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Sample records for motion-induced dose difference

  1. Motion-induced dose artifacts in helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bryan; Chen, Jeff; Battista, Jerry [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada); Kron, Tomas [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: bryan.kim@lhsc.on.ca

    2009-10-07

    Tumor motion is a particular concern for a complex treatment modality such as helical tomotherapy, where couch position, gantry rotation and MLC leaf opening all change with time. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of tumor motion for helical tomotherapy, which could result in three distinct motion-induced dose artifacts, namely (1) dose rounding, (2) dose rippling and (3) IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect. Dose rounding and dose rippling effects have been previously described, while the IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect is a newly discovered motion-induced dose artifact. Dose rounding is the penumbral widening of a delivered dose distribution near the edges of a target volume along the direction of tumor motion. Dose rippling is a series of periodic dose peaks and valleys observed within the target region along the direction of couch motion, due to an asynchronous interplay between the couch motion and the longitudinal component of tumor motion. The IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect is caused by an asynchronous interplay between the temporal patterns of leaf openings and tumor motion. The characteristics of each dose artifact were investigated individually as functions of target motion amplitude and period for both non-IMRT and IMRT helical tomotherapy cases, through computer simulation modeling and experimental verification. The longitudinal dose profiles generated by the simulation program agreed with the experimental data within {+-}0.5% and {+-}1.5% inside the PTV region for the non-IMRT and IMRT cases, respectively. The dose rounding effect produced a penumbral increase up to 20.5 mm for peak-to-peak target motion amplitudes ranging from 1.0 cm to 5.0 cm. Maximum dose rippling magnitude of 25% was calculated, when the target motion period approached an unusually high value of 10 s. The IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect produced dose differences ranging from -29% to 7% inside the PTV region. This information

  2. First online real-time evaluation of motion-induced 4D dose errors during radiotherapy delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Skouboe, Simon; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: In radiotherapy, dose deficits caused by tumor motion often far outweigh the discrepancies typically allowed in plan-specific quality assurance (QA). Yet, tumor motion is not usually included in present QA. We here present a novel method for online treatment verification by real......-time motion-including 4D dose reconstruction and dose evaluation and demonstrate its use during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery with and without MLC tracking. METHODS: Five volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were delivered with and without MLC tracking to a motion stage carrying...... a Delta4 dosimeter. The VMAT plans have previously been used for (non-tracking) liver SBRT with intra-treatment tumor motion recorded by kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM). The motion stage reproduced the KIM-measured tumor motions in 3D while optical monitoring guided the MLC tracking. Linac...

  3. Motion induced interplay effects for VMAT radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Anneli; Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Crister; Ceberg, Sofie

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to simulate breathing motion induced interplay effects for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), to verify the proposed method with measurements, and to use the method to investigate how interplay effects vary with different patient- and machine specific parameters. VMAT treatment plans were created on a virtual phantom in a treatment planning system (TPS). Interplay effects were simulated by dividing each plan into smaller sub-arcs using an in-house developed software and shifting the isocenter for each sub-arc to simulate a sin 6 breathing motion in the superior-inferior direction. The simulations were performed for both flattening-filter (FF) and flattening-filter free (FFF) plans and for different breathing amplitudes, period times, initial breathing phases, dose levels, plan complexities, CTV sizes, and collimator angles. The resulting sub-arcs were calculated in the TPS, generating a dose distribution including the effects of motion. The interplay effects were separated from dose blurring and the relative dose differences to 2% and 98% of the CTV volume (ΔD 98% and ΔD 2% ) were calculated. To verify the simulation method, measurements were carried out, both static and during motion, using a quasi-3D phantom and a motion platform. The results of the verification measurements during motion were comparable to the results of the static measurements. Considerable interplay effects were observed for individual fractions, with the minimum ΔD 98% and maximum ΔD 2% being  -16.7% and 16.2%, respectively. The extent of interplay effects was larger for FFF compared to FF and generally increased for higher breathing amplitudes, larger period times, lower dose levels, and more complex treatment plans. Also, the interplay effects varied considerably with the initial breathing phase, and larger variations were observed for smaller CTV sizes. In conclusion, a method to simulate motion induced interplay effects was

  4. Motion induced interplay effects for VMAT radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Anneli; Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Crister; Ceberg, Sofie

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to simulate breathing motion induced interplay effects for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), to verify the proposed method with measurements, and to use the method to investigate how interplay effects vary with different patient- and machine specific parameters. VMAT treatment plans were created on a virtual phantom in a treatment planning system (TPS). Interplay effects were simulated by dividing each plan into smaller sub-arcs using an in-house developed software and shifting the isocenter for each sub-arc to simulate a sin6 breathing motion in the superior–inferior direction. The simulations were performed for both flattening-filter (FF) and flattening-filter free (FFF) plans and for different breathing amplitudes, period times, initial breathing phases, dose levels, plan complexities, CTV sizes, and collimator angles. The resulting sub-arcs were calculated in the TPS, generating a dose distribution including the effects of motion. The interplay effects were separated from dose blurring and the relative dose differences to 2% and 98% of the CTV volume (ΔD98% and ΔD2%) were calculated. To verify the simulation method, measurements were carried out, both static and during motion, using a quasi-3D phantom and a motion platform. The results of the verification measurements during motion were comparable to the results of the static measurements. Considerable interplay effects were observed for individual fractions, with the minimum ΔD98% and maximum ΔD2% being  ‑16.7% and 16.2%, respectively. The extent of interplay effects was larger for FFF compared to FF and generally increased for higher breathing amplitudes, larger period times, lower dose levels, and more complex treatment plans. Also, the interplay effects varied considerably with the initial breathing phase, and larger variations were observed for smaller CTV sizes. In conclusion, a method to simulate motion induced interplay effects was

  5. Verification of motion induced thread effect during tomotherapy using gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, Anneli; Ljusberg, Anna; Ceberg, Crister; Medin, Joakim; Ambolt, Lee; Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how breathing motion during tomotherapy (Accuray, CA, USA) treatment affects the absorbed dose distribution. The experiments were carried out using gel dosimetry and a motion device simulating respiratory-like motion (HexaMotion, ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden). Normoxic polyacrylamide gels (nPAG) were irradiated, both during respiratory-like motion and in a static mode. To be able to investigate interplay effects the static absorbed dose distribution was convolved with the motion function and differences between the dynamic and convolved static absorbed dose distributions were interpreted as interplay effects. The expected dose blurring was present and the interplay effects formed a spiral pattern in the lower dose volume. This was expected since the motion induced affects the preset pitch and the theoretically predicted thread effect may emerge. In this study, the motion induced thread effect was experimentally verified for the first time

  6. Motion-induced blindness and microsaccades: cause and effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneh, Y.S.; Donner, T.H.; Sagi, D.; Fried, M.; Heeger, D.J.; Arieli, A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that subjective disappearance of visual stimuli results from a spontaneous reduction of microsaccade rate causing image stabilization, enhanced adaptation, and a consequent fading. In motion-induced blindness (MIB), salient visual targets disappear intermittently when

  7. Motion-induced eddy current thermography for high-speed inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This letter proposes a novel motion-induced eddy current based thermography (MIECT for high-speed inspection. In contrast to conventional eddy current thermography (ECT based on a time-varying magnetic field created by an AC coil, the motion-induced eddy current is induced by the relative motion between magnetic field and inspected objects. A rotating magnetic field created by three-phase windings is used to investigate the heating principle and feasibility of the proposed method. Firstly, based on Faraday’s law the distribution of MIEC is investigated, which is then validated by numerical simulation. Further, experimental studies are conducted to validate the proposed method by creating rotating magnetic fields at different speeds from 600 rpm to 6000 rpm, and it is verified that rotating speed will increase MIEC intensity and thereafter improve the heating efficiency. The conclusion can be preliminarily drawn that the proposed MIECT is a platform suitable for high-speed inspection.

  8. Combining Motion-Induced Blindness with Binocular Rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaworska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness (MIB and binocular rivalry (BR are examples of multistable phenomena in which our perception varies despite constant retinal input. It has been suggested that both phenomena are related and share a common underlying mechanism. We tried to determine whether experimental manipulations of the target dot and the mask systematically affect MIB and BR in an experimental paradigm that can elicit both phenomena. Eighteen observers fixated the center of a split-screen stereo display that consisted of a distracter mask and a superimposed target dot with different colour (isoluminant Red/Green in corresponding peripheral areas of the left and right eye. Observers reported perceived colour and disappearance of the target dot by pressing and releasing corresponding keys. In a within-subjects design the mask was presented in rivalry or not—with orthogonal drift in the left and right eye or with the same drift in both eyes. In control conditions the mask remained stationary. In addition, the size of the target dot was varied (small, medium, and large. Our results suggest that MIB measured by normalized frequency and duration of target disappearance and BR measured by normalized frequency and duration of colour reversals of the target were both affected by motion in the mask. Surprisingly, binocular rivalry in the mask had only a small effect on BR of the target and virtually no effect on MIB. The overall pattern of normalized MIB and BR measures, however, differed across experimental conditions. In conclusion, the results show some degree of dissociation between MIB and BR. Further analyses will inform whether or not the two phenomena occur independently of each other.

  9. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai

    2014-01-01

    of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root...... validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets. MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder......-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm γ failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose...

  10. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, E de; Bejar, M J; Berenguer, R [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Salamanca (Spain); Ruano, R; Tamayo, P [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  11. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E. de; Bejar, M.J.; Berenguer, R.; Ruano, R.; Tamayo, P.

    2001-01-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  12. Active Control Does Not Eliminate Motion-Induced Illusory Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available When the sine-wave grating of a Gabor patch drifts to the left or right, the perceived position of the entire object is shifted in the direction of local motion. In the current work we explored whether active control of the physical position of the patch overcomes such motion induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 1 we created a simple computer game and asked participants to continuously guide a Gabor patch along a randomly curving path using a joystick. When the grating inside the Gabor patch was stationary, participants could perform this task without error. When the grating drifted to either left or right, we observed systematic errors consistent with previous reports of motion-induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 2 we created an iPad application where the built-in accelerometer tilt control was used to steer the patch through as series of “gates”. Again, we observed systematic guidance errors that depended on the direction and speed of local motion. In conclusion, we found no evidence that participants could adapt or compensate for illusory displacement given active control of the target.

  13. Evaluation of radiation doses delivered in different chest CT protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorycki, Tomasz; Lasek, Iwona; Kamiński, Kamil; Studniarek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There are differences in the reference diagnostic levels for the computed tomography (CT) of the chest as cited in different literature sources. The doses are expressed either in weighted CT dose index (CTDI VOL ) used to express the dose per slice, dose-length product (DLP), and effective dose (E). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiation dose used in Low Dose Computer Tomography (LDCT) of the chest in comparison with routine chest CT examinations as well as to compare doses delivered in low dose chest CT with chest X-ray doses. CTDI VOL and DLP doses were taken to analysis from routine CT chest examinations (64 MDCT TK LIGHT SPEED GE Medical System) performed in 202 adult patients with FBP reconstruction: 51 low dose, 106 helical, 20 angio CT, and 25 high resolution CT protocols, as well as 19 helical protocols with iterative ASIR reconstruction. The analysis of chest X-ray doses was made on the basis of reports from 44 examinations. Mean values of CTDI VOL and DLP were, respectively: 2.1 mGy and 85.1 mGy·cm, for low dose, 9.7 mGy and 392.3 mGy·cm for helical, 18.2 mGy and 813.9 mGy·cm for angio CT, 2.3 mGy and 64.4 mGy·cm for high resolution CT, 8.9 mGy. and 317.6 mGy·cm for helical ASIR protocols. Significantly lower CTDI VOL and DLP values were observed for low dose and high resolution CT versus the remaining CT protocols; doses delivered in CT ASIR protocols were also lower (80–81%). The ratio between medial doses in low dose CT and chest X-ray was 11.56. Radiation dose in extended chest LDCT with parameters allowing for identification of mediastinal structures and adrenal glands is still much lower than that in standard CT protocols. Effective doses predicted for LDCT may exceed those used in chest X-ray examinations by a factor of 4 to 12, depending on LDCT scan parameters. Our results, as well as results from other authors, suggest a possibility of reducing the dose by means of iterative reconstruction. Efforts towards further dose

  14. Considerations on absorbed dose estimates based on different β-dose point kernels in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Isao; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Yamashita, Takashi; Okigaki, Shigeyasu; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru; Ito, Akira.

    1995-01-01

    In radiotherapy with radiopharmaceuticals, more accurate estimates of the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of absorbed dose is important in specifying the activity to be administered to patients to deliver a prescribed absorbed dose to target volumes without exceeding the toxicity limit of normal tissues in the body. A calculation algorithm for the purpose has already been developed by the authors. An accurate 3-D distribution of absorbed dose based on the algorithm is given by convolution of the 3-D dose matrix for a unit cubic voxel containing unit cumulated activity, which is obtained by transforming a dose point kernel into a 3-D cubic dose matrix, with the 3-D cumulated activity distribution given by the same voxel size. However, beta-dose point kernels affecting accurate estimates of the 3-D absorbed dose distribution have been different among the investigators. The purpose of this study is to elucidate how different beta-dose point kernels in water influence on the estimates of the absorbed dose distribution due to the dose point kernel convolution method by the authors. Computer simulations were performed using the MIRD thyroid and lung phantoms under assumption of uniform activity distribution of 32 P. Using beta-dose point kernels derived from Monte Carlo simulations (EGS-4 or ACCEPT computer code), the differences among their point kernels gave little differences for the mean and maximum absorbed dose estimates for the MIRD phantoms used. In the estimates of mean and maximum absorbed doses calculated using different cubic voxel sizes (4x4x4 mm and 8x8x8 mm) for the MIRD thyroid phantom, the maximum absorbed doses for the 4x4x4 mm-voxel were estimated approximately 7% greater than the cases of the 8x8x8 mm-voxel. They were found in every beta-dose point kernel used in this study. On the other hand, the percentage difference of the mean absorbed doses in the both voxel sizes for each beta-dose point kernel was less than approximately 0.6%. (author)

  15. Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age of cow, date of calving, and body mass). The high .... Use of different doses of progestagen outside the ... the induced oestrous period between the different treatments following .... Oestrus in the control group was synchronized by inserting.

  16. Spontaneous local alpha oscillations predict motion-induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Barbara F; Jensen, Ole

    2014-11-01

    Bistable visual illusions are well suited for exploring the neuronal states of the brain underlying changes in perception. In this study, we investigated oscillatory activity associated with 'motion-induced blindness' (MIB), which denotes the perceptual disappearance of salient target stimuli when a moving pattern is superimposed on them (Bonneh et al., ). We applied an MIB paradigm in which illusory target disappearances would occur independently in the left and right hemifields. Both illusory and real target disappearance were followed by an alpha lateralization with weaker contralateral than ipsilateral alpha activity (~10 Hz). However, only the illusion showed early alpha lateralization in the opposite direction, which preceded the alpha effect present for both conditions and coincided with the estimated onset of the illusion. The duration of the illusory disappearance was further predicted by the magnitude of this early lateralization when considered over subjects. In the gamma band (60-80 Hz), we found an increase in activity contralateral relative to ipsilateral only after a real disappearance. Whereas early alpha activity was predictive of onset and length of the illusory percept, gamma activity showed no modulation in relation to the illusion. Our study demonstrates that the spontaneous changes in visual alpha activity have perceptual consequences. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A paired wedge filter system for compensation in dose differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Kondo, S.; Abe, S.; Hayakawa, N.; Aoyama, Y.; Obata, Y.; Ishigaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: In radiotherapy, it is important to conform the high dose volume to the planned target volume. A variable thickness paired wedge filter system was developed to compensate for dose inhomogeneity arising from field width segment variation in conformal irradiation. Materials and methods: The present study used a 6 MV linear accelerator equipped with multileaf collimator leaves and a paired wedge compensating filter system. The dose variation due to field width was measured in each field segment width. The variation in attenuation of the compensators was measured as a function of filter position. As the field width increases, the relative absorbed dose also increases; this is the point of requiring compensation, so it can be in reverse proportion. Results: As the field width increases, the relative absorbed dose also increases; this is why compensation is required and thus it must be in reverse proportion. Attenuation of the absorbed dose by the paired filters was in proportion to the filter position. The filter position to compensate for the difference of absorbed doses was defined by the square root of the field width. For a field varying in width from 4 to 16 cm, the variation in the absorbed dose across the field was reduced from 12% to 2.7%. Conclusion: This paired wedge filter system reduced absorbed dose variations across multileaf collimator shaped fields and can facilitate treatment planning in conformal therapy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of .... The index was calculated based on the formula of Maguire (1962). ..... Ludwig EJ, Nunes UR, Mertz LM, Silva JR, Nunes SCP (2014).

  19. Motion-Induced Blindness Using Increments and Decrements of Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Wm Wren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness describes the disappearance of stationary elements of a scene when other, perhaps non-overlapping, elements of the scene are in motion. We measured the effects of increment (200.0 cd/m2 and decrement targets (15.0 cd/m2 and masks presented on a grey background (108.0 cd/m2, tapping into putative ON- and OFF-channels, on the rate of target disappearance psychophysically. We presented two-frame motion, which has coherent motion energy, and dynamic Glass patterns and dynamic anti-Glass patterns, which do not have coherent motion energy. Using the method of constant stimuli, participants viewed stimuli of varying durations (3.1 s, 4.6 s, 7.0 s, 11 s, or 16 s in a given trial and then indicated whether or not the targets vanished during that trial. Psychometric function midpoints were used to define absolute threshold mask duration for the disappearance of the target. 95% confidence intervals for threshold disappearance times were estimated using a bootstrap technique for each of the participants across two experiments. Decrement masks were more effective than increment masks with increment targets. Increment targets were easier to mask than decrement targets. Distinct mask pattern types had no effect, suggesting that perceived coherence contributes to the effectiveness of the mask. The ON/OFF dichotomy clearly carries its influence to the level of perceived motion coherence. Further, the asymmetry in the effects of increment and decrement masks on increment and decrement targets might lead one to speculate that they reflect the ‘importance’ of detecting decrements in the environment.

  20. Antipsychotic dose equivalents and dose-years: a standardized method for comparing exposure to different drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Nancy C; Pressler, Marcus; Nopoulos, Peg; Miller, Del; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2010-02-01

    A standardized quantitative method for comparing dosages of different drugs is a useful tool for designing clinical trials and for examining the effects of long-term medication side effects such as tardive dyskinesia. Such a method requires establishing dose equivalents. An expert consensus group has published charts of equivalent doses for various antipsychotic medications for first- and second-generation medications. These charts were used in this study. Regression was used to compare each drug in the experts' charts to chlorpromazine and haloperidol and to create formulas for each relationship. The formulas were solved for chlorpromazine 100 mg and haloperidol 2 mg to derive new chlorpromazine and haloperidol equivalents. The formulas were incorporated into our definition of dose-years such that 100 mg/day of chlorpromazine equivalent or 2 mg/day of haloperidol equivalent taken for 1 year is equal to one dose-year. All comparisons to chlorpromazine and haloperidol were highly linear with R(2) values greater than .9. A power transformation further improved linearity. By deriving a unique formula that converts doses to chlorpromazine or haloperidol equivalents, we can compare otherwise dissimilar drugs. These equivalents can be multiplied by the time an individual has been on a given dose to derive a cumulative value measured in dose-years in the form of (chlorpromazine equivalent in mg) x (time on dose measured in years). After each dose has been converted to dose-years, the results can be summed to provide a cumulative quantitative measure of lifetime exposure. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of different I-131 doses for thyroid remnant ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, X.C.; Thiep, T.V.; Hung, N.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive iodine 131 I has been widely used as a treatment modality of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The need for high dose radioiodine ablation of thyroid remnant is still in question. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of 131 I different single and fractionated doses in ablation of post-operative thyroid remnant. Patients and methods: One hundred-twelve patients were included in this study. Sixty-one patients with TSH≥30 μU/ml were treated 30 mCi in group 1 (36 patients) or 100 mCi in group 2 (25 patients). Fifty one patients with TSH 131 I high dose of 100 mCi and no severe adverse effect in the other groups. Conclusion: Single high dose (100 mCi) may be more efficient than single low dose (30 mCi) for post-operative remnant ablation with serum TSH≥30 μU/ml and the efficacy of low fractionated doses (30+30 mCi) was comparable with high-fractionated dose (30+100 mCi) for post-operative remnant ablation with low serum TSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  2. Dose-response meta-analysis of differences in means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Crippa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analytical methods are frequently used to combine dose-response findings expressed in terms of relative risks. However, no methodology has been established when results are summarized in terms of differences in means of quantitative outcomes. Methods We proposed a two-stage approach. A flexible dose-response model is estimated within each study (first stage taking into account the covariance of the data points (mean differences, standardized mean differences. Parameters describing the study-specific curves are then combined using a multivariate random-effects model (second stage to address heterogeneity across studies. Results The method is fairly general and can accommodate a variety of parametric functions. Compared to traditional non-linear models (e.g. E max, logistic, spline models do not assume any pre-specified dose-response curve. Spline models allow inclusion of studies with a small number of dose levels, and almost any shape, even non monotonic ones, can be estimated using only two parameters. We illustrated the method using dose-response data arising from five clinical trials on an antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole, and improvement in symptoms in shizoaffective patients. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, pooled results indicated a non-linear association with the maximum change in mean PANSS score equal to 10.40 (95 % confidence interval 7.48, 13.30 observed for 19.32 mg/day of aripiprazole. No substantial change in PANSS score was observed above this value. An estimated dose of 10.43 mg/day was found to produce 80 % of the maximum predicted response. Conclusion The described approach should be adopted to combine correlated differences in means of quantitative outcomes arising from multiple studies. Sensitivity analysis can be a useful tool to assess the robustness of the overall dose-response curve to different modelling strategies. A user-friendly R package has been developed to facilitate

  3. Tomotherapy – a different way of dose delivery in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, Małgorzata; Jodda, Agata; Ryczkowski, Adam; Kaźmierska, Joanna; Adamska, Krystyna; Karczewska-Dzionk, Aldona; Żmijewska-Tomczak, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Helical tomotherapy is one of the methods of radiotherapy. This method enables treatment implementation for a wide spectrum of clinical cases. The vast array of therapeutic uses of helical tomotherapy results directly from the method of dose delivery, which is significantly different from the classic method developed for conventional linear accelerators. The paper discusses the method of dose delivery by a tomotherapy machine. Moreover, an analysis and presentation of treatment plans was performed in order to show the therapeutic possibilities of the applied technology. Dose distributions were obtained for anaplastic medulloblastoma, multifocal metastases to brain, vulva cancer, tongue cancer, metastases to bones, and advanced skin cancer. Tomotherapy treatment plans were compared with conventional linear accelerator plans. Results Following the comparative analysis of tomotherapy and conventional linear accelerator plans, in each case we obtained the increase in dose distribution conformity manifested in greater homogeneity of doses in the radiation target area for anaplastic medulloblastoma, multifocal metastases to brain, vulva cancer, metastases to bones, and advanced skin cancer, and the reduction of doses in organs at risk (OAR) for anaplastic medulloblastoma, vulva cancer, tongue cancer, and advanced skin cancer. The time of treatment delivery in the case of a tomotherapy machine is comparable to the implementation of the plan prepared in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique for a conventional linear accelerator. In the case of tomotherapy the application of a fractional dose was carried out in each case during one working period of the machine. For a conventional linear accelerator the total value of the fractional dose in the case of anaplastic medulloblastoma and metastases to bones was delivered using several treatment plans, for which a change of set-up was necessary during a fraction. Conclusion The obtained results

  4. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the physical and physiological quality of mahogany seeds that are coated with fertilizer and fungicide. The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of fertilizers. The seeds were evaluated in the laboratory and in a greenhouse.

  5. Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of progestagen outside the normal breeding season. JPC Greyling, WF Kotzé, GJ Taylor, WJ Hagendijk, F Cloete. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE. INFECTION COEFFICIENT OF RICE (Orysa sativa L.) .... 2014) and the effect of plants extracts on rice seed fungi (Nguefack et al., 2013). Several authors work on ... separated by border rows of 1m wide. Four varieties of rice were used for this study. (NERICA ...

  7. Variations in absorbed doses from 59Fe in different diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Werner, E.; Henrichs, K.; Elsasser, U.; Kaul, A.

    1986-01-01

    The biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals administered in vivo may vary considerably with changes in organ functions. They studied the variations in absorbed doses from 59 Fe in 207 patients with different diseases, in whom ferrokinetic investigations were performed for diagnostic purposes. Radiation doses to the bone marrow were highest in patients with deserythropoietic anemias (mean 38 nSv/Bq, range 19 - 57 nSv/Bq) and in hemolytic anemias (mean 21 nSv/Bq, range 7 - 35 nSv/Bq), whereas lower and rather constant values were found in other diseases (mean values between 9 and 13 nSv/Bq). The highest organ doses, the greatest differences with respect to diagnosis and also the largest variations within each group of patients were found for liver and spleen (e. g. in aplastic anemia; liver: 66 nSv/Bq, range 29 - 104 nSv/Bq; spleen: 57 nSv/Bq, range 34 - 98 nSv/Bq. In iron deficiency; liver: 13 nSv/Bq range 12 - 14 nSv/q; spleen: 19 nSv/Bq, range 18 - 20 nSv/Bq). Lower organ doses and smaller variations within and between the groups of patients were found for the gonads (means 3 - 7 nSv/Bq), the kidneys (means 10 - 13 nSv/Bq), the bone (means 4 - 7 nSv/Bq), the lung (means 8 - 12 nSv/Bq), and the total body (means 6 - 8 nSv/Bq). In patients with chronic bleeding absorbed doses decrease concomitantly to the extent of blood loss. The D/sub E/ is not markedly affected by the variations in organ doses but is fairly constant for different diseases. 16 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  8. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100.

  9. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipoorfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Zamani, E; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100. PMID:25599058

  10. Virtual reality body motion induced navigational controllers and their effects on simulator sickness and pathfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaba, Cassandra N; White, Paul J; Byagowi, Ahmad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Virtual reality (VR) navigation is usually constrained by plausible simulator sickness (SS) and intuitive user interaction. The paper reports on the use of four different degrees of body motion induced navigational VR controllers, a TiltChair, omni-directional treadmill, a manual wheelchair joystick (VRNChair), and a joystick in relation to a participant's SS occurrence and a controller's intuitive utilization. Twenty young adult participants utilized all controllers to navigate through the same VR task environment in separate sessions. Throughout the sessions, SS occurrence was measured from a severity score by a standard SS questionnaire and from body sway by a center of pressure path length with eyes opened and closed. SS occurrence did not significantly differ among the controllers. However, time spent in VR significantly contributed to SS occurrence; hence, a few breaks to minimize SS should be interjected throughout a VR task. For all task trials, we recorded the participant's travel trajectories to investigate each controller's intuitive utilization from a computed traversed distance. Shorter traversed distances indicated that participants intuitively utilized the TiltChair with a slower speed; while longer traversed distances indicated participants struggled to utilize the omni-directional treadmill with a unnaturalistic stimulation of gait. Therefore, VR navigation should use technologies best suited for the intended age group that minimizes SS, and produces intuitive interactions for the participants.

  11. Dose estimation of interventional cardiologists in different body regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Iana Q. de; Luz, Renata M. da; Capaverde, Alexandre S.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da; Caramori, Paulo Ricardo Avancini

    2015-01-01

    Interventional radiology is one of the medical specialties that provides the highest doses to professionals, widely used in cardiology, being called interventional cardiology. In order to contribute to the optimization of occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology procedures, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dose estimation received in different body regions by physicians in interventional cardiology procedures. Two physicians were followed, named as A and B, during one month period, performing a total of 127 procedures (70 for A and 57 for B) of interventional cardiology. During the procedures, dosimeters in different body regions beyond the full-body dosimeter were positioned. The results showed the highest values for the estimated dose received by workers were in the right wrist and left side face regions, for the physician A, and in the left knee and left side face, for the physician B. Results demonstrate the importance of using individual protection equipment by physicians in interventional cardiology, including lead glasses, besides monitoring dosimeters for other body regions, such as wrist, face and knee. (author)

  12. Comparing different methods for estimating radiation dose to the conceptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Dedulle, A. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); Walgraeve, M.S.; Woussen, S.; Zhang, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Zanca, F. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); GE Healthcare, Buc (France)

    2017-02-15

    To compare different methods available in the literature for estimating radiation dose to the conceptus (D{sub conceptus}) against a patient-specific Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a commercial software package (CSP). Eight voxel models from abdominopelvic CT exams of pregnant patients were generated. D{sub conceptus} was calculated with an MC framework including patient-specific longitudinal tube current modulation (TCM). For the same patients, dose to the uterus, D{sub uterus}, was calculated as an alternative for D{sub conceptus}, with a CSP that uses a standard-size, non-pregnant phantom and a generic TCM curve. The percentage error between D{sub uterus} and D{sub conceptus} was studied. Dose to the conceptus and percent error with respect to D{sub conceptus} was also estimated for three methods in the literature. The percentage error ranged from -15.9% to 40.0% when comparing MC to CSP. When comparing the TCM profiles with the generic TCM profile from the CSP, differences were observed due to patient habitus and conceptus position. For the other methods, the percentage error ranged from -30.1% to 13.5% but applicability was limited. Estimating an accurate D{sub conceptus} requires a patient-specific approach that the CSP investigated cannot provide. Available methods in the literature can provide a better estimation if applicable to patient-specific cases. (orig.)

