars of human resources and affect the development of universities to promote academic standing in their communities. In this regard, the role of job motivation of faculty members to further efficiency helps universities. Materials and Methods: To determine the effective factors in job motivation of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences’ faculty members, we conducted the study based on Herzberg's two factor motivation theory. In this across-sectional study, a sample of 137, (10% of the population in 12 faculties were selected by random and proportional sampling based on size and gender of faculty members. The instrument used was a questionnaire containing 40 of the 11 areas of external factors and an effective two-factor theory of Herzberg's motivation-based job. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (%86. After collecting data gamma and correlation multipliers Ki-test and logistic regression analysis was carried was with software SPSS16. Results: The internal factors were more important than external factors. Internal factors were more important in younger people. External factors, however, were more important in older people. Three areas, nature of work, professional development and career is also the most importance among the areas of internal factors, respectively. Two areas of occupational safety and connection are the most importance among the external factors. Conclusion: Providing the perfect environment, according to members of academic faculty, job security, moral values, decreasing problems of employment due to age and work experience, training individuals and providing a salary based on ability

  7. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    In theoretical work we distinguish living beings from inanimate objects on the basis of some paramount attributes, such as agency and autonomy. These abstract features are not directly accessible to our scrutiny, but we surmise their nature through observation of the purpose-oriented behavior of organisms. I intend to show that organismal purposefulness springs from the intrinsic, constitutive kind of finality that is the hallmark of all semiotic transactions. To this aim I develop a dispositionalist account of organismal causation based on a distinction between two kinds of causal dispositions: fixed (efficient) dispositions and traveling dispositions. Fixed dispositions are rigidly attached to physical structures and processes; these are the dispositions regularly invoked in current discussions of causal explanation. Traveling dispositions are able to move freely from one location to another by becoming embodied into suitable supporting media. I introduce these notions to articulate a view of semiosis I deem best suited to the life sciences, and contend that sign tokens are vehicles of traveling dispositions. This account places the origin of purposive behavior at the interaction of physical and semiotic causation. To properly motivate the discussion I briefly review some recent developments in the philosophy of science concerning various forms of causation invoked by scientists across disciplines to frame explanations and make predictions. The ensuing discussion gives particular prominence to mechanistic (as distinct from mechanicist) explanatory accounts of biological phenomena. This review is followed by a brief characterization of a "nomological machine," a comprehensive schema introduced and developed by Nancy Cartwright with the goal of explaining causal mechanisms in a general setting. By capitalizing on this model's heuristic virtues I seek to formulate a compelling view of the interactions between physical and semiotic causation at play in semiotic

  8. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Ali Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad; Abdolkarimi, Mahdi; Asadpour, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Balaee, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Theory-based education tailored to target behaviour and group can be effective in promoting physical activity. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Protection Motivation Theory on intent and behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. To examine the scores of protection motivation theory structures, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The level of physical activity was also measured by the International Short - form Physical Activity Inventory. Its validity and reliability were also approved. Data were analysed by statistical tests including correlation coefficient, chi-square, logistic regression and linear regression. RESULTS: The results revealed that there was a significant correlation between all the protection motivation theory constructs and the intention to do physical activity. The results showed that the Theory structures were able to predict 60% of the variance of physical activity intention. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that increase in the score of physical activity intent and self - efficacy increased the chance of higher level of physical activity by 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively OR = (3.39, 1.54). CONCLUSION: Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour. PMID:29731945

  9. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Ali Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad; Abdolkarimi, Mahdi; Asadpour, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Balaee, Parisa

    2018-04-15

    Theory-based education tailored to target behaviour and group can be effective in promoting physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Protection Motivation Theory on intent and behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. This descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. To examine the scores of protection motivation theory structures, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The level of physical activity was also measured by the International Short - form Physical Activity Inventory. Its validity and reliability were also approved. Data were analysed by statistical tests including correlation coefficient, chi-square, logistic regression and linear regression. The results revealed that there was a significant correlation between all the protection motivation theory constructs and the intention to do physical activity. The results showed that the Theory structures were able to predict 60% of the variance of physical activity intention. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that increase in the score of physical activity intent and self - efficacy increased the chance of higher level of physical activity by 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively OR = (3.39, 1.54). Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour.

  10. Why is the Motivation of Non-Regular Employees Not Low? From the Viewpoints of Equity Theory and Social Comparison Processes Theory

    平野, 光俊; 笠谷, 千佳

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to use perspectives from equity theory and social comparison to explain the reason why non-regular employees’ motivation is not low, despite working at relatively low pay compared to regular employees. To achieve this, the study conducted a questionnaire survey of regular (full-time) and part-time employees of a grocery store chain retail business. The results indicated the following: (1) part-time workers have greater motivation, affective commitment, and job satisfa...

  11. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  12. Dogs motivate obese children for physical activity: Key elements of a motivational theory of animal-assisted interventions

    Rainer eWohlfarth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is empirical evidence that the presence of a companion animal can have a positive impact on performance. The available evidence can be viewed in terms of differing hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanisms behind the positive effects. Little attention has been given to motivation as a potential mode of action with regards to human-animal interactions. First we give an overview of evidence that animals might promote motivation. Second we present a study to examine the effect of a therapy dog on exercise performance in children with obesity.Methods: 12 children, aged 8 to 12 years old, were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover design: dog-group and human confederate group. Several types of physical activities via accelerometer and subjective ratings of wellbeing, satisfaction and motivation were assessed. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures on one factor. Results: The main effect of condition was significant for all performance variables. There was less passive behavior and more physical activity for all performance variables in the presence of the dog than in that of the human confederate. Between dog- and human- condition there was no difference in the subjective rating of motivation, wellbeing or satisfaction.Discussion: The results demonstrate that the presence of a therapy dog has the potential to increase physical activity in obese children. Task performance as a declarative measure was increased by the presence of the dog in comparison to a human confederate, but self-report measures of motivation, satisfaction or wellbeing did not differ between the two conditions. Therefore it stands to reason that a dog could trigger implicit motives which enhance motivation for activity. The results of our study indicate the potentially beneficial effect of incorporating dogs into outpatient training for obese children.

  13. Theories on motivation and their implications for supporting communication, learning and decisionmaking in relation to organic food systems

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to promote communication, learning, decision making and change of individual and/or collective practices in relation to sustainability issues require more or less explicit theories on agents and what motivate them to act. The aim of this paper is to open for an interdisciplinary discussion...... on how different approaches to motivation make sense or not when focusing on how to develop tools aiming at supporting communica¬tion, learning and decision-making related to organic food systems. We present four quite different approaches to motivation – an economic, an approach challenging conventional...... understandings of motivational change, a psychosocial, and a relational – and open for a discussion on how these approaches relate to each other and whether it is possible to apply and distinguish between different ways of using the concept of motivation when we cross disciplinary borders in order to cooperate...

  14. Motivational processes from expectancy-value theory are associated with variability in the error positivity in young children.

    Kim, Matthew H; Marulis, Loren M; Grammer, Jennie K; Morrison, Frederick J; Gehring, William J

    2017-03-01

    Motivational beliefs and values influence how children approach challenging activities. The current study explored motivational processes from an expectancy-value theory framework by studying children's mistakes and their responses to them by focusing on two event-related potential (ERP) components: the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Motivation was assessed using a child-friendly challenge puzzle task and a brief interview measure prior to ERP testing. Data from 50 4- to 6-year-old children revealed that greater perceived competence beliefs were related to a larger Pe, whereas stronger intrinsic task value beliefs were associated with a smaller Pe. Motivation was unrelated to the ERN. Individual differences in early motivational processes may reflect electrophysiological activity related to conscious error awareness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The issue of interactional hypothesis in self-determination theory: a proposal of a new motivation quality index

    José Martín-Albo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The postulates of self-determination theory have been frequently gauged by a measure of motivation quality called self-determination index (SDI. This index relies on an interactional hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are not independent constructs; on the contrary, when one increases the other decreases. However, the literature on the subiect has revealed that these constructs are orthogonal and thus SDI presents measurement problems. Considering these limitations, the obiective of this research was to propose and test the effectiveness of a new way to calculate a motivation quality index (PMI: positive motivation index. Two athletes' samples were used. Results of the two studies carried out showed that PMI fit better the self-determination theory postulates than SDI did. Positive correlations were found between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and PMI, and between PMI and positive emotions. Finally, results provided preliminary support for the use of the new motivation quality index proposed from the framework of self-determination theory.

  16. Moods as ups and downs of the motivation pendulum: Revisiting Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST in Bipolar Disorder

    Tal eGonen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a key neurobehavioral concept underlying adaptive responses to environmental incentives and threats. As such, dysregulation of motivational processes may be critical in the formation of abnormal behavioral patterns/tendencies. According to the long standing model of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST, motivation behaviors are driven by three neurobehavioral systems mediating the sensitivity to punishment, reward or goal-conflict. Corresponding to current neurobehavioral theories in psychiatry, this theory links abnormal motivational drives to abnormal behavior; viewing depression and mania as two abnormal extremes of reward driven processes leading to either under or over approach tendencies, respectively. We revisit the RST framework in the context of bipolar disorder (BD and challenge this concept by suggesting that dysregulated interactions of both punishment and reward related processes better account for the psychological and neural abnormalities observed in BD. We further present an integrative model positing that the three parallel motivation systems currently proposed by the RST model, can be viewed as subsystems in a large-scale neurobehavioral network of motivational decision making.

  17. Investigating uncertainty and emotions in conversations about family health history: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.

  18. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Physical Activity Intention among Obese and Overweight Women Using Protection Motivation Theory: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    K. Mirkarimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a growing problem, obesity is one of the most important worldwide health problems. One of the major factors leading to obesity is the sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of motivational interviewing on the physical activity intention in the obese or overweight women, using the protection motivation theory (PMT. Materials & Methods: In the clinical trial study, 60 obese or overweight women referred to the health centers of Gorgan were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via non-probable and available sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control and motivational interviewing groups. Data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire before the intervention and 2 and 6 months after in both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using independent T, Chi-square, repeated measures ANOVA, LSD, and one-variable and multivariable linear regression tests. Findings: The scores of all the constructs of PMT in motivational interviewing group significantly increased 2 and 6 months after he intervention (p0.05. The most powerful constructs predicting the intention towards the physical activities 2 months after the intervention were perceived-reply efficiency, self-efficiency, and perceived intensity, successively. In addition, such factors 6 months after the intervention were attitude and perceived intensity, successively. Conclusion: The motivational interviewing increases the scores of all the constructs of PMT, which leads to an increase in the physical activity intention in the obese or overweight women.

  19. Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Preventing Cervical Cancer among

    Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-03-27

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Predicting adherence to eye patching in children with amblyopia: an application of protection motivation theory.

    Norman, Paul; Searle, Aidan; Harrad, Richard; Vedhara, Kav

    2003-02-01

    This study reports an application of protection motivation theory (PMT) to the prediction of parental adherence to eye patching recommendations for children with amblyopia over a 2-month period. The study also considered the role of past behaviour in PMT. A total of 151 parents of children with amblyopia who were attending follow-up appointments for orthoptic treatment participated. They completed questionnaires based on PMT to assess their beliefs about amblyopia and eye patching. Of the parents, 105 were contacted again at 2-month follow-up to obtain a measure of adherence to the recommended treatment for their child. PMT was found to be predictive of adherence intentions and behaviour at 2-month follow-up. Regression analyses revealed perceived vulnerability, response efficacy and self-efficacy to be significant predictors of protection motivation, whereas perceived vulnerability and response costs were significant predictors of adherence behaviour. Past adherence behaviour was found to have a direct effect on future adherence behaviour over and above the influence of PMT. The results are discussed in relation to the sufficiency of PMTas a model of adherence behaviour. The practical implications for attempts to increase adherence to eye patching among children with amblyopia are outlined.

  1. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  2. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  3. Using protection motivation theory to predict condom usage and assess HIV health communication efficacy in Singapore.

    Lwin, May O; Stanaland, Andrea J S; Chan, Desmond

    2010-01-01

    The number of individuals infected with HIV/AIDS continues to rise in Asia. Condom use is considered to be the first line of defense against AIDS (UNAIDS, 2006). Using protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), this research aims to first understand the factors affecting condom usage intention among homosexual and heterosexual men in Singapore, and then to utilize those findings to assess the efficacy of HIV-directed health communications. We collected survey data from 484 men and analyzed the data using hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling. We found self-efficacy to be a significant predictor for both groups of men, together with perceived severity for homosexuals and response efficacy for heterosexuals. Next, we analyzed HIV-directed condom usage communication materials and found that the use of threat appeal themes is more common than themes promoting self-efficacy. Implications for health communications and policy are discussed.

  4. Correlates of Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) to adolescents' drug use intention.

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Wong, Ho Ting; Chou, Lai Yan; To, Bobby Pak Wai; Lee, Wai Lok; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2014-01-03

    Early onset and increasing proliferation of illicit adolescent drug-use poses a global health concern. This study aimed to examine the correlation between Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) measures and the intention to use drugs among adolescents. An exploratory quantitative correlation design and convenience sampling were adopted. A total of 318 students completed a self-reported questionnaire that solicited information related to their demographics and activities, measures of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and the intention to use drugs. Logistic regression analysis showed that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were significant predictors of intention. The odds ratios were equal to 2.90 (p < 0.05) and 8.04 (p < 0.001), respectively. The logistic regression model analysis resulted in a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.49, which suggests that PMT related measures could be used in predicting drug use intention among adolescents. Further research should be conducted with non-school adolescents to confirm the application.

  5. Predictors of Iranian women's intention to first papanicolaou test practice: An application of protection motivation theory.

    Dehdari, T; Hassani, L; Shojaeizadeh, D; Hajizadeh, E; Nedjat, S; Abedini, M

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of papanicolaou (Pap) test in the early detection and timely treatment of cervical cancer, present study was designed to determine predictors of a sample of Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women referral to the 30 primary health care clinics were selected. They completed a developed scale based on PMT variables including intention, perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy and self-efficacy. Path analysis was used to determine the association between predictive factors and intention. The results showed that PMT had goodness of fit with a χ2/df = 2.37, df = 28, P= 0.001 and RMSEA = 0.076. PMT explained 42% of the variance in women's intention to get first Pap smear test. Self-efficacy (b = 0.55, Ptheory-based educational interventions associated with Pap testing among women.

  6. Health Risk Perceptions and Exercise in Older Adulthood: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Ruthig, Joelle C

    2016-09-01

    Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was applied to explore the relationship between perceived risk of acute health crises and intent to exercise. Interviews of 351 community-living older adults assessed prior physical activity (PPA), all PMT components, and exercise intent. A multi-group structural equation model revealed gender differences in PMT predictors of exercise intent. PPA, age, self-efficacy, and response efficacy directly predicted men's intent. Women's PPA and age predicted PMT components of self-efficacy and response costs, which predicted intent. Findings have implications for devising interventions to enhance physical activity in later life by targeting different PMT components for older men and women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Investigating m-Health Acceptance from a Protection Motivation Theory Perspective: Gender and Age Differences.

    Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.

  9. Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: a cognitive motivational relational theory perspective.

    Uphill, Mark A; Jones, Marc V

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03), representing a range of sports (badminton, golf rugby union, athletics, archery, sailing, and snooker) explored the association between athletes' appraisals and emotions. Concurrent inductive and deductive content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego-involvement, blame/credit, coping potential, future expectations) were associated with a range of emotions: anger anxiety, guilt, happiness, pride, relief sadness, and shame. A hierarchical content analysis provided some support for Lazarus' (1991) core relational themes. Limitations and applications of this study are discussed.

  10. Operationalizing physical literacy for learners: Embodying the motivation to move

    Ang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical literacy is a concept that is expected to encompass the mind and body in an integrated way to explain, promote, and help sustain human beings' fundamental function: movement. According to Whitehead (2010, physical literacy is defined by motivation, especially by competence-based and interest-based motivation. This point of view is consistent with vast amount of research evidence on children and adolescents' physical activity behavior. In the article I attempt to interpret and operationalize physical literacy from a perspective that children's motivation in physical education is both an innate mental disposition and an acquired/learned attribute. Particularly I rely on the conceptual learning theory and motivation regulation mechanisms of the self-determination theory to argue that in physical education, children should experience tasks that inspire them to embody competence and interest along with self-regulation strategies necessary for developing and sustaining the motivation to move.