  13. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of different dose calculation methods for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, G.A.; Schuette, W.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, 4 calculation methods (Wrede method, Clarskon method of sector integration, beam-zone method of Quast and pencil-beam method of Ahnesjoe) are introduced to calculate point doses in different irregular photon fields. The calculations cover a typical mantle field, an inverted Y-field and different blocked fields for 4 and 10 MV photon energies. The results are compared to those of measurements in a water phantom. The Clarkson and the pencil-beam method have been proved to be the methods of equal standard in relation to accuracy. Both of these methods are being distinguished by minimum deviations and applied in our clinical routine work. The Wrede and beam-zone methods deliver useful results to central beam and yet provide larger deviations in calculating points beyond the central axis. (orig.) [de

  15. Direct dose mapping versus energy/mass transfer mapping for 4D dose accumulation: fundamental differences and dosimetric consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisen S; Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Gulam, Misbah; Nurushev, Teamour S; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-06

    The direct dose mapping (DDM) and energy/mass transfer (EMT) mapping are two essential algorithms for accumulating the dose from different anatomic phases to the reference phase when there is organ motion or tumor/tissue deformation during the delivery of radiation therapy. DDM is based on interpolation of the dose values from one dose grid to another and thus lacks rigor in defining the dose when there are multiple dose values mapped to one dose voxel in the reference phase due to tissue/tumor deformation. On the other hand, EMT counts the total energy and mass transferred to each voxel in the reference phase and calculates the dose by dividing the energy by mass. Therefore it is based on fundamentally sound physics principles. In this study, we implemented the two algorithms and integrated them within the Eclipse treatment planning system. We then compared the clinical dosimetric difference between the two algorithms for ten lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, by accumulating the delivered dose to the end-of-exhale (EE) phase. Specifically, the respiratory period was divided into ten phases and the dose to each phase was calculated and mapped to the EE phase and then accumulated. The displacement vector field generated by Demons-based registration of the source and reference images was used to transfer the dose and energy. The DDM and EMT algorithms produced noticeably different cumulative dose in the regions with sharp mass density variations and/or high dose gradients. For the planning target volume (PTV) and internal target volume (ITV) minimum dose, the difference was up to 11% and 4% respectively. This suggests that DDM might not be adequate for obtaining an accurate dose distribution of the cumulative plan, instead, EMT should be considered.

  16. [The reactogenicity of Heberbiovac-HB vaccine at different doses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz González, M; Navia Molina, O; Bravo González, J R; Pedroso Flaquet, P; Urbino López, A

    1995-01-01

    Reactogenicity was measured after applying the Heberbiovac-HB recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B virus to three groups of children aged 6-9 years. The vaccine was derived from yeast cells, administered at doses of 10, 5, and 2.5 g, with a schedule of 0, 1 and 6 months. The overall observed symptomatology was low (12.2%) in the three groups with 10.7%, 13.5%, and 12.3% for 10, 5, and 2.5 g, respectively. The predominant symptoms and signs were febricula (7.0%), local pain (3.1%), and erythema (1.2%). No significant differences were found when making a comparison between groups and sexes. An acceptable reactogenicity of the immunogen was confirmed, thus its use is recommended for the protection against hepatitis B virus.

  17. Effect of different radiation doses on pupae of cabbage butterfly, (pieris brassicae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.U.

    1989-01-01

    The lots of 12 pupae, 3-2 days old, were irradiated at different radiation doses for each treatment. There was no emergence at 40 Krad showing that this dose was the lethal dose for the pupae of this insects. There was a significant reduction in adult emergence below this dose. (A.B.)

  18. Evaluating correlation between geometrical relationship and dose difference caused by respiratory motion using statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Seok; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Yoon, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min Seok [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yu Yoon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Three-dimensional dose (3D dose) can consider coverage of moving target, however it is difficult to provide dosimetric effect which occurs by respiratory motions. Four-dimensional dose (4D dose) which uses deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images can consider dosimetric effect by respiratory motions. The dose difference between 3D dose and 4D dose can be varied according to the geometrical relationship between a planning target volume (PTV) and an organ at risk (OAR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the overlap volume histogram (OVH), which quantitatively shows the geometrical relationship between the PTV and OAR, and the dose differences. In conclusion, no significant statistical correlation was found between the OVH and dose differences. However, it was confirmed that a higher difference between the 3D and 4D doses could occur in cases that have smaller OVH value. No significant statistical correlation was found between the OVH and dose differences. However, it was confirmed that a higher difference between the 3D and 4D doses could occur in cases that have smaller OVH value.

  19. Eficiency of different doses of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Vázquez, Natalia; Manrique-Arija, Sara; Ureña-Garnica, Inmaculada; Romero-Barco, Carmen M; Jiménez-Núñez, Francisco G; Coret, Virginia; Irigoyen-Oyarzábal, María Victoria; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness, cost and safety of rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) depending on the dose used. Retrospective observational study conducted on 52 patients with RA treated with at least one dose of rituximab for 135.3 patient-years were included. Three treatment groups were obtained: (G1) First course and following two 1g infusions separated by 15 days; (G2) First course 2 infusions of 1g followed by 2 infusions of 500mg; (G3) First course and followed by 2 infusions of 500mg separated by 15 days. Re-treatments were administered on-demand according to the clinical activity. The retention time (Log-Rank), retreats and adverse events rates (incidence rate ratio) and treatment costs per patient-month of rituximab were analysed by groups. Group 2 showed a better cost-effectiveness ratio than group 1, as it was associated with a longer retention of rituximab (mean [95% CI] 65.7 [60.8 to 70.7] months vs 33.5 [22.7 to 44.3]; P<.001) and a lower rate of severe adverse events with only a slight increase in the rate of retreatment (courses/patient-year [95% CI] 1.66 [1.39 to 1.93] vs. 1.01 [0.69 to 1.34]; P=.005), and in the costs (median/patient-month, €484.89 vs. €473.45). Although group 3 was €41.20/patient-month cheaper than group 2, it was associated with a higher rate of re-treatments and shorter retention of rituximab (P<.001). The use of full-dose rituximab at onset, followed by reduced doses in successive courses administered on-demand retreatment may be the most cost-effective option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation between scatter radiation dose at height of operator's eye and dose to patient for different angiographic projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria S.; Gubolino, Luiz A.; Pivetta, Makyson R.; Ubeda, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Studies have reported cases of radiation-induced cataract among cardiology professionals. In view of the evidence of epidemiological studies, the ICRP recommends a new threshold for opacities and a new radiation dose to eye lens limit of 20 mSv per year for occupational exposure. The aim of this paper is to report scattered radiation doses at the height of the operator's eye in an interventional cardiology facility without considering radiation protection devices and to correlate these values with different angiographic projections and operational modes. Measurements were taken in a cardiac laboratory with an angiography X-ray system equipped with flat-panel detector. PMMA plates of 30×30×5 cm were used with a thickness of 20 cm. Measurements were taken in two fluoroscopy modes (low and normal, 15 pulses/s) and in cine mode (15 frames/s). Four angiographic projections were used: anterior posterior; lateral; left anterior oblique caudal (spider); and left anterior oblique cranial, with a cardiac protocol for patients weighing between 70 and 90 kg. Measurements of phantom entrance dose rate and scatter dose rate were performed with two Unfors Xi plus detectors. The detector measuring scatter radiation was positioned at the usual distance of the cardiologist's eyes during working conditions. There is a good linear correlation between the kerma area product and scatter dose at the lens. Experimental correlation factors of 2.3, 12.0, 12.2 and 17.6 μSv/Gy cm2 were found for different projections. PMMA entrance dose rates for low and medium fluoroscopy and cine modes were 13, 39 and 282 mGy/min, respectively, for AP projection. - Highlights: • A method is presented to estimate the scatter radiation dose at operator eye height. • The method allows estimating scatter radiation dose measuring ambient dose equivalent. • Operator could exceed threshold for lens opacities if protection tools are not used. • There is a good linear correlation between kerma

  1. Productivity of Upland Rice Genotypes under Different Nitrogen Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traore, K.; Traore, O. [INERA /Station de Farakoba, Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso); Bado, V. B. [Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Saint Louis (Senegal)

    2013-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency is one of the most yield-limiting nutrients in upland rice growing area in Burkina Faso. A field experiment was carried out from 2008 to 2010 in Farakoba research center with the objective to evaluate 200 upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes from WAB, NERICA, CNA, CNAX, IRAT and IR lines for N use efficiency. The treatments consisted of three levels of N: low, medium and high at 20, 60 and 100 kg-N h{sup a-1}, respectively. Both grain and straw yield increased with N application. The yields were highest for NERICA and WAB lines compared to the other lines, and this was consistent over the N doses. A large variability was found among the genotypes. Three groups of genotypes were identified according to N use efficiency. The high N use efficiency genotypes were found in WAB and NERICA lines. The N concentration in the shoot at flowering significantly increased with N doses and this was similar for N taken up by genotypes. (author)

  2. Evaluation of doses delivered during CT examination by different scanners for purposes of intercomparison and dose optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiru, Adam

    2017-07-01

    This research study was aimed at performing dosimetry intercomparison on different CT scanners in the diagnostic radiology departments of Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Sweden Ghana Medical Center (SGMC) and Global Medical and Imaging Center (GMIC). Using the standard body phantom and integrated ion chamber technique volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and Dose-Length Product (DLPs) within the phantom were evaluated. The ion chamber technique was applied to two 16 slice Siemens and one Toshiba Aquilion one CT scanners. CTDIvol and DLP values for the standard body polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom were estimated and comparison made with corresponding console displayed values for accuracy and also to deduce a suitable method for optimization of patients and occupationally exposed worker doses. Effective doses were also calculated. An intra and inter institutional comparison of measured doses and console displayed doses were performed. Chest protocol at Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) was applied during the scanning of the phantom. Estimated CTDIvol values (mGy) were 17mGy, 24mGy and 13.1mGy for SGMC, GMIC and KBTH respectively. These values deviated from the console displayed values by 24.1%, 22.9% and 31.3% respectively. Similarly, estimated DLP values (mGy.cm) were 675mGy.cm,944mGy.cm and 419mGy.cm for SGMC, GMIC and KBTH respectively deviating from the console displayed values by 24.1%, 24.2% and 29% respectively. In terms of effective doses (E), the calculated E (mSv) values were 9.45mSv, 13.2mSv and 5.87mSv estimated from the DLPs from SGMC, GMIC and KBTH respectively using K, the anatomy-specific dose coefficient expressing effective dose normalized to DLP in a standard CT dosimetry phantom of 0.014 mSv mGy-1 cm-1. The estimated doses were compared to other selected international Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) and were within range. (au)

  3. Dosimetric accuracy at low monitor unit setting in electron beams at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ravichandran, R.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Sharma, Anil K.

    1999-01-01

    As electron beam with low monitor unit (LMU) settings are used in some dosimetric studies, better understanding of accuracy in dose delivery at LMU setting is necessary. The dose measurements were carried out with 0.6 cm 3 farmer type ion chamber at d max in a polystyrene phantom. Measurements at different MUs show that the dose linearity ratio (DLR) increases as the MU setting decreases below 20 MU and DLRs are found to increase when the incident electron beams have higher energies. The increase in DLR is minimum for low dose rate setting for all five electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV). As the variation in dose delivery is machine-specific, a detailed study should be conducted before the low MU setting is implemented. Since errors in dose delivery are high at higher dose rates, low dose rate may be better at low MU unit setting. (author)

  4. Determination of dose to patient in different teams of TC and assessment with international reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Morales, C.; Fernandez lara, A. A.; Buades Forner, M. J.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in CT studies and the differences observed between the different equipment used in our hospital prompted us to determine the doses to patients in different studies and check the results obtained with the reference values published internationally. (Author)

  5. The Effects of Different Types of Concrete on Population Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.; Iida, T.; Moriizumi, J.; Sakuma, Y.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the radionuclide concentrations of materials constituting concrete in Japan, measurements have been carried out on the components, namely steel, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement, cement admixture and water. Since the radionuclide concentrations of steel, cement admixture and water are far less than those of other components, only coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and cement were measured. The mean concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the concrete samples cover a wide range from 6.8 to 912.5 (average 505.2) Bq.kg -1 , 2.93 to 86.7 (average 32.3) Bq.kg -1 , and 1.59 to 61.6 (average 25.6) Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The average annual dose at 1 m above an infinite plane surface for the samples studied is calculated as 318 μSv.y -1 . These results show that the radionuclide concentrations of components in concrete in Japan are lower than those in other countries. The concentrations showed nearly the same distribution pattern as the intensity of γ rays from soil and tectonic lines in the various geographical regions. (author)

  6. SU-F-T-473: Evaluation of Off-Axis And Peripheral Dose Using Different Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, B; Prakasarao, A; Singaravelu, G [Anna University, Chennai, TamilNadu (India); Palraj, T; Rai, R [Dr. Rai Memorial Cancer Institute, Chennai, TamilNadu (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy, measurement of off-axis and peripheral dose is a tedious task. The dose distribution along the beam central axis give only part of the information required for an accurate dose description inside the patient. Dose distributions in 2-D and 3-D are determined with central axis data in conjunction with off-axis dose profiles. Combining a central axis dose distribution with off-axis data results in volume dose matrix that provides 2-D and 3-D information on dose distribution. By considering the importance of these two parameters this study investigates and compares the off axis and peripheral dose measurement using Ionization chamber, MOSFET, Radiochromic film and EDR2 film. Methods: In the measurement of off-axis and peripheral doses 0.6cc farmer type chamber, EDR-2 film, MD-55 radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors were used for both 6MV and 15MV beams. The off-axis and peripheral dose was measured at every 1 cm interval by changing the position of the couch without disturbing the other experimental setup in particular, the phantom with detector position. Results: Readings were obtained for both 6MV and 15MV photon beams at SSD technique for various field size using MOSFET, Ionization chamber and Radiochromic film. The results shows the percentage difference between various detectors for various field sizes. For Peripheral dose measurement were taken from the edge of the field size and for off axis it is measured form central axis dose. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study shows that no detector is ideal and only a comparison between different detectors highlights the weaknesses of each detector. MOSFET provides adequate dose assessment in off-axis and peripheral regions in 6MV and 15MV photon beams. Film dosimetry in general a convenient method to generate one- and two-dimensional dose distributions. The result of this indicates that MOSFET is flexible tool for relative dosimetry as films.

  7. submitter Dose prescription in carbon ion radiotherapy: How to compare two different RBE-weighted dose calculation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Molinelli, Silvia; Mairani, Andrea; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku; Mirandola, Alfredo; Russo, Stefania; Mastella, Edoardo; Hasegawa, Azusa; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Vischioni, Barbara; Vitolo, Viviana; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ciocca, Mario; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Orecchia, Roberto; Fossati, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: In carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), the use of different relative biological effectiveness (RBE) models in the RBE-weighted dose $(D_{RBE})$ calculation can lead to deviations in the physical dose $(D_{phy})$ delivered to the patient. Our aim is to reduce target $D_{phy}$ deviations by converting prescription dose values. Material and methods: Planning data of patients treated at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) were collected, with prescribed doses per fraction ranging from 3.6 Gy (RBE) to 4.6 Gy (RBE), according to the Japanese semi-empirical model. The $D_{phy}$ was Monte Carlo (MC) re-calculated simulating the NIRS beamline. The local effect model (LEM)_I was then applied to estimate $D_{RBE}$. Target median $D_{RBE}$ ratios between MC + LEM_I and NIRS plans determined correction factors for the conversion of prescription doses. Plans were re-optimized in a LEM_I-based commercial system, prescribing the NIRS uncorrected and corrected $D_{RBE}$. Results: The MC ...

  8. Homing regularity of different doses bone marrow transplantation in allogeneic hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Suping; Cai Jianming; Xiang Yingsong; Zhao Fang; Huang Dingde; Gao Jianguo; Yang Rujun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the homing regularity of different doses of bone marrow cell transplantation. Method: An allogeneic mouse model was used. The homing status of different dose groups from the first day to the forth day after transplantation were observed. Results: The rate of positive cells in bone marrow and spleen: differences among four groups was not significant. The rate of positive cells of third day was highest among four days (P<0.01). A phenomenon that homing-mobilization-re-homing could be observed. The homing efficiency: low dose groups were higher than that high dose groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: The homing efficiency of low dose groups is higher than that of the high dose groups in certain range, the routine method of transplanting a large quantities cells by a single injection may be an waste

  9. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...

  10. Differences in botulinum toxin dosing between patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and essential voice tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbelo, Diana M; Duffy, Joseph R; Hughes Borst, Becky J; Ekbom, Dale; Maragos, Nicolas E

    2014-01-01

    To explore possible dose differences in average botulinum toxin (BTX) given to patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) compared with patients with essential voice tremor (EVT). A retrospective study compared the average BTX dose injected in equal doses to the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles of 51 patients with ADSD with 52 patients with EVT. Those with ADSD received significantly higher total doses (6.80 ± 2.79 units) compared with those with EVT (5.02 ± 1.65 units). Dose at time of first injection, age at time of first injection, gender, year of first injection, and average time between injections were included in multivariate analysis but did not interact with total average dose findings. Patients with ADSD may need relatively higher doses of BTX injections to bilateral TA muscles compared with patients with EVT. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between scatter radiation dose at the height of the operators eye and dose to patient for different angiographies projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, F.; Nogueira, M. S.; Da Silva, T. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos No. 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Gubolino, L.; Pivetta, M. R. [Hospital dos Fornecedores de Cana de Piracicaba, Av. Barao de Valenca 616, 13405-233 Piracicaba (Brazil); Ubeda, C., E-mail: leyton.fernando@gmail.com [Tarapaca University, Health Sciences Faculty, Radiological Sciences Center, Av. Gral. Velasquez 1775, 1000007 Arica, Arica and Parinacota (Chile)

    2015-10-15

    Cases of radiation induced cataract among cardiology professionals have been reported in studies. In view of evidence of radiation injuries, the ICRP recommends limiting the radiation dose to the lens to 20 mSv per year for occupational exposure. The aim of this works was to report scattered radiation doses at the height of the operators eye in an interventional cardiology facility from procedures performed without use of radiation protection devices, correlated with different angiographic projections and operational modes. Measurements were made in a cardiac laboratory with an angiography X-ray system GE equipped with flat-panel detector. PMMA plates of 30 x 30 x 5 cm were used to simulate a patient with a thickness of 20 cm. Two fluoroscopy modes (low and normal, 15 frame/s), cine mode 15 frame/s. Four angiographic projections anterior posterior (Ap), lateral (Lat), left anterior oblique caudal (spider) and left anterior oblique cranial (Lao-45/cra-30) and a cardiac protocol for patient between 70 to 90 kg was used. Measurements of phantom entrance doses rate and scatter doses rate were performed with two Unfors Xi plus. The detector measuring scatter radiation was positioned at the usual distance of the cardiologists eyes during working conditions (1 m from the isocenter and 1.7 m from the floor). There is a good linear correlation between the kerma-area product and scatter dose at the lens. An experimental correlation factor of 2.3; 12.0; 12.2 and 17.6 μSv/Gy cm{sup 2} were found for the Ap, Lao/cra, spider and Lat projections, respectively. The entrance dose of PMMA for fluoroscopy low, medium and cine was 13, 39 and 282 mGy/min, respectively to Ap. (Author)

  12. Correlation between scatter radiation dose at the height of the operators eye and dose to patient for different angiographies projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, F.; Nogueira, M. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Gubolino, L.; Pivetta, M. R.; Ubeda, C.

    2015-10-01

    Cases of radiation induced cataract among cardiology professionals have been reported in studies. In view of evidence of radiation injuries, the ICRP recommends limiting the radiation dose to the lens to 20 mSv per year for occupational exposure. The aim of this works was to report scattered radiation doses at the height of the operators eye in an interventional cardiology facility from procedures performed without use of radiation protection devices, correlated with different angiographic projections and operational modes. Measurements were made in a cardiac laboratory with an angiography X-ray system GE equipped with flat-panel detector. PMMA plates of 30 x 30 x 5 cm were used to simulate a patient with a thickness of 20 cm. Two fluoroscopy modes (low and normal, 15 frame/s), cine mode 15 frame/s. Four angiographic projections anterior posterior (Ap), lateral (Lat), left anterior oblique caudal (spider) and left anterior oblique cranial (Lao-45/cra-30) and a cardiac protocol for patient between 70 to 90 kg was used. Measurements of phantom entrance doses rate and scatter doses rate were performed with two Unfors Xi plus. The detector measuring scatter radiation was positioned at the usual distance of the cardiologists eyes during working conditions (1 m from the isocenter and 1.7 m from the floor). There is a good linear correlation between the kerma-area product and scatter dose at the lens. An experimental correlation factor of 2.3; 12.0; 12.2 and 17.6 μSv/Gy cm 2 were found for the Ap, Lao/cra, spider and Lat projections, respectively. The entrance dose of PMMA for fluoroscopy low, medium and cine was 13, 39 and 282 mGy/min, respectively to Ap. (Author)

  13. Assessment of motion-induced fluidization of dense pyroclastic gravity currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salatino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses some fundamental aspects of the dynamics of dense granular flows down inclines relevant to pyroclastic density currents. A simple mechanistic framework is presented to analyze the dynamics of the frontal zone, with a focus on the establishment of conditions that promote air entrainment at the head of the current and motion-induced self-fluidization of the flow. The one-dimensional momentum balance on the current along the incline is considered under the hypothesis of strongly turbulent flow and pseudo-homogeneous behaviour of the two-phase gas-solid flow. Departures from one-dimensional flow in the frontal region are also analyzed and provide the key to the assessment of air cross-flow and fluidization of the solids in the head of the current. The conditions for the establishment of steady motion of pyroclastic flows down an incline, in either the fluidized or «dry» granular states, are examined.

  14. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  15. The development of equipment for the technical assessment of respiratory motion induced artefacts in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.C.; Davies, S.C.; Zananiri, F.V.; Follett, D.H.; Halliwell, M.; Wells, P.N.T.; Bean, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    A device and technique to study the effects of respiratory motion on the quality of magnetic resonance images is proposed. The construction of the device enables a variety of test objects to be mounted and used in the evaluation of imaging parameters that may be affected by motion. The equipment is constructed of cast acrylic and the movement is actuated and controlled pneumatically thus ensuring that there are no interactions with the magnetic field and radiofrequency detection system to cause further image artefacts. Separate studies have been performed, using ultrasound, to assess the degree and rate of movement of organs owing to respiration in order to derive the motion parameters for the apparatus. Preliminary results indicate that the technique produces motion induced artefacts simulating those which are the result of the effects of respiration. (author)

  16. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangtak; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2 ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2 ω a , 4 ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3 ω a , 5 ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation.

  17. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangtak; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2  ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2  ω a , 4  ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3  ω a , 5  ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation. (paper)

  18. Variations of Patient Doses in Interventional Examinations at Different Angiographic Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, Dogan; Toklu, Tuerkay; Olgar, Turan; Sancak, Tanzer; Cekirge, Saruhan; Onal, Baran; Bilgic, Sadik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. We analyzed doses for various angiographic procedures using different X-ray systems in order to assess dose variations. Methods. Dose-area product (DAP), skin doses from thermoluminescent dosimeters and air kerma measurements of 308 patients (239 diagnostic and 69 interventional) were assessed for five different angiographic units. All fluoroscopic and radiographic exposure parameters were recorded online for single and multiprojection studies. Radiation outputs of each X-ray system were also measured for all the modes of exposure using standard protocols for such measurements. Results. In general, the complexity of the angiographic procedure was found to be the most important reason for high radiation doses. Skill of the radiologist, management of the exposure parameters and calibration of the system are the other factors to be considered. Lateral cerebral interventional studies carry the highest risk for deterministic effects on the lens of the eye. Effective doses were calculated from DAP measurements and maximum fatal cancer risk factors were found for carotid studies. Conclusions. Interventional radiologists should measure patient doses for their examinations. If there is a lack of necessary instrumentation for this purpose, then published dose reports should be used in order to predict the dose levels from some of the exposure parameters. Patient dose information should include not only the measured quantity but also the measured radiation output of the X-ray unit and exposure parameters used during radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures

  19. Radiation doses to the tissues of rat from tritiated thymidine administered by three different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Tetsuo; Mabuchi, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    Biological behaviour of tritiated thymidine were investigated in rat over 120 days after oral, intraperitoneal or intravenous administration and the absorbed doses to different tissues were estimated. The result of present study revealed that the absorbed dose from tritiated thymidine varied with the route of administration. Among the three routes of administration, intraperitoneal injection gave the highest dose to all of the tissues examined. A significant difference due to the route of administration was found in spleen and small intestine, where the doses were, respectively, 3.3 and 4.5 times higher after intraperitoneal injection than after oral ingestion. The difference was substantially dependent on the dose value from non-volatile tritium which would be incorporated into DNA. Present observation suggests that the radiation hazards of tritiated thymidine differ depending on the route of entry into the body. (author)

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of rice seedlings induced by different doses of heavy ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Sun, Yeqing; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as a main factor causing biological effects on plant seeds. To investigate the different effects on genome-wide gene expression of low-dose and high-dose ion radiation, we carried out ground-base carbon particle HZE experiments with different cumulative doses (0Gy, 0.2Gy, 2Gy) to rice seeds and then performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the rice seedlings. We identified a total of 2551 and 1464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in low-dose and high-dose radiation groups, respectively. Gene ontology analyses indicated that low-dose and high-dose ion radiation both led to multiple physiological and biochemical activities changes in rice. By Gene Ontology analyses, the results showed that only one process-oxidation reduction process was enriched in the biological process category after high-dose ion radiation, while more processes such as response to biotic stimulus, heme binding, tetrapyrrole binding, oxidoreductase activity, catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity were significantly enriched after low-dose ion radiation. The results indicated that the rice plants only focused on the process of oxidation reduction to response to high-dose ion radiation, whereas it was a coordination of multiple biological processes to response to low-dose ion radiation. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of radiation stress-responsive genes, we identified several DEGs-encoding TFs. AP2/EREBP, bHLH, C2H2, MYB and WRKY TF families were altered significantly in response to ion radiation. Mapman analysis speculated that the biological effects on rice seedlings caused by the radiation stress might share similar mechanisms with the biotic stress. Our findings highlight important alterations in the expression of radiation response genes, metabolic pathways, and TF-encoding genes in rice seedlings exposed to low-dose and high-dose ion radiation.

  1. The difference of scoring dose to water or tissues in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low energy brachytherapy photon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this work is to compare D(m,m) (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D(w,m) (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether ap plying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D(w,m) over D(m,m) are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using 103Pd) and prostate (using 125I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D90 values are compared for D(w,m) and D(m,m). (1) Differences (D(w,m)/D(m,m)-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D(w,m)/D(m,m) is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D90(w,m) over D90(m,m) for clinical implants matches D(w,m)/D(m,m) at 1 cm from the single point sources, Given

  2. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.N. E-mail: pellegri@criba.edu.ar; Croci, C.A.; Orioli, G.A

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic. (author)0.

  3. Comparison of the two different standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metghalchi, M.; Ashrafi, R.

    1983-01-01

    A very useful and simple way of obtaining the dose rate associated with neutron or photon fluxes is to multiply these fluxes by the appropriate flux-to-dose rate conversion factors. Two basic standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors. are being used in all over the world, those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) and the American National Standars (ANS). The purpose of this paper is to compare these two standard with each other. The comparison proved that the dose rate associated with a specific neutron flux, obtained by the ANS flux-to-dose rate conversion factors is usually higher than those calculated by the ICRP's conversion factors. Whereas in the case of the photon, in all energies, the difference between the dose rates obtained by these two standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors are noticeable, and the ANS results are higher than the ICRP ones. So, it should be noted that for a specific neutron or photon flux the dose rate obtained by the ANS flux-to-dose rate conversion factors are more conservative than those obtained by the ICRP's. Therefore, in order to establish a more reasonable new standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors, more work should be done. (author)

  4. The effects of different nitrogen doses on herbage and seed yields of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different nitrogen doses on herbage and seed yields of annual ... 250, 270 and 290 kg ha-1) of and some agricultural characteristics of annual ryegrass cv. ... doses are observed to be important for all properties of herbage yield and ... It was obtained for the seed production that the highest number of tiller (626 ...

  5. Dose-Related Differences in Effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Against Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Maria; Dehlendorff, Christian; Sand, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing the number of doses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination regimen from 3 to 2 could increase coverage rates. In this cohort study, we assessed the risk of genital warts (GWs) according to timing and number of doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine. METHODS: From population......-based registries, we identified all girls in Denmark born during 1985-1999, for whom information on HPV vaccinations was retrieved. The cohort was followed for GW occurrence during 2006-2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated by Poisson regression to determine differences in GW rates by number...... of vaccine doses. RESULTS: Of the 550,690 girls in the cohort, 361 734 had been vaccinated. Of these, 25.9% had been vaccinated twice and 58.8% 3 times. The risk of GWs decreased significantly with each additional dose of vaccine. For girls who received 2 doses, extension of the interval between doses...

  6. Comparison of image quality in head CT studies with different dose-reduction strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Rikke; Fink-Jensen, Vibeke

    The number of multi-detector CT examinations is increasing rapidly. They allow high quality reformatted images providing accurate and precise diagnosis at maximum speed. Brain examinations are the most commonly requested studies, and although they come at a lower effective dose than body CT, can...... account to a considerable radiation dose as many patients undergo repeated studies. Therefore, various dose-reduction strategies are applied such as automated tube current and voltage modulation and recently different iterative reconstruction algorithms. However, the trade-off of all dose......-reduction maneuvers is reduction of image quality due to image noise or artifacts. The aim of our study was therefore to find the best diagnostic images with lowest possible dose. We present results of dose- and image quality optimizing strategies of brain CT examinations at our institution. We compare sequential...

  7. On the common mechanism for initiation of different effects of low doses of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Main regularities of different endpoints of ionizing radiation low dose effects (adaptive response, stimulation of proliferation, special radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells, and others) have been examined. It has been shown that these endpoints have a commonness for the dose interval, the shape of the dose-response curve, the reverse effect of dose rate, non-specificity toward initiating agents, and others. An explanation is suggested for the common mechanism of the initiation of all the studied low dose effects, basing on the theory of the non-specific reaction of cell to external influences. It is concluded that initiation of the low dose effects is conditioned by radiation induced damage of functions of plasmic and internal membranes

  8. Secondary neutron doses received by patients of different ages during intracranial proton therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayah, R.

    2012-01-01

    Proton therapy is an advanced radiation therapy technique that allows delivering high doses to the tumor while saving the healthy surrounding tissues due to the protons' ballistic properties. However, secondary particles, especially neutrons, are created during protons' nuclear reactions in the beam-line and the treatment room components, as well as inside the patient. Those secondary neutrons lead to unwanted dose deposition to the healthy tissues located at distance from the target, which may increase the secondary cancer risks to the patients, especially the pediatric ones. The aim of this work was to calculate the neutron secondary doses received by patients of different ages treated at the Institut Curie-centre de Protontherapie d'Orsay (ICPO) for intracranial tumors, using a 178 MeV proton beam. The treatments are undertaken at the new ICPO room equipped with an IBA gantry. The treatment room and the beam-line components, as well as the proton source were modeled using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The obtained model was then validated by a series of comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements. The comparisons concerned: a) depth and lateral proton dose distributions in a water phantom, b) neutron spectrometry at one position in the treatment room, c) ambient dose equivalents at different positions in the treatment room and d) secondary absorbed doses inside a physical anthropomorphic phantom. A general good agreement was found between calculations and measurements, thus our model was considered as validated. The University of Florida hybrid voxelized phantoms of different ages were introduced into the MCNPX validated model, and secondary neutron doses were calculated to many of these phantoms' organs. The calculated doses were found to decrease as the organ's distance to the treatment field increases and as the patient's age increases. The secondary doses received by a one year-old patient may be two times higher than the doses

  9. The effect of different adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation dose using Siemens care dose 4D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, M.; Gunnarsson, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different choices of adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation exposure to the patient with Siemens automatic exposure control system called CARE Dose 4D. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was used to simulate the patient and computed tomography scans were performed with a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 and 64. Owing to adaptation strengths, a considerable reduction (26.6-51.5 % and 27.5-49.5% for Sensation 16 and Sensation 64, respectively) in the radiation dose was found when compared with using a fixed tube current. There was a substantial difference in the image quality (image noise) between the adaptation strengths. Independent of selected adaptation strengths, the level of image noise throughout the chest phantom increased when CARE Dose 4D was used (p < 0.0001). We conclude that the adaptation strengths can be used to obtain user-specified modifications to image quality or radiation exposure to the patient. (authors)

  10. Recovery and permanent radiation damage of plastic scintillators at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicken, B.; Holm, U.; Marckmann, T.; Wick, K.; Rhode, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the radiation stability of plastic scintillators and wavelength shifters for the calorimeter of the ZEUS detector by irradiating them with protons, a 60 Co-source, and depleted uranium. Changes in light yield, absorption length and absorption coefficient have been measured for storage in inert and oxygen atmospheres during and after irradiation. Radiation doses up to 40 kGy with dose rates of 30 up to 2000 Gy/h have been applied. The polystyrene based scintillator SCSN-38 and the wavelength shifters Y-7 and K-27 in PMMA show an additional absorption but a recovery in air to a low permanent damage (at 10 kGy) which is proportional to the applied dose. Series investigations on samples of all production cycles of the ZEUS scintillators with high dose rates show only minor differences in radiation hardness. The recovery is described by a simple oxygen diffusion model for high and medium dose rates down to 30 Gy/h. During long term irradiations at low dose rates (<100 Gy/h) of 3 mm thick SCSN-38 in air the radiation damage recovers to a permanent damage which does not depend on the dose rate. On the other hand the radiation damage at very low dose rates (17 Gy/a) seems to be higher than expected for the accumulated dose

  11. COMPARISON OF THE PERIPHERAL DOSES FROM DIFFERENT IMRT TECHNIQUES FOR PEDIATRIC HEAD AND NECK RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masahiko; Saigo, Yasumasa; Higuchi, Kenta; Fujimura, Takuya; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-11-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can deliver high and homogeneous doses to the target area while limiting doses to organs at risk. We used a pediatric phantom to simulate the treatment of a head and neck tumor in a child. The peripheral doses were examined for three different IMRT techniques [dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC), segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)]. Peripheral doses were evaluated taking thyroid, breast, ovary and testis as the points of interest. Doses were determined using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosemeter, and the COMPASS system was used for three-dimensional dose evaluation. VMAT achieved the lowest peripheral doses because it had the highest monitor unit efficiency. However, doses in the vicinity of the irradiated field, i.e. the thyroid, could be relatively high, depending on the VMAT collimator angle. DMLC and SMLC had a large area of relatively high peripheral doses in the breast region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  13. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  14. Effect of different doses of urea on the uptake of cadmium from soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... uptake by canola (Brassica napus L.) applied in full and split doses. Nine different ... production of ruminants being reared on the pasture. Key words: ... combined nitrogen fertilizer used in today's agricultural practices ...

  15. Interfractional trend analysis of dose differences based on 2D transit portal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoon, L C G G; Nijsten, S M J J G; Wilbrink, F J; Podesta, M; Snaith, J A D; Lustberg, T; Van Elmpt, W J C; Van Gils, F; Verhaegen, F

    2012-01-01

    Dose delivery of a radiotherapy treatment can be influenced by a number of factors. It has been demonstrated that the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is valuable for transit portal dosimetry verification. Patient related dose differences can emerge at any time during treatment and can be categorized in two types: (1) systematic—appearing repeatedly, (2) random—appearing sporadically during treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate how systematic and random information appears in 2D transit dose distributions measured in the EPID plane over the entire course of a treatment and how this information can be used to examine interfractional trends, building toward a methodology to support adaptive radiotherapy. To create a trend overview of the interfractional changes in transit dose, the predicted portal dose for the different beams is compared to a measured portal dose using a γ evaluation. For each beam of the delivered fraction, information is extracted from the γ images to differentiate systematic from random dose delivery errors. From the systematic differences of a fraction for a projected anatomical structures, several metrics are extracted like percentage pixels with |γ| > 1. We demonstrate for four example cases the trends and dose difference causes which can be detected with this method. Two sample prostate cases show the occurrence of a random and systematic difference and identify the organ that causes the difference. In a lung cancer case a trend is shown of a rapidly diminishing atelectasis (lung fluid) during the course of treatment, which was detected with this trend analysis method. The final example is a breast cancer case where we show the influence of set-up differences on the 2D transit dose. A method is presented based on 2D portal transit dosimetry to record dose changes throughout the course of treatment, and to allow trend analysis of dose discrepancies. We show in example cases that this method can identify the causes of

  16. Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements

  17. Dose rate dependence for different dosimeters and detectors: TLD, OSL, EBT films, and diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, L.; Beyreuther, E.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Zeil, K.; Pawelke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of laser accelerators in radiation therapy can perhaps increase the low number of proton and ion therapy facilities in some years due to the low investment costs and small size. The laser-based acceleration technology leads to a very high peak dose rate of about 10 11 Gy/s. A first dosimetric task is the evaluation of dose rate dependence of clinical dosimeters and other detectors. Methods: The measurements were done at ELBE, a superconductive linear electron accelerator which generates electron pulses with 5 ps length at 20 MeV. The different dose rates are reached by adjusting the number of electrons in one beam pulse. Three clinical dosimeters (TLD, OSL, and EBT radiochromic films) were irradiated with four different dose rates and nearly the same dose. A faraday cup, an integrating current transformer, and an ionization chamber were used to control the particle flux on the dosimeters. Furthermore two diamond detectors were tested. Results: The dosimeters are dose rate independent up to 410 9 Gy/s within 2% (OSL and TLD) and up to 1510 9 Gy/s within 5% (EBT films). The diamond detectors show strong dose rate dependence. Conclusions: TLD, OSL dosimeters, and EBT films are suitable for pulsed beams with a very high pulse dose rate like laser accelerated particle beams.

  18. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  19. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  20. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: a new first line patient quality assurance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean

    2011-04-01

    To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference > 3% or < or = 3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  1. Cross-modal prediction changes the timing of conscious access during the motion-induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Acer Y C; Kanai, Ryota; Seth, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence that perceptual predictions influence perceptual content, the relations between these predictions and conscious contents remain unclear, especially for cross-modal predictions. We examined whether predictions of visual events by auditory cues can facilitate conscious access to the visual stimuli. We trained participants to learn associations between auditory cues and colour changes. We then asked whether congruency between auditory cues and target colours would speed access to consciousness. We did this by rendering a visual target subjectively invisible using motion-induced blindness and then gradually changing its colour while presenting congruent or incongruent auditory cues. Results showed that the visual target gained access to consciousness faster in congruent than in incongruent trials; control experiments excluded potentially confounding effects of attention and motor response. The expectation effect was gradually established over blocks suggesting a role for extensive training. Overall, our findings show that predictions learned through cross-modal training can facilitate conscious access to visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  3. [Value of early application of different doses of amino acids in parenteral nutrition among preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Juan; Liu, Guo-Sheng; Chen, Yong-Ge; Zhang, Hui-Li; Wu, Xue-Fen

    2015-01-01

    To study the short-term response and tolerance of different doses of amino acids in parenteral nutrition among preterm infants. This study included 86 preterm infants who had a birth weight between 1 000 to 2 000 g and were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of birth between March 2013 and June 2014. According to the early application of different doses of amino acids, they were randomized into low-dose group (n=29, 1.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 3.5 g/kg per day), medium-dose group (n=28, 2.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 3.7 g/kg per day), and high-dose group (n=29, 3.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 0.5-1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 4.0 g/kg per day). Other routine parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition support were also applied. The maximum weight loss was lower and the growth rate of head circumference was greater in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group (Pnutrition, shorter duration of hospital stay, and less hospital cost than those in the low-dose group (P0.05). Parenteral administration of high-dose amino acids in preterm infants within 24 hours after birth can improve the short-term nutritional status of preterm infants, but there is a transient increase in BUN level.

  4. Effective radiation dose of ProMax 3D cone-beam computerized tomography scanner with different dental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xing-min; Li, Gang; Ludlow, John B; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare effective doses resulting from different scan protocols for cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 and 2007 calculations of dose. Average tissue-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, and effective dose for a ProMax 3D CBCT with different dental protocols were calculated using thermoluminescent dosimeter chips in a human equivalent phantom. Effective doses were derived using ICRP 1990 and the superseding 2007 recommendations. Effective doses (ICRP 2007) for default patient sizes from small to large ranged from 102 to 298 μSv. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) between tube current and effective dose (ICRP 2007) was 0.90. When scanning with lower resolution settings, the effective doses were reduced significantly (P radiation dose levels. Reduction in radiation dose can be achieved when using lower settings of exposure parameters. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegar Hoseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and vitamin D deficiency are both too common during menopause. Since the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplements on blood sugar, insulin concentration  and insulin resistance are unknown, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of the vitamin D supplements on visceral fat, blood sugar, insulin concentration,  and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: In this randomized experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups  as follows: three groups . that received vitamin D supplements (high, moderate, and low dose and one control group. After 8 weeks of different doses of vitamin D supplementation plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were measured  in the three groups. The obtained data  was statistically analyzed by means of dependent t-test and ANOVA . at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: After a period of eight-week  intervention, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, insulin, blood glucose and HOMA-IR at high, moderate, and low doses of vitamin D supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. High dose of vitamin D compared with moderate and low doses significantly caused reduction in insulin, blood glucose, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 for all three variables. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that a high dose of vitamin D causes significant improvements in FPG, insulin, and insulin resistance  evaluated by HOMA-IR. It was also found that adding vitamin D supplements can improve glucose control in menopause model of rats.

  6. Measurement of radiotherapy CBCT dose in a phantom using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Naonori; McLean, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used widely for the precise and accurate patient set up needed during radiation therapy, notably for hypo fractionated treatments, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation therapy. Reported doses associated with CBCT indicate the potential to approach radiation tolerance levels for some critical organs. However while some manufacturers state the CBCT dose for each standard protocol, currently there are no standard or recognised protocols for CBCT dosimetry. This study has applied wide beam computed tomography dosimetry approaches as reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine to investigate dosimetry for the Varian Trilogy linear accelerator with on-board imager v1.5. Three detection methods were used including (i) the use of both 100 mm and 300 mm pencil ionisation chambers, (ii) a 0.6 cm 3 ionisation chamber and (iii) gafchromic film. Measurements were performed using custom built 45 cm long PMMA phantoms as well as standard 15 cm long phantoms for both head and body simulation. The results showed good agreement between each other detector system (within 3 %). The measured CBCT dose for the above methods showed a large difference to the dose stated by Varian, with the measured dose being 40 % over the stated dose for the standard head protocol. This shows the importance of independently verifying the stated dose given by the vendor for standard procedures.

  7. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Boev, Blazo [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Zunic, Zora S. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanova, Kremena; Tsenova, Martina [National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ristova, Mimoza [University in Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, Institute of Physics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ajka, Sorsa [Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb (Croatia); Bossew, Peter [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m{sup 3} for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported. (orig.)

  8. Automatic radiation dose monitoring for CT of trauma patients with different protocols: feasibility and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashigaito, K.; Becker, A.S.; Sprengel, K.; Simmen, H.-P.; Wanner, G.; Alkadhi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of automatic radiation dose monitoring software for computed tomography (CT) of trauma patients in a clinical setting over time, and to evaluate the potential of radiation dose reduction using iterative reconstruction (IR). Materials and methods: In a time period of 18 months, data from 378 consecutive thoraco-abdominal CT examinations of trauma patients were extracted using automatic radiation dose monitoring software, and patients were split into three cohorts: cohort 1, 64-section CT with filtered back projection, 200 mAs tube current–time product; cohort 2, 128-section CT with IR and identical imaging protocol; cohort 3, 128-section CT with IR, 150 mAs tube current–time product. Radiation dose parameters from the software were compared with the individual patient protocols. Image noise was measured and image quality was semi-quantitatively determined. Results: Automatic extraction of radiation dose metrics was feasible and accurate in all (100%) patients. All CT examinations were of diagnostic quality. There were no differences between cohorts 1 and 2 regarding volume CT dose index (CTDI_v_o_l; p=0.62), dose–length product (DLP), and effective dose (ED, both p=0.95), while noise was significantly lower (chest and abdomen, both −38%, p<0.017). Compared to cohort 1, CTDI_v_o_l, DLP, and ED in cohort 3 were significantly lower (all −25%, p<0.017), similar to the noise in the chest (–32%) and abdomen (–27%, both p<0.017). Compared to cohort 2, CTDI_v_o_l (–28%), DLP, and ED (both –26%) in cohort 3 was significantly lower (all, p<0.017), while noise in the chest (+9%) and abdomen (+18%) was significantly higher (all, p<0.017). Conclusion: Automatic radiation dose monitoring software is feasible and accurate, and can be implemented in a clinical setting for evaluating the effects of lowering radiation doses of CT protocols over time. - Highlights: • Automatic dose monitoring software can be

  9. Absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall for different radiopharmaceuticals using dynamic S-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Minarik, D.; Mattsson, S.; Leide-Svegborn; Johansson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim and background: the urinary bladder wall is a radiosensitive organ that can receive a high absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Current dynamic models estimate the photon and electron absorbed dose at the inner surface of the bladder wall. The aim of this work has been to create a more realistic estimation of the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall from different radiopharmaceuticals. This calculation also uses dynamic specific absorption fractions (SAF) that changes with bladder volume and are gender specific. Materials and Methods: the volume of the urinary bladder content was calculated using a spherical approximation with a urinary inflow of 1.0 ml/min and 0.5 ml/min during day and night time, respectively. The activity in the bladder content was described using a bi-exponential extraction from the body. The absorbed dose to the bladder wall was estimated using linear interpolation of SAF values from different bladder volumes, ranging from 10 ml to 800 ml. Administration of the activity was assumed to start at 09:00 with an initial voiding after 40 minutes and a voiding interval of 3.5 hours during the day. A six hour night gap, starting at midnight, with a voiding right before and after the night period, was used. Calculations were made, with the same assumptions, for an earlier dynamic bladder model and with a static SAF value from the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms for a bladder containing 200 ml. Values for the absorbed dose per unit administered activity for 19 commonly used radiopharmaceuticals were calculated, e.g. 18 F-FDG, 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-NaI. Results and conclusion: the results of the estimates of the absorbed doses to the inner bladder wall were a factor of ten higher than the estimates mean absorbed doses. The mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were slightly higher for females than males, due to a smaller female

  10. Comparison between evaluating methods about the protocols of different dose distributions in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Yongjian; Chen Meihua; Sun Fuyin; Zhang Liang'an; Lei Chengzhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between tumor control probability (TCP) or equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and the heterogeneity degree of the dose changes with variable biological parameter values of the tumor. Methods: According to the definitions of TCP and EUD, calculating equations were derived. The dose distributions in the tumor were assumed to be Gaussian ones. The volume of the tumor was divided into several voxels, and the absorbed doses of these voxels were simulated by Monte Carlo methods. Then with the different values of radiosensitivity (α) and potential doubling time of the clonogens (T p ), the relationships between TCP or EUD and the standard deviation of dose (S d ) were evaluated. Results: The TCP-S d curves were influenced by the variable α and T p values, but the EUD-S d curves showed little variation. Conclusion: When the radiotherapy protocols with different dose distributions are compared, if the biological parameter values of the tumor have been known exactly, it's better to use the TCP, otherwise the EUD will be preferred

  11. A study of different dose calculation methods and the impact on the dose evaluation protocol in lung stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Takahiro; Furuya, Tomohisa; Ozawa, Shuichi; Ito, Kana; Kurokawa, Chie; Karasawa, Kumiko; Miura, Kohei

    2008-01-01

    AAA (analytical anisotropic algorithm) dose calculation, which shows a better performance for heterogeneity correction, was tested for lung stereotactic radiation therapy (SBRT) in comparison to conventional PBC (pencil beam convolution method) to evaluate its impact on tumor dose parameters. Eleven lung SBRT patients who were treated with photon 4 MV beams in our department between April 2003 and February 2007 were reviewed. Clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated including the spicula region on planning CT images. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined by adding the internal target volume (ITV) and set-up margin (SM) of 5 mm from CTV, and then an multileaf collimator (MLC) penumbra margin of another 5 mm was also added. Six-port non-coplanar beams were employed, and a total prescribed dose of 48 Gy was defined at the isocenter point with four fractions. The entire treatment for an individual patient was completed within 8 days. Under the same prescribed dose, calculated dose distribution, dose volume histogram (DVH), and tumor dose parameters were compared between two dose calculation methods. In addition, the fractionated prescription dose was repeatedly scaled until the monitor units (MUs) calculated by AAA reached a level of MUs nearly identical to those achieved by PBC. AAA resulted in significantly less D95 (irradiation dose that included 95% volume of PTV) and minimal dose in PTV compared to PBC. After rescaling of each MU for each beam in the AAA plan, there was no revision of the isocenter of the prescribed dose required. However, when the PTV volume was less than 20 cc, a 4% lower prescription resulted in nearly identical MUs between AAA and PBC. The prescribed dose in AAA should be the same as that in PBC, if the dose is administered at the isocenter point. However, planners should compare DVHs and dose distributions between AAA and PBC for a small lung tumor with a PTV volume less than approximately 20 cc. (author)

  12. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  13. Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Molly K; Divers, Stephen; Braun, Christina; Hofmeister, Erik H

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the pharmacodynamics of two different doses of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (IM) to red-eared sliders at two ambient temperatures. Prospective blinded crossover experimental study. Nine adult female sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Following a 2-week acclimation at 22-25 °C, nine sliders were randomly assigned to receive alfaxalone, 10 mg kg(-1) (W10), or 20 mg kg(-1) (W20) IM. Each turtle received each dose, with a minimum 7-day washout period. A blinded observer evaluated heart rate (HR), palpebral and corneal reflexes, muscle relaxation, handling, and response to toe pinch at the following points: pre-injection, and 5, 12, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes post-injection. Turtles then acclimated to 18-20 °C for 63 days, and the experiment was repeated in this lower-temperature environment, with treatment groups C10 (alfaxalone 10 mg kg(-1)) and C20 (alfaxalone 20 mg kg(-1)) subjected to the same crossover design. C10 and C20 groups had significantly lower intraanesthetic HR than W10 or W20, respectively. C10 and W20 were significantly more relaxed and easier to handle than W10. No significant differences were observed in palpebral reflex, nor responsiveness to the toe pinch stimulus. None of the turtles lost corneal reflex. W20 and C20 had prolonged recoveries, compared to low-dose groups within the same temperature environment. Recovery was also longer at C20 and C10 compared to W10. Turtles given 10 mg kg(-1) were more relaxed and easier to handle in cold than warm conditions. Warm turtles were more relaxed and easier to handle when given 20 mg kg(-1) than those given 10 mg kg(-1). Cold conditions correlated with lower HR and longer recovery time for each dose category. The turtles had dose-dependent and inconsistent responses to alfaxalone. Lower ambient temperature augmented the behavioral effects of this drug. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  14. SU-E-T-455: Impact of Different Independent Dose Verification Software Programs for Secondary Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Kosaka, M; Kobayashi, N; Yamashita, M; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Tachibana, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There have been many reports for different dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning system (TPS). Independent dose verification program (IndpPro) is essential to verify clinical plans from the TPS. However, the accuracy of different independent dose verification programs was not evident. We conducted a multi-institutional study to reveal the impact of different IndpPros using different TPSs. Methods: Three institutes participated in this study. They used two different IndpPros (RADCALC and Simple MU Analysis (SMU), which implemented the Clarkson algorithm. RADCALC needed the input of radiological path length (RPL) computed by the TPSs (Eclipse or Pinnacle3). SMU used CT images to compute the RPL independently from TPS). An ion-chamber measurement in water-equivalent phantom was performed to evaluate the accuracy of two IndpPros and the TPS in each institute. Next, the accuracy of dose calculation using the two IndpPros compared to TPS was assessed in clinical plan. Results: The accuracy of IndpPros and the TPSs in the homogenous phantom was +/−1% variation to the measurement. 1543 treatment fields were collected from the patients treated in the institutes. The RADCALC showed better accuracy (0.9 ± 2.2 %) than the SMU (1.7 ± 2.1 %). However, the accuracy was dependent on the TPS (Eclipse: 0.5%, Pinnacle3: 1.0%). The accuracy of RADCALC with Eclipse was similar to that of SMU in one of the institute. Conclusion: Depending on independent dose verification program, the accuracy shows systematic dose accuracy variation even though the measurement comparison showed a similar variation. The variation was affected by radiological path length calculation. IndpPro with Pinnacle3 has different variation because Pinnacle3 computed the RPL using physical density. Eclipse and SMU uses electron density, though

  15. Effects of differents gamma radiation doses absorbed for postharvest tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Abreu, Toneypson da; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Soares, Antonio G.

    1997-01-01

    Postharvest tomato fuits Santa Cruz were submitted to prestorage gamma irradiation treatment with different doses range zero (unirradiated fruits) to 1000 Gy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postharvest quality parameters: Hunter colour values for light transmittance analysis, pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, maximum firmness and maturity stage. The fruits were stored under (25±1) 0 C with (93±3) relative humidity. The results obtained from the different irradiated treatments showed 600 Gy as the best dose to increase the shelf-life of tomato fruits and to decay its ripening. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  16. A Comparison of Four Indices for Combining Distance and Dose Differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Simon J.; Cowley, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: When one is comparing two dose distributions, a number of methods have been published to combine dose difference and distance to agreement into a single measure. Some have been defined as pass/fail indices and some as numeric indices. We show that the pass/fail indices can all be used to derive numeric indices, and we compare the results of using these indices to evaluate one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions, with the aim of selecting the most appropriate index for use in different circumstances. Methods and Materials: The indices compared are the gamma index, the kappa index, the index in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 83, and a box index. Comparisons are made for 1D and 3D distributions. The 1D distribution is chosen to have a variety of dose gradients. The 3D distribution is taken from a clinical treatment plan. The effect of offsetting distributions by known distances and doses is studied. Results: The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 83 index causes large discontinuities unless the dose gradient cutoff is set to equal the ratio of the dose tolerance to the distance tolerance. If it is so set, it returns identical results to the kappa index. Where the gradient is very high or very low, all the indices studied in this article give similar results for the same tolerance values. For moderate gradients, they differ, with the box index being the least strict, followed by the gamma index, and with the kappa index being the most strict. Conclusions: If the clinical tolerances are much greater than the uncertainties of the measuring system, the kappa index should be used, with tolerance values determined by the clinical tolerances. In cases where the uncertainties of the measuring system dominate, the box index will be best able to determine errors in the delivery system.