  11. Examining the validity of the Academic Motivation Scale by comparing scale construction to self-determination theory.

    Cokley, K O

    2000-04-01

    This study examined the construct validity of the Academic Motivation Scale. Specifically, subscale correlations were examined to assess whether support for a continuum of self-determination would be provided. The three types of Intrinsic Motivation were significantly and positively correlated with each other .67, .62, and .58, while the three types of Extrinsic Motivation were significantly and positively intercorrelated .50, .49, and .45. The former subscales, however, correlated higher with Introjected Regulation than Identified Regulation, suggesting that Introjected Regulation may be indicative of more self-determined behavior than has previously been believed. Also, the Intrinsic Motivation To Accomplish subscale had a stronger relationship with two of the Extrinsic Motivation subscales, Identified Regulation and Introjected Regulation, than did the Extrinsic Motivation subscales with each other. This suggests that the differences between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation are not as obvious as has been believed. Also, contrary to self-determination theory, Amotivation had a stronger negative correlation with Identified Regulation (r = -.31) than with any of the Intrinsic Motivation subscales (rs = -.27, -.19, and -.11).

  12. Motivated Doubts: A Comment on Walton’S Theory of Criticism

    Laar Jan Albert van

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his theory of criticism, D. N. Walton presupposes that an opponent either critically questions an argument, without supplementing this questioning with any reasoning of her own, or that she puts forward a critical question and supplements it with a counterargument, that is, with reasoning in defense of an opposite position of her own. In this paper, I show that there is a kind of in-between critical option for the opponent that needs to be taken into account in any classification of types of criticism, and that should not be overlooked in a system of dialogue norms, nor in a procedure for developing a strategically expedient critique. In this third option, an opponent questions and overtly doubts a statement of the proponent and supplements her doubts with a counterconsideration that explains and motivates her position of critical doubt, yet without supporting any opposite thesis, thereby assisting, as it were, the proponent in his attempt to develop a responsive argumentation, tailor-made to convince this particular opponent. First, I elaborate on the notion of an explanatory counterconsideration. Second, I discuss Walton’s distinction between premises that can be challenged by mere questioning (“ordinary premises” and “assumptions” and premises that must be challenged by incurring the obligation to offer counter-argumentation (somewhat confusingly labeled “exceptions”. I contend that the latter type of premises, that I would label “normality premises,” can be attacked without incurring a genuine burden of proof. Instead, it can be attacked by means of incurring a burden of criticism (Van Laar and Krabbe, 2013 that amounts to the obligation to offer an explanatory counterconsideration, rather than a convincing ex concessis argument. Of course, providing the opponent with the right to discharge her burden of criticism with explanatory counterconsiderations brings a clear strategic ad- vantage to her. It is much less

  13. Adolescent Motivations to Engage in Pro-Social Behaviors and Abstain From Health-Risk Behaviors: A Self-Determination Theory Approach.

    Hardy, Sam A; Dollahite, David C; Johnson, Natalie; Christensen, Justin B

    2015-10-01

    The present study used self-determination theory to examine adolescents' motivations to engage in charitable donating and community volunteering and to abstain from sexual intercourse and marijuana use. The sample consisted of 419 late adolescents recruited from across the country through an online survey panel. Participants completed online measures of motivations to engage in donating and volunteering, motivations to abstain from sex and marijuana, and single-item indexes of the four behaviors. Variable-centered analyses (correlation and regression) found evidence for a general motivational factor, motivational specificity by behavioral domain (positive and negative behaviors), motivational specificity by particular behavior (charitable donating, volunteering, sexual risk-taking, and marijuana use), and a stronger relative role for autonomous motivations than controlled motivations. Person-centered analyses (cluster analysis) found four motivation profiles (low motivation, medium motivation, high motivation, and mixed motivation) for all four behaviors and suggested that level of autonomous motivation was a key factor differentiating the groups on levels of behavior. The findings suggest different levels of motivational specificity and highlight the importance of autonomous motivations in predicting behaviors as compared to controlled motivations. Further, similar patterns were found for motivations to engage and to abstain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Skin cancer preventive behaviors among rural farmers: An intervention based on protection motivation theory.

    Babazadeh, Towhid; Kamran, Aziz; Dargahi, Abdollah; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shariat, Fariba; Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer is a serious public health problem in the world. Its prevalence in many countries has been increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess the effects of a theory-based educational intervention to promote skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers in Chalderan County, Iran. Methods: This was a quasi-randomized controlled field trial study conducted on 238 rural farmers. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as well as the items of SCPBs. The differences between the groups before and 3 months after the intervention were determined by independent t-test, paired t-test, and chi-square applying SPSS software. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found in the scores of the PMT constructs between the two groups (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found between the scores of all the variables, as well as SCPBs, in the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PMT was found to be an appropriate framework for designing educational interventions aiming at promoting SCPBs among rural farmers. It was concluded that designing an educational program with a focus on promoting perceived susceptibility increased the level of performing SCPBs among the rural farmers.

  15. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. © 2013.

  16. Stairs or escalator? Using theories of persuasion and motivation to facilitate healthy decision making.

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Leslie, Sara; Gross, James J

    2014-12-01

    To encourage an increase in daily activity, researchers have tried a variety of health-related communications, but with mixed results. In the present research-using the stair escalator choice context-we examined predictions derived from the Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM), Self Determination Theory (SDT), and related theories. Specifically, we tested whether (as predicted by HSM) signs that encourage heuristic processing ("Take the Stairs") would have greatest impact when placed at the stair/escalator point of choice (when processing time is limited), whereas signs that encourage systematic processing ("Will You Take the Stairs?") would have greatest impact when placed at some distance from the point of choice (when processing time is less limited). We also tested whether (as predicted by SDT) messages promoting autonomy would be more likely to result in sustained motivated behavior (i.e., stair taking at subsequent uncued choice points) than messages that use commands. A series of studies involving more than 9,000 pedestrians provided support for these predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Measures of motivation for psychiatric treatment based on self-determination theory: psychometric properties in Dutch psychiatric outpatients.

    Jochems, Eline C; Mulder, Cornelis L; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Dam, Arno

    2014-08-01

    Self-determination theory is potentially useful for understanding reasons why individuals with mental illness do or do not engage in psychiatric treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of three questionnaires based on self-determination theory-The Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ), and the Short Motivation Feedback List (SMFL)-in a sample of 348 Dutch adult outpatients with primary diagnoses of mood, anxiety, psychotic, and personality disorders. Structural equation modeling showed that the empirical factor structures of the TEQ and SMFL were adequately represented by a model with three intercorrelated factors. These were interpreted as identified, introjected, and external motivation. The reliabilities of the Dutch TEQ, HCCQ, and SMFL were found to be acceptable but can be improved on; congeneric estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 depending on the measure and patient subsample. Preliminary support for the construct validities of the questionnaires was found in the form of theoretically expected associations with other scales, including therapist-rated motivation and treatment engagement and with legally mandated treatment. Additionally, the study provides insights into the relations between measures of motivation based on self-determination theory, the transtheoretical model and the integral model of treatment motivation in psychiatric outpatients with severe mental illness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: a meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research.

    Colquitt, J A; LePine, J A; Noe, R A

    2000-10-01

    This article meta-analytically summarizes the literature on training motivation, its antecedents, and its relationships with training outcomes such as declarative knowledge, skill acquisition, and transfer. Significant predictors of training motivation and outcomes included individual characteristics (e.g., locus of control, conscientiousness, anxiety, age, cognitive ability, self-efficacy, valence, job involvement) and situational characteristics (e.g., climate). Moreover, training motivation explained incremental variance in training outcomes beyond the effects of cognitive ability. Meta-analytic path analyses further showed that the effects of personality, climate, and age on training outcomes were only partially mediated by self-efficacy, valence, and job involvement. These findings are discussed in terms of their practical significance and their implications for an integrative theory of training motivation.

  19. Perceived Teaching Behaviors and Self-Determined Motivation in Physical Education: A Test of Self-Determination Theory

    Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the effects of specific dimensions of perceived teaching behaviors on students' self-determined motivation in physical education. In accordance with the tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), we expected the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness would mediate these…

  20. Autonomy support, need satisfaction, and motivation for support among adults with intellectual disability : Testing a self-determination theory model

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    The tenets of self-determination theory as applied to support were tested with structural equation modelling for 186 people with ID with a mild to borderline level of functioning. The results showed that (a) perceived autonomy support was positively associated with autonomous motivation and with

  1. Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction, and Motivation for Support among Adults with Intellectual Disability: Testing a Self-Determination Theory Model

    Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    The tenets of self-determination theory as applied to support were tested with structural equation modelling for 186 people with ID with a mild to borderline level of functioning. The results showed that (a) perceived autonomy support was positively associated with autonomous motivation and with satisfaction of need for autonomy, relatedness, and…

  2. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  3. Effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in rural households of kerman, iran.

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.

  4. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  5. Using Expectancy-Value Theory to Explore Aspects of Motivation and Engagement in Inquiry-Based Learning in Primary Mathematics

    Fielding-Wells, Jill; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a pedagogical approach in which students address complex, ill-structured problems set in authentic contexts. While IBL is gaining ground in Australia as an instructional practice, there has been little research that considers implications for student motivation and engagement. Expectancy-value theory (Eccles and…

  6. Barriers to Self-Motivated Conceptual Music Learning: Activity Theory as a Framework for Comparing Dissimilar Cases

    Schmidt-Jones, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the use of activity theory to compare dissimilar cases in a study of adult online music learners. The purpose of the study was to better understand the barriers that keep self-motivated users of online open education resources from experiencing successful independent learning. Eleven participants were given tutoring-style help…

  7. Twelve tips to stimulate intrinsic motivation in students through autonomy-supportive classroom teaching derived from self-determination theory.

    Kusurkar, R A; Croiset, G; Ten Cate, Th J

    2011-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) of motivations distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivation is observed when one engages in an activity out of genuine interest and is truly self-determined. Intrinsic motivation is the desired type of motivation for study as it is associated with deep learning, better performance and positive well-being in comparison to extrinsic motivation. It is dependent on the fulfilment of three basic psychological needs described by SDT. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. According to SDT, autonomy-supportive teaching is important, because it makes students feel autonomous and competent in their learning and also supported (relatedness) by their teachers. The concept of autonomy-supportive teaching is relevant to medical education, but less known. Through this article, we aim to make this concept understood and practically used by medical teachers. We used SDT literature as a basis to formulate these 12 tips. We present 12 practical tips derived from SDT, for teachers in health professions, on how to engage in autonomy-supportive teaching behaviours in order to stimulate intrinsic motivation in their students. These tips demonstrate that it is not difficult to engage in autonomy-supportive teaching behaviour. It can be learned through practice and self-reflection on teaching practices.

  8. Determinants and outcomes of motivation in health professions education: a systematic review based on self-determination theory.

    Orsini, Cesar; Binnie, Vivian I; Wilson, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at conducting a systematic review in health professions education of determinants, mediators and outcomes of students' motivation to engage in academic activities based on the self-determination theory's perspective. A search was conducted across databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases), hand-search of relevant journals, grey literature, and published research profile of key authors. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they reported research in health professions education focused on determinants, mediators, and/or outcomes of motivation from the self-determination and if meeting the quality criteria. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion and quality criteria. Articles retrieved came from diverse locations and mainly from medical education and to a lesser extent from psychology and dental education. Intrapersonal (gender and personality traits) and interpersonal determinants (academic conditions and lifestyle, qualitative method of selection, feedback, and an autonomy supportive learning climate) have been reported to have a positive influence on students' motivation to engage in academic activities. No studies were found that tested mediation effects between determinants and students' motivation. In turn, students' self-determined motivation has been found to be positively associated with different cognitive, affective, and behavioural outcomes. This study has found that generally, motivation could be enhanced by changes in the educational environment and by an early detection of students' characteristics. Doing so may support future health practitioners' self-determined motivation and positively influence how they process information and their emotions and how they approach their learning activities.

  9. Motivation in pediatric motor rehabilitation: A systematic search of the literature using the self-determination theory as a conceptual framework.

    Meyns, Pieter; Roman de Mettelinge, Tine; van der Spank, Judith; Coussens, Marieke; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2017-03-09

    Motivation is suggested as an important factor in pediatric motor rehabilitation. Therefore, we reviewed the existing evidence of (motivational) motor rehabilitation paradigms, and how motivation influences rehabilitation outcome using self-determination theory as conceptual framework. PubMed and Web-of-Science databases were systematically searched until June 2015. Data were independently extracted and critiqued for quality by three authors. Studies reporting motivational aspects were included. Most studies examined new technology (e.g., virtual reality [VR]). Out of 479 records, three RCT, six case-control, and six non-comparative studies were included with mixed quality. Motivation was rarely reported. Training individualization to the child's capabilities with more variety seemed promising to increase motivation. Motivation increased when the exercises seemed helpful for daily activities. Motivation in pediatric rehabilitation should be comprehensively assessed within a theoretical framework as there are indications that motivated children have better rehabilitation outcomes, depending on the aspect of motivation.

  10. Expanding protection motivation theory: investigating an application to animal owners and emergency responders in bushfire emergencies.

    Westcott, Rachel; Ronan, Kevin; Bambrick, Hilary; Taylor, Melanie

    2017-04-26

    Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Rogers expected the use of PMT to diversify over time, which has proved true over four decades. The purpose of this paper is to explore how PMT can be used and expanded to inform and improve public safety strategies in natural hazards. As global climate change impacts on the Australian environment, natural hazards seem to be increasing in scale and frequency, and Emergency Services' public education campaigns have necessarily escalated to keep pace with perceived public threat. Of concern, is that the awareness-preparedness gap in residents' survival plans is narrowing disproportionately slowly compared to the magnitude of resources applied to rectify this trend. Practical applications of adaptable social theory could be used to help resolve this dilemma. PMT has been used to describe human behaviour in individuals, families, and the parent-child unit. It has been applied to floods in Europe and wildfire and earthquake in the United States. This paper seeks to determine if an application of PMT can be useful for achieving other-directed human protection across a novel demographic spectrum in natural hazards, specifically, animal owners and emergency responders in bushfire emergencies. These groups could benefit from such an approach: owners to build and fortify their response- and self-efficacy, and to help translate knowledge into safer behaviour, and responders to gain a better understanding of a diverse demographic with animal ownership as its common denominator, and with whom they will be likely to engage in contemporary natural hazard management. Mutual collaboration between these groups could lead to a synergy of reciprocated response efficacy, and safer, less traumatic outcomes. Emergency services' community education programs have made significant progress over the last decade, but

  11. The Dual Effects of Critical Thinking Disposition on Worry

    Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between disposition (people’s consistent motivation) toward critical thinking (CT) and worrying. In spite of its connection to psychopathology, worry is thought to represent an effort at problem-solving. Moreover, worry has been found to be underpinned by cognitive development, leading us to predict a positive relationship between worry and CT disposition. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy, which involves techniques similar to CT, has been shown to be effective in reducing worrying, suggesting that increasing CT disposition decreases worrying. This study attempted to reconcile these seemingly contrasting predictions about the relationship between CT disposition and worrying by using multiple mediator analysis. A model was proposed wherein the mediators, responsibility to continue thinking and detached awareness of negative thinking, were related to two opposing predictions. The former is thought to lead to enhanced worrying and the latter to reduced worrying, with both positively related to CT disposition. A questionnaire study with university students (N = 760) revealed that CT disposition enhanced worrying by obliging people to continue thinking about a problem, but that it also reduced worrying by enhancing the detached and objective awareness of their negative thoughts. This study thus demonstrated the dual effects of CT disposition on worrying through different mediators. Thus, when enhancing CT disposition, it is important for educators to be aware of possible disadvantages apart from its worry-reducing effect. Future studies should therefore examine the underlying mechanisms of these two effects of CT disposition. PMID:24278160

  12. An Empirical Test of Self-Determination Theory as a Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation

    Darner, Rebekka

    2012-01-01

    A goal of most environmental education is to motivate students toward environmentally friendly behaviour change. This article describes a study that elucidates how such motivation can be fostered in the classroom. It compared students' development of environmental motivation in a conventional post-secondary environmental biology course and a…

  13. The Use of Motivation Theory in Engineering Education Research: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education…

  14. Are Choice-Making Opportunities Needed in the Classroom? Using Self-Determination Theory to Consider Student Motivation and Learner Empowerment

    Brooks, Catherine F.; Young, Stacy L.