  17. Dose comparison of different scan projections of Implagraphy cone beam computed tomography for dental maxillofacial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Dong; Yuan Xianshun; Zhang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the subject's absorbed dose,equivalent dose and effective dose. Methods: The CBCT unit was Implagraphy and three scan projections were selected such as mandible, maxilla and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Thermoluminescent dosimeter tubes were used to record the absorbed dose at special positions in the head and neck region of an adult skull and tissue-equivalent phantom. 16 interested organs included pituitary, lens, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands, diploe, spongy bone of the chin and cervical vertebra, skins of cheeks and nuchal region, thyroid and esophagus. The absorbed dose was measured in these organs, and then the effective dose (E 1990 , E 2007 ) were calculated according to different ICRP tissue weighting factors. Results: The absorbed dose of mandible,maxilla and TMJ scan varied from (0.99 ±0.09) to (12.85 ±0.09)mGy, (0.93 ±0.01) to (13.07 ±0.02) mGy and (0.68 ±0.01) to (10.18 ± 0.04)mGy. There was significant difference among the three scan projections (F=19.61-30992.27, P<0.05). The equivalent doses of lens and skin were (1.11± 0.07)-(5.76 ± 0.06) mSv and (6.96 ± 0.06)-(10.64 ± 0.07) mSv. There was significant difference among the three scan projections (F=4473.02, 9385.50, P<0.05). The effective dose (E 1990 , E 2007 ) was [(191.35±1.53), (325.17 ±2.58) μSv] for mandible scan, [(106.62 ±2.17), (226.28 ±2.81) μSv] for maxilla scan, [(104.21 ± 1.02), (142.36 ± 1.90) μSv]for TMJ scan, respectively. Conclusions: The valid measurement should be taken to reduce the subject's dose such as a careful history and clinical examination before the performance of CBCT, the latest risk/benefit assessment,precise scan position, the shielding of thyroid as well as brain and the smaller volume size as well. (authors)

  18. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-12-01

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Different Radiation Doses on the Bond Strengths of Two Different Adhesive Systems to Enamel and Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Sandra Ribeiro de Barros; Ramos, Pedro Augusto Minorin Mendes; Haddad, Cecília Maria Kalil; da Silva, João Luis Fernandes; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of three different radiation doses on the bond strengths of two different adhesive systems to enamel and dentin. Eighty human third molars were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the radiation dose (control/no radiation, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, and 70 Gy). The teeth were sagittally sectioned into three slices: one mesial and one distal section containing enamel and one middle section containing dentin. The sections were then placed in the enamel and dentin groups, which were further divided into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the adhesive used. Three restorations were performed in each tooth (one per section) using Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) or Universal Single Bond (3M ESPE) adhesive system and Filtek Z350 XT (3M ESPE) resin composite and subjected to the microshear bond test. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Failure modes were examined under a stereoscopic loupe. Radiotherapy did not affect the bond strengths of the adhesives to either enamel or dentin. In dentin, the Universal Single Bond adhesive system showed higher bond strength values when compared with the Adper Single Bond adhesive system. More adhesive failures were observed in the enamel for all radiation doses and adhesives. Radiotherapy did not influence the bond strength to enamel or dentin, irrespective of the adhesive or radiation dose used.

  20. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyigit, Filiz; Kucuk, Aysegul; Akcer, Sezer; Tosun, Murat; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Kocak, Cengiz; Kocak, Ahmet; Metineren, Hasan; Genc, Osman

    2015-08-26

    Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group). Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (pebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (pebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  1. Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

    1988-01-01

    We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.) [de

  2. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K sat ) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  3. Radiation Dose to Patients and Medical Staff in Different Procedures of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information on developing technologies and clinical techniques for Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging using ionizing radiation and their associated radiation dose to patients and medical staff. A thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was used in this study to analyze the historic records of the external radiation doses to staff members working in our nuclear medicine department in 7 procedures, including elution of 99mTc from "9"9"mMo/"9"9"mTc generators, syringe preparation, radiopharmacy kit preparation, injection, accompanying patients, SPECT/CT scan, oral "1"3"1I preparation. These dosimeters was worn by the staff members at the level of the chest on the front part of the body. A retrospective review of 110 clinical studies of various nuclear medicine procedures ("9"9"mTc–MIBI–Tetrofosmin, "9"9"mTc–MDP bone scan, "9"9"mTc–Tektrotyd, "9"9"mTc–Thyroid imaging, "9"9"mTc–Nanocoll, "1"3"1I–Nal (diagnostic application 185 MBq) obtained on hybrid SPECT/CT systems was performed to calculate the effective radiation dose to patients. The results from this study showed that annual effective radiation doses to nuclear medicine department staff members were within permissible levels. The contribution of total effective radiation dose from SPECT component were calculated using the activity of the injected radiopharmaceutical and dose tables published by the conversion factors listed in ICRP 53 and ICRP 80. The radiation dose for CT was calculated by Dose Length Product method. According to the results of this study the dose in each procedure depends on different factors such as the education and experience of the staff members, usage of shielding and taking the radiation protection requirements into consideration. When SPECT–CT is being performed, all measures should be taken to reduce both the radiopharmaceutical dose and the CT effective dose following the ALARA principle. (author)

  4. Radiation doses in head CT examinations in Serbia: comparison among different CT units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Bozovic, P.; Stankovic, J.; Hadnadjev, D.; Stojanovic, S.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid increase in number of Computed Tomography (CT) examinations has been observed world wide. As haed CT is the most frequent CT examination, the purpose of this study was to collect and analyse patient doses in children and adults in different CT units for this procedure. The study included 8 CT units from three manufacturers (Siemens, Toshiba and General Electric). Data for adults and pediatric patients were collected in terms of CTDIvol and DLP values. The doses were estimated as a mean value of 10 patients on each CT unit. For pediatrics, doses were collected for four age groups (0-1year, >1-5years, >5-10years and >10-15years). Comparing different manufacturers and the same number of detector rows it was observed that, in case of 16 slices units, doses were very similar on Siemens and General Electric scanner. CTDIvol and DLP on Siemens scanner were 60 mGy and 1066 mGy·cm, respectively, while on General Electric those values were 66 mGy and 1050 mGy·cm. However, this trend was not observed in case of 64 slices units. CTDIvol and DLP values collected on Toshiba were much higher (177 mGy and 2109 mGy·cm) than in case of Siemens scanner (59 mGy and 1060 mGy·cm). Doses on 16 and 64 slices Siemens scanners were very similar, while on 4 slices were higher. Except in two units, doses were were in line with DRLs. In case of pediatrics, doses increase with patient age and again Siemens scanner showed the lowest values while the highest were observed on Toshiba. (authors)

  5. Nuclear Radiation Degradation Study on HD Camera Based on CMOS Image Sensor at Different Dose Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congzheng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we irradiated a high-definition (HD industrial camera based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS CMOS image sensor (CIS with Cobalt-60 gamma-rays. All components of the camera under test were fabricated without radiation hardening, except for the lens. The irradiation experiments of the HD camera under biased conditions were carried out at 1.0, 10.0, 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h. During the experiment, we found that the tested camera showed a remarkable degradation after irradiation and differed in the dose rates. With the increase of dose rate, the same target images become brighter. Under the same dose rate, the radiation effect in bright area is lower than that in dark area. Under different dose rates, the higher the dose rate is, the worse the radiation effect will be in both bright and dark areas. And the standard deviations of bright and dark areas become greater. Furthermore, through the progressive degradation analysis of the captured image, experimental results demonstrate that the attenuation of signal to noise ratio (SNR versus radiation time is not obvious at the same dose rate, and the degradation is more and more serious with increasing dose rate. Additionally, the decrease rate of SNR at 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h is far greater than that at 1.0 and 10.0 Gy/h. Even so, we confirm that the HD industrial camera is still working at 10.0 Gy/h during the 8 h of measurements, with a moderate decrease of the SNR (5 dB. The work is valuable and can provide suggestion for camera users in the radiation field.

  6. Analysis of X-ray radiation doses from different types of intervention for cardiovascular patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jun; Cheng Jinglin; Guo Jie; Wang Ailing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the X-ray radiation dose to patients from different cardiovascular interventional procedures and analyze the dose-affecting factors. Methods: In accordance with the A, B, C operators, 442 patients undergoing cardiovascular interventional procedures were collected, including single coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), congenital heart disease intervention (CHD) and permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation (PCPI), to observe dose area product (DAP), cumulative radiation dose (CD), fluoroscopy time. Results: CD values of patients in groups of CAG, PCI, RFCA, CHD, PCPI were (0.34 ±0.23), (1.33 ±0.76), (0.71 ±0.43), (0.27 ±0.22) and (0.92±0.42) Gy and DAP values were (34.18 ±23.33), (135.92 ±81.14), (79.79 ±50.66),(27.93 ±23.66), and (94.60 ±48.11 ) Gy·cm 2 , respectively. Fluoroscopy time were (4.82 ±3.73), (16.64 ±9.01), (17.04 ± 15.29), (9.60 ±5.97) and (7.31 ±6.45) min. DAP values and fluoroscopy time were highly correlated (r=0.84, P<0.05). Conclusions: There is significant difference in radiation dose for cardiovascular interventional procedures. Radiation dose and fluoroscopy time are directly related to surgeons' proficiency in operations. Improvement of operation proficiency should be carried out to reduce the patients' radiation dose. (authors)

  7. Nuclear Radiation Degradation Study on HD Camera Based on CMOS Image Sensor at Different Dose Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzheng; Hu, Song; Gao, Chunming; Feng, Chang

    2018-02-08

    In this work, we irradiated a high-definition (HD) industrial camera based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS image sensor (CIS) with Cobalt-60 gamma-rays. All components of the camera under test were fabricated without radiation hardening, except for the lens. The irradiation experiments of the HD camera under biased conditions were carried out at 1.0, 10.0, 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h. During the experiment, we found that the tested camera showed a remarkable degradation after irradiation and differed in the dose rates. With the increase of dose rate, the same target images become brighter. Under the same dose rate, the radiation effect in bright area is lower than that in dark area. Under different dose rates, the higher the dose rate is, the worse the radiation effect will be in both bright and dark areas. And the standard deviations of bright and dark areas become greater. Furthermore, through the progressive degradation analysis of the captured image, experimental results demonstrate that the attenuation of signal to noise ratio (SNR) versus radiation time is not obvious at the same dose rate, and the degradation is more and more serious with increasing dose rate. Additionally, the decrease rate of SNR at 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h is far greater than that at 1.0 and 10.0 Gy/h. Even so, we confirm that the HD industrial camera is still working at 10.0 Gy/h during the 8 h of measurements, with a moderate decrease of the SNR (5 dB). The work is valuable and can provide suggestion for camera users in the radiation field.

  8. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O'Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA"2 by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image processing

  9. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O' Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura [Florida Hospital, Imaging Administration, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA{sup 2} by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  10. Different gene expression of Normal lymphobloastoid cells which exposure to different dose of 60Co γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Yang Jian; Gao Xian; Qin Yanghua; Sun Ding; Hai Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study on the gene expression of normal lymphoblastoid cells(AHH-1) which exposure to difference dose of 60 Co γ-ray, analyses the essential different biological effect.. Methods Human AHH-1 normal line was irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays. Used human cDNA microarray to develop the transcriptional levels of the genes by hybridizing the mRNA of cells 8 h after exposured in different dose and the control cells. Cluster analysis, discrimination and bolting were used to filter the effective genes of differential expression. Results The results of data analysis showed 23 genes of differential expression closely related to biological effect of 2.0 Gy radiation, 5 genes express changed only by 0.5 Gy radiation, 5 genes express apparently both in 2.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy radiation. Conclusion: The different dose γ-rays radiation-induced significant changes in gene expression, such as PAPLN, TP53INP1, PTENP1, FOS and TPR seem to be some important components of cellular radioresponse. (authors)

  11. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  12. Motivation for Different Types and Doses of Exercise During Breast Cancer Chemotherapy: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Vallerand, James R; Forbes, Cynthia C; Crawford, Jennifer J; Dolan, Lianne B; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Gelmon, Karen; Mackey, John R; McKenzie, Donald C

    2016-08-01

    Exercise is beneficial for breast cancer patients during chemotherapy, but their motivation to perform different types and doses of exercise is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipated and experienced motivation of breast cancer patients before and after three different exercise programs during chemotherapy. Breast cancer patients initiating chemotherapy (N = 301) were randomized to a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise, a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise, or a combined dose of 50-60 min of aerobic and resistance exercise. Patient preference and motivational outcomes from the theory of planned behavior (i.e., perceived benefit, enjoyment, support, difficulty, and motivation) were assessed before and after the interventions. At pre-randomization, breast cancer patients were significantly (p types and doses of exercise during chemotherapy varied considerably at pre-randomization, but the motivational outcomes experienced after the three interventions were similar. Clinicians can recommend any of the three exercise interventions to breast cancer patients knowing that positive motivational outcomes will result. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00249015 .

  13. Outcome of stroke patients receiving different doses of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Wong, Yi-Sin; Wu, Chi-Shun; Su, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg body weight is associated with a high hemorrhagic transformation (HT) rate. Low-dose tPA (0.6 mg/kg) may have a lower hemorrhage rate but the mortality and disability rates at 90 days cannot be confirmed as non-inferior to standard-dose tPA. Whether the doses 0.7 and 0.8 mg/kg have better efficacy and safety needs further investigation. Therefore, this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of each dose of tPA (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 mg/kg body weight) and to investigate the factors affecting early neurological improvement (ENI) and early neurological deterioration (END). For this observational study, data were obtained from 274 patients who received tPA thrombolytic therapy in Chia-Yi Christian Hospital stroke unit. The tPA dose was given at the discretion of each physician. The definition of ENI was a >8 point improvement (compared with baseline) at 24 h following thrombolytic therapy or an improvement in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) to 0 or 1 toward the end of tPA infusion. The definition of END was a >4 point increase in NIHSS (compared with baseline) within 24 h of tPA infusion. The primary objective was to investigate whether 0.7 and 0.8 mg/kg of tPA have higher ENI rate, lower END rate, and better outcome at 6 months. Poor outcome was defined as having a modified Rankin Scale of 3 to 6 (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). The secondary objective was to investigate whether low-dose tPA has a lower risk of intracerebral HT than that with standard-dose tPA. We also investigated the factors affecting ENI, END, HT, and 6-month outcome. A total of 274 patients were included during the study period, of whom 260 were followed up for >6 months. There was a trend for the HT rate to increase as the dose increased ( P =0.02). The symptomatic HT rate was not significantly different among the low-dose and standard-dose groups. The ENI and END ( P =0.52) were

  14. Metabolic Effects of Two Different Doses of Venlafaxine Therapy on Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária Imre

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Venlafaxine is an antidepressant, categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI with suspected metabolic side effects. The aim of our study was to assess these metabolic effects in rats, using two different doses of venlafaxine.

  15. Influence of different dose irradiation on genetic effect in mice somatic and germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrova, L.N.; Molofej, V.P.; Mosseh, I.B.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of clastogenic effects of different radiation doses in somatic and germ cells of one the same animals has been studied. Correlation analysis allows to extrapolate genetic effects from somatic cells to germ ones. This can be useful for human model elaboration. (authors)

  16. The effects of different nitrogen doses on yield, quality and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... The effects of different nitrogen doses on yield, quality and leaf nitrogen content of some early grape cultivars. (V. vinifera L.) grown in greenhouse. Hatice Bilir Ekbic1, Gultekin Ozdemir2, Ali Sabir3* and Semih Tangolar1. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, Adana, ...

  17. Breast compression and radiation dose in two different mammographic oblique projections: 45 and 60 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnic, Zoran; Hebrang, Andrija

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Standard mammography includes two views, craniocaudal and medio-lateral oblique. Depending on patient's body constitution, central beam angle in mediolateral oblique projection may vary, with 45 deg. being suitable for the majority of patients in routine daily practice. With continuous improvement in X-ray technology and radiographers' training, the risk of radiation induced cancerogenesis is considerably reduced and acceptable when compared to benefit. However, the risk still exists, being cumulative and directly related to absorbed glandular dose. There is no minimal dose of radiation which is absolutely harmless, and every effort to reduce the dose is welcome. In this retrospective study two different angles (45 vs. 60 deg.) of mediolateral oblique view were compared according to radiation dose and efficacy of breast compression. Patients and methods: In 52 women, additional 60 deg. oblique films were done after craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique 45 deg.-films, with the same kVp and positioning technique. Breast thickness, time-current products (mA s) and absorbed doses were compared between 45 deg. - and 60 deg.-films. Subgroups of women with large, small, prominent and pendulous breasts were analyzed separately, following the same methodology as for the whole group. Results: mA s were 11.5% lower and compression 7% better with an angle of 60 deg. than with 45 deg. In the subgroup of women with small breasts, mA s values were 13% lower and compression 9% better with 60 deg. than with 45 deg., while in the subgroup with large breasts, mA s were 9% lower and compression 5% better. In the subgroup of patients with pendulous breasts, mA s values were 12% lower and compression 10% better with 60 deg. than with 45 deg., while in the subgroup with prominent breasts, mA s values were 4% lower and compression 3% better. Absorbed glandular dose was estimated to be approximately 20% lower when an oblique mammogram was done with 60 deg. instead of 45 deg

  18. A method for radiobiological investigations in radiation fields with different LET and high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundler, W.

    1976-01-01

    For investigations: 1. Performed in the field of radiobiology with different LET-radiation and a relatively high background dose rate of one component (e.g. investigations with fast and intermediate reactor neutrons) 2. Concerning radiation risk studies within a wide range 3. Of irradiations, covering a long time period (up to 100 days) a test system is necessary which on the one hand makes it possible to analyze the influence of different LET radiation and secondly shows a relative radiation resistant behaviour and allows a simple cell cycle regulation. A survey is given upon the installed device of a simple cell observation method, the biological test system used and the analysis of effects caused by dose, repair and LET. It is possible to analyze the behaviour of the nonsurvival cells and to demonstrate different reactions of the test parameters to the radiation of different LET. (author)

  19. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  20. Dose Distribution over Different Parts of Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy Treatment in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, F.K.; Ahmed, M.F.; Begum, Z.; Alam, B.; Chowdhury, Q.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out to determine the dose distribution over different parts of the body of 12 cancer patients during radiotherapy treatment. Patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, cervix and larynx cancer treated with either X ray therapy or 60 Co therapy were particularly considered. The doses to the organs and tissues outside the primary beam of the patients under treatment were found to vary with a maximum value of 9096 ± 25 mSv at the neck of a lung cancer patient to a minimum value of 2 ± 0.5 mSv at the right leg of a breast cancer patient. The variation of doses was well explained by the exposure and patient data given for each patient. The measured data in each part of the body have been found to be consistent indicating confidence in the measurements. (author)

  1. Degradation and annealing studies on gamma rays irradiated COTS PPD CISs at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zujun; Ma, Yingwu; Liu, Jing; Xue, Yuan; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2016-01-01

    The degradation and annealing studies on Colbalt-60 gamma-rays irradiated commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) at the various dose rates are presented. The irradiation experiments of COTS PPD CISs are carried out at 0.3, 3.0 and 30.0 rad(Si)/s. The COTS PPD CISs are manufactured using a standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology with four-transistor pixel PPD architecture. The behavior of the tested CISs shows a remarkable degradation after irradiation and differs in the dose rates. The dark current, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), random noise, saturation output, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and dynamic range (DR) versus the total ionizing dose (TID) at the various dose rates are investigated. The tendency of dark current, DSNU, and random noise increase and saturation output, SNR, and DR to decrease at 3.0 rad(Si)/s are far greater than those at 0.3 and 30.0 rad(Si)/s. The damage mechanisms caused by TID irradiation at the various dose rates are also analyzed. The annealing tests are carried out at room temperature with unbiased conditions after irradiation.

  2. Degradation and annealing studies on gamma rays irradiated COTS PPD CISs at different dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zujun; Ma, Yingwu; Liu, Jing; Xue, Yuan; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2016-06-01

    The degradation and annealing studies on Colbalt-60 gamma-rays irradiated commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) at the various dose rates are presented. The irradiation experiments of COTS PPD CISs are carried out at 0.3, 3.0 and 30.0 rad(Si)/s. The COTS PPD CISs are manufactured using a standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology with four-transistor pixel PPD architecture. The behavior of the tested CISs shows a remarkable degradation after irradiation and differs in the dose rates. The dark current, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), random noise, saturation output, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and dynamic range (DR) versus the total ionizing dose (TID) at the various dose rates are investigated. The tendency of dark current, DSNU, and random noise increase and saturation output, SNR, and DR to decrease at 3.0 rad(Si)/s are far greater than those at 0.3 and 30.0 rad(Si)/s. The damage mechanisms caused by TID irradiation at the various dose rates are also analyzed. The annealing tests are carried out at room temperature with unbiased conditions after irradiation.

  3. EFFICIENCY OF THE ACROMEGALIC PATIENTS’ TREATMENT WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF SANDOSTATIN LAR IN MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dreval’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin analogues therapy is an important part of the acromegalic patients’ treatment. Aim: Assessment of treatment efficiency for patients with acromegaly using different doses of somatostatin analogues. Materials and methods: The data of 128 acromegaly patients registered in Moscow Region were analyzed, 79 (61.7% of them were treated with somatostatin analogues. The treatment was started with a dose of 20 mg. If the target levels of growth hormone (GH and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 were not achieved within 6-12 months, the dose was increased to 30 mg, and then to 40 mg. If GH and IGF-1 levels fell under the target values, the dose was decreased to 10 mg. The rate of achievement of optimal GH and IGF-1 levels was analyzed depending on the somatostatin analogue doses used. Results: The percentage of the acromegalic patients who were under the first and the second lines of drug therapy, was almost similar:  55.7 and 44.3%, respectively. Sandostatin LAR in dose of 10 mg was given to 4 (5.1% of 79 patients, 20 mg – to 33 (41.8%, 30 mg – to 11 (13.9%, and 40 mg – to 31 (39.2% patients. The target levels of GH and IGF-1 were achieved in 57.6, 54.5, and 32.2% of patients, who received preparation in doses 20, 30, and 40 mg, respectively. Achievement of, at least, one planned criterium (GH or IGF-1 was additionally noted in 10 of 33 (30.3%, 4 of 11 (36.2%, and 9 of 31 (29% patients within these study groups. The rate of side effects didn’t increase with the raising of оctreotide dose. Conclusion: Application of long-acting release octreotide (Sandostatin-LAR in doses of 30 and 40 mg is safe and allows to increase percentage of acromegalic patients who achieve a biochemical control over acromegaly.

  4. Understanding differences in dose-equivalents reported by passive and electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Christopher A.; Burgess, Peter; Smith, David; Salasky, Mark; Yahnke, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In a number of challenging environments, clients occasionally double badge with electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) to ensure day-to-day management of their employees personal dose-equivalent while using passive (in our case Luxel or InLight) dosemeters for monthly monitoring for approved results for dose record keeping. In some cases there have been significant differences in the cumulative doses recorded by the EPDs and the passive dosemeters. In these circumstances the passive dosemeters usually report a higher dose than the EPD by up to a factor of two, though more commonly 1.3. In this paper we describe the differences seen between EPD and passive dosemeters (in a number of countries). We then examine the possible causes for such discrepancies by comparison with published response function data available for the EPDs and Landauer dosemeters. We have undertaken a number of experiments comparing directly a number of EPDs and passive dosemeter response to a variety of energy and complex angular geometries where the two types of dosimeter have been exposed at the same time. Recommendations will be made on the appropriate use of double badging in difficult environments and interpretation of the results. (author)

  5. EFFECTIVE DOSE IN TWO DIFFERENT DENTAL CBCT SYSTEMS: NEWTOM VGi AND PLANMECA 3D MID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedizirgar, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reza; Paydar, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2017-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography, CBCT, is a kind of CT scanner producing conical diverging X-rays, in which a large area of a two-dimensional detector is irradiated in each rotation. Different investigations have been performed on dosimetry of dental CBCT. As there is no special protocol for dental CBCT, CT scan protocols are used for dosimetry. The purpose of this study is measurement of dose to head and neck organs in two CBCT systems, i.e. Planmeca 3D Mid (PM) and NewTom VGi (NT), using thermoluminescence dosimetry and Rando phantom. The thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD)-100 chips were put at the position of different organs of the head and neck. Two TLD-100 chips were inserted at each position, the dose values were measured for several different field sizes, i.e. 8 × 8, 12 × 8 and 15 × 15 cm2 for NewTom, and 10 × 10 and 20 × 17 cm2 for Planmeca systems. According to the results, the average effective dose in PM is much more than the NT system in the same field size, because of the greater mAs values. For routine imaging protocols used for NT, the effective dose values are 70, 73 and 121 µSv for 8 × 8, 12 × 8 and 15 × 15 cm2 field sizes, respectively. In PM, the effective dose in 10 × 10 cm2 and 17 × 20 cm2 is 259 and 341 µSv, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ozyigit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group. Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (P < 0.01, levels of MDA, NO, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively, and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively compared with the I/R group that did not receive ebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and MDA and NO levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and decreased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.05 compared with the sham group. The results of this study suggest that ebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  7. Assessment of doses due to radionuclides in sewage sludge for different scenario of its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydagiene, R.; Morkunas, G.; Pilkyte, L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of doses due to radionuclides in sewage sludge for different scenarios of its use was made for sewage plant storage in Visaginas, Rimses district, Karlu village. Calculations of individual and collective doses were made on the basis of results of measurements. Two potential exposure pathways from radionuclides in sewage sludge were considered and two scenarios descriptions were made. The first scenario is when the sludge is using for fertilization, and the second one - the sludge is covered with soil. Using program Environ-Calc made by American Chemical Society the number of samples needed to be sampled was optimized. 38 sewage samples were collected for gamma spectrometrical measurements and 10 samples - for measurements of tritium activity. Results of measurements pointed out that the sludge has no higher activity of tritium that background ones. The only two man made radionuclides 60 Co and 137 Cs were found by gamma spectrometry in the sludge. Average activity for the fresh weight in the samples of 60 Co was 42 Bq/kg, 137 Cs - 10 Bq/kg. Concentration of natural radionuclides was in the same range as in any soil samples from Lithuania. The dose for the first scenario for 1 years child will be 12 μSv, for adult - 9,4 μSv. In another scenario doses for the workers in sewage plant were estimated as 0,76 mSv. Collective dose in case of use of sewage sludge for fertilizers will be 4,4*10 -3 man Sv. The lowest doses will be when the sewage storage is covered using soil. (author)

  8. Decision of special monitoring time to minimize the difference of the committed effective dose evaluated from the different AMAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Lee, T. Y.; Jang, S. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) per measured unit of activity in the bioassay compartments at any time (t) after an acute intake by the inhalation of a radionuclide with a different particle size (AMAD) were calculated and compared. As a result, the relative difference between the CEDs evaluated from the different AMAD is affected by the radionuclide, bioassay compartment, and the time (t) after intake. Therefore a special monitoring time to exclude or reduce the effect of AMAD was decided and presented in the evaluation for the CEDs following an acute intake by the inhalation of a radionuclide. If special monitoring is performed during this presented special time after intake, the relative difference of the evaluated CEDs resulted from AMAD can be excluded or reduced

  9. Effectiveness of two different doses of rituximab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in an international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Lie, Elisabeth; Nasonov, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    months. DAS28 reductions at 6 months were comparable in the 2 dose regimens [mean DeltaDAS28 ± SD -2.0 ± 1.3 (high dose) vs. -1.7 ± 1.4 (low dose), p = 0.23 adjusted for baseline differences]. Similar percentages of patients achieved EULAR good response in the two dose groups, 18.4 % vs. 17...

  10. Different dose-dependent effects of hydrogen sulfide on ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that different doses of Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS can play diverse role in renal ischemia reperfusion injury. However, NaHS in the low-doses could protect the kidney from the RIR injury, in a higher dose NaHS exaggerated the renal function by increases plasma creatinine and BUN. Therefore, determining of the therapeutic doses of NaHS may be important in the protection of kidney from the RIR injury.

  11. High-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy applications and the difference in the bladder and rectum doses: A study from rural centre of Maharashatra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To report the difference in the bladder and rectum doses with different applications by the radiotherapists in the same patient of the carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by multiple fractions of high-dose-rate (HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. Materials and Methods : Between January 2003 to December 2004, a total of 60 cases of the carcinoma uterine cervix were selected randomly for the retrospective analyses. All 60 cases were grouped in six groups according to the treating radiotherapist who did the HDR-ICBT application. Three radiotherapists were considered for this study, named A, B and C. Ten cases for each radiotherapist in whom all three applications were done by the same radiotherapist. And 10 cases for each radiotherapist with shared applications in the same patient (A+B, A+C and B+C. The bladder and rectal doses were calculated in reference to point "A" dose and were limited to 80% of prescribed point "A" dose, as per ICRU-38 recommendations. Received dose grouped in three groups- less then 80% (< 80%, 80-100% and above 100% (>100%. A total of 180 applications for 60 patients were calculated for the above analyses. Results : There is a lot of difference in the bladder and rectal doses with the application by the different radiotherapists, even in the same patient with multiple fractions of HDR-ICBT. Applications by ′A′ radiotherapist were within the limits in the self as well as in the shared groups more number of times, by ′B′ radiotherapist was more times exceeding the limit and by ′C′ radiotherapist doses were in between the A and B. Discussion and Conclusion : For the rectal and bladder doses most important factors are patient′s age, disease stage, duration between EBRT and HDR-ICRT and patient anatomy, but these differences can be minimized to some extent by careful application, proper packing and proper fixation.

  12. Characterisation of blue-light stimulated luminescence components in different quartz samples: Implications for dose measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    -aliquot dose-evaluation protocols seem to be relatively free of complications when applied to quartz dominated by the fast OSL component coming from 325degreesC TL region, but this may not be true for quartz in which other components are more significant. An adequate understanding of how different OSL...... results from measurement of (a) sensitisation, (b) thermal stability, (c) recuperation, and (d) infrared response as a function of stimulation temperature from 3 different samples of sedimentary quartz selected on the basis of relative OSL contribution from different blue light stimulated linearly...