    2011-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) underpins research on learner empowerment, but it is rarely discussed in empowerment-related literature. In addition, a motivational measure stemming from SDT has received little visibility in communication research. To address these concerns, this study focuses on motivational theory and measurement in an attempt…

  15. Insights into Flood-Coping Appraisals of Protection Motivation Theory: Empirical Evidence from Germany and France.

    Bubeck, Philip; Wouter Botzen, W J; Laudan, Jonas; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Thieken, Annegret H

    2017-11-17

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards. More insight into flood-coping appraisals of PMT, therefore, are needed to better understand the decision-making process of individuals and to develop effective risk communication strategies. This study presents the results of two surveys among more than 1,600 flood-prone households in Germany and France. Five hypotheses were tested using multivariate statistics regarding factors related to flood-coping appraisals, which were derived from the PMT framework, related literature, and the literature on social vulnerability. We found that socioeconomic characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain flood-coping appraisals. Particularly, observational learning from the social environment, such as friends and neighbors, is positively related to flood-coping appraisals. This suggests that social norms and networks play an important role in flood-preparedness decisions. Providing risk and coping information can also have a positive effect. Given the strong positive influence of the social environment on flood-coping appraisals, future research should investigate how risk communication can be enhanced by making use of the observed social norms and network effects. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Successful language learning in a corporate setting: The role of attribution theory and its relation to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

    Csaba Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985 and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985 have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001 but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students’ attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a questionnaire. The aim of this paper is therefore (a to develop a questionnaire with reliable constructs that allows to measure adult learners’ attributions for their success in learning English in a corporate setting, (b to investigate these learners’ attributions, and (c to investigate the relationship between students’ attributions and the constructs of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation central to self-determination theory. Our main results show that among the attributions measured, interest, effort and corporate culture seemed to be the main causes that students recognised as directly involved in their success in learning English. Of all the attributional scales, interest and ability appeared to importantly contribute to intrinsic motivation, while corporate culture, encounters with foreign professionals and ability contributed to a lower extent to extrinsic motivation. It must be noted, however, that attributions for success to teacher and task were so consistently high that they could not be reliably measured with the questionnaire.

  17. Self-determination theory in health care and its relations to motivational interviewing: a few comments.

    Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2012-03-02

    The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT) and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI). Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation, or for outcomes such as weight loss. Although interventions were based on and intended to test the SDT health-behavior-change model, authors also pointed out that they drew techniques from MI in developing the interventions. The current paper refers to these studies and also clarifies the meaning of autonomy, which is central to SDT and has been shown to be important for effective change. We clarify that the dimension of autonomy versus control is conceptually orthogonal to the dimension of independence versus dependence, and we emphasize that autonomy or volition, not independence, is the important antecedent of effective change. Finally, we point out that SDT and MI have had much in common for each has emphasized autonomy. However, a recent MI article seems to have changed MI's emphasis from autonomy to change talk as the key ingredient for change. We suggest that change talk is likely to be an element of effective change only to the degree that the change talk is autonomously enacted and that practitioners facilitate change talk in an autonomy supportive way.

  18. Self-determination theory in health care and its relations to motivational interviewing: a few comments

    Deci Edward L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI. Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation, or for outcomes such as weight loss. Although interventions were based on and intended to test the SDT health-behavior-change model, authors also pointed out that they drew techniques from MI in developing the interventions. The current paper refers to these studies and also clarifies the meaning of autonomy, which is central to SDT and has been shown to be important for effective change. We clarify that the dimension of autonomy versus control is conceptually orthogonal to the dimension of independence versus dependence, and we emphasize that autonomy or volition, not independence, is the important antecedent of effective change. Finally, we point out that SDT and MI have had much in common for each has emphasized autonomy. However, a recent MI article seems to have changed MI's emphasis from autonomy to change talk as the key ingredient for change. We suggest that change talk is likely to be an element of effective change only to the degree that the change talk is autonomously enacted and that practitioners facilitate change talk in an autonomy supportive way.

  19. A test of an adherence-enhancing adjunct to physiotherapy steeped in the protection motivation theory.

    Bassett, Sandra F; Prapavessis, Harry

    2011-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test the effect of a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT)-based patient education intervention on physiotherapy patients' beliefs about their injury and physiotherapy, intentions to adhere, rehabilitation adherence, and ankle function. A secondary aim was to explore the relationships between the patients' injury and physiotherapy beliefs, intentions, adherence behaviours, and ankle function. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken in New Zealand; 71 people with ankle sprains were allocated to either PMT present video information or two control groups (non-PMT information about ankle sprains and no formal information) before commencing their course of physiotherapy. The two information groups watched a video about ankle sprains and physiotherapy before answering the Beliefs about Ankle Sprains and Physiotherapy Scale and behavioural intentions questionnaires that measured the PMT constructs. Adherence was assessed at each treatment and ankle function was measured before and after the physiotherapy program. After viewing the video, the PMT present information group's beliefs about severity, vulnerability, and response efficacy were significantly higher than the other two groups. The groups did not differ significantly on their self-efficacy, intentions, rehabilitation adherence, and post-physiotherapy program ankle function. Significant correlations existed between the patients' PMT-based beliefs and intentions, intentions and adherence, and adherence and post-physiotherapy ankle function. With the exception of self-efficacy, the findings indicate that persuasive information grounded in PMT does enhance physiotherapy patients' beliefs about their injury and treatment.

  20. Use of protection motivation theory, affect, and barriers to understand and predict adherence to outpatient rehabilitation.

    Grindley, Emma J; Zizzi, Samuel J; Nasypany, Alan M

    2008-12-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) has been used in more than 20 different health-related fields to study intentions and behavior, albeit primarily outside the area of injury rehabilitation. In order to examine and predict patient adherence behavior, this study was carried out to explore the use of PMT as a screening tool in a general sample of people with orthopedic conditions. New patients who were more than 18 years old and who were prescribed 4 to 8 weeks of physical therapy treatment (n=229) were administered a screening tool (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and a barriers checklist) prior to treatment. Participants' adherence was assessed with several attendance measures and an in-clinic assessment of behavior. Statistical analyses included correlation, chi-square, multiple regression, and discriminant function analyses. A variety of relationships among affect, barriers, and PMT components were evident. In-clinic behavior and attendance were influenced by affect, whereas dropout status was predicted by affect, severity, self-efficacy, and age. The screening tool used in this study may assist in identifying patients who are at risk for poor adherence and provide valuable information to enhance provider-patient relationships and foster patient adherence. However, it is recommended that more research be conducted to further understand the impact of variables on patient adherence and that the screening tool be enhanced to increase its predictive ability.

  1. Correlates of Protective Motivation Theory (PMT to Adolescents’ Drug Use Intention

    Cynthia Sau Ting Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early onset and increasing proliferation of illicit adolescent drug-use poses a global health concern. This study aimed to examine the correlation between Protective Motivation Theory (PMT measures and the intention to use drugs among adolescents. An exploratory quantitative correlation design and convenience sampling were adopted. A total of 318 students completed a self-reported questionnaire that solicited information related to their demographics and activities, measures of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and the intention to use drugs. Logistic regression analysis showed that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were significant predictors of intention. The odds ratios were equal to 2.90 (p < 0.05 and 8.04 (p < 0.001, respectively. The logistic regression model analysis resulted in a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.49, which suggests that PMT related measures could be used in predicting drug use intention among adolescents. Further research should be conducted with non-school adolescents to confirm the application.

  2. Protection motivation theory and social distancing behaviour in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic.

    Williams, Lynn; Rasmussen, Susan; Kleczkowski, Adam; Maharaj, Savi; Cairns, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of respiratory infectious disease remain one of the most serious health risks facing the population. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. hand-washing or wearing face masks) can have a significant impact on the course of an infectious disease epidemic. The current study investigated whether protection motivation theory (PMT) is a useful framework for understanding social distancing behaviour (i.e. the tendency to reduce social contacts) in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic. There were 230 participants (109 males, 121 females, mean age 32.4 years) from the general population who completed self-report measures assessing the components of PMT. In addition, participants completed a computer game which simulated an infectious disease epidemic in order to provide a measure of social distancing behaviour. The regression analyses revealed that none of the PMT variables were significant predictors of social distancing behaviour during the simulation task. However, fear (β = .218, p < .001), response efficacy (β = .175, p < .01) and self-efficacy (β = .251, p < .001) were all significant predictors of intention to engage in social distancing behaviour. Overall, the PMT variables (and demographic factors) explain 21.2% of the variance in intention. The findings demonstrated that PMT was a useful framework for understanding intention to engage in social distancing behaviour, but not actual behaviour during the simulated epidemic. These findings may reflect an intention-behaviour gap in relation to social distancing behaviour.

  3. Women's preferences for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: An investigation using protection motivation theory.

    Tesson, Stephanie; Richards, Imogen; Porter, David; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Rankin, Nicole; Musiello, Toni; Marven, Michelle; Butow, Phyllis

    2016-05-01

    Most women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are at low risk of contralateral breast cancer. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy (CPM) decreases the relative risk of contralateral breast cancer, but may not increase life expectancy; yet international uptake is increasing. This study applied protection motivation theory (PMT) to determine factors associated with women's intentions to undergo CPM. Three hundred eighty-eight women previously diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and of negative or unknown BRCA1 or BRCA2 status were recruited from an advocacy group's research database. Participants completed measures of PMT constructs based on a common hypothetical CPM decision-making scenario. PMT constructs explained 16% of variance in intentions to undergo CPM. Response efficacy (CPM's advantages) and response costs (CPM's disadvantages) were unique individual predictors of intentions. Decision-making appears driven by considerations of the psychological, cosmetic and emotional advantages and disadvantages of CPM. Overestimations of threat to life from contralateral breast cancer and survival benefit from CPM also appear influential factors. Patients require balanced and medically accurate information regarding the pros and cons of CPM, survival rates, and recurrence risks to ensure realistic and informed decision-making.

  4. Women's preferences for selective estrogen reuptake modulators: an investigation using protection motivation theory.

    Ralph, Angelique F; Ager, Brittany; Bell, Melanie L; Collins, Ian M; Andrews, Lesley; Tucker, Kathy; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Butow, Phyllis

    2014-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer risk by 38%. However, uptake is low and the reasons are not well understood. This study applied protection motivation theory (PMT) to determine factors associated with intention to take SERMs. Women at increased risk of breast cancer (N=107), recruited from two familial cancer clinics in Australia, completed a questionnaire containing measures of PMT constructs. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Forty-five percent of women said they would be likely or very likely to take SERMs in the future. PMT components accounted for 40% of variance in intention to take SERMs. Perceived vulnerability, severity and response efficacy appeared the most influential in women's decisions to take or not take SERMs. Many women are interested in SERMs as a risk management option. Accurate risk estimation and an understanding of the benefits of SERMs are critical to women's decision making. Health professionals need to explore women's perceptions of their risk and its consequences, as well as providing clear evidence-based information about the efficacy of SERMs. Exploring the source and strength of beliefs about SERMs may allow more effective, tailored counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. G2-MSSM: An M theory motivated model of particle physics

    Acharya, Bobby S.; Bobkov, Konstantin; Kane, Gordon L.; Shao Jing; Kumar, Piyush

    2008-01-01

    We continue our study of the low energy implications of M theory vacua on G 2 -manifolds, undertaken in B. S. Acharya, K. Bobkov, G. L. Kane, P. Kumar, and J. Shao, Phys. Rev. D 76, 126010 (2007); B. Acharya, K. Bobkov, G. Kane, P. Kumar, and D. Vaman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191601 (2006), where it was shown that the moduli can be stabilized and a TeV scale generated, with the Planck scale as the only dimensionful input. A well-motivated phenomenological model, the G 2 -MSSM, can be naturally defined within the above framework. In this paper, we study some of the important phenomenological features of the G 2 -MSSM. In particular, the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters and the superpartner spectrum are computed. The G 2 -MSSM generically gives rise to light gauginos and heavy scalars with wino lightest supersymmetric particles when one tunes the cosmological constant. Electroweak symmetry breaking is present but fine-tuned. The G 2 -MSSM is also naturally consistent with precision gauge coupling unification. The phenomenological consequences for cosmology and collider physics of the G 2 -MSSM will be reported in more detail soon.

  6. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK EXAMINING THE ANTECEDENTS OF CAREER DECISIVENESS USING MOTIVATION SYSTEMS THEORY

    Srabasti CHATTERJEE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An extensive body of vocational research has been dedicated to the topic of career-decision making behavior. Work is integral to human functioning, and all psychologists need to understand the role of work in people’s lives. Understanding factors influencing work choices and helping individuals effectively make career decisions is the focus of vocational psychologists. The external changes, such as shifts in the economy and labour force, as well as initiatives within the field are challenging the assumptions within vocational psychology. Under such circumstances, it becomes more important to study career decisiveness and more importantly examine the process of career planning which eventually leads to career decisiveness. So there is a need to assess attitudes, expectations, and emotions about one’s career in the form of Career Future Inventory to measure career choice or career decisiveness. Career decisiveness (CD has been an instrumental tool for vocational psychologists and a phenomenon of interest to parents, faculty, school counsellors, and others who advise young adults on their career choices. The current study shall investigate the antecedents and consequences of career decisiveness using the Motivational Systems Theory (MST. The major rational of applying MST is to understand career choice has its impetus both on the individual and contextual factors.

  7. Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach.

    Friederichs, Stijn Ah; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines. The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters. The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.

  8. Effect of δ meson and ρ-ω cross couplings in effective field theory motivated Lagrangian approach

    Jagota, R.K.; Dhiman, S.K.; Sharma, B.K.; Arumugam, P.; Patra, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the self and cross couplings of ω meson plays an important role to make the nuclear equation of state (EOS) softer. The parameter set G2, obtained from the effective field theory motivated Lagrangian (E-RMF) approach, is very successful to reproduce the nuclear matter properties including the structure of neutron star as well as of finite nuclei. The motivation of the present report is to see the effects of these terms in the E-RMF Lagrangian on infinite nuclear matter as well as finite nuclei

  9. What is a Dispositive?

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    perspective – indeed it forms a lesser known intermediary between these. Foucault’s dispositional analysis articulates a history of connected social technologies that we have constructed to relate to each other. Expounding these points, the article distinguishes various dispositional prototypes and develops...... key ‘socio-ontological’ implications of the analy-sis. Reinstating the proper analytical status of the dispositive contributes to the reception of the important notion; the interpretation of Foucault’s entire oeuvre; and a resourceful approach to the study of contemporary societal problems....

  10. Mentoring Others: A Dispositional and Motivational Approach.

    Allen, Tammy D.

    2003-01-01

    Participants (n=391) were asked whether they were mentored or willing to mentor. Prosocial personality traits (other-oriented empathy and helpfulness) were related to willingness to mentor. Empathy was related to actual experience as a mentor. Career and life stage variables were also related to mentoring willingness, suggesting that both…

  11. Using Expectancy Theory to quantitatively dissociate the neural representation of motivation from its influential factors in the human brain: An fMRI study.

    Kohli, Akshay; Blitzer, David N; Lefco, Ray W; Barter, Joseph W; Haynes, M Ryan; Colalillo, Sam A; Ly, Martina; Zink, Caroline F

    2018-05-08

    Researchers have yet to apply a formal operationalized theory of motivation to neurobiology that would more accurately and precisely define neural activity underlying motivation. We overcome this challenge with the novel application of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation to human fMRI to identify brain activity that explicitly reflects motivation. Expectancy Theory quantitatively describes how individual constructs determine motivation by defining motivation force as the product of three variables: expectancy - belief that effort will better performance; instrumentality - belief that successful performance leads to particular outcome, and valence - outcome desirability. Here, we manipulated information conveyed by reward-predicting cues such that relative cue-evoked activity patterns could be statistically mapped to individual Expectancy Theory variables. The variable associated with activity in any voxel is only reported if it replicated between two groups of healthy participants. We found signals in midbrain, ventral striatum, sensorimotor cortex, and visual cortex that specifically map to motivation itself, rather than other factors. This is important because, for the first time, it empirically clarifies approach motivation neural signals during reward anticipation. It also highlights the effectiveness of the application of Expectancy Theory to neurobiology to more precisely and accurately probe motivation neural correlates than has been achievable previously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing a self-determination theory intervention for motivating tobacco cessation: supporting autonomy and competence in a clinical trial.

    Williams, Geoffrey C; McGregor, Holly A; Sharp, Daryl; Levesque, Chantal; Kouides, Ruth W; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L

    2006-01-01

    A longitudinal randomized trial tested the self-determination theory (SDT) intervention and process model of health behavior change for tobacco cessation (N = 1006). Adult smokers were recruited for a study of smokers' health and were assigned to intensive treatment or community care. Participants were relatively poor and undereducated. Intervention patients perceived greater autonomy support and reported greater autonomous and competence motivations than did control patients. They also reported greater medication use and significantly greater abstinence. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the SDT process model in which perceived autonomy support led to increases in autonomous and competence motivations, which in turn led to greater cessation. The causal role of autonomy support in the internalization of autonomous motivation, perceived competence, and smoking cessation was supported. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Does exercise motivation predict engagement in objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise? A self-determination theory perspective.

    Standage, Martyn; Sebire, Simon J; Loney, Tom

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the utility of motivation as advanced by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) in predicting objectively assessed bouts of moderate intensity exercise behavior. Participants provided data pertaining to their exercise motivation. One week later, participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd) and 24-hr energy expenditure was estimated for 7 days. After controlling for gender and a combined marker of BMI and waist circumference, results showed autonomous motivation to positively predict moderate-intensity exercise bouts of >or=10 min, or=20 min, and an accumulation needed to meet public health recommendations for moderate intensity activity (i.e., ACSM/AHA guidelines). The present findings add bouts of objectively assessed exercise behavior to the growing body of literature that documents the adaptive consequences of engaging in exercise for autonomous reasons. Implications for practice and future work are discussed.

  14. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories.

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research.

  15. Motivated Implicit Theories of Personality: My Weaknesses Will Go Away, but My Strengths Are Here to Stay.

    Steimer, Andreas; Mata, André

    2016-04-01

    Across six studies, this research found consistent evidence for motivated implicit theories about personality malleability: People perceive their weaknesses as more malleable than their strengths. Moreover, motivation also influences how people see themselves in the future, such that they expect their present strengths to remain constant, but they expect their present weaknesses to improve in the future. Several additional findings suggest the motivational nature of these effects: The difference in perceived malleability for strengths versus weaknesses was only observed for the self, not for other people. When the desirability of possessing a certain trait was manipulated, that trait was perceived to be more malleable when it was depicted as undesirable. And these different beliefs that people have about how malleable their traits are, and how they will develop in the future, were associated with their desire for change, which is higher for weaknesses versus strengths. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Analysis of deposit of physiological and psychological theories of forming motive skills on development of theory of teaching to the physical drills

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different theories is certain on the construction of process of teaching motive actions of young gymnasts. The results of complete factor experiment are presented. They allowed to formulate principle settings to the construction of process of teaching the physical drills of young gymnasts at the age 7-13 years old. On the construction of teaching process influences more in all: theory of functional systems (43%, р<0,001, theory of construction of motions (41%,р<0,001, theory of management mastering of knowledge, forming actions and concepts (2,6%, р<0,05. The positive effect of teaching depends on the successive decision of tasks of teaching and rational application of methods.

  17. THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATIONS IN HOSPITAL UNITS

    C. BOTEZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of human resources represents the sci‑ ence of elaboration and implementation of the staff strat‑ egy and policy for a most efficient attainment of the objectives of an organisation. Motivation is one of the defining activities of human resource management, as it influences in a decisive way participation to the fulfillment of objectives, both by the extent of rewards or of material/ moral-spiritual sanctions, and by the motivation criteria applied. Motivation is defined as the sum of the internal and external energies which initiate, control and support an orientative effort for attaining an objective of the organ‑ isation, which will simultaneously satisfy one’s individual needs. The motivation function aims at stimulating the employees for reaching performance. It begins with the recognition of the fact that the individuals are unique natures, and that the motivational techniques should be adapted to the needs of each one in part. Individual moti‑ vation is maximum when the employee is conscious of his own competence, working within a structure which requires the best from his part and turns to good account his abilities. To be motivated in his activity, an individual should have the certainty that, by developing some activity, his own needs will be also fulfilled; one’s motivation as to the work he/she performs is determined by a series of moti‑ vational factors, of intrinsic (individual and extrinsic (organisational nature. Motivation is related to more pro‑ found feelings of growth and development; an increased particiption may indicate a higher level of motivation. Peo‑ ple are motivated or demotivated according to their inner state. Motivation is especially important in determining the behaviour, even if it is not the only element generating it; factors of biological, psycho-social, organisational and cultural nature may also have a certain influence.

  18. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  19. MOTIVATIONAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS ON LITERATURE IN CONTEXT OF D. MCCLELLAND’S THEORY

    E. V. Bataeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main motives of human behavior are formed at the primary school age. Several factors play a determining role in children’s development: up-bringing in the family, style of teaching at school, quality of popular literature and other sources of information, and, in particular, school textbooks. The special importance is given to the content quality of school textbooks. The influence of school textbooks is determined by the fact that school children should necessarily get familiar with the printed materials, resulting, as a consequence, in accepting the patterns of social interaction and motive-codes introduced there. Due to high constructivist potential of school textbooks, it seems necessary to carry out content analysis of textbooks’ for the purpose of identifying the influence on certain motive trends formation in schoolchildren.The aim of the publication is to present the methodology of motivational analysis of school textbooks on literature and the results of its approbation when studying the motivational content of Ukrainian textbooks for primary school.Methodology and research methods. The research methodology is based on comparative, socio-constructivist, sociocultural and system-activity approaches to implementation of educational process and preparation of didactic materials. Scientific methods involve: analysis and synthesis of the content of sociological, socio-psychological, pedagogical and methodical literature; content analysis of educational texts.Results and scientific novelty. The author’s methodology of motivational content analysis of primary school textbooks on literature developed in the context of D. McClelland’s theory is described. As the main categories of motivational content analysis of texts, the motives of behavior introduced by D. McClelland (achievements, affiliation, positive and negative power, avoidance of failure as well as the motives of self-expression and refusal of affiliation have

  20. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected thr...

  1. Study of Determinants of Lung Cancer Protective Behaviors in Esfahan Steel Company Workers Based On Protection Motivation Theory

    mohammadali Morowatisharifabad; Leila Hadi varnamkhavasti; Mohammadjavad Zare; Hossein Fallahzadeh; zohre Karimiankakolaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is known the leading cause of death among cancers. Since in our country a comprehensive scientific information not available on the determinants of protective behavior of lung cancer among workers, this study, aimed to examine determinants of lung cancer protective behaviors among Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO) workers based on protection motivation theory. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 253 workers of the ESCO who were randomly selected. In th...

  2. Students' motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: a self-determination theory approach.

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-03-01

    In the present study, we used a model of motivation grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000b, 2002) to examine the relationship between physical education (PE) students' motivational processes and ratings of their effort and persistence as provided by their PE teacher. Data were obtained from 394 British secondary school students (204 boys, 189 girls, 1 gender not specified; M age = 11.97 years; SD = .89; range = 11-14 years) who responded to a multisection inventory (tapping autonomy-support, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and self-determined motivation). The students' respective PE teachers subsequently provided ratings reflecting the effort and persistence each student exhibited in their PE classes. The hypothesized relationships among the study variables were examined via structural equation modeling analysis using latent factors. Results of maximum likelihood analysis using the bootstrapping method revealed the proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data, chi-squared (292) = 632.68, p self-determination. Student-reported levels of self-determined motivation positively predicted teacher ratings of effort and persistence in PE. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing student motivation in PE settings.

  3. Motivational Profiles for Physical Activity Practice in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Trouilloud, David; Boiché, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations). Participants with "High Combined" and "Self-Determined" profiles reported higher perceived competence and longer leisure-time PA practice in comparison to those with a "Moderate" profile. This study highlights the necessity of adopting a person-centered approach to better understand motivation toward PA among type 2 diabetics.

  4. A conceptualisation of help-avoidance as motivated inaction: implications for theory, research, and society

    Täuber, Susanne; Zagefka, Hanna; van Leeuwen, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This chapter zooms in on the strategic motives of help-avoidance, an intriguing yet under-researched phenomenon. Conceptualising this phenomenon as a particular form of inaction, I propose that help-avoidance is a strategic response to disadvantage that is motivated by identity concerns. I provide

  5. Motives for property, plant and equipment revaluation according to positive accounting theory

    Katarzyna Bareja; Magdalena Giedroyć

    2016-01-01

    The paper identifies motives for property, plant and equipment (PPE) revaluations according to the three main hypotheses proposed by Watts and Zimmerman. Attempt to lower debt-equity ratio is the main motive for PPE revaluation. The method of inductive inference was applied.

  6. Motivation for Instrument Education: A Study from the Perspective of Expectancy-Value and Flow Theories

    Burak, Sabahat

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: In the process of instrument education, students being unwilling (lacking motivation) to play an instrument or to practise is a problem that educators frequently face. Recognizing the factors motivating the students will yield useful results for instrument educators in terms of developing correct teaching methods and approaches.…

  7. Motives for property, plant and equipment revaluation according to positive accounting theory

    Katarzyna Bareja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies motives for property, plant and equipment (PPE revaluations according to the three main hypotheses proposed by Watts and Zimmerman. Attempt to lower debt-equity ratio is the main motive for PPE revaluation. The method of inductive inference was applied.

  8. The motivational theory of role modeling : How role models influence role aspirants' goals

    Morgenroth, Thekla; Ryan, Michelle K.; Peters, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Role models are often suggested as a way of motivating individuals to set and achieve ambitious goals, especially for members of stigmatized groups in achievement settings. Yet, the literature on role models tends not to draw on the motivational literature to explain how role models may help role

  9. Applying Self-Determination Theory to Understand the Motivation for Becoming a Physical Education Teacher

    Spittle, Michael; Jackson, Kevin; Casey, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the reasons people choose physical education teaching as a profession and investigated the relationship of these choices with motivation. Physical education pre-service teachers (n = 324) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a measure of reasons for choosing physical education teaching. Confident interpersonal…

  10. Unitary representations of some infinite-dimensional Lie algebras motivated by string theory on AdS3

    Andreev, Oleg

    1999-01-01

    We consider some unitary representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras motivated by string theory on AdS 3 . These include examples of two kinds: the A,D,E type affine Lie algebras and the N=4 superconformal algebra. The first presents a new construction for free field representations of affine Lie algebras. The second is of a particular physical interest because it provides some hints that a hybrid of the NSR and GS formulations for string theory on AdS 3 exists

  11. The Motivational Outcomes of Psychological Need Support among Pre-Service Teachers: Multicultural and Self-determination Theory Perspectives

    Haya Kaplan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless

  12. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  14. Andragogy and Pedagogy as Foundational Theory for Student Motivation in Higher Education

    Stephen Pew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available How educators approach the issue of student motivation, be it intrinsic or extrinsic, is determined, in part, by the andragogical or pedagogical philosophical underpinnings of professors’ teaching practices. Difficulty arises when pedagogical methods and practices are applied in whole or in part to situations that require andragogical dynamics. A misunderstanding or misapplication of these critical issues may result in situational, temporary, or unsustainable models of motivation that guide lifelong learners and perhaps undermine the entire process of student motivation. This discussion explores the root causes of the misapplication of pedagogical models and its impact on adult learners.

  15. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  16. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory.

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in "normal" science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils.

  17. Matching achievement contexts with implicit theories to maximize motivation after failure: a congruence model.

    El-Alayli, Amani

    2006-12-01

    Previous research has shown that matching person variables with achievement contexts can produce the best motivational outcomes. The current study examines whether this is also true when matching entity and incremental beliefs with the appropriate motivational climate. Participants were led to believe that a personal attribute was fixed (entity belief) or malleable (incremental belief). After thinking that they failed a test that assessed the attribute, participants performed a second (related) task in a context that facilitated the pursuit of either performance or learning goals. Participants were expected to exhibit greater effort on the second task in the congruent conditions (entity belief plus performance goal climate and incremental belief plus learning goal climate) than in the incongruent conditions. These results were obtained, but only for participants who either valued competence on the attribute or had high achievement motivation. Results are discussed in terms of developing strategies for optimizing motivation in achievement settings.

  18. Motivational and emotional profiles in university undergraduates: a self-determination theory perspective.

    González, Antonio; Paoloni, Verónica; Donolo, Danilo; Rinaudo, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has focused on specific forms of self-determined motivation or discrete class-related emotions, but few studies have simultaneously examined both constructs. The aim of this study on 472 undergraduates was twofold: to perform cluster analysis to identify homogeneous groups of motivation in the sample; and to determine the profile of each cluster for emotions and academic achievement. Cluster analysis configured four groups in terms of motivation: controlled, autonomous, both high, and both low. Each cluster revealed a distinct emotional profile, autonomous motivation being the most adaptable with high scores for academic achievement and pleasant emotions and low values for unpleasant emotions. The results are discussed in the light of their implications for academic adjustment.

  19. Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Investigate Sustainable Waste Management Behaviors

    Piyapong Janmaimool

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explain individuals’ engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT. SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. Considering the amount of solid waste generation per capita per day during the past 10 years, the statistical records from the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA illustrate the increasing trend of solid waste generation from 1.18 kg per capita per day in 2005 to 1.28 kg per capita per day 2015. Many scholars have asserted that human beings should alter their behaviors to successfully reduce their environmental impact. Several environmental problems (e.g., air pollution, water pollution, and odors caused by waste disposal are consequences of human behaviors; therefore, citizens’ engagement in SWMBs should be widely promoted. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems, caused by increasing amounts of solid waste over the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were administered to 193 public and private office workers residing in the city of Bangkok. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to justify the effects of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on SWMB engagement. The results illustrated that respondents’ self-efficacy could explain all types of SWMBs. On the contrary, response efficacy was not a significant predictor of all behaviors. People’s perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants could significantly explain their waste disposal and reuse and recycle behaviors, and the perceived probability of being impacted by pollutants could explain only reuse and

  20. Can Protection Motivation Theory explain farmers'adaptation to Climate change/variability decision making in the Gambia?

    Bagagnan, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Gambia, Changes in the climate pattern has affected and continue to affect the agriculture sector and therefore calling for effective adaptation policies. The present study aimed to explain farmers' adoption of climate change adaptation measure through the protection motivation theory in The Central River Region of The Gambia. Primary data were collected in all the eight communities of the study area. A transect walk was conducted first followed by a survey with 283 informants. The perception variables were referring to the past 20 years while the stated implementation was addressing the current adaptation practices. Results showed that on one hand, most of the perception variables such as severity, ability to withstand, and internal barriers are significantly correlated to protection motivation and on the other hand Protection motivation and stated implementation for water conservation technique are strongly correlated. Structural Equation Modeling confirms the mediation role of Protection motivation between Farmers stated implementation and their perception of climate variability. Decrease in soil water storage capacity, degradation of the quality of soil surface structure, decrease of the length of the growing season are factors that motivate farmers to implement an adaptation measure. Cost of the implementation and farmers' vulnerability are factors that prevent farmers to implement an adaptation measure. The cost of the implementation is the main barrier to farmers `protection motivation. Therefore the study suggested that farmers' awareness about climate change/variability should be increased through farmers' field school and awareness campaigns, farmers' resilience should be improved and adaptation measures should be made accessible to farmers through loans facilities and subsidizes application.

  1. The "Intentionality Measurement Instrument" [or "IMI"]: A Comprehensive Psychometric Instrument Based upon the Dual Quadrant Scalar Model of Intentionality That Is Designed to Measure Intent, Motive Type, and Disposition

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to provide an epistemological rational for the measurement of intentionality. The purpose of this narrative is to identify "Intentionality" as an arena of action in the dispositional learning domain can be measured using an "Intentionality Measurement Instrument" [also referred by the acronym…

  2. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  3. Intervening to improve teachers’ need-supportive behaviour using Self-Determination Theory : Its effects on teachers and on the motivation of students with deafblindness

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Research on Self-Determination Theory has shown that teachers’ need-supportive behaviour is associated with student motivation and engagement. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing the motivation of students with congenital and acquired

  4. A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs from Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories To Predict Physical Activity Intentions.