  13. Study on differential transcriptional profile in human hepatocyte exposed to different doses γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Wen Jianhua; Duan Zhikai; Tian Yu; Wang Fang; Zuo Yahui

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzed the differential transcriptional profile of normal human hepatic cell and human hepatic cell radiated with three different doses (0.5 Gy, 2 Gy, 4 Gy γ ray) by gene chip technique. The results showed that the whole differentially expressed genes of three different doses have 284 in 14112 human genes analyzed, in which 261 genes were up-regulated and 23 genes were down-regulated. These genes are mainly associated with interferon receptor, mitochondrial regulation, homo sapiens hepatitis A virus cellular receptor, cell cycle regulation, kinase and zinc finger protein etc. RT-PCR results indicated that up-regulated expression of gene HAVcr-1, HAVcr-2, MFTC, MOAP1 and down-regulated expression of gene TRIP12, DCN are consistent with gene chip data. (authors)

  14. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  15. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; O'Dell, M Cody; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA(2) by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  16. Influence of different doses of octenidine hexafluorosilicate on parodontotium state of rat, which received cariesogenic ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Anisimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine of parodontium state of rat, which received cariesogenic ration and different doses of octenidine hexafluorosilicate (O-HFS. Methods: The octenidine hexafluorosilicate was synthesized by us and was used into mucoso-adgesive gels (Na-CMC in next concentrations: 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml. The rats received high-sugar cariesogenic ration and oral applications of gels with O-HFS in doses of 0,3 ml (daily doses of O-HFS were 1,4 mg/kg, 2,8 mg/kg and 5,6 mg/kg. The duration of experiment was 35 days. The activities of urease, lysozyme and elastase were determined into gum. The activities of urease, lysozyme, ALT and alkaline phosphatase (APh were determined into serum. The degree of dysbiosis calculated by ration urease and lysozyme. The degree of atrophy of parodontale bone was determined by Nicolaeva method. Results: The activities of elastase and urease, the degree of atrophy and dysbiosis were raised into gum of rat, which received cariesogenic ration. The activities of ALT and APh, the degree of dysbiosis were raised into serum. The oral application of O-HFS-gels decreased the all these indices. The maximal action made O-HFS-gel in dose 2,8 mg/kg. Conclusion: The oral application of O-HFS-gel make parodontoprotective action.

  17. Different gamma ray (60 Co) dose effects on Sorghum genotype germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabosa, Jose Nildo; Gomes, Roberto Vicente; Reis, Odemar Vicente dos; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2004-01-01

    In agriculture, applying irradiation is a very valuable way of obtaining vegetable products for human and animal consumption. Cobalt-60, one of the main sources of gamma-rays, is considered an important tool in plant breeding programs, which have the objective of promoting genetic variability of cultivars with resistance to adverse environments. In this research, the effects of different 60 Co doses on germination vigor and seed germination velocity of forage sorghum genotypes were evaluated. The study was carried out at the IPA (Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The work was installed in germination boxes, following laboratory recommendations. Thus, a experiment involving three sorghum genotypes (IPA 467-4-2, IPA 02-03-01, and Sudan 4202), five 60 Co doses (Zero, 150, 300, 350, and 400 Gy), was set up. The sees were irradiated before the beginning of the experiment being exposed to gamma rays from a 60 Co-source (cobalt irradiator) at DEN (Nuclear Engineering Department) of the UFPE (Pernambuco Federal University), Brazil. The work also had the objective of evaluating the sorghum genotypes x 60 Co dose interaction. The main results obtained showed that the sorghum genotype IPA 02-03-01 presented the greatest values of germination and vigor percentages, and seed germination velocity, when compared to the others evaluated, on 350 and 400 Gy of 60 Co doses. (author)

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of raspberries (Rubus idaeus treated with different doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Costa Guimarães

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raspberries exposed to different radiation doses. The fruits were harvested in the city of Campestre, MG, packed in polyethylene bags, and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, where they were separated into 4 lots. Irradiation was performed at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology in Belo Horizonte, MG. The doses used were 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, the fruits were transported back to UFLA and stored at 1 ºC and 95% relative humidity (RH for 12 days. The physicochemical analyses for mass loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble sugars, total soluble pectin, firmness, vitamin C content, total antioxidant activity, and total phenolic, and the microbiological assays (coliform at 35 and 45 ºC, psychrotrophic and filamentous fungi and yeasts were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage. Lower loss of mass and filamentous fungi and yeast count were observed in the irradiated fruits, and 2 kGy was determined as the most effective dose for microbial control, but this irradiation dose also resulted in increased loss of fruit firmness.

  19. Mechanical and Physical Studies on Different Doses of Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada Ramli; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Khairul Hisyam Mohamed Yusof; Najib Mohammmad Zakey; Hafizuddin Maseri

    2014-01-01

    RVNRL mixture of 12 kGy (RVNRL12) and 25 kGy (RVNRL25) at different blending ratios were prepared by stirring the mixture using a magnetic stirrer RVNRL at a speed of 1-3 rpm overnight to get the dough consistency. RVNRL12 with RVNRL25 attendance at a ratio of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 investigated. The study of physical and mechanical properties of 12/ 25 blends RVNRL performed on film samples prepared by immersion method coagulant. RVNRL25 result of the addition of the mixture RVNRL12 showed an increase in tensile strength mixture ratio of 90:10 RVNRL12 / RVNRL25 and tensile strength are declining at a ratio higher RVNRL25 content. Increase the tensile strength was found to increase due to the impact of lower doses of dough RVNRL12 and RVNRL25. This shows that blending RVNRL lower doses help improve the physical properties of latex due to exposure dose exceeding the dose required RVNRL. (author)

  20. Uncertainties in the correction factors as the dose polarization and recombination at different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo Luque, L.; Rodriguez Romero, R.; Castro Tejero, P.; Fandino Lareo, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the measures and uncertainties of the correction factors for dose-polarization (k, 1) and recombination (k,) of different ionization chambers plane-parallel and cylindrical. The values ??have been obtained using photon and electron beams of various energies generated by linear accelerators nominal Varian 21EX CLJNAC Tomotherapy Hi-Art and JI. We study the cases in which you can avoid the application of the factors obtained, according to the criteria proposed

  1. Evaluation of image quality and dose in renal colic: comparison of different spiral-CT protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondini, A.; Mucelli, R.P.; Dalla Palma, L.; De Denaro, M.; Bregant, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test different technical spiral-CT parameters to obtain optimal image quality with reduced X-ray dose. Images were acquired with a spiral-CT system Philips Tomoscan AVE1, using 250 mA, 120 kV, and 1-s rotational time. Three protocols were tested: protocol A with 5-mm thickness, pitch 1.6, slice reconstruction every 2.5 mm; protocol B with 3-mm thickness, pitch 1.6, slice reconstruction every 1.5 mm; and protocol C with 3-mm thickness, pitch 2, slice reconstruction every 1.5 mm. Two phantoms were employed to evaluate the image quality. Axial images were acquired, then sagittal and coronal images were reconstructed. Finally, the absorbed X-ray dose for each protocol was measured. Regarding image quality, 5-mm-thick images (protocol A) showed greater spatial resolution and lower noise compared with 3-mm-thick images (protocols B and C) on the axial plane; 3-mm reconstructed sagittal and coronal images (protocols B and C) showed an improved image quality compared with 5-mm reformatted images (protocol A). Concerning X-ray dose, the mean dose was: protocol A 19.6±0.8 mGy; protocol B 14.4±0.6 mGy; protocol C 12.5±1.0 mGy. Our study supports the use of thin slices (3 mm) combined with pitch of 1.6 or 2 in renal colic for X-ray dose reduction to the patient and good image quality. (orig.)

  2. Quality characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with different dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji; Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: polibrito@yahoo.com.br; cvroque@cnen.gov.br; htfukuma@cnen.gov.br; hgomes@cnen.gov.br; Cipolli, Katia Maria Vieira Avelar Bittencourt [Sao Paulo Agribusiness Technology Agency (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista]. E-mail: katiacipolli@aptaregional.sp.gov.br; Pereira, Jose Luiz [Campinas State University UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Food Sciences]. E-mail: pereira@fea.unicamp.br

    2007-07-01

    Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) is a low cost raw material used in the production of emulsified prepared food, but presents a favorable medium for development of microorganisms. Several studies were carried out with irradiation of edible goods in order to establish a dose that would be capable of decreasing levels of microorganisms without altering the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the food. Frozen samples of MDCM with skin were irradiated with doses of 0.0 kGy, 3.0 kGy-4.04 kGy.h{sup -1}, and 3.0- 0.32 kGy.h{sup -1}. Individual lots of irradiated and control samples were evaluated during the 11 day refrigeration period for the following parameters: total count of psychotropic bacteria, substances reactive to Thiobarbituric Acid, sensorial evaluation (irradiated odor, oxidized odor, pink and brown colors). The average values in this period were 4.28 log (CFU.g{sup -1}), 2.32 log (CFU.g{sup -1}), and 1.68 log (CFU.g{sup -1}) for control samples, low and high dose rate, respectively. TBARS average values for control samples, low and high dose rate were 0.38 mg.Mal.kg{sup -1}, 2.89 mg.Mal.kg{sup -1}, and 3.64 mg.Mal.kg{sup -}'1, respectively. A difference between irradiated samples and the control sample was observed. The 3.0 kGy-4.04 kGy.h{sup -1} dose rate was verified as the best condition for MDCM processing through the evaluation of all the variables in the conditions of the present study. (author)

  3. Computer-aided pulmonary nodule detection. Performance of two CAD systems at different CT dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Patrick Alexander; Rogalla, P.; Klessen, C.; Lembcke, A.; Romano, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose reduction on the performance of computer-aided lung nodule detection systems (CAD) of two manufacturers by comparing respective CAD results on ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULD-CT) and standard dose CT (SD-CT). Materials and Methods: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data sets of 26 patients (13 male and 13 female, patients 31 - 74 years old) were retrospectively selected for CAD analysis. Indication for CT examination was staging of a known primary malignancy or suspected pulmonary malignancy. CT images were consecutively acquired at 5 mAs (ULD-CT) and 75 mAs (SD-CT) with 120kV tube voltage (1 mm slice thickness). The standard of reference was determined by three experienced readers in consensus. CAD reading algorithms (pre-commercial CAD system, Philips, Netherlands: CAD-1; LungCARE, Siemens, Germany: CAD-2) were applied to the CT data sets. Results: Consensus reading identified 253 nodules on SD-CT and ULD-CT. Nodules ranged in diameter between 2 and 41 mm (mean diameter 4.8 mm). Detection rates were recorded with 72% and 62% (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 73% and 56% for ULD-CT. Median also positive rates per patient were calculated with 6 and 5 (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 8 and 3 for ULD-CT. After separate statistical analysis of nodules with diameters of 5 mm and greater, the detection rates increased to 83% and 61% for SD-CT and to 89% and 67% for ULD-CT (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2). For both CAD systems there were no significant differences between the detection rates for standard and ultra-low-dose data sets (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dose reduction of the underlying CT scan did not significantly influence nodule detection performance of the tested CAD systems. (orig.)

  4. Influence of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang; Zhang Lianlian; Ma Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, so as to choose optimal anode/filter combination to reduce radiation injury without scarifying image quality. Methods: Mammography accredition phantoms with the thickness from 1.6 cm to 8.6 cm were used to simulate human breast tissue. The same exposure conditions, pressure, compression thickness. and different anode/filter combination were employed under the automatic and manual exposure modes. The image kV, mAs, pressure, filter, average glandular dose (ACD), contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were recorded and the figure of merit (FOM) was calculated. SPSS 17.0 and one-way analysis of variance were used in the statistical analysis. Results: As the phantom thickness increase, the ACD values which were acquired with Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, and W/Ag three different anode/filter combinations were increased, but CNR and FOM values were decreased, ACD, CNR, and FOM values which were acquired in the phantom with different thickness, and three different anode/filter combinations were statistically different (P=0.000, respectively). The ACD values of Mo/Mo were lowest. For 1.6 cm-2.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of Mo/Rh were lowest, and for 3.6 cm-8.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of W/Ag were lowest. Conclusion: Phantom thickness in 1.6 cm-2.6 cm and 3.6 cm-8.6 cm. Mo/Rh combination and W/Ag combination respectively can achieve the highest FOM, and can provide the best imaging quality with low radiation dose. (authors)

  5. Dose verification with different ion chambers for SRT/SBRT plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, I. F.; Tas, B.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    Verification of patient plan is very important in stereotactic treatments. VMAT plans were prepared with 6MV-FFF or 10MV-FFF energies for 25 intracranial and extracranial stereotactic patients. Absolute dose was measured for dose verification in each plans. Iba® CC01, Iba® CC04, Iba® CC13 ion chambers placed at a depth of 5cm in solid phantom (RW3). Also we scanned this phantom with ion chambers by Siemens® Biograph mCT. QA plans were prepared by transferring twenty five patient plans to phantom assemblies for three ion chambers. All plans were performed separately for three ion chambers at Elekta® Versa HD linear accelerator. Statistical analysis of results were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Difference between dose values were determined %1.84±3.4 (p: 0.001) with Iba CC13 ion chamber, %1.80±3.4 (p: 0.002) with Iba CC04 ion chamber and %0.29±4.6 (p: 0.667) with Iba CC01 ion chamber. In stereotactic treatments, dosimetric uncertainty increases in small areas. We determined more accurate results with small sized detectors. Difference between TPS calculations and all measurements were founded lower than %2.

  6. Effect on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi under agroecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research work was carried out in areas of the Agricultural Production Cooperative "Carlos Bastida Argüello" in Cauto Cristo municipality of Cuban province of Granma in the period between November 2013 and February 2014, on a fluvisol soil at a plantation distance of 0.90 x 0.30 m, in order to evaluate the effect of different doses of organic manure bocashi on the productive response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. variety "Vyta". The treatments consisted of the application of three doses of manure "bocashi" and a control without application. A randomized complete block design with three repetitions was used and the evaluated variables were: the yield and its components (number of bunches per plant, number of fruits per plant, mass of fruits per plant, polar and equatorial diameter of the fruit and mesocarp thickness. The data obtained were submitted to a variance analysis of double classification with the use of SPSS version 22. In case of significant differences between treatments a Tukey test was performed for comparison of means. The results showed that treatment with application of organic manure had a positive influence on the yield and majority of yield components values. The yields values were higher in the three doses of organic manure than in the control treatment and yield increased with the increase of dosage of organic manure.

  7. Differences among doses for neuro-axis radiotherapy planning in the gonadal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.F de; Vilela, E.C.; Oliveira, F.L.; Filho, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy can disrupt the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, directly causing ovarian deficiencies, such as the decrease in fertility or damage that renders the uterus incapable of accommodating the growth of a fetus. However, these issues have become increasingly important to a growing number of pediatric and adolescent cancer survivors. The whole-body, cranial-spinal axis, as well as abdomen and pelvic region irradiations may expose the ovaries to radiation and may cause premature ovarian failure, whereas doses above 35 Gy cranial can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary functions. This study performed a comparison of four doses of radiotherapy planning techniques for the neural axis. For this analysis, technical simulations were performed for the treatment of medulloblastoma in four different planning, applied in a RANDO anthropomorphic phantom and dosimeters (TLD-100). The radiation fields in the 1”st and 2”nd planning were 40 x 5 cm”2 and 17 x 5 cm”2 with 4.0 cm depth, in which doses were 0.03 and 0.05 Gy / day and 0.11 and 0.09 Gy / days, on the right and left sides, respectively. The 3”rd and 4”th measured planning 32 x 7 cm”2 and 18 x 7 cm”2, with a 2 cm gap and a 4.0 and 5.0 cm depth, in which doses were 1.08 and 0.2 Gy/day and 1.14 and 0.14 Gy/day, on the left and right sides, respectively. It could be observed that the doses in the ovaries in the 3”rd and 4”th schedules proved to be larger than the doses in the 1 s t and 2 n d planning. This is caused by the spinal field width and the depth of the second spinal field, which is 1.0 cm more than the field of the 1”st and 2”nd planning. These differences should be observed in image planning, as incorrect measures can cause damage in the treatment finish. (authors)

  8. Treatment planning using MRI data: an analysis of the dose calculation accuracy for different treatment regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Mikael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of superior soft tissue contrast, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a complement to computed tomography (CT in the target definition procedure for radiotherapy is increasing. To keep the workflow simple and cost effective and to reduce patient dose, it is natural to strive for a treatment planning procedure based entirely on MRI. In the present study, we investigate the dose calculation accuracy for different treatment regions when using bulk density assignments on MRI data and compare it to treatment planning that uses CT data. Methods MR and CT data were collected retrospectively for 40 patients with prostate, lung, head and neck, or brain cancers. Comparisons were made between calculations on CT data with and without inhomogeneity corrections and on MRI or CT data with bulk density assignments. The bulk densities were assigned using manual segmentation of tissue, bone, lung, and air cavities. Results The deviations between calculations on CT data with inhomogeneity correction and on bulk density assigned MR data were small. The maximum difference in the number of monitor units required to reach the prescribed dose was 1.6%. This result also includes effects of possible geometrical distortions. Conclusions The dose calculation accuracy at the investigated treatment sites is not significantly compromised when using MRI data when adequate bulk density assignments are made. With respect to treatment planning, MRI can replace CT in all steps of the treatment workflow, reducing the radiation exposure to the patient, removing any systematic registration errors that may occur when combining MR and CT, and decreasing time and cost for the extra CT investigation.

  9. Influence of different exposure modes on image quality and radiation dose in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Wang Xia; Li Xiaokang; Liu Peifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different exposure modes on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, and to explore how to reduce patient's radiation injury by choosing proper exposure mode and exposure conditions without sacrifice image quality. Methods: A breast phantom was exposed by using automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V) and manual exposure modes (37.5 to 70 mAs range, 24 to 32 kV range) respectively. Same oppression thickness and pressure were set for all modes. The average glandular dose (AGD), entrance surface dose (ESD), and image quality score according to American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria were recorded for each image. Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the image quality scores between automatic and manual modes. All statistic analyses were performed by using SPSS17.0. Results: Compared to automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V), the overall score of image quality of manual modes (45 to 70 mAs range, 26 to 32 kV range) had no significant difference. Both ESD and ACD decreased 26.1% and increased 15.4% when the tube loading was changed from 60 mAs to 45 mAs and 70 mAs respectively. The ESD and ACD decreased 22.6%, 28.2% and increased 47.0%, 62.7% when the tube voltage was changed from 28 kV to 26 kV and 32 kV respectively. Conclusion: When the image quality reaches to a certain level, it will not be raised by a higher photographic condition. Without sacrifice image quality, the tube loading and tube voltage can be manually decreased to reduce radiation dose. (authors)

  10. Dose-response curves for fish MFO induction: How do we interpret different maxima and slopes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Induction of hepatic mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity has been useful for screening effluents from pulp mills and oil refineries. Effluents and pure compounds can be assessed by direct fish exposure or by concentration with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by measuring MFO in fish liver cell lines exposed to SPMD extracts. In these experiments, both fish and fish cells showed differences in slopes of dose-response curves, and in the maximal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. For example, TCDD elicits an EROD maxima of over 500 pmol/mg/min in PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), while pulp mill and oil refinery effluent extracts showed maxima of 40 to 200 pmol/mg/min. Substituted phenanthrenes caused induction maxima of 100 pmol/mg/min. Similarly, in rainbow trout in vivo, TCDD and other chlorinated dioxins and furans induced up to 500 pmol/mg/min, whereas pulp mill and refinery effluents and substituted phenanthrenes produced EROD maxima of up to 100 pmol/mg/min. Differences in the slopes of dose-response curves were also common. In the current assessment of potencies, these diverse response curves are boiled-down to one number, the EC50 or other threshold-type of concentration. Comparisons of EC50s cannot express these differences and instead, ignore them. However, the authors realize there must be a better approach that takes into account these large differences in dose-response curve shape, slope and maxima. Interaction and discussions with modelers in the session will allow them to discuss various approaches to expressing the potencies of MFO inducers in fish

  11. A comprehensive comparative study of the pre-dose effect for three quartz crystals of different origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitis, G.; Pagonis, V.; Chen, R.; Polymeris, G.

    2006-01-01

    The study of the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity of quartz due to heat and irradiation treatments is of importance in dating and retrospective dosimetry. A comprehensive comparative study of the pre-dose effect was carried out for three types of quartz of different origin. Complete TL vs. dose and sensitivity S vs. pre-dose curves were obtained for the dose range of 0.1 < D < 400 Gy. Additional complete sensitivity vs. pre-dose curves were obtained for samples which underwent a combined pre-dose irradiation and a subsequent heat treatment to 500 deg. C. Although the TL vs. dose curves showed very different behaviours, the sensitivity vs. pre-dose curves showed several common characteristics. The sensitivity vs. pre-dose curves showed abrupt changes ∼10 Gy. The sensitivity after a combined pre-dose irradiation and heat treatment to 500 deg. C showed a very gradual change in the whole dose range studied. These results are explained qualitatively by using the modified Zimmerman model for quartz. (authors)

  12. A comparison of two different processing chemicals for mammography: Repercussion on dose to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendra-Portero, F.; Ristori-Bogajo, E.; Buch-Tome, P.; Martinez-Morillo, M.; Nava-Baro, E.

    2001-01-01

    The main technical objective of screen-film mammography is to reach the best image quality with the lowest dose to the breast. Sensitometric gradient and speed are factors related to both subjects respectively. For a given choice of film, these factors are affected by processing variables. For this reason, manufacturers have developed different types of films that are recommended for particular processing conditions. The purpose of this work is to compare the variations of both sensitometric characteristics of mammographic screen and film systems induced by two different manufactured chemicals: RPX-Omat EX/LO (Kodak) and G139/G334 (Agfa). A comparison of thirteen mammographic films by means of light sensitometry was performed at different processing conditions: 90s/Kodak, 120s/Kodak, 180s/Kodak, 90s/Agfa, 120s/Agfa and 180s/Agfa. Secondly, 99 combinations of screens and films were evaluated by X-ray sensitometry at 120s/Kodak and 120s/Agfa processing. At light sensitometry, variations in processing time led to different modifications in film speed, depending on the chemicals used. At X-Ray sensitometry, Agfa chemicals induced higher values of sensitivity for almost all combinations, while Kodak chemicals gave higher gradient/speed quotient. The results show that dose to patients in mammography and image contrast are highly dependent on the chemicals selected at medium cycle (120s) processing. (author)

  13. A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Giuseppe [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Monti, Serena [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); D' Avino, Vittoria [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Conson, Manuel [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Liuzzi, Raffaele [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pressello, Maria Cristina [Department of Health Physics, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Donato, Vittorio [Department of Radiation Oncology, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Quarantelli, Mario [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pacelli, Roberto [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Cella, Laura, E-mail: laura.cella@cnr.it [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To apply a voxel-based (VB) approach aimed at exploring local dose differences associated with late radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). Methods and Materials: An interinstitutional database of 98 patients who were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with postchemotherapy supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy was analyzed in the study. Eighteen patients experienced late RILD, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Each patient's computed tomographic (CT) scan was normalized to a single reference case anatomy (common coordinate system, CCS) through a log-diffeomorphic approach. The obtained deformation fields were used to map the dose of each patient into the CCS. The coregistration robustness and the dose mapping accuracy were evaluated by geometric and dose scores. Two different statistical mapping schemes for nonparametric multiple permutation inference on dose maps were applied, and the corresponding P<.05 significance lung subregions were generated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-based test was performed on the mean dose extracted from each subregion. Results: The coregistration process resulted in a geometrically robust and accurate dose warping. A significantly higher dose was consistently delivered to RILD patients in voxel clusters near the peripheral medial-basal portion of the lungs. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) from the mean dose of the voxel clusters was higher than the corresponding AUC derived from the total lung mean dose. Conclusions: We implemented a framework including a robust registration process and a VB approach accounting for the multiple comparison problem in dose-response modeling, and applied it to a cohort of HL survivors to explore a local dose–RILD relationship in the lungs. Patients with RILD received a significantly greater dose in parenchymal regions where low doses (∼6 Gy) were delivered. Interestingly, the relation between differences in the high-dose

  14. Neutron spectrometry and determination of neutron ambient dose equivalents in different LINAC radiotherapy rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, C.; Garcia-Fuste, M.J.; Morales, E.; Amgarou, K.; Terron, J.A.; Rosello, J.; Brualla, L.; Nunez, L.; Colmenares, R.; Gomez, F.; Hartmann, G.H.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.; Fernandez, F.

    2010-01-01

    A project has been set up to study the effect on a radiotherapy patient of the neutrons produced around the LINAC accelerator head by photonuclear reactions induced by photons above ∼8 MeV. These neutrons may reach directly the patient, or they may interact with the surrounding materials until they become thermalised, scattering all over the treatment room and affecting the patient as well, contributing to peripheral dose. Spectrometry was performed with a calibrated and validated set of Bonner spheres at a point located at 50 cm from the isocenter, as well as at the place where a digital device for measuring neutrons, based on the upset of SRAM memories induced by thermal neutrons, is located inside the treatment room. Exposures have taken place in six LINAC accelerators with different energies (from 15 to 23 MV) with the aim of relating the spectrometer measurements with the readings of the digital device under various exposure and room geometry conditions. The final purpose of the project is to be able to relate, under any given treatment condition and room geometry, the readings of this digital device to patient neutron effective dose and peripheral dose in organs of interest. This would allow inferring the probability of developing second malignancies as a consequence of the treatment. Results indicate that unit neutron fluence spectra at 50 cm from the isocenter do not depend on accelerator characteristics, while spectra at the place of the digital device are strongly influenced by the treatment room geometry.

  15. Regularity of wound healing in rats irradiated locally with different doses of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianzhong; Zhou Yuanguo; Cheng Tianmin; Zhou Ping; Liu Xia; Li Ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the regular patter of wound healing in rats irradiated locally with different doses of soft X-rays. Methods: Rats were locally irradiated, and wounded immediately thereafter. Gross observation, histopathology and immunohistochemistry examinations, and image analysis were used to study the wound healing process. Results: The authors found that the delayed time of wound healing induced by soft X-ray irradiation of 0.50, 1.01, 1.96, 3,26, 4.00, 5.21 Gy was 1.6, 4.2, 5.4, 6.6, 8.2 and 9.4 days, respectively. Irradiation with 7.0 and 10.0 Gy caused failure of wound healing (up to 40 days). Compared to the non-irradiated wounds, the healing rates of irradiation-impaired wounds were lower during the whole healing process. From day 3 to day 9 after irradiation, the healing rates decreased along with increasing of the radiation dose, indicating the key phase of wound healing was delayed. After irradiation, the collagen synthesis was decreased, its arrangement was disordered, and the structure of granulation tissue was irregular. Conclusion: Soft X-rays irradiation may cause a delay of wound healing in a dose-dependent manner, and irradiation with 7.0 and 10.0 Gy cause failure of wound healing

  16. Different body doses under frequently taken biomedical radiography of equal indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossel, F.