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  5. Intervening to Improve Teachers' Need-Supportive Behaviour Using Self-Determination Theory: Its Effects on Teachers and on the Motivation of Students with Deafblindness

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Research on Self-Determination Theory has shown that teachers' need-supportive behaviour is associated with student motivation and engagement. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing the motivation of students with congenital and acquired deafblindness by enhancing teachers' need-supportive…

  6. Predicting Student Grade Point Average at a Community College from Scholastic Aptitude Tests and from Measures Representing Three Constructs in Vroom's Expectancy Theory Model of Motivation.

    Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…

  7. Why Johnny Won't Cooperate: An Examination of Behavior and Motivation Theory to Understand Resistance to Change in the Workplace

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis is advanced by synthesizing the motivation theories of Maslow, McGregor, and Merzberg to develop a model which describes behavior as a function of human need and points to the existence...

  8. Perceived teaching behaviors and self-determined motivation in physical education: a test of self-determination theory.

    Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we tested the effects of specific dimensions of perceived teaching behaviors on students' self-determined motivation in physical education. In accordance with the tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), we expected the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness would mediate these effects. Secondary school students (N=498) ages 12-17 years completed measures of perceived teaching behaviors for seven dimensions: (a) democratic behavior, (b) autocratic behavior (c) teaching and instruction, (d) situation consideration, (e) positive general feedback, (f) positive nonverbal feedback, and (h) negative nonverbal feedback. They also completed measures of perceived satisfaction for competence, autonomy, relatedness, and self-determined motivation. A path-analytic model revealed a positive, indirect effect of perceived positive general feedback on self-determined motivation. The effects of perceived autocratic behavior and negative nonverbal feedback were direct and negative, whereas the effects of teaching and instruction and situation consideration were direct and positive. Results suggest that feedback, situation consideration, and teaching and instruction are essential antecedents to self-determined motivation.

  9. An instrument based on protection motivation theory to predict Chinese adolescents' intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis.

    Xiao, Han; Peng, Minjin; Yan, Hong; Gao, Mengting; Li, Jingjing; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hanbo; Li, Shiyue

    2016-01-01

    Further advancement in schistosomiasis prevention requires new tools to assess protective motivation, and promote innovative intervention program. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an instrument developed based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict protective behavior intention against schistosomiasis among adolescents in China. We developed the Schistosomiasis PMT Scale based on two appraisal pathways of protective motivation- threat appraisal pathway and coping appraisal pathway. Data from a large sample of middle school students ( n  = 2238, 51 % male, mean age 13.13 ± 1.10) recruited in Hubei, China was used to evaluated the validity and reliability of the scale. The final scale contains 18 items with seven sub-constructs. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for the entire instrument was 0.76, and for the seven sub-constructs of severity, vulnerability, intrinsic reward, extrinsic reward, response efficacy, self-efficacy and response cost was 0.56, 0.82, 0.75, 0.80, 0.90, 0.72 and 0.70, respectively. The construct validity analysis revealed that the one level 7 sub-constructs model fitted data well (GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, Chi-sq/df = 3.90, p  motivation in schistosomiasis prevention control. Further studies are needed to develop more effective intervention programs for schistosomiasis prevention.

  10. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest–posttest design. The results show that the students’ intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy support significantly increased going from lectures to TBL. The results further show that students’ engagement and perceived learning significantly increased. Finally, students’ amotivation decreased from pretest to posttest; however, students reported higher external regulation as a function of TBL. Path analysis shows that increases in intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, and external regulation positively predict increases in engagement, which in turn predict increases in perceived learning. We argue that the characteristics of TBL, as opposed to lectures, are likely to engage students and facilitate feelings of competence. TBL is an active-learning approach, as opposed to more passive learning in lectures, which might explain the increase in students’ perception of teachers as autonomy supportive. In contrast, the greater demands TBL puts on students might account for the increase in external regulation. Limitations and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:29146665

  11. Self-Care Motivation Among Patients With Heart Failure: A Qualitative Study Based on Orem's Theory.

    Abotalebidariasari, Ghasem; Memarian, Robabe; Vanaki, Zohreh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Naderi, Nasim

    2016-11-01

    Initiating and adhering to self-care activities necessitate self-care motivation. This study was undertaken in Iran to explore self-care motivation among patients with heart failure (HF). This qualitative study was done in 2014 and 2015. Study participants were patients with HF and their family members who were purposively selected from Shaheed Rajaei Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran, Iran. The study data were collected from December 2014 to May 2015 by doing in-depth semistructured face-to-face interviews and were analyzed via the directed content analysis approach. Eleven primary codes were generated which reflected motivations for self-care among patients with HF in the Iranian sociocultural context. To enhance the clarity of the findings, these primarily codes were summarized and grouped into 7 subcategories including fear of death and love of life, returning to previous physical health status and preventing or alleviating symptoms, understanding the value of self-care behaviors and trusting them, having the desire for remaining independent, relying on God, reassuring and supporting family members, and preventing family members from feeling irritation. The findings of this study indicate that patients with HF have different motivations for doing self-care activities. Fear of death, love of life, wish to return to previous health status, and prevention or alleviation of HF symptoms were the participants' strongest motivations for self-care. Understanding the motivations for self-care among patients with HF, based a holistic approach and evidence-based practice, can help nurses and physicians develop motivational programs for promoting self-care behaviors.

  12. Understanding Student Motivation

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  13. Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation.

    Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory, describing core findings of the theory, mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. Explains the external validity and practical significance of goal setting theory,…

  14. From motivation and cognition theories to everyday applications and back again: the case of product-integrated information and feedback

    McCalley, L.T. [Technical Univ. Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Various moderators of the relationship of goal setting and feedback are explored in four examples of applied empirical research. A selection of theoretical frameworks borrowed from varied disciplines guided the studies and are discussed in terms of their value to the particular questions investigated. The experiments all entailed the use of product-integrated energy feedback and illustrate a progressive understanding of how goals, feedback and other information provided to the user can generate or support better energy conservation. Experiment 1 exemplifies the successful use of combining goal setting and feedback and provides a basic understanding of the interaction from the perspectives of goal setting theory and Feedback Intervention Theory (FIT). Experiment 2 compares FIT to another, fundamentally different, cognitive framework, and the minimal justification principle. The study gives insight into how goals and feedback work through attention focus and the goal hierarchy to guide behaviour, the role of attitude in this process, and offers evidence that FIT better accounts for task specific conservation behaviour. Experiment 3 addresses the role of goals and information in strategy planning through the perspective of goal setting theory. Results of this study suggest the need for more development of the basic theory and illustrate the strong motivational properties of having a goal. Experiment 4 investigates a more fundamental process, anchoring bias, taken from decision theory and the theory of rational choice. This experiment was based again on FIT and provided further evidence of behavioural control through the focus of attention at a particular level of the goal hierarchy.

  15. From motivation and cognition theories to everyday applications and back again. The case of product-integrated information and feedback

    McCalley, L.T. [Technical University Eindhoven/ TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Various moderators of the relationship of goal setting and feedback are explored in four examples of applied empirical research. A selection of theoretical frameworks borrowed from varied disciplines guided the studies and are discussed in terms of their value to the particular questions investigated. The experiments all entailed the use of product-integrated energy feedback and illustrate a progressive understanding of how goals, feedback and other information provided to the user can generate or support better energy conservation. Experiment 1 exemplifies the successful use of combining goal setting and feedback and provides a basic understanding of the interaction from the perspectives of goal setting theory and Feedback Intervention Theory (FIT). Experiment 2 compares FIT to another, fundamentally different, cognitive framework, and the minimal justification principle. The study gives insight into how goals and feedback work through attention focus and the goal hierarchy to guide behaviour, the role of attitude in this process, and offers evidence that FIT better accounts for task specific conservation behaviour. Experiment 3 addresses the role of goals and information in strategy planning through the perspective of goal setting theory. Results of this study suggest the need for more development of the basic theory and illustrate the strong motivational properties of having a goal. Experiment 4 investigates a more fundamental process, anchoring bias, taken from decision theory and the theory of rational choice. This experiment was based again on FIT and provided further evidence of behavioural control through the focus of attention at a particular level of the goal hierarchy.

  16. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.

    Locke, Edwin A; Latham, Gary P

    2002-09-01

    The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory's limitations.

  17. Human Capital Theory and Internal Migration: Do Average Outcomes Distort Our View of Migrant Motives?

    Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A W

    2017-05-01

    By modelling the distribution of percentage income gains for movers in Sweden, using multinomial logistic regression, this paper shows that those receiving large pecuniary returns from migration are primarily those moving to the larger metropolitan areas and those with higher education, and that there is much more variability in income gains than what is often assumed in models of average gains to migration. This suggests that human capital models of internal migration often overemphasize the job and income motive for moving, and fail to explore where and when human capital motivated migration occurs.

  18. How to encourage intrinsic motivation in the clinical teaching environment?: a systematic review from the self-determination theory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Internalization of students’ motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Methods: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more ‘human centred’ teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. Conclusion: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students’ self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery. PMID:25855386

  19. How to encourage intrinsic motivation in the clinical teaching environment?: a systematic review from the self-determination theory.

    Orsini, Cesar; Evans, Phillip; Jerez, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Internalization of students' motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students' basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more 'human centred' teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students' self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.

  20. How to encourage intrinsic motivation in the clinical teaching environment?: a systematic review from the self-determination theory

    Cesar Orsini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Internalization of students’ motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Methods: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC, relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more ‘human centred’ teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. Conclusion: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students’ self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.

  1. Measuring Teacher Dispositions

    Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a top priority of our national agenda. There is empirical evidence that suggests that teacher inputs have impact on student outcomes. It is also believed that teacher dispositions are as crucial for student achievement as a teacher's pedagogical and content knowledge/skills. The National Council for Accreditation of…

  2. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  3. So many developers, so many projects: toward a motivation-based theory of project selection

    van Osch, W.; Adelaar, T.; Pith, M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies into open source software (OSS) development projects have hitherto focused on the question of why people aremotivated to contribute to these projects, thereby assuming that motivational factors are the same across all types of OSSprojects. In this study we challenge this assumption by

  4. Latent profile analysis of students’ motivation and outcomes in mathematics: an organismic integration theory perspective

    Chee Keng John Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to identify the motivation profiles at the intraindividual level using a latent profile analyses (LPA approach. A total of 1151 secondary school students aged 13 to 17 years old from Singapore took part in the study. Using LPA, four distinct motivational profiles were identified based on four motivation regulations. Profile 1 has very low introjected and low autonomous motivation (6% of sample. Profile 2 had high external and identified regulations and very low intrinsic regulation (10%. Profile 3 consisted of students with high identified and intrinsic regulations (51%. Profile 4 had moderately low identified and intrinsic regulations (33%. The results showed that the four profiles differed significantly in terms of effort, competence, value, and time spent on math beyond homework. The best profile (Profile 3 reported highest scores in effort, value, competence and time spent on Math beyond homework. The worst profile (Profile 1 reported lowest scores in all the four outcome variables. Keywords: Education

  5. Motivation, Satisfaction, and Morale in Army Careers: A Review of Theory and Measurement

    1976-12-01

    subjective goali on performance. Their model of "task motivation" has the following key features (Locke, Cartledge, & Knerr, 1968, p. 135): I. The... pulling himself up in the world and should work hard with the hope of being promoted to a higher level job. "* A man should choose the Job which pays the

  6. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.

  7. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  8. Corporatized Higher Education: A Quantitative Study Examining Faculty Motivation Using Self-Determination Theory

    Brown, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this research is to offer a quantitative analysis of self-determined faculty motivation within the current corporate model of higher education across public and private research universities. With such a heightened integration of accountability structures, external reward systems, and the ongoing drive for more money and…

  9. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  10. Gerontechnology motivation

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and

  11. When is success not satisfying? Integrating regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories to explain the relation between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction.

    Ferris, D Lance; Johnson, Russell E; Rosen, Christopher C; Djurdjevic, Emilija; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Tan, James A

    2013-03-01

    Integrating implications from regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories, we present a framework wherein motivational orientations toward positive (approach motivation orientation) or negative (avoidance motivation orientation) stimuli interact with workplace success to mediate the relation of core self-evaluation (CSE) with job satisfaction. Using data collected from supervisor-subordinate dyads (Sample 1) and time-lagged data (Sample 2), we found that the results from two studies indicated that the interaction of workplace success and avoidance motivation orientation mediated relations of CSE with job satisfaction. Although approach motivation orientation did not interact with workplace success, it did mediate the CSE-job satisfaction relation on its own. Implications for the CSE and approach/avoidance literatures are discussed.

  12. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  13. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory.

    Cox, D N; Koster, A; Russell, C G

    2004-08-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called 'functional foods' is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods. Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements that may improve memory were tested within an adaptation of Protection Motivation theory (PMT). Participants evaluated text descriptions of four products described as: having an unpleasant bitter taste (Natural-FF); having 'additives' to reduce bitterness (Sweetened-FF); being genetically modified to enhance function (GM-FF) and Supplements. Participants were recruited as being of high and low perceived vulnerability to memory failure. In total, 290 middle-aged consumers (aged 40-60 years) participated in the study. Motivations to consume the GM-FF were the lowest. There were gender differences between intention to consume the supplements, Natural-FF and Sweetened-FF and product differences within genders. Women were less favourable than men in their attitudes towards genetic modification in general. Regression analyses indicated that PM predictors of intention to consume functional foods or supplements explained 59-63% of the variance (R2). Overall, perceived 'efficacy' (of the behaviour) and self-efficacy were the most important predictors of intentions to consume.

  14. Determinants of Skin Cancer Preventive Behaviors Among Rural Farmers in Iran: an Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Babazadeh, Towhid; Nadrian, Haidar; Banayejeddi, Morteza; Rezapour, Baratali

    2017-09-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers, worldwide, which happens more among those with more sunlight exposure like farmers. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers using Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, multistage random sampling was employed to enroll 238 farmers referring to rural health houses (HH) in Chaldoran County, Iran. A valid and reliable instrument based on PMT variables was used. Significant correlations were found between all PMT variables with SCPBs (p Protection Motivation and SCPBs as outcome variables. Predictors for these two outcome variables were classified in two different blocks according to their natures. Demographic characteristics (p > 0.05) and PMT constructs (p Protection Motivation, respectively. Also, no significant effect was found on SCPBs by demographic variables, in the first block (∆R 2  = 0.025); however, in the second block, Perceived Susceptibility (p = 0.000), Rewards (p = 0.022), Self-efficacy (p = 0.000), and Response Cost (p = 0.001) were significant predictors of SCPBs (∆R 2  = 0.432). Health care providers may consider PMT as a framework for developing educational interventions aiming at improving SCPBs among rural farmers.

  15. The role of the habitual dispositions (????? in the constitution of practical identity under the Aristotelian perspective

    Adriana ROMERO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotelian ethics, being based on virtue, centers its attention on the dispositional aspect that motivates moral action, in other words, it explains the moral action from the habitual dispositions of agent. The reference to this dispositional component provides insights for the understanding of various philosophical topics, including the problem of practical identity. The aim of this paper is to describe the Aristotelian concept of e/(cij (habitual dispositions in order to highlight its role in the constitution of practical identity 

  16. Toward a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: the SIMON framework

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we...