    1981-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)/ICR26 77/ has re-emphasized the importance of optimizing the radiation exposure in diagnostic X-ray procedures. Techniques and equipment should allow the reduction of doses received by the tissues in the examined body region to a minimum value compatible with obtaining the necessary information in each individual patient. While the dose received by the examined region of the body can be assessed, a quantification of the extent of information required is essentially more difficult. A possibility to achieve this end lies in the application of comparable parameters described in recognized textbooks. The results indicate that on one hand the projections of details in the examined body region, which are of diagnostic importance for the medical evaluation, are in good agreement and also the mean density of the X-ray film. The recommended exposure data, on the other hand, may lead to differences in organ doses that are factors apart. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioprotective effect of RSP-CM on mice irradiated with different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Yang Rujun; Zhang Xin; Yang Yunfang; Jin Zhijun; Xiang Yingsong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radioprotective effects of cytokines on hematopoietic impairment of irradiated mice. Methods: Using RSP-CM and LP3-CM respectively originated GM-CSF and G-CSF to treat ICR mice irradiated with different doses of 60 Co γ-rays. The 30-day survival rate of mice, the mean survival days of dead mice were determined and the numbers of peripheral white blood cells and BMC of part of the mice were counted. At the same time, GM clonogenic activity of BM was assayed. Results:RSP-CM could effectively raise 30-day survival rate of mice irradiated with 7.5 Gy. However, LP3-CM had no obvious effect. Judging from the comparative survival ratio, only the RSP-CM treated group showed protective effect on the 8.0 Gy -irradiated mice. The 8.5 Gy-irradiated mice all died within 30 days, indicating that GM-CSF had weak effect on higher dose-irradiated mice. Conclusion: GM-CSF can stimulate the hematopoietic system of irradiated mice, and has dose-effect and time-effect relations. M-CSF used singly has no obvious effect

  18. Serious complications in experiments in which UV doses are effected by using different lamp heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stephan D; Ryel, Ronald J; Hudelson, Timothy J; Caldwell, Martyn M

    2009-10-06

    Many experiments examining plant responses to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315nm) simply compare an enhanced UV-B treatment with ambient UV-B (or no UV-B radiation in most greenhouse and controlled-environment studies). Some more detailed experiments utilize multiple levels of UV-B radiation. A number of different techniques have been used to adjust the UV dose. One common technique is to place racks of fluorescent UV-emitting lamps at different heights above the plant canopy. However, the lamps and associated support structure cast shadows on the plant bed below. We calculated one example of the sequence of shade intervals for two common heights of lamp racks and show the patterns and duration of shade which the plants receive is distributed differently over the course of the day for different heights of the lamp racks. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment with plants (canola, sunflower and maize) grown under unenergized lamp racks suspended at the same two heights above the canopy. Growth characteristics differed in unpredictable ways between plants grown under the two heights of lamp racks. These differences could enhance or obscure potential UV-B effects. Also, differences in leaf mass per unit foliage area, which were observed in this experiment, could contribute to differences in plant UV-B sensitivity. We recommend the use of other techniques for achieving multiple doses of UV-B radiation. These range from simple and inexpensive approaches (e.g., wrapping individual fluorescent tubes in layers of a neutral-density filter such as cheese cloth) to more technical and expensive alternatives (e.g., electronically modulated lamp control systems). These choices should be determined according to the goals of the particular experiment.

  19. The difference in backscatter factors of diagnostic X-rays by the difference in the scattering medium and in the objective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hideki; Sakai, Keita; Uchiyama, Mizuki; Suzuki, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of the general X-ray radiography are defined by the absorbed dose of air at the entrance surface with backscattered radiation from a scattering medium. Generally, the entrance surface dose of the general X-ray radiography is calculated from measured air kerma of primary X-ray multiplied by a backscatter factor (BSF). However, the BSF data employed at present used water for scattering medium, and was calculated based on the water-absorbed dose by incident primary photons and backscattered photons from the scattering medium. In the calculation of air dose at the entrance surface defined in DRLs, there are no theoretical consistencies for using BSF based on water dose, and this may be a cause of calculation error. In this paper, we verified the difference in BSF by the difference in the scattering medium and by the difference in the objective dose by means of the Monte Carlo simulation. In this calculation, the scattering medium was set as water and the soft-tissue, and the objective dose was set as air dose, water dose, soft-tissue dose, and skin dose. The difference in BSF calculated by the respective combination was at most about 1.3% and was less than 1% in most cases. In conclusion, even if the entrance surface dose defined by DRLs of general X-ray radiography is calculated using BSF, which set both the scattering medium and the object substance of the absorbed dose as water, a so big error doesn't show. (author)

  20. Determining lethal dose of gamma radiation on different stages of Tribolium Cosmonauts H b s t

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfagharieh, H.R.; Majd, F.; Torshyzie, M.; Babaie, M.

    1992-10-01

    Pest infestation causes great losses to stored grain through out the world. This is specially true in developing countries where the technology is less advanced, and climatic conditions are extremely favourable for the development of pests. Irradiation is on approved method of direct control for stored-product insect in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and in dictation are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products and other dry food commodities. Radiation doses required to kill or sterilized the most important storage pests in all stages are known. However irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radiosensitivity of stored-product insects shows the different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern. The effect of irradiation on insects are many, and varied, depending primarily on the species, stage, age and physical factors. The aim is to survey the effect of gamma radiation on stored pest, which can categorized under following classes: 1-The effect of gamma radiation on different stages grow of tribolium castaneum (H B S T); 2-Determination of lethal doses.; 3-The study of gamma radiation on products. In summary these information indicated that fairly low dosages of gamma radiation could be used on commodities such as bulk grain in which some infestation by insect stages of irradiation would be required on products such package foods where hundred percent mortality must be obtain. (author)

  1. Investigations on the effects of low dose irradiation on different bulbous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.; Fendrik, I.

    1983-01-01

    Dormant bulbs, and bulbs with the first emergent leaf, of species of tulip, crocus, iris, scilla, eranthus, galanthus and muscari, were irradiated with low doses of X-rays. Four parameters were investigated when the plants flowered:-plant height, flower number, fresh weight and dry weight. The effects of irradiation of dormant bulbs and one-leaf plants on these four parameters were tabulated for the different species. Results agree with previous experiments and indicate greater radiation effects on plant compared to bulb irradiation. (U.K.)

  2. Apoptosis of bone marrow leukemia cells in mice after low dose radiation at different time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyu; Yu Mingming; Li Xianjun; Liu Zhixiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the apoptosis of bone marrow leukemia cell in mice after low dose radiation (LDR) at different time and the experimental basis for LDR auxiliary therapy on leukemia. Methods: WEHI-3 cells were injected into BALB/c mice through tail veins to make an experimental mice model of myelornonocytic leukemia. 60 leukemia mice models were divided half-and half. 30 mice models in experimental group were irradiated with LDR of 75mGy at the same time while the others 30 in the control group were not. 6 mice models with LDR and 6 mice models without LDR would be killed at the time the 1st day, the 2nd day, the 3rd day, the 5th day- and the l0th day after LDR in order to extract bone marrow samples. The apoptosis percentage of leukemia cells in bone marrow was examined. Results: The apoptosis percentage of leukemia cells in experimental group was increasing after LDR and went to top on the 2nd day and the 3rd day. The apoptosis percentage of leukemia cells was remarkably different between experimental and control group, all P<0.05. Conclusion: LDR could significantly increase the apoptosis percentage of bone marrow leukemia cells in mice. Its mechanism is remarkably different in kill and wound of big dose radiation to tumour cells. It is probably related to of the increase immune exciting response as to promote some cytokine secretion, in leukemia mice. (authors)

  3. [Effect of low-dose or standard-dose conjugated equine estrogen combined with different progesterone on bone density in menopause syndrome women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, H L; Deng, Y; Wang, Y F; Gao, L L; Xue, W; Zhu, S Y; Ma, X; Sun, A J

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To explore the effect of low-dose or standard-dose conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) combined with natural progesterone or dydrogesterone on bone density in menopause syndrome women. Methods: Totally 123 patients with menopause syndrome were recruited and randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: group A (low-dose CEE+progesterone) , group B (standard-dose CEE+progesterone) , group C (standard-dose CEE+dydrogesterone) . Using continuous sequential regimen, the duration of intervention was 12 cycles. The bone mineral density of lumbar 2-4 and neck of femur, the bone metabolic markers, the level of FSH and estradiol were examined just before the drug administration and 12 months after the beginning of experiment. Results: There were 107 cases completed the one year trial. (1) Bone density: after 12 cycles of treatment, there was no significant change in bone density in group A ( P> 0.05) ; lumbar vertebrae of group B and C increased significantly, at 3.0% and 2.1%respectively (all Pdensity of left femoral neck of group C significantly increased by 2.9% ( P= 0.029) . There was no significant difference among the treatment groups at the beginning of experiment ( P> 0.05) . (2) Bone metabolic markers: after 12 cycles of treatment, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, Ca/Cr decreased significantly, the difference were statistically significant (all P 0.05) . (3) Levels of FSH and estradiol: after 12 cycles of treatment, the levels of FSH in three groups were decreased significantly (all P 0.05) . Conclusions: Both low-dose and standard-dose menopause hormone therapy (MHT) could elevate the level of estradiol, reduce bone turnover, prevent bone loss of postmenopausal women effectively. The standard dose of MHT could also increase the density of vertebrae and femoral neck, and generate more clinical benefits.

  4. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  5. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  6. On different types of hereditable changes in the viability of Amoeba protens cells x-irradiated with varying doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkovskaya, I.B.; Ochinskaya, G.K.; Erokhina, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Qualitatively different types of cells lethality have been observed in the posterity of amoebae irradiated with doses ranging from 0.5 to 40 kR and from 60 to 120 kR. At doses of 0.5 to 40 kR, a certain part of cells in a population dies, and the effect is characterized by stability and independency of a radiation dose, hereditable radiation damage of all the cells in the population, and by the fact that it might be caused not only by a derect action of radiation but also by a preirradiated culture medium. Higher doses (60 to 120 kR) cause a more drastic but sell stable effect. Depending on a dose value, a varying percentage of cells has shown the effect not being caused by the action of the preirradiated medium. The data obtained indicate that there are different mechanisms of hereditable radiation damages to cells caused by varying radiation doses

  7. Effect of different radiation dose rates on refrigerated mechanically deboned chicken meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Laboratorios de Pocos de Caldas (COLAB)]. E-mail: polibrito@yahoo.com.br; hgomes@cnen.gov.br; htfukuma@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    Samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) were irradiated while frozen with doses of 0.0 kGy, 3.0 kGy - 4.04 kGy.h{sup -1} and 3.0 kGy - 0.32 kGy.h{sup -1}. Individual lots of irradiated and non irradiated samples were evaluated for Substances Reactive to Thiobarbituric Acid (TBARS) and total count of psychotropic bacteria, while in refrigerated storage (2 {+-}1 deg C), for 11 days. The values for percentage of recovery for 1,1,3,3-tetraetoxipropane (TEP) and for conversion of the K value for samples irradiated with 3.0 kGy - 4.35 kGy.h{sup -1} and 3.0 kGy - 0.3 kGy.h{sup -1} and samples non irradiated were, respectively: 80.3 %, 70.3 % and 80.4 % and 9.1, 11.2 and 9.1. The results showed that there was not a difference for the TBARS values when irradiated and non irradiated samples were compared up to the forth day of refrigerated storage. Between the seventh and eleventh day of storage the TBARS values increased gradually when values obtained for non irradiated and those samples irradiated with doses of 3.0 kGy - 0.3 kGy.h{sup -1} and 3.0 kGy - 4.35 kGy.h{sup -1} were compared. The average values for psychotropic bacteria obtained for samples non irradiated and those irradiated with doses of 3.0 kGy - 0.32 kGy.h{sup -1} and 3.0 kGy - 4.04 kGy.h{sup -1}, during the second and eleventh day of frozen storage were respectively 6.68 log (UFC.g{sup -1}), 2.87 log (UFC.g{sup -1}) and 2.66 log (UFC.g{sup -1}). When both variables were evaluated, it was verified that samples irradiated with a dose rate of 0.32 kGy.{sup -1} presented the smallest values of TBARS than those samples irradiated with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h{sup -1}, from the seventh day of refrigerated storage and bacterial count within the legal limits allowed by the regulation, being considered the best dosage rate for processing MDCM, in the conditions of the present study. (author)

  8. Dose-response relationships of propranolol in Chinese subjects with different CYP2D6 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Wei; Lai, Ming-Liang; Lin, Min-Shung; Lee, Hwei-Ling; Huang, Jin-Ding

    2003-01-01

    For clinical treatment, a smaller dosage of propranolol is often used among Chinese people. Propranolol is metabolized by polymorphic CYP2D6. We postulate that the lower propranolol dosage in Chinese is due to a slower CYP2D6 metabolism. A majority of the Chinese population has the nucleotide T188 in the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*10) instead of C188 (CYP2D6*1), which most white subjects have. Chinese subjects of different CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*10 genotypes have been shown to have different propranolol pharmacokinetic characteristics. In this study, we compared the beta-blockade effects of propranolol in Chinese subjects of the two different CYP2D6 genotypes. Based on the nucleotide 188 genotypes, two groups of 10 healthy subjects each were selected. Each subject was given a 10-, 20-, or 40-mg rac-propranolol tablet three times a day for 3 days in 3 different phases. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured in both supine and upright positions. The heart rate was also determined during treadmill exercise test. Plasma concentration of S-propranolol at 2 hrs after the last-dose administration was measured. Despite therebeing higher S-propranolol plasma concentration in CYP2D6*10 subjects than in CYP2D6*1 subjects at 10- and 20-mg dosage, the dose-response relationship was not significantly different in these subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*10 polymorphism may affect the beta-blockade effect of propranolol in Chinese subjects.

  9. SU-E-T-422: Correlation Between 2D Passing Rates and 3D Dose Differences for Pretreatment VMAT QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, X; Xie, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) is typically using QA methods and action levels taken from fixedbeam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) QA methods. However, recent studies demonstrated that there is no correlation between the percent gamma passing rate (%GP) and the magnitude of dose discrepancy between the planned dose and the actual delivered dose for IMRT. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether %GP is correlated with clinical dosimetric difference for VMAT. Methods: Twenty nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with dual-arc simultaneous integrated boost VMAT and 20 esophageal cancer patients treated with one-arc VMAT were enrolled in this study. Pretreatment VMAT QA was performed by a 3D diode array ArcCheck. Acceptance criteria of 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, and 4%/4mm were applied for 2D %GP. Dose values below 10% of the per-measured normalization maximum dose were ignored.Mean DVH values obtained from 3DVH software and TPS were calculated and percentage dose differences were calculated. Statistical correlation between %GP and percent dose difference was studied by using Pearson correlation. Results: The %GP for criteria 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, and 4%/4mm were 82.33±4.45, 93.47±2.31, 97.13±2.41, respectively. Dose differences calculated from 3DVH and TPS for beam isocenter, mean dose of PTV, maximum dose of PTV, D2 of PTV and D98 of PTV were -1.04±3.24, -0.74±1.71, 2.92±3.62, 0.89±3.29, -1.46±1.97, respectively. No correction were found between %GP and dose differences. Conclusion: There are weak correlations between the 2D %GP and dose differences calculated from 3DVH. The %GP acceptance criteria of 3%/3mm usually applied for pretreatment QA of IMRT and VMAT is not indicating strong clinical correlation with 3D dose difference. 3D dose reconstructions on patient anatomy may be necessary for physicist to predict the accuracy of delivered dose for VMAT QA

  10. A 3-lever discrimination procedure reveals differences in the subjective effects of low and high doses of MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David N; Langen, Anna-Lena; Schenk, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies have suggested that the subjective effects of low doses of (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are readily differentiated from those of d-amphetamine (AMPH) and that the discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, respectively. Previous studies, however, have primarily examined responses to doses that do not produce substantial increases in extracellular dopamine. The present study determined whether doses of MDMA that produce increases in synaptic dopamine would also produce subjective effects that were more like AMPH and were sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of D1-like receptors. A three-lever drug discrimination paradigm was used. Rats were trained to respond on different levers following saline, AMPH (0.5mg/kg, IP) or MDMA (1.5mg/kg, IP) injections. Generalization curves were generated for a range of different doses of both drugs and the effect of the D1-like antagonist, SCH23390 on the discriminative stimulus effects of different doses of MDMA was determined. Rats accurately discriminated MDMA, AMPH and saline. Low doses of MDMA produced almost exclusive responding on the MDMA lever but at doses of 3.0mg/kg MDMA or higher, responding shifted to the AMPH lever. The AMPH response produced by higher doses of MDMA was attenuated by pretreatment with SCH23390. The data suggest that low doses and higher doses of MDMA produce distinct discriminative stimuli. The shift to AMPH-like responding following administration of higher doses of MDMA, and the decrease in this response following administration of SCH23390 suggests a dopaminergic component to the subjective experience of MDMA at higher doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Two Different Fractionation Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaprealian, Tania; Weinberg, Vivian; Speight, Joycelyn L.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Roach, Mack; Shinohara, Katsuto; Hsu, I.-Chow

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy × 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy × 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy × 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy × 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score ≥7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.

  12. Dental-CT: image quality and absorbed radiation dose of different scan protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorn, C.; Alamo, L.; Funke, M.; Grabbe, E.; Visser, H.; Hermann, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a scan protocol for dental-CT which guarantees good image quality at the lowest possible radiation dose. Methods: In an experimental investigation Dental-CT (HSA, GE, Milwaukee, USA) of the mandible of two human skeletons positioned in a water tank were performed in order to define the most advantageous scan protocol. Tube currents ranged from 40 to 200 mA and the scan technique was modified (axial mode or helical mode with pitches of 1 to 3 and corresponding increments of 0.4 to 1.0 mm). 39 patients underwent a dental-CT with decreased current (80 mA) in the helical scan mode (pitch 2, slice thickness 1 mm). Dose measurements were performed for two different scan protocols (A: axial, 130 mAs, B: helical, 80 mA, pitch 2). Results: The preliminary investigations of image quality showed only a minor effect of the applied current. For the helical scan mode, pitches of more than 2 impaired image quality. A low increment had no advantages. There were no disadvantages in clinical practice using protocol B with decreased tube current. Absorbed radiation dose of dental CT performed with protocol B was decreased to one third in comparison to protocol A. Conclusions: A scan protocol with a low tube current (e.g., 80 mA, for a rotation time of 1 s) and a helical scan mode (e.g., for a slice thickness of 1 mm with a pitch of 2 and an increment of 1 mm) is recommended for performing dental-CT. (orig.) [de

  13. Degradation of polylactic acid (Pla) at different doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo R, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of polymers such as polyethylene (PET), polystyrene (Ps) and recently the polylactic acid (Pla) that take more than 20 years to degrade, have caused great pollution in the environment. In this study the effects of gamma radiation in the Pla to different doses were studied, in order to reduce the degradation time of this polymer. The changes in physico-chemical structure of Pla during radiation were studied by thermo-gravimetric/Mass analysis; differential scanning calorimetry; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray dispersive analysis; infrared spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction and mechanical tests of hardness, elasticity and deformation. With scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of the Pla surface unirradiated was observed, in which an apparently smooth surface was observed, after changes that had the Pla when irradiated also was observed, where the effects of radiation were observed in form of scratch, agglomeration and small fractures. By X-ray dispersive analysis was determined and verified the elemental chemical composition of the Pla; as expected the tests showed only carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. With thermo-gravimetric/Mass analysis the decomposition temperatures of Pla were determined, identifying that the degradation compounds are CO, CO 2 and CH 4 . With infrared spectrometry the major peaks of Pla were observed before and after being irradiated with increasing of radiation dose the intensity of the bands decreased. Also by X-ray diffraction was observed that the polymer is an amorphous material. The mechanical tests indicate that the values of each of the tests decrease significantly with increasing the radiation dose. (Author)

  14. Study of Different Tissue Density Effects on the Dose Distribution of a 103Pd Brachytherapy Source Model MED3633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Mowlavi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical application of encapsulated radioactive brachytherapy sources has a major role in cancer treatment. In the present research, the effects of different tissue densities on the dose distribution of a 103Pd brachytherapy source in a spherical phantom of 50 cm radius have been studied. Material and Methods: As is well known, absorbed dose in tissue depends to its density, but this difference is not clear in measurements. Therefore, we applied the MCNP code to evaluate the effect of density on the dose distribution. 103Pd brachytherapy sources are used to treat prostate, breast and other cancers. Results: Absorbed dose has been calculated and presented around a source placed in the center of the phantom for different tissue densities. Also, we derived anisotropy and radial dose functions and compared our Monte Carlo results with experimental results of Rivard and Li et al. for F(1, θ and g(r in 1.040 g/cm3 tissue. Conclusion: The results of this study show that relative dose variations around the source center are very considerable at different densities, because of the presence of a photoabsorber (Au-Cu alloy in the source core. Dose variation exceeds 80% at the point (Z = 2.4 mm, Y = 0 mm. Computed values of anisotropy and radial dose functions are in good agreement with the experimental results of Rivard and Li et al.

  15. Reliability of single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) for dose estimation in quartz at different burial temperatures: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, D.K.; Pagonis, V.; Patil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) is a well-established technique for estimating naturally acquired radiation doses in quartz. This simulation work examines the reliability of SAR protocol for samples which experienced different ambient temperatures in nature in the range of −10 to 40 °C. The contribution of various experimental variables used in SAR protocols to the accuracy and precision of the method is simulated for different ambient temperatures. Specifically the effects of paleo-dose, test dose, pre-heating temperature and cut-heat temperature on the accuracy of equivalent dose (ED) estimation are simulated by using random combinations of the concentrations of traps and centers using a previously published comprehensive quartz model. The findings suggest that the ambient temperature has a significant bearing on the reliability of natural dose estimation using SAR protocol, especially for ambient temperatures above 0 °C. The main source of these inaccuracies seems to be thermal sensitization of the quartz samples caused by the well-known thermal transfer of holes between luminescence centers in quartz. The simulations suggest that most of this inaccuracy in the dose estimation can be removed by delivering the laboratory doses in pulses (pulsed irradiation procedures). - Highlights: • Ambient temperatures affect the reliability of SAR. • It overestimates the dose with increase in burial temperature and burial time periods. • Elevated temperature irradiation does not correct for these overestimations. • Inaccuracies in dose estimation can be removed by incorporating pulsed irradiation procedures.

  16. Morphological analysis of amnion stored in glycerol sterilized with different doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: fernandonevessoares@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2013-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is the innermost layer of the fetal membranes (placenta), widely used in transplantation being a tissue that combines anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifibrotic, and limited immunogenicity. The tissue can be used a bandage biological for treatment of burns and skin wounds, chronic ulcers, reconstructions from different body areas, including ophthalmic repairs. In the last decades the amniotic membrane has been used widely also as a carrier substrate to transfer tissues cultured 'in vitro'. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations, the main ones are being necessary your quick use and the inability to obtain full security for certain infections. Other types of preservation require a processing thereof. The radiosterilization is an alternative for ensuring quality and safety of tissues used in transplants, and other clinical applications in order to minimize the risk of contamination of the receptor tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test various doses of radiation using two sources of ionizing radiation: the cobalt-60 irradiator Gamma and Electron Beam Accelerator (E.B.). A tissue analysis was done by visual and tactile qualitative analysis, semi-quantitative (solid colorimetry) and light microscopy to observe morphological and physic-chemical changes after the irradiation of AM preserved in glycerol, comparing the results obtained with the sample not irradiated. It was noted that at higher doses, for both radiation sources, irradiated membranes suffered greater color change, becoming yellowish and thereby reducing their initial malleability. (author)

  17. Morphological analysis of amnion stored in glycerol sterilized with different doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2013-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is the innermost layer of the fetal membranes (placenta), widely used in transplantation being a tissue that combines anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifibrotic, and limited immunogenicity. The tissue can be used a bandage biological for treatment of burns and skin wounds, chronic ulcers, reconstructions from different body areas, including ophthalmic repairs. In the last decades the amniotic membrane has been used widely also as a carrier substrate to transfer tissues cultured 'in vitro'. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations, the main ones are being necessary your quick use and the inability to obtain full security for certain infections. Other types of preservation require a processing thereof. The radiosterilization is an alternative for ensuring quality and safety of tissues used in transplants, and other clinical applications in order to minimize the risk of contamination of the receptor tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test various doses of radiation using two sources of ionizing radiation: the cobalt-60 irradiator Gamma and Electron Beam Accelerator (E.B.). A tissue analysis was done by visual and tactile qualitative analysis, semi-quantitative (solid colorimetry) and light microscopy to observe morphological and physic-chemical changes after the irradiation of AM preserved in glycerol, comparing the results obtained with the sample not irradiated. It was noted that at higher doses, for both radiation sources, irradiated membranes suffered greater color change, becoming yellowish and thereby reducing their initial malleability. (author)

  18. [Therapeutic efficacy of nootropil different doses in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Suvorinova, S Iu

    2004-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common cause of behavioral and learning problems in childhood. Therapeutic efficiency of nootropil (piracetam) in two different doses has been evaluated in the open control study of 80 children with ADHD, 70 boys and 10 girls, aged 6-11 years, being divided into 3 groups. Two groups received nootropil, as a monotherapy, for a month: 1st group (30 patients)--in the dosage of 70 mg/kg daily and 2nd group (30 patients)--40 mg/kg daily orally. The control group of 20 patients did not receive any treatment. All children were examined twice with one month interval. A procedure of assessment included of structured questionnaire to parents, neurological examination with scored evaluation of subtle signs and psychological testing. Nootropil therapy in ADHD children resulted in the improvement of behavioral characteristics, motor coordination as well as continuous, selective and divided attention. A response rate was 60% in patients received 70 mg/kg of nootropil and 43% for nootropil dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results of the study suggest more considerable positive therapeutic effects of nootropil higher dose on behavioral, motor and attention characteristics in children with ADHD.

  19. Effect of different ionizing radiation doses and dose rates, using Cobalt-60 and electrons beam sources, on the staphylococcal enterotoxin inoculated in mechanically deboned chicken meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarico Neto, Walter; Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Kodama, Yasko, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miya, Norma Terugo Nago; Pereira, Jose Luiz, E-mail: miya@fea.unicamp.br, E-mail: pereira@fea.unicamp.br [Campinas State University (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Food Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of food irradiation is the destruction of present pathogenic microorganisms and the increase of shelf life of foods. To achieve this process, the source of cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator can be used. The mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used for the production of traditional meat products, and it may come to present pathogenic microorganisms such as staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that produces enterotoxin, which causes food poisoning. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of ionizing irradiation with different doses and dose rates, deriving from different radiation sources, on staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (SEB) in the MDCM. 50 g samples of MDCM were prepared in a batch of 6 kg of MDCM. The samples were contaminated, with the exception of the control, with SEB in amounts of about 100 ng. Then they were conditioned in a transparent bag made of low density polyethylene, frozen at -18{+-}1 deg C overnight and irradiated in these conditions with doses of 0.0 kGy (control), 1.5 kGy and 3.0 kGy, and with three different dose rates, both in the Cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator. The experiments were conducted in quintuplicate. The SEB extraction from the MDCM was performed according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer of the kit VIDAS Staph Enterotoxin II (bioMerrieux). The principle of mass balance was used to determine the actual amount of SEB removed by irradiation. The treatment that presented the best results was the one with a dose of 1.5 kGy, high dose rate of the electron accelerator. (author)

  20. Effect of different ionizing radiation doses and dose rates, using Cobalt-60 and electrons beam sources, on the staphylococcal enterotoxin inoculated in mechanically deboned chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarico Neto, Walter; Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji; Kodama, Yasko; Miya, Norma Terugo Nago; Pereira, Jose Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of food irradiation is the destruction of present pathogenic microorganisms and the increase of shelf life of foods. To achieve this process, the source of cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator can be used. The mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used for the production of traditional meat products, and it may come to present pathogenic microorganisms such as staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that produces enterotoxin, which causes food poisoning. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of ionizing irradiation with different doses and dose rates, deriving from different radiation sources, on staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (SEB) in the MDCM. 50 g samples of MDCM were prepared in a batch of 6 kg of MDCM. The samples were contaminated, with the exception of the control, with SEB in amounts of about 100 ng. Then they were conditioned in a transparent bag made of low density polyethylene, frozen at -18±1 deg C overnight and irradiated in these conditions with doses of 0.0 kGy (control), 1.5 kGy and 3.0 kGy, and with three different dose rates, both in the Cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator. The experiments were conducted in quintuplicate. The SEB extraction from the MDCM was performed according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer of the kit VIDAS Staph Enterotoxin II (bioMerrieux). The principle of mass balance was used to determine the actual amount of SEB removed by irradiation. The treatment that presented the best results was the one with a dose of 1.5 kGy, high dose rate of the electron accelerator. (author)

  1. Present dose limits and their relation to radiosensitivity of different organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Dose equivalent limits in relation to dose thresholds are considered for injury of various tissues and organs to evaluate the protection agains non-stochastic irradiation effects by the existing system of dose limitation for radiotherapeutic personnel. Data on tissue radiosensitivity in relation to non-stochastic effects, obtained from radiotherapeutic experience, are presented. Dose threshold values, derived for patients, with a correction in the direction of increase, may be applied to conditions of occupational exposure except for bone marrow, gonads and eye lens, where threshold doses are lower

  2. Effect of different doses of gamma rays on seed germination of Carthamus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Anjali; Srivastava, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability is essential for any crop improvement programme. Experimentally induced mutation provides an important source of variability. The ionizing radiation treatment would be useful on account of the total randomness of action of radiation on genetic material as also the fact that an optimal dose radiation produces effect both through gene mutation and chromosomal mutations. The most commonly used ionizing radiation in plant improvement program are γ-rays. The control sets of different accessions/species showed significant variability in the germination pattern. γ-ray alteration in the mean total seed germination frequency of Carthamus accessions/species presently explored, was genotype dependent. However, these could also modify substantially the temporal patterns of the germination as compared to corresponding control sets. The seed lots of different accessions could be supposed to be a mixture of seeds showing differences in the time of induction of germination. That is, seed lots differed in their temporal seed germination pattern. On the basis of the present study it can be inferred that the temporal seed germination could be decided at genotypic and/or biochemical levels. (author)

  3. SU-F-SPS-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of the Dose Calculation Accuracy of Different Algorithms for Two Different Treatment Techniques During Whole Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacaci, P; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Codel, G; Serin, E; Sanli, E; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Kucuk, N; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, dosimetric comparison of field in field (FIF) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques used for treatment of whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) were made. The dosimetric accuracy of treatment planning system (TPS) for Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) algorithms in predicting PTV and OAR doses was also investigated. Methods: Two different treatment planning techniques of left-sided breast cancer were generated for rando phantom. FIF and IMRT plans were compared for doses in PTV and OAR volumes including ipsilateral lung, heart, left ascending coronary artery, contralateral lung and the contralateral breast. PTV and OARs doses and homogeneity and conformality indexes were compared between two techniques. The accuracy of TPS dose calculation algorithms was tested by comparing PTV and OAR doses measured by thermoluminescent dosimetry with the dose calculated by the TPS using AAA and AXB for both techniques. Results: IMRT plans had better conformality and homogeneity indexes than FIF technique and it spared OARs better than FIF. While both algorithms overestimated PTV doses they underestimated all OAR doses. For IMRT plan, PTV doses, overestimation up to 2.5 % was seen with AAA algorithm but it decreased to 1.8 % when AXB algorithm was used. Based on the results of the anthropomorphic measurements for OAR doses, underestimation greater than 7 % is possible by the AAA. The results from the AXB are much better than the AAA algorithm. However, underestimations of 4.8 % were found in some of the points even for AXB. For FIF plan, similar trend was seen for PTV and OARs doses in both algorithm. Conclusion: When using the Eclipse TPS for breast cancer, AXB the should be used instead of the AAA algorithm, bearing in mind that the AXB may still underestimate all OAR doses.