  17. Disposição de adolescentes para a prática de esportes: um estudo orientado pela teoria bioecológica de Bronfenbrenner Adolescents' disposition for sports' practice: a study oriented by the Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory

    Ruy Jornada Krebs

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a disposição de adolescentes a prática esportiva com base no paradigma bioecológico de Bronfenbrenner. O delineamento do presente estudo incluiu dois contextos (microssistemas com características ambientais diferentes: (a uma escola da rede pública e (b uma escola da rede privada, ambas localizadas na região central da cidade de Florianópolis. Os resultados foram organizados de acordo com as duas variáveis do estudo: atributo pessoal (masculino ou feminino e contexto (gestão pública ou gestão privada. Considerando os objetivos propostos neste estudo, verificou-se que para os escolares participantes da pesquisa, os principais fatores motivacionais que impulsionam a prática esportiva foram "Saúde" e o "Condicionamento Físico". Conclui-se que utilizar um modelo de pesquisa que leve em consideração a interação entre as características da pessoa, contexto e tempo é o mais eficaz para estudar as disposições dos adolescentes à prática esportiva.The present study aimed to analyze the adolescent's disposition for sports based in the bioecological paradigm of Bronfenbrenner. The design of this study include two contexts (microsystems with different environmental characteristics: (a public school and (b private school, both located on downtown of Florianopolis. The results were organized according to two variables of the study: personal attributes (male or female and context (public or private management. Considering the proposed aim in this study, it was verified for the scholars which have participated of the research, the main motivational factor that led to sport were "Health" and "Fitness". Therewith, the conclusion is that using a research model which takes into account the interaction between characteristics of the person, the context and the time is the most efficient model to study the adolescent's disposition for sports.

  18. The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures: Voluntary Disclosures vs ‘Solicited’ Disclosures

    Sandra van der Laan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social disclosures (CSD are primarily voluntary in nature and subsequently provide an area forresearch into motivational aspects of disclosures. The main focus of prior research has been whethercorporate social disclosures constitute a discharge of accountability or are part of a process of legitimation.Prior research, however, ignores the emergence of an alternate style of corporate social disclosure, the‘solicited’ disclosure. Increasingly companies are requested to report on their interactions with society invarious forms. Non-government organisations (NGOs, regulatory agencies, ethical or socially responsibleinvestment fund managers and other researchers are requesting social information from corporations. Thisshift from voluntary information provision to demanded information can be viewed as a natural consequenceof the increasing pressures on corporations to be ‘responsible’, particularly in light of intensified world wideattention on unethical corporate behaviour and corporate collapse. These contemporary variants of socialdisclosure are worthy of scrutiny when considering these ‘solicited’ disclosures potentially reduce acorporation’s power in defining the scope and nature of disclosures. Two theories, which are similar andderived from the broader political economy perspective, are commonly offered as explanations of motivationsfor social disclosures. Stakeholder theory offers an explanation of accountability to stakeholders. Legitimacytheory, on the other hand, suggests voluntary disclosures are part of a process of legitimation. This paperargues that these theoretical perspectives may provide greater insights into managerial motivation fordisclosure if they are linked more explicitly to the nature of corporate social disclosure under examination:voluntary or solicited.

  19. Exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors after participation in a randomized controlled trial: an attribution theory perspective.

    Courneya, Kerry S; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sela, Rami A; Quinney, H Arthur; Rhodes, Ryan E; Jones, Lee W

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors who participated in the Group Psychotherapy and Home-Based Physical Exercise (GROUP-HOPE; Courneya, Friedenreich, Sela, Quinney, & Rhodes, 2002) trial. At the completion of the GROUP-HOPE trial, 46 of 51 (90%) participants in the exercise group completed measures of attribution theory constructs. A 5-week follow-up self-report of exercise was then completed by 30 (65%) participants. Correlational analyses indicated that program exercise, perceived success, expected success, and affective reactions were strong predictors of postprogram exercise. In multivariate stepwise regression analyses, program exercise and perceived success were the strongest predictors of postprogram exercise. Additionally, perceived success was more important than objective success in understanding the attribution process, and it interacted with personal control to influence expected success and negative affect. Finally, postprogram quality of life and changes in physical fitness were correlates of perceived success. We concluded that attribution theory may have utility for understanding postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors.

  20. Optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers conforming to TEMA standards with designs motivated by constructal theory

    Yang, Jie; Fan, Aiwu; Liu, Wei; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A design method of heat exchangers motivated by constructal theory is proposed. • A genetic algorithm is applied and the TEMA standards are rigorously followed. • Three cases are studied to illustrate the advantage of the proposed design method. • The design method will reduce the total cost compared to two other methods. - Abstract: A modified optimization design approach motivated by constructal theory is proposed for shell-and-tube heat exchangers in the present paper. In this method, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is divided into several in-series heat exchangers. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) standards are rigorously followed for all design parameters. The total cost of the whole shell-and-tube heat exchanger is set as the objective function, including the investment cost for initial manufacture and the operational cost involving the power consumption to overcome the frictional pressure loss. A genetic algorithm is applied to minimize the cost function by adjusting parameters such as the tube and shell diameters, tube length and tube arrangement. Three cases are studied which indicate that the modified design approach can significantly reduce the total cost compared to the original design method and traditional genetic algorithm design method

  1. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...

  2. Comparing Teacher Dispositions in China and the USA

    Shao, Kun; Tamashiro, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In studies conducted in the USA, teacher dispositional factors such as enthusiasm, professional esteem and learning motivation often emerge as the most significant variables affecting student learning and achievement from the primary grades through higher education. Do these factors play as significant a role in student learning and achievement in…

  3. What is this Motivation?

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  4. From motivation and cognition theories to everyday applications and back again: the case of product-integrated information and feedback

    McCalley, L.T. [Technical University Eindhoven/TUE, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Various moderators of the relationship of goal setting and feedback are explored in four examples of applied empirical research. A selection of theoretical frameworks adapted from varied disciplines guided the studies and are discussed in terms of their value to the particular questions investigated. The experiments all entailed the use of product-integrated energy feedback and illustrate a progressive understanding of how goals, feedback and other information provided to the user can generate or support better energy conservation. Experiment 1 exemplifies the successful use of combining goal setting and feedback, and provides a basic understanding of the interaction from the perspectives of goal setting theory and feedback intervention theory (FIT). Experiment 2 compares FIT to another, fundamentally different, cognitive framework, and the minimal justification principle. The study gives insight into how goals and feedback work through attention focus and the goal hierarchy to guide behavior, the role of attitude in this process, and offers evidence that FIT better accounts for task specific conservation behavior. Experiment 3 addresses the role of goals and information in strategy planning through the perspective of goal setting theory. Results of this study suggest the need for more development of the basic theory and illustrate the strong motivational properties of having a goal. Experiment 4 investigates a more fundamental process, anchoring bias, taken from decision theory and the theory of rational choice. This experiment was based again on FIT and provided further evidence of behavioral control through the focus of attention at a particular level of the goal hierarchy. Findings are discussed in terms of potential energy savings and policy development impact. (author)

  5. From motivation and cognition theories to everyday applications and back again: the case of product-integrated information and feedback

    McCalley, L.T.

    2006-01-01

    Various moderators of the relationship of goal setting and feedback are explored in four examples of applied empirical research. A selection of theoretical frameworks adapted from varied disciplines guided the studies and are discussed in terms of their value to the particular questions investigated. The experiments all entailed the use of product-integrated energy feedback and illustrate a progressive understanding of how goals, feedback and other information provided to the user can generate or support better energy conservation. Experiment 1 exemplifies the successful use of combining goal setting and feedback, and provides a basic understanding of the interaction from the perspectives of goal setting theory and feedback intervention theory (FIT). Experiment 2 compares FIT to another, fundamentally different, cognitive framework, and the minimal justification principle. The study gives insight into how goals and feedback work through attention focus and the goal hierarchy to guide behavior, the role of attitude in this process, and offers evidence that FIT better accounts for task specific conservation behavior. Experiment 3 addresses the role of goals and information in strategy planning through the perspective of goal setting theory. Results of this study suggest the need for more development of the basic theory and illustrate the strong motivational properties of having a goal. Experiment 4 investigates a more fundamental process, anchoring bias, taken from decision theory and the theory of rational choice. This experiment was based again on FIT and provided further evidence of behavioral control through the focus of attention at a particular level of the goal hierarchy. Findings are discussed in terms of potential energy savings and policy development impact

  6. Character, attitude and disposition

    Webber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  7. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners’ Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Glen Poupore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners’ task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted with 38 adult Korean English learners of intermediate proficiency in a conversation course as part of a TESOL certificate program. Using a mixed methods approach to research, results from a task motivation questionnaire, a topic preference questionnaire, and interviews show that content associated with immediate personal life themes such as personal growth, human relationships, and life challenges is perceived to be more intrinsically interesting than that associated with more remote and abstract topics such as those related to global issues and current affairs. Consequently, incorporating life themes into adult-based courses, especially through story-based texts, may act as an important springboard for active motivational engagement during task-based interaction. Résumé Cette étude examine l’influence des conditions, en fonction du contenu, de certaines tâches interactives sur la motivation d’adultes apprenant une langue seconde. L’étude cherche également à identifier ce qui est appelé des conditions favorisant l’intérêt en rapport au contenu des tâches, c’est-à-dire des éléments qui s’avèrent intrinsèquement intéressants pour la plupart des individus. Cette étude a été menée auprès de 38 apprenants d’anglais, soit des adultes coréens de niveau intermédiaire inscrits à un cours de conversation faisant partie d’un programme de certificat en enseignement de l’anglais langue seconde. L’étude a été entreprise selon une approche méthodologique mixte de recherche. Les résultats proviennent d’un questionnaire traitant de la motivation des

  8. Theory-motivated benchmark models and superpartners at the Fermilab Tevatron

    Kane, G.L.; Nelson, Brent D.; Wang Liantao; Wang, Ting T.; Lykken, J.; Mrenna, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Recently published benchmark models have contained rather heavy superpartners. To test the robustness of this result, several benchmark models have been constructed based on theoretically well-motivated approaches, particularly string-based ones. These include variations on anomaly- and gauge-mediated models, as well as gravity mediation. The resulting spectra often have light gauginos that are produced in significant quantities at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, or will be at a 500 GeV linear collider. The signatures also provide interesting challenges for the CERN LHC. In addition, these models are capable of accounting for electroweak symmetry breaking with less severe cancellations among soft supersymmetry breaking parameters than previous benchmark models

  9. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective.

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2013-07-06

    Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents' personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = -0.25, p = .03) and women (β = -.24, p motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective attitudes and PBC are critical antecedents of intentions and eating behaviour. Interventions should target affective attitudes and PBC to motivate healthy eating and may need to be intensified during parenthood.

  10. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective

    2013-01-01

    Background Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Methods Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Results Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p < .001) and women (β = 0.38, p < .01). PBC predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = −0.25, p = .03) and women (β = −.24, p < .05), regardless of parent status. Conclusion The transition to parenthood for new and established parents may impact motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective

  11. Motivating pharmacists.

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  12. The self-determination theory applied in the analysis of motivation and academic performance of accounting students in a brazilian public university

    Marina Salgado Borges; Gilberto José Miranda; Sheizi Calheira Freitas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was analyzing the relations between academic performance and motivation of Accounting students in a Brazilian public university based on Self-determination Theory. Methodologically, in order to reach that, structured questionnaires were applied in classrooms with the Brazilian version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), in a sample of 316 students enrolled from second to tenth periods of that course, equivalent to 37.2% of the total number of students. Data were anal...

  13. Farmers' Motivational Orientation toward Participation in Competence Development Projects: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Lioutas, Evagelos D.; Koutsouris, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we use a self-determination theory (SDT) approach to understand farmers' attitudes toward, and intentions for, participation in competence development projects (CDP). Design/methodology/approach: By applying SDT, we developed two measures. The first one assessed the degree to which the three basic human psychological needs…

  14. Faculty Rank System, Research Motivation, and Faculty Research Productivity: Measure Refinement and Theory Testing.

    Tien, Flora F.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    1996-01-01

    A study explored the relationship between the traditional system of college faculty rank and faculty research productivity from the perspectives of behavioral reinforcement theory and selection function. Six hypotheses were generated and tested, using data from a 1989 national faculty survey. Results failed to support completely either the…

  15. The queen of mathematics a historically motivated guide to number theory

    Goldman, Jay R

    2004-01-01

    This book takes the unique approach of examining number theory as it emerged in the 17th through 19th centuries. It leads to an understanding of today's research problems on the basis of their historical development. This book is a contribution to cultural history and brings a difficult subject within the reach of the serious reader.

  16. Computer Game Theories for Designing Motivating Educational Software: A Survey Study

    Ang, Chee Siang; Rao, G. S. V. Radha Krishna

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate computer game theories for educational software. We propose a framework for designing engaging educational games based on contemporary game studies which includes ludology and narratology. Ludology focuses on the study of computer games as play and game activities, while narratology revolves around the…

  17. Gamified Pedagogy: From Gaming Theory to Creating a Self-Motivated Learning Environment in Studio Art

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This research is an empirical study using gamified pedagogy in a 3-D animation course in a Visual Communication Design Department. By conducting this research, I hope to increase student interest in learning 3-D animation and to decrease student fears of learning professional 3-D software. Through this research, I have developed a theory of…

  18. Motivation for social contact across the life span: a theory of socioemotional selectivity.

    Carstensen, L L

    1992-01-01

    Older people engage in social interaction less frequently than their younger counterparts. As I mentioned at the start, the change has been interpreted in largely negative terms. Yet when asked about their social relationships, older people describe them as satisfying, supportive, and fulfilling. Marriages are less negative and more positive. Close relationships with siblings are renewed, and relationships with children are better than ever before. Even though older people interact with others less frequently than younger people do, old age is not a time of misery, rigidity, or melancholy. Rather than present a paradox, I argue here that decreasing rates of contact reflect a reorganization of the goal hierarchies that underlie motivation for social contact and lead to greater selectivity in social partners. This reorganization does not occur haphazardly. Self-definition, information seeking, and emotion regulation are ranked differently depending not only on past experiences, but on place in the life cycle and concomitant expectations about the future. I contend that the emphasis on emotion in old age results from a recognition of the finality of life. In most people's lives this does not appear suddenly in old age but occurs gradually across adulthood. At times, however, life events conspire to bring about endings more quickly. Whether as benign as a geographical relocation or as sinister as a fatal disease, endings heighten the salience of surrounding emotions. When each interaction with a grandchild or good-bye kiss to a spouse may be the last, a sense of poignancy may permeate even the most casual everyday experiences. When the regulation of emotion assumes greatest priority among social motives, social partners are carefully chosen. The most likely choices will be long-term friends and loved ones, because they are most likely to provide positive emotional experiences and affirm the self. Information seeking will motivate some social behavior, but for reasons

  19. The Concurrent and Construct Validity of Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation in Japanese EFL Learners : A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    HONDA, Katsuhisa; SAKYU, Masahide

    2005-01-01

    Vallerand, Blais, Brière,&Pelletier (1989)は、内発的/外発的動機づけ(intrinsic/extrinsic motivation)と非動機づけ(amotivation)を総合的に測定するEchelle de Motivation en Education (EME)を作成した。フランス語で開発されたEMEは,Deci&Ryan (1985)の自己決定理論(self-determination theory)にもとづくものであるが,英語話者ならびに英語をL2として学習する者にも,その妥当性が保証されるようになってきている。本田・佐久(2004)では,その英語版であるAcademic Motivation Scale (AMS)から抽出した項目を,英語を専攻する短大生に提示し,日本の言語環境におけるAMSの妥当性と信頼性を検討した。AMSの再検査信頼係数の範囲ならびに平均係数の値から,日本人英語学習者の再検査信頼係数は妥当な結果と判断され,また検証的因子分析(AMOSモデル)によってAMSの7因子構造が提示された。本稿では,自己決定理論の日...