  4. Randomized controlled trial comparing different single doses of intravenous paracetamol for placement of peripherally inserted central catheters in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.E. Roofthooft (Daniella); S.H. Simons (Sinno); R.A. Lingen (Richard); D. Tibboel (Dick); J.N. van den Anker (John); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); M. van Dijk (Monique)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The availability of a safe and effective pharmacological therapy to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants is limited. The effective analgesic single dose of intravenous paracetamol in preterm infants is unknown. Comparative studies on efficacy of different

  5. Dose-effect relationships for malignancy in cells with different genetic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    By combining the proposals that malignancy behaves as a recessive genetic character, that a somatic mutation is an important step in the development of cancer, and that radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks are the critical lesions which may lead to cell death, mutation and chromosomal aberrations, considerations can be made and equations derived for the incidence of malignancy in cells having different genotypes. Equations are derived for diploid carrier cells and tetraploid carrier cells, and are compared with data in literature on cell transformation. It is shown that some differences in experimental results could be due to the different genetic character of the cells used. The theoretical considerations are extended to the population which is considered to be constituted of 'carriers' and 'non-carriers' of the recessive malignant genotype. The possible influence of radiation on 'non-carriers' is discussed as are the implications of the presence of two groups within the population for the estimation of risk to low doses of radiation. (author)

  6. Effects of Different Forms and Doses of Sulphur Application on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of sulphur (S is an important limiting factor of plant growth for sustainable agricultural production. The decline in sulphur dioxide emission, decrease in S-containing fertilizer consumption due to the high cost of S-fertilizers, breeding of new high yielding species are the well known causes of S-deficiency. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of several doses of K2SO4-S, CaSO4-S and elemental-S applied on growth, shoot dry matter yield, S and N concentrations of wheat cultivar. The experiments were conducted in three soils differed from available S concentrations. Effects of different S-treatments (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg S kg-1 and S-forms had significant effects on shoot dry matter yields of plants. Sulphur from different S-sources did not increase shoot S-concentrations in Eskisehir and Konya soils, but increase was significant obtained in the Harran soil. Shoot S-concentration in Harran soil for zero K2SO4 treatment was 0.09%, the values were 0.22, 0.26 and 0.27% respectively for 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 treatments. The results indicated significant effects of S-treatments on plant growth and yield mostly based on soil properties, especially the available S-levels

  7. Surveillance on interfacility differences in dose-prescription policy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Hatano, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has recently become popular in Japan. Prostate cancer is indisputably one of the main targets of IMRT. However, the current status and interfacility differences in dose-prescription policies for prostate IMRT are unknown. Therefore, a nationwide survey of 43 institutions that had implemented prostate IMRT was conducted by sending a questionnaire regarding the above-mentioned issues. Thirty-three institutions (77%) had responded to the questionnaire by the end of October 2010. A total of 5245 patients with localized prostate cancer had been treated with IMRT by the end of 2009. Regular multileaf collimator-based techniques were the most common beam delivery method. Dose-prescription policies were divided into four major categories: isocenter-based (at isocenter), dose delivered to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) (D95)-based (D95 at PTV), mean dose to the PTV-based (Mean at PTV), and mean dose to the clinical target volume (CTV)-based (at CTV). The mean doses of the CTV and PTV, and the volume of the PTV receiving 95% of the dose (V95) were significantly higher with the D95 at PTV policy than with the other prescription policies. Low-dose areas and hot spots were observed within the PTV in plans with at isocenter and at CTV policies. In conclusion, there are currently considerable differences among institutions in Japan regarding target doses for prostate IMRT. The D95 at PTV prescription policy resulted in significant dose escalation compared with the other policies. These differences should be taken into consideration when interpreting treatment outcomes and creating multi-institutional protocols in the future. (author)

  8. Recovery of the proliferative and functional integrity of mouse bone marrow in long-term cultures established after whole-body irradiation at different doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.G.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Injury inflicted upon the bone marrow stroma following whole-body irradiation and its repair over a 1-year period has been assessed in murine long-term bone marrow cultures established at increasing time intervals after irradiation. Different doses at different dose rates (10 Gy at 0.05 cGy/min, 4.5 Gy and 10 Gy at 1.6 cGy/min, and 4 x 4.5 Gy [3 weeks between doses] at 60 cGy/min) were chosen so as to maximize differences in effect in the stroma. The cellularity of the adherent layer in long-term cultures established 1 month after irradiation was reduced by 40%-90% depending on the dose and dose rate. Simultaneous with the poor ability of the marrow to form adherent layers, the cumulative spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) production over a 7-week period was reduced to 0% and 30% of control cultures, respectively. The slow recovery of the adherent layer was paralleled by an increase in the numbers of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant. Cultures established from repeatedly irradiated mice performed poorly over the entire 1-year period. Whereas the regeneration of the stroma was near complete 1 year after irradiation, the CFU-S and GM-CFC levels reached only between 50% and 80% of control cultures, respectively. Also, the concentration of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant remained persistently lower in cultures established from irradiated mice as compared to control cultures. The levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which have been implicated in the establishment of the functional integrity of the microenvironment, were not reduced in the adherent layers at any time after irradiation. These results indicate that the regeneration of the stroma is accompanied by an incomplete recovery of active hemopoiesis in vitro

  9. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  10. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  11. Coincidence in the dose estimation in a OEP by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.; Brena V, M.

    2007-01-01

    The case of an apparent overexposure to radiation according to that indicated for the thermoluminescent dosemeter 81.59 mSv (TLD) of a occupationally exposed hard-working (POE), for that was practiced the study of biological dosimetry. The estimated dose was 0.12 Gy with which was proven the marked dose registration by the TLD dosemeter. It was concluded that both doses are the same ones. (Author)

  12. Dose Distributions of an 192Ir Brachytherapy Source in Different Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used MCNPX code to investigate the brachytherapy 192Ir dose distributions in water, bone, and lung tissue and performed radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter measurements to verify the obtained MCNPX results. The results showed that the dose-rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function in water were highly consistent with data in the literature. However, the lung dose near the source would be overestimated by up to 12%, if the lung tissue is assumed to be water, and, hence, if a tumor is located in the lung, the tumor dose will be overestimated, if the material density is not taken into consideration. In contrast, the lung dose far from the source would be underestimated by up to 30%. Radial dose functions were found to depend not only on the phantom size but also on the material density. The phantom size affects the radial dose function in bone more than those in the other tissues. On the other hand, the anisotropy function in lung tissue was not dependent on the radial distance. Our simulation results could represent valid clinical reference data and be used to improve the accuracy of the doses delivered during brachytherapy applied to patients with lung cancer.

  13. The influence of radiation of different doses on biometrical indicators of cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, S.P.; Guseynova, M.Z.; Gulieva, L.M.; Alieva, M.I.; Eminova, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    As it is known, pre-irradiation of plant seeds is usually applied to improve the productivity of crops. Irradiation of seeds at low doses usually does not cause adverse effects. However, irradiation of seeds with higher doses leads to complete loss of cell division ability. In many cases, the morphological change of the primary leaves, and the observed inhibition of the development to such an extent that the plants are deprived of fruiting abilities. The obtained data shows that with increasing of irradiation dose these parameters decrease, at high radiation doses clearly inhibits development of the fruit

  14. Evaluation of Different Dose-Response Models for High Hydrostatic Pressure Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sencer Buzrul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of microbial inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP requires a plot of the log microbial count or survival ratio versus time data under a constant pressure and temperature. However, at low pressure and temperature values, very long holding times are needed to obtain measurable inactivation. Since the time has a significant effect on the cost of HHP processing it may be reasonable to fix the time at an appropriate value and quantify the inactivation with respect to pressure. Such a plot is called dose-response curve and it may be more beneficial than the traditional inactivation modeling since short holding times with different pressure values can be selected and used for the modeling of HHP inactivation. For this purpose, 49 dose-response curves (with at least 4 log10 reduction and ≥5 data points including the atmospheric pressure value (P = 0.1 MPa, and with holding time ≤10 min for HHP inactivation of microorganisms obtained from published studies were fitted with four different models, namely the Discrete model, Shoulder model, Fermi equation, and Weibull model, and the pressure value needed for 5 log10 (P5 inactivation was calculated for all the models above. The Shoulder model and Fermi equation produced exactly the same parameter and P5 values, while the Discrete model produced similar or sometimes the exact same parameter values as the Fermi equation. The Weibull model produced the worst fit (had the lowest adjusted determination coefficient (R2adj and highest mean square error (MSE values, while the Fermi equation had the best fit (the highest R2adj and lowest MSE values. Parameters of the models and also P5 values of each model can be useful for the further experimental design of HHP processing and also for the comparison of the pressure resistance of different microorganisms. Further experiments can be done to verify the P5 values at given conditions. The procedure given in this study can also be extended for

  15. Primary study of quantitative measurement in different grades of COPD using low-dose multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yiming; Yin Jianzhong; Yang Wenjie; Tan Zhengshuai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of airway measurement at the trunk of apical bronchus of right upper lobe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and airway dimensions and lung density changes in different COPD stages. Methods: 1) Fifteen randomly selected COPD patients underwent low -dose chest multi -slice CT scan. The wall thickness-to-diameter ratio (TDR) and percentage wall area (WA%) at apical bronchus of right upper lobe section and mean TDR and WA% of small airway (<2 mm) were calculated. 2) Another fifty-five randomly selected COPD patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of pulmonary function tests. There were sixteen patients with grade 1, sixteen patients with grade 2, fourteen patients with grade 3. and nine patients with grade 4. Fifteen non-COPD patients were selected as controls. The total lung was scanned with low-dose multi-slice CT during inspiration. The mean lung attenuation (MLA) and voxel index (VI) were measured. Inner area of bronchus (A i ), TDR and WA% of the apical bronchus of right upper lobe were measured. Results: 1) The TDR of the apical bronchus of right were smaller than the mean TDR of the small airways; The WA% of the apical bronchus of right were larger than the mean WA% of the small airways; but there were good correlation (r=0.793 and 0.784, respectively). 2) The MLA values were decreased with increase of COPD stage. The VI values were increased with increase of COPD stage. However, the values did not differ between adjacent stages. The luminal areas of stage 3-4 patients were smaller than that of other stages. There was no statistics difference in TDR between adjacent groups, except between stages 3 and 4. For WA%, the higher stage group had higher WA%. Conclusion: There were good correlations for TDR and WA% between the apical bronchus of right upper lobe and small airway. WA% is the most sensitive index for detecting thickened airway. (authors)

  16. XPS analysis of PE and EVA samples irradiated at different γ-doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Samuel; Gaston, Fanny; Marque, Sylvain R. A.; Bortolotti, Benjamin; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    The principal plastic materials used for the fluid contact and storage in the biopharmaceutical industry are mainly made up of semi-crystalline polymers, polyolefins, PVC, Siloxane and PET. The polyethylene (PE) and the polypropylene (PP) are often used as fluid contact in multi-layer materials like films. As one sterilisation way of single-use plastic devices used in medical and pharmaceutical fields can take place via γ-irradiation, the effect of sterilization on plastics must be investigated. The irradiation process leads to the production of radicals, which can generate changes in the polymer structure and on the polymer surface. It is well known that the presence of oxygen with free radicals precede the generation of peroxide species so called ROS (reactive oxygen species) which are highly reactive. The purpose of this work is to investigate the γ-rays impact on the surface of PE (polyethylene) and EVA (polyethylene vinyl alcohol) based films when ionized at different doses. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to determine the surface compositions of the polymers to highlight the different chemical moieties generated during the γ-irradiation process and to monitor the potential presence of the ROS.

  17. Influence trend of temperature distribution in skin tissue generated by different exposure dose pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ning; Wang, Zhijing; Liu, Xia

    2014-11-01

    Laser is widely applied in military and medicine fields because of its excellent capability. In order to effectively defend excess damage by laser, the thermal processing theory of skin tissue generated by laser should be carried out. The heating rate and thermal damage area should be studied. The mathematics model of bio-tissue heat transfer that is irradiated by laser is analyzed. And boundary conditions of bio-tissue are discussed. Three layer FEM grid model of bio-tissue is established. The temperature rising inducing by pulse laser in the tissue is modeled numerically by adopting ANSYS software. The changing trend of temperature in the tissue is imitated and studied under the conditions of different exposure dose pulse laser. The results show that temperature rising in the tissue depends on the parameters of pulse laser largely. In the same conditions, the pulse width of laser is smaller and its instant power is higher. And temperature rising effect in the tissue is very clear. On the contrary, temperature rising effect in the tissue is lower. The cooling time inducing by temperature rising effect in the tissue is longer along with pulse separation of laser is bigger. And the temperature difference is bigger in the pulse period.

  18. Measurement and estimation of maximum skin dose to the patient for different interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuxi; Liu Lantao; Wei Kedao; Yu Peng; Yan Shulin; Li Tianchang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the dose distribution and maximum skin dose to the patient for four interventional procedures: coronary angiography (CA), hepatic angiography (HA), radiofrequency ablation (RF) and cerebral angiography (CAG), and to estimate the definitive effect of radiation on skin. Methods: Skin dose was measured using LiF: Mg, Cu, P TLD chips. A total of 9 measuring points were chosen on the back of the patient with two TLDs placed at each point, for CA, HA and RF interventional procedures, whereas two TLDs were placed on one point each at the postero-anterior (PA) and lateral side (LAT) respectively, during the CAG procedure. Results: The results revealed that the maximum skin dose to the patient was 1683.91 mGy for the HA procedure with a mean value of 607.29 mGy. The maximum skin dose at the PA point was 959.3 mGy for the CAG with a mean value of 418.79 mGy; While the maximum and the mean doses at the LAT point were 704 mGy and 191.52 mGy, respectively. For the RF procedure the maximum dose was 853.82 mGy and the mean was 219.67 mGy. For the CA procedure the maximum dose was 456.1 mGy and the mean was 227.63 mGy. Conclusion: All the measured dose values in this study are estimated ones which could not provide the accurate maximum value because it is difficult to measure using a great deal of TLDs. On the other hand, the small area of skin exposed to high dose could be missed as the distribution of the dose is successive. (authors)

  19. Effect of different ionizing radiation dose rates on the Staphylococcal enterotoxin in mechanically deboned chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Heliana de; Brito, Poliana de Paula; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Custodio, Wilson; Kodama, Yasko; Miya, Norma Terugo Nago; Pereira, Jose Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Samples weighing 50g each were prepared from allotments of back with skin MDCM, to the EEB contamination or not (control). Each sample of MDCM contaminated or not with EEB was conditioned in low density polyethylene bag, frozen (-18 ± 1 deg C) for one night in a tunnel and irradiated with gamma rays from 60 Co source in this state with doses of 0.0 kGy (control), 1.5 kGy (5.7 kGy.h -1 - higher dose rate, 1.8 kGy.h -1 - intermediary dose rate and 0.6 kGy.h -1 - lower dose rate) and 3.0 kGy (8.4 kGy.h - '1 - higher dose rate, 2.4 kGy.h -1 - intermediary dose rate and 0.6 kGy.h -1 - lower dose rate). Irradiated or non irradiated MDCM samples were processed to the EEB extraction, according to the VIDAS Staph enterotoxin II kit (bioMerieux) manufacturer protocol. The calculation to determinate the MDCM EEB recovery after the sample (control or irradiated) processing were carried out applying the principle of mass balance, along the whole process. Described experiment was performed in triplicate. Results showed that the irradiation process was effective to remove the MDCM EEB, to both 1.5 kGy and 3.0 kGy. According to the expected, doses of 3.0 kGy showed the highest values of MDCM EEB removal. Regarding the effect of dose rate of radiation on the removal of EEB of the MDCM, it could be observed only for samples irradiated with 1.5 kGy radiation dose; in these processing conditions, the highest value of EEB removal was obtained for samples processed with low radiation dose rate. (author)

  20. Study of radiation dose reduction of buildings of different sizes and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    The dependence of radiation dose reduction on the sizes and materials of buildings was studied by numerical analyses using the Monte Carlo simulation code, PHITS. The dose rates inside the buildings were calculated by simulating gamma-ray transport from radioactive cesium deposited at the ground surface. Three building models were developed: the wooden house, the open-space concrete building, and the thin-wall building, to study the effect of building size and construction material on dose reduction inside these structures. Here the floor-area sizes of the building models were varied to clarify the influence of building configuration on dose reduction. The results demonstrated that the dose rates inside the buildings linearly decreased with increasing floor area on a logarithmic scale for all types of buildings considered. The calculated dose distribution inside a building indicated that the distance from the outer walls was a determining factor for the dose rate at each position in the building. The obtained tendency was verified by comparison with data reflecting the dose reduction of typical buildings in Japan. (author)

  1. Calculations of received dose for different points in the enrichment uranium oxide warehouse at 4%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.

    1990-06-01

    In order to verifying that the received dose so much inside as outside of the warehouse of enriched uranium dioxide to 4% it doesn't represent risk to the personnel, the modelling of this and the corresponding calculations for the extreme case of dose at contact are made. (Author)

  2. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  3. A dose of nature: Tree cover, stress reduction, and gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Jiang; Chun-Yen Chang; William C. Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that exposure to nearby nature can help reduce stress in individuals, the shape of the dose-response curve is entirely unclear. To establish this dose-response curve, we recruited 160 individuals for a laboratory experiment. Participants engaged in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychological stress, and were then randomly...

  4. SU-E-P-11: Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Between Different Scanner System in Routine Abdomen CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, S; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of routine abdomen computed tomography exam with the automatic current modulation technique (ATCM) performed in two different brand 64-slice CT scanners in our site. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of routine abdomen CT exam performed with two scanners; scanner A and scanner B in our site. To calculate standard deviation of the portal hepatic level with a region of interest of 12.5 mm x 12.5mm represented to the image noise. The radiation dose was obtained from CT DICOM image information. Using Computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIv) to represented CT radiation dose. The patient data in this study were with normal weight (about 65–75 Kg). Results The standard deviation of Scanner A was smaller than scanner B, the scanner A might with better image quality than scanner B. On the other hand, the radiation dose of scanner A was higher than scanner B(about higher 50–60%) with ATCM. Both of them, the radiation dose was under diagnostic reference level. Conclusion The ATCM systems in modern CT scanners can contribute a significant reduction in radiation dose to the patient. But the reduction by ATCM systems from different CT scanner manufacturers has slightly variation. Whatever CT scanner we use, it is necessary to find the acceptable threshold of image quality with the minimum possible radiation exposure to the patient in agreement with the ALARA principle.

  5. SU-E-P-11: Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Between Different Scanner System in Routine Abdomen CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of routine abdomen computed tomography exam with the automatic current modulation technique (ATCM) performed in two different brand 64-slice CT scanners in our site. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of routine abdomen CT exam performed with two scanners; scanner A and scanner B in our site. To calculate standard deviation of the portal hepatic level with a region of interest of 12.5 mm x 12.5mm represented to the image noise. The radiation dose was obtained from CT DICOM image information. Using Computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIv) to represented CT radiation dose. The patient data in this study were with normal weight (about 65–75 Kg). Results The standard deviation of Scanner A was smaller than scanner B, the scanner A might with better image quality than scanner B. On the other hand, the radiation dose of scanner A was higher than scanner B(about higher 50–60%) with ATCM. Both of them, the radiation dose was under diagnostic reference level. Conclusion The ATCM systems in modern CT scanners can contribute a significant reduction in radiation dose to the patient. But the reduction by ATCM systems from different CT scanner manufacturers has slightly variation. Whatever CT scanner we use, it is necessary to find the acceptable threshold of image quality with the minimum possible radiation exposure to the patient in agreement with the ALARA principle

  6. Dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic electrons incident on a realistic human eye model with different lens cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, P; Zankl, M; Schlattl, H; Vaz, P

    2011-11-07

    The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation-the germinative cells-absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.

  7. Dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic electrons incident on a realistic human eye model with different lens cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, P; Vaz, P; Zankl, M; Schlattl, H

    2011-01-01

    The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation-the germinative cells-absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.

  8. SU-E-J-07: IGRT Gently: Evaluating Imaging Dose in Phantoms of Different Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, B; Duggar, W; Stanford, J; Yang, C [University of Mississippi Med. Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: IGRT imaging procedures have emerged as a common method of patient position verification in radiotherapy, though imaging dose is generally neglected in the treatment plan. Consequently, evaluating and optimizing the dose from these procedures is worthwhile. This process is especially important for children, who are more radiosensitive than adults. The aim of this work was to gain some understanding of the relative doses involved with various XVI-preset parameters for an “adult” and “child” phantom set, with the hopes that imaging dose for a child can be reduced. Methods: 32 and 16cm CTDI-phantoms were used as surrogates for adult and child torsos, respectively. Dose was measured in the central and peripheral chamber positions of the phantoms. CBCT scans were made for both phantoms using Elekta’s Chest-preset to establish a dose baseline. The child-phantom was then scanned using the Elekta Head and Neck (HN) preset. A modified HN-preset (named Peds Abd-pelvis) was also created with a doubled mAs to maintain a reduction in dose to the child-phantom (relative to the baseline), while providing clinically-usable image quality. Results: The baseline dose to the child-phantom from the Chest-preset was 310% that of the adult-phantom for the center chamber position and 150% at the periphery. An average dose reduction of 97% was obtained in the childphantom by switching from the Chest-preset to the HN-preset, while the Peds Abd-pelvis-preset similarly reduced the dose by an average of 92%. Conclusion: XVI-preset parameters significantly affect dose, and should be optimized to reduce dose, while ensuring clinically-usable image quality. Using a modified imaging preset (Peds Abd-pelvis-preset) greatly reduced the dose to the child-phantom compared to the dose for the Chest-preset for both the child and adult-phantoms. This outcome provides support for the development of child-specific protocols for IGRT imaging in pediatric patients.

  9. SU-E-J-07: IGRT Gently: Evaluating Imaging Dose in Phantoms of Different Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, B; Duggar, W; Stanford, J; Yang, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: IGRT imaging procedures have emerged as a common method of patient position verification in radiotherapy, though imaging dose is generally neglected in the treatment plan. Consequently, evaluating and optimizing the dose from these procedures is worthwhile. This process is especially important for children, who are more radiosensitive than adults. The aim of this work was to gain some understanding of the relative doses involved with various XVI-preset parameters for an “adult” and “child” phantom set, with the hopes that imaging dose for a child can be reduced. Methods: 32 and 16cm CTDI-phantoms were used as surrogates for adult and child torsos, respectively. Dose was measured in the central and peripheral chamber positions of the phantoms. CBCT scans were made for both phantoms using Elekta’s Chest-preset to establish a dose baseline. The child-phantom was then scanned using the Elekta Head and Neck (HN) preset. A modified HN-preset (named Peds Abd-pelvis) was also created with a doubled mAs to maintain a reduction in dose to the child-phantom (relative to the baseline), while providing clinically-usable image quality. Results: The baseline dose to the child-phantom from the Chest-preset was 310% that of the adult-phantom for the center chamber position and 150% at the periphery. An average dose reduction of 97% was obtained in the childphantom by switching from the Chest-preset to the HN-preset, while the Peds Abd-pelvis-preset similarly reduced the dose by an average of 92%. Conclusion: XVI-preset parameters significantly affect dose, and should be optimized to reduce dose, while ensuring clinically-usable image quality. Using a modified imaging preset (Peds Abd-pelvis-preset) greatly reduced the dose to the child-phantom compared to the dose for the Chest-preset for both the child and adult-phantoms. This outcome provides support for the development of child-specific protocols for IGRT imaging in pediatric patients

  10. Measuring Motion-Induced B0-Fluctuations in the Brain Using Field Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Hanson, Lars G.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Fluctuations of the background magnetic field (B0) due to body and breathing motion can lead to significant artifacts in brain imaging at ultrahigh field. Corrections based on real-time sensing using external field probes show great potential. This study evaluates different aspects of fi...

  11. Reversibility of pulmonary function after inhaling salbutamol in different doses and body postures in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, R; Kelderman, S; de Jongh, F H C; van der Palen, J; Thio, B J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary medication is often delivered in the form of medical aerosols designed for inhalation. Recently, breath actuated inhalers (BAI's) gained popularity as they can be used without spacers. A major drawback of BAI's is the impaction in the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by a forward leaning body posture with the neck extended ("sniffing position") during inhalation may reduce upper airway impaction and improve pulmonary deposition. Aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of lung function with different doses salbutamol inhaled with a BAI in the forward leaning posture compared to the standard posture in asthmatic children. 22 clinically stable asthmatic children, 5-14 years old, performed four reversibility measurements. Children inhaled 200 μg or 400 μg salbutamol with a BAI in the standard or in the forward leaning posture with the neck extended in a randomized single-blinded cross-over design. Reversibility of lung function after inhaling salbutamol in the forward leaning posture was not significantly different compared to inhalation in the standard posture. Mean FEV1 reversibility was significantly greater after inhaling 400 μg salbutamol compared to 200 μg salbutamol in the standard posture (9.4% ± 9.5% versus 4.5% ± 7.5%, difference 4.9% (95CI 0.9; 9.0%); p = 0.021). In clinically stable asthmatic children, inhalation of salbutamol with a BAI in a forward leaning posture does not increase reversibility of lung function. Inhalation of 400 μg compared to 200 μg salbutamol with a BAI does improve reversibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of different doses of doxycycline hyclate on haematological parameters of dogs with ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Hoeppner Rondelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of two doses of doxycycline hyclate on red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells and platelets of dogs with ehrlichiosis. Group I, comprised of healthy dogs (n=6, negative on serology for Ehrlichia canis and Leptospira spp., real time PCR for E. canis and Anaplasma platys, and on semi–nested PCR for Babesia canis; Groups II (n=6 and III (n=6, comprised of dogs with suggestive clinical history, positive serology and/or real time PCR for E. canis, negative on research for anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and real time PCR for A. platys, and on semi–nested PCR for B. canis were studied. Sick dogs were treated with doxycycline hyclate every 12 hours, by mouth, for 30 days (5 mg/kg, group II; 10 mg/kg, group III. Complete blood counts were performed before, after 15 days, and 10 days after period of treatment was complete. No difference between groups at the studied time points were noticed for red blood cells, hemoglobin, haematocrit and white blood cells. Difference was observed for platelets between group I and groups II and III (p<0.0001 at the study onset. After 15 days of treatment, the mean platelet for group III was lower than groups I (p=0.008 and II (p=0.0007, indicative of persistent thrombocytopenia, already absent in group II. No difference between groups was noticed at final time point, which suggests that both treatments increased platelets in dogs naturally infected with E. canis.