  20. Motivational Support in Web 2.0 Learning Environments: A Regression Analysis Based on the Integrative Theory of Motivation, Volition and Performance

    Huang, Wen-Hao David; Hood, Denice Ward; Yoo, Sun Joo

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications have been widely applied for teaching and learning in US higher education in recent years. Their potential impact on learning motivation and learner performance, however, has not attracted substantial research efforts. To better understand how Web 2.0 applications might impact learners' motivation in higher education…

  1. Using Business Theory to Motivate Undergraduate Students in Goal Attainment: An Empirical Assessment and Model for High Level Motivation and Goal Attainment

    Anderson, Paul; Griego, Orlando V.; Stevens, Roxanne Helm

    2010-01-01

    Students at a private university in southern California took part in a study focusing on high level motivation and goal commitment. Using path analysis, this study mapped out two-paths. The first path to motivation and, therefore, goal commitment was through self-efficacy. The second path to goal commitment required a more supportive course.…

  2. A test of the opponent-process theory of motivation using lesions that selectively block morphine reward.

    Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan A; Heinmiller, Andrew; Sturgess, Jessica E; van der Kooy, Derek

    2007-06-01

    The opponent-process theory of motivation postulates that motivational stimuli activate a rewarding process that is followed by an opposed aversive process in a homeostatic control mechanism. Thus, an acute injection of morphine in nondependent animals should evoke an acute rewarding response, followed by a later aversive response. Indeed, the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) mediates the rewarding effects of opiates in previously morphine-naive animals, but not other unconditioned effects of opiates, or learning ability. The aversive opponent process for acute morphine reward was revealed using a place-conditioning paradigm. The conditioned place aversion induced by 16-h spontaneous morphine withdrawal from an acute morphine injection in nondependent rats was abolished by TPP lesions performed prior to drug experience. However, TPP-lesioned rats did show conditioned aversions for an environment paired with the acute administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone, which blocks endogenous opioids. The results show that blocking the rewarding effects of morphine with TPP lesions also blocked the opponent aversive effects of acute morphine withdrawal in nondependent animals. Thus, this spontaneous withdrawal aversion (the opponent process) is induced by the acute rewarding effects of morphine and not by other unconditioned effects of morphine, the pharmacological effects of morphine or endogenous opioids being displaced from opiate receptors.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of culturally adapted motivational interviewing for Hispanic heavy drinkers: Theory of Adaptation and Study Protocol

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Magill, Molly; Almeida, Joanna; Tavares, Tonya; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The NIH Strategic Plan prioritizes health disparities research for socially disadvantaged Hispanics, to reduce the disproportionate burden of alcohol-related negative consequences compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments, such as motivational interviewing (MI), can improve access and response to alcohol treatment. However, the lack of rigorous clinical trials designed to test the efficacy and theoretical underpinnings of cultural adaptation has made proof of concept difficult. Objective The CAMI2 (Culturally Adapted Motivational Interviewing) study design and its theoretical model, is described to illustrate how MI adapted to social and cultural factors (CAMI) can be discriminated against non-adapted MI. Methods and Design CAMI2, a large, 12 month randomized prospective trial, examines the efficacy of CAMI and MI among heavy drinking Hispanics recruited from the community (n=257). Outcomes are reductions in heavy drinking days (Time Line Follow-Back) and negative consequences of drinking among Hispanics (Drinkers Inventory of Consequences). A second aim examines perceived acculturation stress as a moderator of treatment outcomes in the CAMI condition. Summary The CAMI2 study design protocol is presented and the theory of adaptation is presented. Findings from the trial described may yield important recommendations on the science of cultural adaptation and improve MI dissemination to Hispanics with alcohol risk. PMID:27565832

  4. Predicting Adherence to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy among Breast Cancer Survivors: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    Monita Karmakar MS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this observational study was to determine if the Protection Motivation Theory could predict and explain adherence to aromatase inhibitor (AI therapy among breast cancer survivors. Purposive sampling was used to identify 288 survivors who had been prescribed AI therapy. A valid and reliable survey was mailed to survivors. A total of 145 survivors completed the survey. The Morisky scale was used to measure adherence to AI. The survivors reported a mean score of 6.84 (±0.66 on the scale. Nearly 4 in 10 survivors (38% were non-adherent. Adherence differed by age, marital status, insurance status, income, and presence of co-morbid conditions. Self-efficacy (r=0.485, protection motivation (r=0.310, and Response Efficacy (r=0.206 were positively and significantly correlated with adherence. Response Cost (r=-0.235 was negatively correlated with adherence. The coping appraisal constructs were statistically significant predictors medication adherence (β=0.437 with self-efficacy being the strongest significant predictor of adherence (β = 0.429.

  5. Predicting Adherence to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy among Breast Cancer Survivors: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    Karmakar, Monita; Pinto, Sharrel L; Jordan, Timothy R; Mohamed, Iman; Holiday-Goodman, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to determine if the Protection Motivation Theory could predict and explain adherence to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy among breast cancer survivors. Purposive sampling was used to identify 288 survivors who had been prescribed AI therapy. A valid and reliable survey was mailed to survivors. A total of 145 survivors completed the survey. The Morisky scale was used to measure adherence to AI. The survivors reported a mean score of 6.84 (±0.66) on the scale. Nearly 4 in 10 survivors (38%) were non-adherent. Adherence differed by age, marital status, insurance status, income, and presence of co-morbid conditions. Self-efficacy (r=0.485), protection motivation (r=0.310), and Response Efficacy (r=0.206) were positively and significantly correlated with adherence. Response Cost (r=-0.235) was negatively correlated with adherence. The coping appraisal constructs were statistically significant predictors medication adherence (β=0.437) with self-efficacy being the strongest significant predictor of adherence (β = 0.429). PMID:28469437

  6. Living Well with Living Wills: Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Living Wills Among Older Caucasian and African American Adults.

    Allen, Rebecca S; Phillips, Laura L; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Crowther, Martha R; Prentice-Dunn, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Using protection motivation theory, we examined racial differences in intent to complete a living will, rational problem solving (e.g., information seeking), and maladaptive coping responses (i.e., wishful thinking) to a health crisis. Sixty healthy, older adults without living wills responded to written vignettes, including information about living wills as an effective coping mechanism to avoid a health crisis. Use of adaptive coping responses predicted intent to execute a living will. A significant race-by-threat interaction predicted use of rational problem solving, with Caucasians more likely to seek information in response to perceived threat in comparison with African Americans. A significant race-by-adaptive-coping interaction predicted maladaptive coping, indicating that Caucasians were more variable in their maladaptive responses. The effectiveness of health care messages regarding living wills for older adults may be enhanced by focusing on racial differences in response to perceived health threat and perceived adaptive coping information.

  7. Protection motivation theory and physical activity: a longitudinal test among a representative population sample of Canadian adults.

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Trinh, Linda

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict physical activity (PA) behaviour in a large, population-based sample of adults. One thousand six hundred and two randomly selected individuals completed two telephone interviews over two consecutive six-month periods assessing PMT constructs. PMT explained 35 per cent and 20 per cent of the variance in intention and behaviour respectively. Coping cognitions as moderators of threat explained 1 per cent of the variance in intention and behaviour. Age and gender as moderators of threat did not provide additional variance in the models. We conclude that salient PMT predictors (e.g. self-efficacy) may guide the development of effective PA interventions in the general population.

  8. Understanding Physical Activity Motivation and Behaviour Through Self-Determination and Servant Leadership Theories in a Feasibility Study.

    Gray, Samantha M; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2017-09-27

    Despite its well-established benefits, physical activity (PA) engagement is low in the adult population; evidence suggests that this is especially a concern for women > 60 years. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the feasibility of a six-week randomized control trial of Self-Determination Theory-based dance and walking programs for older women. Primary outcomes were feasibility measures: recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, behavioural regulations, and psychological needs. Thirty-five women completed the study (M = 62.8 ± 4.8 years), representing 39% recruitment and 95% retention rate. Both programs were highly attended. Exploratory effect sizes for secondary measures were promising. Emergent themes highlighted the importance of servant leadership concepts in the group setting for motivating PA. Our findings provide support for expanding this trial to a full-scale study.

  9. Ethnic Differences and Motivation Based on Maslow?s Theory on Iranian Employees

    MOUSAVI, Seyed Hadi; DARGAHI, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the levels of Maslow?s hierarchy of needs theory had been fulfilled and to compare the Maslow?s hierarchy of needs among Iranian different ethnic groups at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytical study which conducted among administrative employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran, Iran. The structured questionnaire consisted of 20 questions and demographic details. Each qu...

  10. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Xiao, Han; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N

    2014-10-01

    Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis intervention

  11. Protection Motivation Theory in Predicting Intention to Engage in Protective Behaviors against Schistosomiasis among Middle School Students in Rural China

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Principal Findings Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. Conclusions The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against

  12. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Han Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis

  13. Distinguishing subtypes of extrinsic motivation among people with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    Background According to self-determination theory, motivation is ordered in types, including amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Self-determination theory defines four subtypes of extrinsic motivation: external motivation, introjected motivation, identified motivation and

  14. Distinguishing subtypes of extrinsic motivation among people with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: According to self-determination theory, motivation is ordered in types, including amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Self-determination theory defines four subtypes of extrinsic motivation: external motivation, introjected motivation, identified motivation and

  15. The self-determination theory applied in the analysis of motivation and academic performance of accounting students in a brazilian public university

    Marina Salgado Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyzing the relations between academic performance and motivation of Accounting students in a Brazilian public university based on Self-determination Theory. Methodologically, in order to reach that, structured questionnaires were applied in classrooms with the Brazilian version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, in a sample of 316 students enrolled from second to tenth periods of that course, equivalent to 37.2% of the total number of students. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (AFE and multiple linear regression analysis with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The regression analyzes indicated a significant relationship between motivation and academic performance. The factors related to intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation by identified regulation are positively correlated with academic performance of students. On the other hand, the introjected for regulation extrinsic motivation factor is negatively correlated with student’s academic performance coefficient (CRA. Based on the sample analyzed, the results showed that the relationship between motivation and CRA of the student depends on the type of motivation that is present in each one.

  16. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  17. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The role of theory-driven graphic warning labels in motivation to quit: a qualitative study on perceptions from low-income, urban smokers.

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-02-07

    Use of communication theories in the development of pictorial health warning labels (graphic warning labels) for cigarette packaging might enhance labels' impact on motivation to quit, but research has been limited, particularly among low socioeconomic status (SES) populations in the U.S. This qualitative study explored perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels and their role in motivation to quit among low-income smokers. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted with 25 low-income adult smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, who were purposively sampled from a community-based source population. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from January to February 2014. Participants were asked about the motivational impact of 12 labels falling into four content categories: negative depictions of the health effects of smoking to smokers and others, and positive depictions of the benefits of quitting to smokers and others. Data were coded using a combined inductive/deductive approach and analyzed thematically through framework analysis. Labels depicting negative health effects to smokers were identified as most motivational, followed by labels depicting negative health effects to others. Reasons included perceived severity of and susceptibility to the effects, negative emotional reactions (such as fear), and concern for children. Labels about the benefits of quitting were described as motivational because of their hopefulness, characters as role models, and desire to improve family health. Reasons why labels were described as not motivational included lack of impact on perceived severity/susceptibility, low credibility, and fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of disease. Labels designed to increase risk perceptions from smoking might be significant sources of motivation for low SES smokers. Findings suggest innovative theory-driven approaches for the design of labels, such as using former smokers as role models, contrasting healthy and

  19. Intrinsic motivation, curiosity, and learning: Theory and applications in educational technologies.

    Oudeyer, P-Y; Gottlieb, J; Lopes, M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information. We explain how the framework of computational reinforcement learning can be used to model such mechanisms of curiosity. Then, we discuss the learning progress (LP) hypothesis, which posits a positive feedback loop between curiosity and learning. We outline experiments with robots that show how LP-driven attention and exploration can self-organize a developmental learning curriculum scaffolding efficient acquisition of multiple skills/tasks. Finally, we discuss recent work exploiting these conceptual and computational models in educational technologies, showing in particular how intelligent tutoring systems can be designed to foster curiosity and learning. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work in mental health peer services: a qualitative study using self-determination theory.

    Moran, Galia Sharon; Russinova, Zlatka; Yim, Jung Yeon; Sprague, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with psychiatric disabilities have low rates of employment and occupational rehabilitation success. Mental health peer services are a new occupational modality that opened a promising occupational path: persons with serious mental illnesses employed to provide support to others with psychiatric conditions. However challenges to successful peer work exist. Work motivation is central to understanding and supporting peer workers, yet little is known about sources of motivation to work as mental health peer providers. The aim of this study was to identify what drives individuals to mental health peer work using self determination theory (SDT). Motivations of 31 mental health peer workers were explored as part of a larger study. A theory driven approach was employed to emerging qualitative data using SDT concepts: external motivation and internally regulated motivations derived from basic needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness). External motivations included generic occupational goals and getting away from negative work experiences. Internal motivations corresponded with SDT basic needs: autonomy met-needs was reflected in having freedom to disclose and finding that work accords with personal values; competence met-needs was reflected in using personal experience as a resource to help others; and relatedness met-needs were reflected in having opportunity to connect intimately and reciprocate with consumers. This study identified external and internal motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work as peer providers-a novel occupation in mental health. Employing personal experience and enabling peer contact emerge as major motivational tenets of mental health peer work. According to SDT instrumental occupational goals are considered more external than satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The study demonstrates the applicability of SDT in the design of autonomy supported environments to promote work engagement and sustenance of mental

  1. Relationship among achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in physical education.

    Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C

    2002-03-01

    Contemporary research suggests that task and ego achievement goal orientations affect students' intrinsic motivation in physical education. This research has assessed intrinsic motivation as a unidimensional contruct, however, which is inconsistent with the more contemporary postulates of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) which states that intrinsic motivation is only one type of motivation. To date, research has not addressed whether different types of motivation at the situational level are influenced by the proneness to adopt task or ego involvement. To examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in PE. Middle school children (182 male, 136 female; M age = 13.2 years). Responded to questionnaires assessing their dispositional goal orientation (POSQ; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998) and situational motivation (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) in PE. Task orientation was found to be positively associated with more self-determined types of situational motivation. Ego orientation was weakly related to less self-determined motivation. An extreme group split was conducted to create four goal groups and goal profile analyses conducted. A significant MANOVA was followed by univariate analyses, post hoc comparisons, and calculated effect sizes, which revealed that groups high in task orientation reported more motivationally adaptive responses than groups low in task orientation. The results suggest that a high level of task orientation singularly or in combination with ego orientation fosters self-determined situational motivation in the context of PE.

  2. Using theory-based messages to motivate U.S. pregnant women to prevent cytomegalovirus infection: results from formative research.

    Levis, Denise M; Hillard, Christina L; Price, Simani M; Reed-Gross, Erika; Bonilla, Erika; Amin, Minal; Stowell, Jennifer D; Clark, Rebekah; Johnson, Delaney; Mask, Karen; Carpentieri, Cynthia; Cannon, Michael J

    2017-12-14

    An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U.S. women. Fear appeal theories suggest that message recipients will take action if they feel fear. First, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 32) with women who had young children who tested positive for CMV. Second, we conducted eight focus groups (N = 70) in two phases and two cities (Phase 2: Atlanta, GA; Phase 3: San Diego, CA) with pregnant women and non-pregnant women who had young children. Few participants knew about CMV before the focus groups. Participants reviewed and gave feedback on messages created around fear appeals theory-based communication concepts. The following concepts were tested in one or more of the three phases of research: CMV is severe, CMV is common, CMV is preventable, CMV preventive strategies are similar to other behavior changes women make during pregnancy, CMV preventive strategies can be incorporated in moderation to reduce exposure, and CMV is severe but preventable. Participants recommended communicating that CMV is common by using prevalence ratios (e.g., 1 in 150) or comparing CMV to other well-known disabilities. To convey the severity of CMV, participants preferred stories about CMV along with prevention strategies. Participants also welcomed prevention strategies when it included a message about risk reduction. In general, participants said messages were motivating, even if they felt that it could be difficult to make certain behavior changes. Findings from this research can contribute to future efforts to educate pregnant women about CMV

  3. A dynamic Thurstonian item response theory of motive expression in the picture story exercise: solving the internal consistency paradox of the PSE.

    Lang, Jonas W B

    2014-07-01

    The measurement of implicit or unconscious motives using the picture story exercise (PSE) has long been a target of debate in the psychological literature. Most debates have centered on the apparent paradox that PSE measures of implicit motives typically show low internal consistency reliability on common indices like Cronbach's alpha but nevertheless predict behavioral outcomes. I describe a dynamic Thurstonian item response theory (IRT) model that builds on dynamic system theories of motivation, theorizing on the PSE response process, and recent advancements in Thurstonian IRT modeling of choice data. To assess the models' capability to explain the internal consistency paradox, I first fitted the model to archival data (Gurin, Veroff, & Feld, 1957) and then simulated data based on bias-corrected model estimates from the real data. Simulation results revealed that the average squared correlation reliability for the motives in the Thurstonian IRT model was .74 and that Cronbach's alpha values were similar to the real data (value of extant evidence from motivational research using PSE motive measures. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A physically motivated sparse cubature scheme with applications to molecular density-functional theory

    Rodriguez, Juan I; Thompson, David C; Anderson, James S M; Thomson, Jordan W; Ayers, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel approach for performing multi-dimensional integration of arbitrary functions. The method starts with Smolyak-type sparse grids as cubature formulae on the unit cube and uses a transformation of coordinates based on the conditional distribution method to adapt those formulae to real space. Our method is tested on integrals in one, two, three and six dimensions. The three dimensional integration formulae are used to evaluate atomic interaction energies via the Gordon-Kim model. The six dimensional integration formulae are tested in conjunction with the nonlocal exchange-correlation energy functional proposed by Lee and Parr. This methodology is versatile and powerful; we contemplate application to frozen-density embedding, next-generation molecular-mechanics force fields, 'kernel-type' exchange-correlation energy functionals and pair-density functional theory

  5. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  6. On Motivation and Motivation

    Mircea UDRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  7. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  8. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  9. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  10. Using protection motivation theory and formative research to guide an injury prevention intervention: increasing adherence to the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks.

    Ashida, Sato; Heaney, Catherine A; Kmet, Jennifer M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-05-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce childhood agricultural injuries by assisting adults in assigning appropriate chores and providing needed supervision and training. To develop an effective intervention to increase adherence to NAGCAT among farm parents, formative research (focus groups and pilot-testing) was conducted. Protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to guide this research and inform intervention development. Focus group results suggested how PMT constructs might be addressed to increase adherence. A home visit intervention, using a standardized presentation in POWERPoint™, was developed to (a) introduce NAGCAT, (b) increase motivation to use NAGCAT and enhance safe work behaviors, and (c) ultimately reduce agricultural work-related injuries among youth. Process evaluation data suggests that the intervention was well received by farm parents. Conducting theory-guided formative research identified motivational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers that might not have been otherwise apparent.

  11. Teacher-Student Negotiations and Its Relation to Physical Education Students' Motivational Processes: An Approach Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Dupont, Jean-Philippe; Carlier, Ghislain; Gerard, Philippe; Delens, Cecile

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test a model of motivation based on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2002) and which explores the place of "teacher-student" negotiation. Cross-sectional data were gathered from 549 secondary school students (317 male, 232 female) who answered a questionnaire which included measurements of perceived…

  12. Development of a Moodle Course for Schoolchildren's Table Tennis Learning Based on Competence Motivation Theory: Its Effectiveness in Comparison to Traditional Training Method

    Zou, Junhua; Liu, Qingtang; Yang, Zongkai

    2012-01-01

    Based on Competence Motivation Theory (CMT), a Moodle course for schoolchildren's table tennis learning was developed (The URL is http://www.bssepp.com, and this course allows guest access). The effects of the course on students' knowledge, perceived competence and interest were evaluated through quantitative methods. The sample of the study…

  13. Evaluating Snyder's Hope Theory as a Motivational Model of Participation and Life Satisfaction for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Path Analysis

    Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate Snyder's (2002) hope theory as a motivational model of community participation and life satisfaction. Setting: Manitoba chapter of the Canadian Paraplegic Association. Participants: One-hundred and sixteen participants with spinal cord injuries who were members of the Manitoba chapter of the Canadian Paraplegic Association.…

  14. Integrated Theory of Planned Behavior with Extrinsic Motivation to Predict Intention Not to Use Illicit Drugs by Fifth-Grade Students in Taiwan

    Liao, Jung-Yu; Chang, Li-Chun; Hsu, Hsiao-Pei; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Huang, Su-Fei; Guo, Jong-Long

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a model that integrated the theory of planned behavior (TPB) with extrinsic motivation (EM) in predicting the intentions of fifth-grade students to not use illicit drugs. A cluster-sampling design was adopted in a cross-sectional survey (N = 571). The structural equation modeling results showed that the model…

  15. Understanding the Relationship between Parental Education and STEM Course Taking through Identity-Based and Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation

    Svoboda, Ryan C.; Rozek, Christopher S.; Hyde, Janet S.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Destin, Mesmin

    2016-01-01

    High school students from lower-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science…

  16. Ethnic Differences and Motivation Based on Maslow's Theory on Iranian Employees.

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Dargahi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory had been fulfilled and to compare the Maslow's hierarchy of needs among Iranian different ethnic groups at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This research was a descriptive-analytical study which conducted among administrative employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran, Iran. The structured questionnaire consisted of 20 questions and demographic details. Each question had 4 parts to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The questionnaire was distributed randomly among 133 employees to fill-up the demographic details and the other questions. Data was collected and analyzed by SPSS software, and One Way ANOVA, T-test, Spearman and Mann Whitney statistical methods. TUMS ethnic groups of the employees placed most importance on Basic, Self-esteem and Self-actualization. In addition, we found that Persians, Mazandaranians, and Turks ethnic groups, scored the most mean for Maslow's hierarchical needs compared to the other ethnic groups. Basic needs and safety needs is available amongst the different ethnic groups in Iran. As though, self-actualization needs are ultimate human goal, Iranian employees' ethnic groups pay emphasis on these needs. We believe that new structures and work practices such as prevailing cultural values and beliefs of the society or the organizations must be explored if Iranian-based organizations want to remain responsive to the needs of the workplace.

  17. Ethnic Differences and Motivation Based on Maslow’s Theory on Iranian Employees

    MOUSAVI, Seyed Hadi; DARGAHI, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory had been fulfilled and to compare the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs among Iranian different ethnic groups at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytical study which conducted among administrative employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran, Iran. The structured questionnaire consisted of 20 questions and demographic details. Each question had 4 parts to measure Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The questionnaire was distributed randomly among 133 employees to fill-up the demographic details and the other questions. Data was collected and analyzed by SPSS software, and One Way ANOVA, T-test, Spearman and Mann Whitney statistical methods. Results: TUMS ethnic groups of the employees placed most importance on Basic, Self-esteem and Self-actualization. In addition, we found that Persians, Mazandaranians, and Turks ethnic groups, scored the most mean for Maslow’s hierarchical needs compared to the other ethnic groups. Conclusion: Basic needs and safety needs is available amongst the different ethnic groups in Iran. As though, self-actualization needs are ultimate human goal, Iranian employees’ ethnic groups pay emphasis on these needs. We believe that new structures and work practices such as prevailing cultural values and beliefs of the society or the organizations must be explored if Iranian-based organizations want to remain responsive to the needs of the workplace. PMID:23802110

  18. Theory of structure formation in snowfields motivated by penitentes, suncups, and dirt cones.

    Betterton, M D

    2001-05-01

    Penitentes and suncups are structures formed as snow melts, typically high in the mountains. When the snow is dirty, dirt cones and other structures can form instead. Building on previous field observations and experiments, this paper presents a theory of ablation morphologies, and the role of surface dirt in determining the structures formed. The glaciological literature indicates that sunlight, heating from air, and dirt all play a role in the formation of structure on an ablating snow surface. The present paper formulates a minimal model for the formation of ablation morphologies as a function of measurable parameters and considers the linear stability of this model. The dependence of ablation morphologies on weather conditions and initial dirt thickness is studied, focusing on the initial growth of perturbations away from a flat surface. We derive a single-parameter expression for the melting rate as a function of dirt thickness, which agrees well with a set of measurements by Driedger. An interesting result is the prediction of a dirt-induced traveling instability for a range of parameters.

  19. Motivated Explanation

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  20. An online study combining the constructs from the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory in predicting intention to test for chlamydia in two testing contexts.

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Francis, Jill J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection that has potentially serious consequences unless detected and treated early. The health service in the UK offers clinic-based testing for chlamydia but uptake is low. Identifying the predictors of testing behaviours may inform interventions to increase uptake. Self-tests for chlamydia may facilitate testing and treatment in people who avoid clinic-based testing. Self-testing and being tested by a health care professional (HCP) involve two contrasting contexts that may influence testing behaviour. However, little is known about how predictors of behaviour differ as a function of context. In this study, theoretical models of behaviour were used to assess factors that may predict intention to test in two different contexts: self-testing and being tested by a HCP. Individuals searching for or reading about chlamydia testing online were recruited using Google Adwords. Participants completed an online questionnaire that addressed previous testing behaviour and measured constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Protection Motivation Theory, which propose a total of eight possible predictors of intention. The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. Sufficient data for multiple regression were provided by 102 and 118 respondents for self-testing and testing by a HCP respectively. Intention to self-test was predicted by vulnerability and self-efficacy, with a trend-level effect for response efficacy. Intention to be tested by a HCP was predicted by vulnerability, attitude and subjective norm. Thus, intentions to carry out two testing behaviours with very similar goals can have different predictors depending on test context. We conclude that interventions to increase self-testing should be based on evidence specifically related to test context.

  1. How does performance-based financing affect health workers' intrinsic motivation? A Self-Determination Theory-based mixed-methods study in Malawi.

    Lohmann, Julia; Muula, Adamson S; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2018-07-01

    "Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention. The qualitative component, relying on in-depth interviews with health workers in selected intervention facilities one (April 2014; n = 21) and two (September 2015; n = 20) years after the start of PBF, served to understand how PBF did or did not bring about change in intrinsic motivation. Specifically, it allowed us to examine how the various motivation-relevant elements and consequences of PBF impacted health workers' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which SDT postulates as central to intrinsic motivation. Our results suggest that PBF did not affect health workers' overall intrinsic motivation levels, with the intervention having had both positive and negative effects on psychological needs satisfaction. To maximize positive PBF effects on intrinsic motivation, our results underline the potential value of explicit strategies to mitigate unintended negative impact of unavoidable design, implementation, and contextual challenges, for instance by building autonomy support activities into PBF designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  3. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  4. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  5. Students' motivation for interprofessional collaboration after their experience on an IPE ward: A qualitative analysis framed by self-determination theory.

    Visser, Cora L F; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Ten Cate, Olle; Westerveld, Hendrika E

    2018-02-28

    Interprofessional Education (IPE) may depend for its success not only on cognitive gains of learners, but also on affective and motivational benefits. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a major motivation theory, autonomy (feeling of choice), competence (feeling of capability), and relatedness (feeling of belonging) drive motivation in a way that can improve performance. We investigated which elements of IPE in a clinical ward potentially influence students' feelings in these three areas. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 students from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy attending a three-week IPE ward and analyzed the data using a realist approach. Two researchers independently identified meaning units using open coding. Thirteen themes were synthesized. Next, meaning units, expressing autonomy, competence, or relatedness were discerned. Students appeared motivated for an IPE ward, with its authentic situations making them feel responsible to actively contribute to care plans, by understanding how professions differ in their contributions and analytic approach and by informal contact with other professions, enhanced by a dedicated physical space for team meetings. Students valued the IPE ward experience and autonomous motivation for IPE was triggered. They mentioned practical ways to incorporate what they learned in future interprofessional collaboration, e.g. in next placements.

  6. Motivation and career development

    Flemr, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...

  7. Assessing psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviour using Protection Motivation Theory: stair gate presence and use among parents of toddlers.

    Beirens, T M J; Brug, J; van Beeck, E F; Dekker, R; den Hertog, P; Raat, H

    2008-08-01

    Unintentional injury due to falls is one of the main reasons for hospitalization among children 0-4 years of age. The goal of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviours to prevent falls from a staircase due to the lack of or the lack of adequate use of a stair gate. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to a population sample of 2470 parents with toddlers. Associations between self-reported habits on the presence and use of stair gates and family and psychosocial factors were analysed, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models, based on Protection Motivation Theory. The presence of stair gates was associated with family situation, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, social norms and descriptive norms. The use of stair gates was associated with family situation, response efficacy, self-efficacy and perceived advantages of safe behaviour. The full model explained 32 and 24% of the variance in the presence of stair gates and the use of stair gates, respectively, indicating a large and medium effect size. Programmes promoting the presence and adequate use of stair gates should address the family situation, personal cognitive factors as well as social factors.

  8. Motivation, treatment engagement and psychosocial outcomes in outpatients with severe mental illness: a test of Self-Determination Theory.

    Jochems, Eline C; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van Dam, Arno; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2017-09-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether Self-Determination Theory (SDT) applies to the mental health care of patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Therefore, the current study tested the process model of SDT in a sample of outpatients with SMI. Participants were 294 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or a personality disorder and their clinicians (n = 57). Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized relationships between autonomy support, perceived competence, types of motivation, treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life at two time points and across the two diagnostic groups. The expected relations among the SDT variables were found, but additional direct paths between perceived competence and clinical outcomes were needed to obtain good model fit. The obtained process model was found to be stable across time and different diagnostic patient groups, and was able to explain 18% to 36% of variance in treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. It is concluded that SDT can be a useful basis for interventions in the mental health care for outpatients with SMI. Additional experimental research is needed to confirm the causality of the relations between the SDT constructs and their ability to influence treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Using a combined protection motivation theory and health action process approach intervention to promote exercise during pregnancy.

    Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.

  10. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H; Boer, H; Kuiper, W A J M

    2007-08-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To date, little attention has been given to the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS and about their preferences for HIV/AIDS curriculum design options. The aim of this study was to get insight into the determinants of the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention and to assess their curriculum design preferences. Students from a university in Tigray, Ethiopia, filled out a structured questionnaire, which assessed demographics, variables that according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour are related to the motivation to learn, and their preferences for independent, carrier and integrated HIV/AIDS curriculum designs. On average, participants were highly motivated to learn about HIV/AIDS. Motivation to learn was primarily related to social norms and was not related to self-efficacy to discuss HIV/AIDS in class. The often discussed reluctance to discuss sexuality and condom use in curricula in Sub-Saharan Africa, seems to be more related to existing negative social norms, than to lack of self-efficacy. Participants revealed a high preference for the independent, carrier and integrated curriculum design options. However, students with a higher motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS were more attracted to the independent course design.

  11. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    Isabelle Roskam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time. Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course of the study, reciprocal relations between motivational constructs, self-esteem and academic achievement, a strong positive impact of supportive parenting and a moderate influence of class environment.

  12. Writing Pedagogies of Empathy: As Rhetoric and Disposition

    Leake, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…

  13. Dispositional Employability and Online Training Purchase. Evidence from Employees' Behavior in Spain

    Torrent-Sellens, Joan; Ficapal-Cus?, Pilar; Boada-Grau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between dispositional employability and online training purchase. Through a sample of 883 employees working for enterprises in Spain, and a using principal component analysis and binomial logit probabilistic models, the research revealed two main results. First, it was found that dispositional employability is characterized by five factors: “openness to changes at work,” “career motivation and work resilience,” “work and career proactivity,” “optimism an...

  14. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite fo...

  15. Motivation programmes of organizations

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  16. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    Wenz, Tracy R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  17. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  18. Designing motivation

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  19. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  20. Crowding out or no crowding out? A Self-Determination Theory approach to health worker motivation in performance-based financing.

    Lohmann, Julia; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-11-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) is a common health system reform approach in low and middle income countries at present. Although increasing evidence on the effectiveness of PBF and knowledge of principles of good design are available, research is still lacking in regards to other aspects. Among these are a yet limited understanding of the complex role of health worker motivation in PBF and of potential side effects, for instance on intrinsic motivation. Our article aims to support meaningful future research by advancing the theoretical discussion around health worker motivation and PBF. We argue that an in-depth understanding of the motivational mechanisms and consequences of PBF at health worker level are of high practical relevance and should be at the heart of the PBF research agenda, and that predominant unidimensional conceptualizations of health worker motivation and descriptive rather than explanatory research approaches are insufficient to fully understand whether, how, and why PBF schemes alter health workers' motivational structures, mindsets, affect, and behavior. We introduce and apply Self-Determination Theory to the context of PBF as a valuable theoretical framework for future empirical exploration. From this, we conclude that PBF interventions are unlikely to have a generally adverse effect on intrinsic motivation as feared by parts of the PBF community. Rather, we posit that PBF can have positive and negative effects on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, to varying degrees depending on the specific design, implementation, and results of a particular intervention and on health workers' perceptions and evaluations of it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.