  13. The dependence of dose recovery experiments on the bleaching of natural quartz OSL using different light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Murray, A.S.; Cheong, C.-S.; Hong, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the dependence of dose recovery tests on the different bleaching light sources (blue-LEDs, solar simulator, natural sunlight) is investigated with a variety of sedimentary quartz samples, selected so that their OSL signals are dominated by the fast OSL component. We observed that when long solar simulator bleaching was applied, various known doses were underestimated in an SAR-based dose recovery test. However, when blue-LEDs and short solar simulator bleaching were used (10 s and 60 s) the known doses were accurately recovered. In repeated measurement of the OSL signals induced by the same regeneration and test dose, we observed a considerable increase in quartz OSL sensitivity during or after the first OSL measurement when long solar simulator bleaching was used; this seems to provide a possible explanation for the observed underestimation of the laboratory known doses. A series of experimental results using a sample from a modern aeolian dune surface shows that there are no subsequent sensitivity changes when the naturally zeroed samples are bleached with sunlight for long time. It seems that there is a dependence of the sensitivity change on the amount of dose administered before solar simulator bleaching and on the light intensity of solar simulator. When small doses were given to the naturally zeroed sample, the sensitivity change during or after the first OSL measurement was not significant. However, when a considerable amount of beta dose (∼4000 Gy) is administered to the sample, a clear sensitivity change during or after the first OSL measurement (∼20%) was observed. Such a sensitivity change was not observed when the bleaching light intensity of solar simulator was reduced by increasing the distance between samples and the UV lamp. Our results show that, at least for the samples described here, the outcomes of dose recovery experiments are dependent on the bleaching conditions.

  14. Randomised clinical trial: study of escalating doses of NRL001 given in rectal suppositories of different weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D; Pediconi, C; Jacobs, A

    2014-03-01

    The application of α-adrenoceptor agonists can improve faecal incontinence symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and systemic effects of NRL001 administered as different strengths in 1 or 2 g suppositories. This randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study included 48 healthy subjects. Group 1 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 5, 7.5 or 10 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Group 2 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 10, 12.5 or 15 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Doses were given in an escalating manner with placebo at a random position within the sequence. Tmax was at ~4.5 h post-dose for all NRL001 doses. Median AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased with increasing dose for both suppository sizes. The estimate of ratios of geometric means comparing 2 g with 1 g suppository, and regression analysis for dose proportionality, was close to 1 for the variables AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax (P > 0.05). For both suppository sizes, 20-min mean pulse rate was significantly decreased compared with placebo with all doses (P < 0.05). Blood pressure decreased overall. There were 144 adverse events (AEs) and no serious AEs reported during the study. All AEs were mild in severity. The regression analysis concluded that the doses were dose proportional. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Quality control of sickness rate registration of the Chernobil accident liquidators into a different radiation dose groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukov, A.P.; Ivanov, V.K.; Bolokhonenkova, M.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kruglova, Z.G.; Zelenskaya, N.S.; Ukraintsev, V.F.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of the dose factor on the quality of registration of the liquidator health state is studied. It is shown that the efficiency of prophylactic system and monitoring intensity in the different dose groups are equal, are determined by general legislative acts on the all territory of the Russian Federation and do not influence the results of carrying out the radiation-epidemic analysis [ru

  16. Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits cv. Dashehari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghel, B.S.; Gupta, N.; Tiwari, R.

    2005-01-01

    The mango fruits cv. Dashehari irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilizing the market demand, revealed that irradiation of mango fruits with 200 Gy gamma radiation increase the post harvest life of 93.75 percent mango fruits by 12 days over control (46.66 percent) and proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of mango fruits as compared to control and higher doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  17. Biologically effective dose (BED) for interstitial seed implants containing a mixture of radionuclides with different half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a tool for evaluating interstitial seed implants that contain a mixture of radionuclides with different half-lives and to demonstrate its utility by examining the clinical implications of prescribing to an isodose surface for such an implant. Methods and Materials: A linear-quadratic model for continuous low dose rate irradiation was developed for permanent implants containing a mixture of radionuclides. Using a generalized equation for the biologically effective dose (BED), the effects of cell proliferation and sublethal damage repair were examined systematically for implants containing a mixture of radionuclides. A head-and-neck permanent seed implant that contained a mixture of 125 I and 103 Pd seeds was used to demonstrate the utility of the generalized BED. Results: An equation of BED for implants containing a mixture of radionuclides with different half-lives was obtained. In such an implant, the effective cell kill was shown to depend strongly on the relative dose contributions from each radionuclide type; dose delivered by radionuclides with shorter half-life always resulted in more cell kill for any given sublethal damage repair and cell proliferation rates. Application of the BED formula to an implant containing a mixture of 125 I and 103 Pd seeds demonstrates that the conventional dose prescription to an isodose surface is not unique for such an implant. When the prescription dose was based on existing clinical experience of using 125 I seeds alone, mixing 103 Pd seeds with 125 I seeds would increase the cell kill. On the other hand, if the prescription dose were based on existing clinical experience of using 103 Pd seeds alone, mixing 125 I seeds with 103 Pd seeds in the same implant would create radiobiologically 'cold' spots (i.e., an increase in cell survival) at locations where a major portion of the prescription dose is contributed by the 125 I seeds. For fast-growing tumors, these 'cold' spots can become significant

  18. Effect of Different Doses of Soy Isoflavones on Spatial Learning and Memory in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safahani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies indicate that estrogen use increase performance on some tests of cognition especially in postmenopausal women. These steroids have many side effects, thus, other estrogenic agents with fewer side effects are needed to develop alternative treatment strategies. The main objection of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of dietary soy meals (with or without isoflavone on spatial learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats with the exception of intact group were ovariectomized at the first line of study. Subjects were divided into six groups. The control group rats (c were gonadally intact, while the others were OVX. OVX groups received normal diet (0, treated with 10 gr soy (10, 20 gr soy (20, 10 gr isoflavone free soy (-10 or 20 gr isoflavone free soy (-20 in daily diet for four weeks. The spatial learning and memory were tested using Morris water maze. Rats were trained in water maze to find a hidden escape Platform. Rats received 6 blocks that each block consisted of 3 trials. Following acquisition trials, one probe trial were conducted in which the platform was removed. Results: Soy meal diet (with or without isoflavone in ovariectomized rats caused improvement of performance across 18 trials of Acquisition. Discussion: Our results suggest that soy consumption apart from containing isoflavone or not is a potential alternative to estrogen in the improvement of cognition.

  19. Blood pressure reduction induced by low dose of epinephrine via different routes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ji, Mu-Huo; Wang, Zhong-Yun; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Jian-Jun; Peng, Yong G

    2013-09-01

    Epinephrine was recently shown to induce a hypotension episode. Activation of β₂-adrenoceptors with smooth muscle relaxation may be the underlying mechanism. This study investigated the effects of ICI 118551, a β₂-adrenoceptors antagonist, on epinephrine-induced blood pressure reduction via different administration routes in rats. A total of 144 Sprague Dawley rats were equally randomized into 3 groups (intranasal, intravenous, and intra-arterial administration), each with 4 subgroups: saline + saline, ICI 118551 + saline, saline + epinephrine, and ICI 118551 + epinephrine. All rats were anesthetized while spontaneously breathing. Epinephrine was administered at doses of 5 μg/kg via nose, 0.25 μg/kg via femoral vein, and 0.1 μg/kg via aorta. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored. Mean arterial pressure decreased in all 3 saline + epinephrine subgroups after administration (P blood pressure reduction can be prevented by ICI 118551 in rats, suggesting that the activation of β₂-adrenoceptors contributes to blood pressure reduction.

  20. SU-F-T-266: Dynalogs Based Evaluation of Different Dose Rate IMRT Using DVH and Gamma Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Ahmed, S; Ahmed, F; Hussain, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigates the impact of low and high dose rate on IMRT through Dynalogs by evaluating Gamma Index and Dose Volume Histogram. Methods: The Eclipse™ treatment planning software was used to generate plans on prostate and head and neck sites. A range of dose rates 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min were applied to each plan in order to investigate their effect on the beam ON time, efficiency and accuracy. Each plan had distinct monitor units per fraction, delivery time, mean dose rate and leaf speed. The DVH data was used in the assessment of the conformity and plan quality.The treatments were delivered on Varian™ Clinac 2100C accelerator equipped with 120 leaf millennium MLC. Dynalogs of each plan were analyzed by MATLAB™ program. Fluence measurements were performed using the Sun Nuclear™ 2D diode array and results were assessed, based on Gamma analysis of dose fluence maps, beam delivery statistics and Dynalogs data. Results: Minor differences found by adjusted R-squared analysis of DVH’s for all the plans with different dose rates. It has been also found that more and larger fields have greater time reduction at high dose rate and there was a sharp decrease in number of control points observed in dynalog files by switching dose rate from 300 MU/min to 600 MU/min. Gamma Analysis of all plans passes the confidence limit of ≥95% with greater number of passing points in 300 MU/min dose rate plans. Conclusion: The dynalog files are compatible tool for software based IMRT QA. It can work perfectly parallel to measurement based QA setup and stand-by procedure for pre and post delivery of treatment plan.

  1. SU-F-T-266: Dynalogs Based Evaluation of Different Dose Rate IMRT Using DVH and Gamma Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S [Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Sindh (Pakistan); Ahmed, S [Pakistan Inst of Eng Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, F; Hussain, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates the impact of low and high dose rate on IMRT through Dynalogs by evaluating Gamma Index and Dose Volume Histogram. Methods: The Eclipse™ treatment planning software was used to generate plans on prostate and head and neck sites. A range of dose rates 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min were applied to each plan in order to investigate their effect on the beam ON time, efficiency and accuracy. Each plan had distinct monitor units per fraction, delivery time, mean dose rate and leaf speed. The DVH data was used in the assessment of the conformity and plan quality.The treatments were delivered on Varian™ Clinac 2100C accelerator equipped with 120 leaf millennium MLC. Dynalogs of each plan were analyzed by MATLAB™ program. Fluence measurements were performed using the Sun Nuclear™ 2D diode array and results were assessed, based on Gamma analysis of dose fluence maps, beam delivery statistics and Dynalogs data. Results: Minor differences found by adjusted R-squared analysis of DVH’s for all the plans with different dose rates. It has been also found that more and larger fields have greater time reduction at high dose rate and there was a sharp decrease in number of control points observed in dynalog files by switching dose rate from 300 MU/min to 600 MU/min. Gamma Analysis of all plans passes the confidence limit of ≥95% with greater number of passing points in 300 MU/min dose rate plans. Conclusion: The dynalog files are compatible tool for software based IMRT QA. It can work perfectly parallel to measurement based QA setup and stand-by procedure for pre and post delivery of treatment plan.

  2. Evaluation of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in prostate IMRT using CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yoshinori; Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer under different planning target volume (PTV) margin settings using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer were retrospectively analysed, and 7-14 CBCT datasets were acquired per patient. Interfractional variations in dose-volume metrics were evaluated under six different set-up error corrections, including tattoo, bony anatomy, and four different target matching groups. Set-up errors were incorporated into planning the isocenter position, and dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images. These processes were repeated under two different PTV margin settings. In the on-line bony anatomy matching groups, systematic error (Σ) was 0.3 mm, 1.4 mm, and 0.3 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Σ in three successive off-line target matchings was finally comparable with that in the on-line bony anatomy matching in the AP direction. Although doses to the rectum and bladder wall were reduced for a small PTV margin, averaged reductions in the volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose from planning were within 2.5% under all PTV margin settings for all correction groups, with the exception of the tattoo set-up error correction only (≥ 5.0%). Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between on-line bony anatomy matching and target matching. While variations between the planned and delivered doses were smallest when target matching was applied, the use of bony anatomy matching still ensured the planned doses. (author)

  3. Response studies of three different dosimeters for skin entrance dose measurements using diagnostic X-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, A.U.; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V.K.; Butani, M.L.; Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    A TLD method based on CaSO 4 :Dy Teflon discs developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has been extensively used for various applications in diagnostic radiology in India. This method was recently used for evaluation of radiation quality and measurement of skin entrance doses (SEDs) in various hospitals for different diagnostic examinations. The use of TLD discs for these applications involves the process of preparation of TLD discs with different combination of filters and then measurement of TL output under different combinations of filters. The measurement of SEDs in diagnostic radiology is also carried out instantaneously and accurately by using very user friendly and compact state-of-art instruments. These consist of kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RADIFLU-9001) and the dose ToM (Model 6001) manufactured by M/s UNFORS, Sweden. The kVp meter automatically calculates kVp and updates it every second in the range from 55 to 145 kVp with the resolution of 0.1 kV. The dose ToM incorporates sealed silicon detector having lead shield under and around, which prevents backscattered radiation from influencing the measurement. The dose Test-O-Meter has excellent energy independence in the range from 50 to 150 kVp and inaccuracy not exceeding 5 % at 70 k Vp. The dose meter is capable of measuring doses up to 9999 μGy

  4. Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi

    2013-01-01

    y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired

  5. Combined prospective and retrospective correction to reduce motion-induced image misalignment and geometric distortions in EPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Melvyn B; Muraskin, Jordan; Zou, Xiaowei; Thomas, William J; Krueger, Sascha; Aksoy, Murat; Bammer, Roland; Brown, Truman R

    2013-03-01

    Despite rigid-body realignment to compensate for head motion during an echo-planar imaging time-series scan, nonrigid image deformations remain due to changes in the effective shim within the brain as the head moves through the B(0) field. The current work presents a combined prospective/retrospective solution to reduce both rigid and nonrigid components of this motion-related image misalignment. Prospective rigid-body correction, where the scan-plane orientation is dynamically updated to track with the subject's head, is performed using an active marker setup. Retrospective distortion correction is then applied to unwarp the remaining nonrigid image deformations caused by motion-induced field changes. Distortion correction relative to a reference time-frame does not require any additional field mapping scans or models, but rather uses the phase information from the echo-planar imaging time-series itself. This combined method is applied to compensate echo-planar imaging scans of volunteers performing in-plane and through-plane head motions, resulting in increased image stability beyond what either prospective or retrospective rigid-body correction alone can achieve. The combined method is also assessed in a blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI task, resulting in improved Z-score statistics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Energy-imbalance mechanism of domain wall motion induced by propagation spin waves in finite magnetic nanostripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jinrong; Han, Zhaoyan; Su, Yuanchang; Hu, Jingguo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of the domain wall (DW) motions induced by spin wave in finite magnetic nanostripe is studied by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-wave induced DM motions are always accompanied by an energy imbalance between two sides of the DW. The DW motion can be attributed to the expansion of the low-energy-density area and the contraction of the high-energy-density area. The energy imbalance strongly depends on whether the spin wave passes through the DW or is reflected by the DW. In the area of the spin wave propagation, the energy density increases with the time. However, in the superposition area of the incident spin wave and the reflected spin wave, the energy density decreases with the increasing of the time. It shows that this energy imbalance can be controlled by tuning the frequency of the spin wave. Finally, the effect of the damping parameter value is discussed. - Highlights: • The mechanism of the spin-wave induced DW motions is studied. • The spin-wave induced DW motions and the energy imbalance mechanism are given. • The DW motion with the same direction to that of SW is explained. • The DW motion with the opposite direction to that of SW is explained

  7. Comparison of distribution and toxicity following repeated oral dosing of different vanadium oxide nanoparticles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Jung, E-mail: pejtoxic@hanmail.net [Myunggok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Hee [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Cheolho [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 126-16 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wan, E-mail: dwkim1@korea.ac.kr [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Vanadium is an important ultra-trace element derived from fuel product combustion. With the development of nanotechnology, vanadium oxide nanoparticles (VO NPs) have been considered for application in various fields, thus the possibility of release into the environment and human exposure is also increasing. Considering that verification of bioaccumulation and relevant biological responses are essential for safe application of products, in this study, we aimed to identify the physicochemical properties that determine their health effects by comparing the biological effects and tissue distribution of different types of VO NPs in mice. For this, we prepared five types of VO NPs, commercial (C)-VO{sub 2} and -V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NPs and synthetic (S)-VO{sub 2}, -V{sub 2}O{sub 3,} and -V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NPs. While the hydrodynamic diameter of the two types of C-VO NPs was irregular and impossible to measure, those of the three types of S-VO NPs was in the range of 125–170 nm. The S- and C-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NPs showed higher dissolution rates compared to other VO NPs. We orally dosed the five types of VO NPs (70 and 210 μg/mouse, approximately 2 and 6 mg/kg) to mice for 28 days and compared their biodistribution and toxic effects. We found that S-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and S-V{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs more accumulated in tissues compared to other three types of VO NPs, and the accumulated level was in order of heart>liver>kidney>spleen. Additionally, tissue levels of redox reaction-related elements and electrolytes (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+}) were most clearly altered in the heart of treated mice. Notably, all S- and C-VO NPs decreased the number of WBCs at the higher dose, while total protein and albumin levels were reduced at the higher dose of S-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and S-V{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs. Taken together, we conclude that the biodistribution and toxic effects of VO NPs depend on their dissolution rates and size (surface area). Additionally, we suggest that further studies

  8. Fontes e doses de zinco no feijoeiro cultivado em diferentes épocas de semeadura = Sources and doses of zinc in common bean cultivated in different sowing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Rosa Teixeira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, em diferentes épocas de cultivo a produção do feijoeiro, submetido à aplicação foliar de fontes e doses de zinco. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos envolveram a combinação de três safras de cultivo (inverno, águas e seca, duas fontes de zinco (sulfato e cloreto de zinco e cinco doses de zinco (0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 g ha-1, aplicadas via foliar, aos 25 e 35 dias após emergência da cultura.Na safra de inverno, foram obtidos os maiores rendimentos de grãos e de seus componentes (número de vagens por planta e número de grãos por vagem e teor foliar de zinco, comparativamente, às safras das águas e seca. Não houve efeito da interação entre épocas desemeadura, doses e fontes de zinco. Em solos com teor de Zn próximo de 2,1 mg dm-3, não houve aumento de produtividade para o feijoeiro com a utilização de cloreto ou sulfato de zinco, aplicados via foliar.This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating dry bean yield in different seasons, submitted to foliar application of different sources and doses of zinc. A randomized block design with four replications was used in a 3 x 2 x 5 factorial arrangement. The treatments were formed by the combination of three growing seasons(“fall/winter”, “spring/summer” and “fall/summer” seasons, two zinc sources (zinc sulfate and zinc chloride and five zinc doses (0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 g ha-1, divided into leaf sprayings at 25 and 35 days after emergence (DAE. For the winter crop, a greater increasewas observed in grain yield, its main components (number of pods per plant and number of grains per plant and leaf-zinc content, as compared to the other two seasons. There was no interaction between growing seasons, doses and sources of zinc. In soils with zinc contentof 2.1 mg dm-3, the addition of this nutrient by foliar application did not

  9. Characterization of differences in calculated and actual measured skin doses to canine limbs during stereotactic radiosurgery using Gafchromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jerri [Duke Energy, York, SC (United States); Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ryan, Stewart [Animal Cancer Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Harmon, Joseph F., E-mail: joseph_harmon@bshsi.org [Bon Secours Cancer Institute, Henrico, VA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Accurate calculation of absorbed dose to the skin, especially the superficial and radiosensitive basal cell layer, is difficult for many reasons including, but not limited to, the build-up effect of megavoltage photons, tangential beam effects, mixed energy scatter from support devices, and dose interpolation caused by a finite resolution calculation matrix. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been developed as an alternative limb salvage treatment option at Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dogs with extremity bone tumors. Optimal dose delivery to the tumor during SBRT treatment can be limited by uncertainty in skin dose calculation. The aim of this study was to characterize the difference between measured and calculated radiation dose by the Varian Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) AAA treatment planning algorithm (for 1-mm, 2-mm, and 5-mm calculation voxel dimensions) as a function of distance from the skin surface. The study used Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ), FilmQA analysis software, a limb phantom constructed from plastic water Trade-Mark-Sign (fluke Biomedical, Everett, WA) and a canine cadaver forelimb. The limb phantom was exposed to 6-MV treatments consisting of a single-beam, a pair of parallel opposed beams, and a 7-beam coplanar treatment plan. The canine forelimb was exposed to the 7-beam coplanar plan. Radiation dose to the forelimb skin at the surface and at depths of 1.65 mm and 1.35 mm below the skin surface were also measured with the Gafchromic film. The calculation algorithm estimated the dose well at depths beyond buildup for all calculation voxel sizes. The calculation algorithm underestimated the dose in portions of the buildup region of tissue for all comparisons, with the most significant differences observed in the 5-mm calculation voxel and the least difference in the 1-mm voxel. Results indicate a significant difference between measured and calculated data

  10. Subgroup effects in a randomised trial of different types and doses of exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, K S; McKenzie, D C; Mackey, J R; Gelmon, K; Friedenreich, C M; Yasui, Y; Reid, R D; Vallerand, J R; Adams, S C; Proulx, C; Dolan, L B; Wooding, E; Segal, R J

    2014-10-28

    The Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Trial tested different types and doses of exercise in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Here, we explore potential moderators of the exercise training responses. Breast cancer patients initiating chemotherapy (N=301) were randomly assigned to three times a week, supervised exercise of a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise, a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise, or a higher dose of 50-60 min of combined aerobic and resistance exercise. Outcomes were patient-reported symptoms and health-related fitness. Moderators were baseline demographic, exercise/fitness, and cancer variables. Body mass index moderated the effects of the exercise interventions on bodily pain (P for interaction=0.038), endocrine symptoms (P for interaction=0.029), taxane/neuropathy symptoms (P for interaction=0.013), aerobic fitness (P for interaction=0.041), muscular strength (P for interaction=0.007), and fat mass (P for interaction=0.005). In general, healthy weight patients responded better to the higher-dose exercise interventions than overweight/obese patients. Menopausal status, age, and baseline fitness moderated the effects on patient-reported symptoms. Premenopausal, younger, and fitter patients achieved greater benefits from the higher-dose exercise interventions. Healthy weight, fitter, and premenopausal/younger breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are more likely to benefit from higher-dose exercise interventions.

  11. Detecting free-mass common-mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Kazuaki

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation. The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common-mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations. The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth.

  12. Radiation protection in medicine (542) comparison of different dosimetry systems for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Krpan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The dose measurement on patients in X-ray diagnostic is not simple, because low doses with low and various energies have to be measured. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare high sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and radio-photoluminescent (R.P.L.) glass dosimeters for dose measurements in routine X-ray diagnostic of chest of children. The energy dependence of the dosimeters was investigated in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The energy range was 33- 65 keV mean energy, the dosimeters were placed free in air and on the water phantom. The results were compared to calculated values of Hp(10). The next step was the irradiation in a routine X-ray diagnostic unit. Irradiations were performed by the Shimadzu X-ray unit. The selected irradiation conditions were the same as that most commonly used for baby examinations. Doses were measured with dosimeters placed free-in-air and also with the dosimeters placed on the water phantom and baby phantom. The results show that the R.P.L. glass dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Cu,P based T.L.D. are suitable for low dose measurements in X-ray diagnostic. The uncertainty of dose determination is mainly caused by the energy dependence of dosimeters. (authors)

  13. New generation of nuclear fuels: Stability of different stearates under high doses gamma irradiation in the manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, D.; Esnouf, S. [Den-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gracia, J. [Den-Service d' Etudes des Combustibles et Matériaux à base d' Actinides (SECA), CEA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Audubert, F. [Den-Service d' Analyse et de Caractérisation du Comportement des Combustibles (SA3C), CEA, F- 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [Den-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-07-15

    In the future reactors, the pellets radioactivity will increase due to the modification of the plutonium concentration. The stability of the organic additive used as lubricating/deagglomerating agent has thus to be evaluated. Up to now, zinc stearate is employed, but new additives are tested in this study and compared to zinc stearate. In a first part of this paper, the order of magnitude of the dose deposited in the stearates has been estimated. Afterward, three different stearates have been irradiated, using gamma-rays at doses as high as 2000 kGy. Two atmospheres of irradiation were tested, i.e. inert atmosphere and air. Samples were characterized using the following analytical tools: mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The objective is the evaluation of the ageing of these materials. In the nuclear fuel pellets manufacturing context, the candidate which could replace zinc stearate, if this one is too degraded to fulfill its role of lubricant in the pellets of the future manufacturing, has been determined. - Highlights: •Dose deposition estimation for different stearates. •Stearates radiolysis and radio-oxidization at high doses using gamma-rays. •H{sub 2} emission estimation as a function of atmosphere and dose. •Chemical modifications in stearates as a function of atmosphere and dose. •Comparison of three stearates.

  14. Thermal expansivity of highly-stretched linear polyethylene with extended chains irradiated with different doses of γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetskij, A.A.; Chvalun, S.N.; Zubov, Yu.A.; Bakeev, N.F.

    1993-01-01

    Temperature begavior of crystal lattice parameters of highly-stretched samples of linear polyethylene with extended chains irradiated with different doses of γ-rays was studied. It was found that transverse vibrations of macromolecular chains are excited at irradiation doses D≥500 Mrad and temperatures close to the melting temperature of the crystallites. These vibrations cause a sharp increase in the latiice parameter a. But no phase transition to the hexagonal packing occurs. It was shown that the thermal expansivity of the lattice parameter c changes its sign at high irradiation doses. These results are explained by the presence in the crystallites of samples irradiated with large doses of a considerable number of intermolecular chemical bonds

  15. Surface motion induced by nuclear explosions beneath Pahute Mesa. Part I. Halfbreak, Greeley, Scotch, Boxcar events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1976-10-01

    Results of surface motion studies conducted by Sandia Laboratories during seven underground nuclear explosions detonated beneath Pahute Mesa, Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, between 1966 and 1973 are reported. The report is divided into two parts of which this, Part I, includes (1) descriptions of the Pahute Mesa geological environment and of the purposes and instrumentation used in these programs (Chapter 1), and (2) description of four events, the data derived from each, and analysis of these data. These Part I events are HALFBEAK (Chapter 2), GREELEY (Chapter 3), SCOTCH (Chapter 4), and BOXCAR (Chapter 5) for all of which a nominally radial array of gage stations yielded data as a function of distance primarily, although in a few cases data were derived from stations at widely separated azimuths from the explosion. Results of the analysis indicate that average propagation velocity through the geologic column between the explosions and mesa surface was about 8800 ft/sec and that for horizontal distances greater than shot depth, refraction occurred within rhyolite flows with characteristic velocity of about 12,300 ft/sec. There is evidence which suggests possible deeper refraction at a velocity between 18,000 and 21,000 ft/sec. Only the verticle motion peaks follow a pattern amenable to regression analysis because geometrical effects influence horizontal motion amplitudes differently as horizontal distances increase. Particle velocities vary roughly as the inverse square of slant or radial range with exponent values ranging from -3.9 to -1.3. Displacements follow a similar pattern with exponents ranging from about -6 to -2. Displacement profiles at various times during the motion and displacement hodographs in the vertical-radial plane aid in understanding several local phenomena implied by individual motion records

  16. The effect of different doses of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilykhah, Sedigheh; Mojibian, Mahdieh; Moghadam, Maryam Jannati; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Low serum vitamin D levels are correlated with insulin resistance during pregnancy. We have assessed the effects of different doses of vitamin D on insulin resistance during pregnancy. A randomized clinical trial was done on 120 women with a gestational age of less than 12 weeks. The women were divided into three groups randomly. Group A received 200 IU vitamin D daily, group B 50,000 IU vitamin D monthly and group C 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks from 12 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. The serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured before and after intervention. We used the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. The mean ± standard deviation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased in group C from 7.3 ± 5.9 to 34.1 ± 11.5 ng/ml and in group B it increased from 7.3 ± 5.3 to 27.23 ± 10.7 ng/ml, but the level of vitamin D in group A increased from 8.3 ± 7.8 to 17.7 ± 9.3 ng/ml (p insulin and HOMA-IR before and after intervention in groups A and C were significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02). This study has shown that supplementation of pregnant women with 50 000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks improved insulin resistance significantly.

  17. Population kinetics studies in mouse jejunum exposed prenatally to gamma rays at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godha, Meena; Nand Chahal, K.

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice of 18 days post conception were exposed to 0.80 Gy, 0.40 Gy and 0.20 Gy of gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different dose rates (.0584 Gy/min and .00091 Gy/min). Post irradiation variations in the cell population of crypts and villus of jejunum were studied in the F 1 -generation at 1 day, 3 day and 1,2,4,6 and 12 weeks of post-partum age. In all the exposure groups at 1 day post-partum age, crypts show a decrease in total cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells on one hand and an increase in PNNC on the other hand in comparison to coeval controls. At this interval a decrease in the number of total cells as well as goblet cells/villus column was also noticeable. Dead cells which were prominently seen in crypts were totally absent in villi. The first signs of recovery can be observed on day 3 p.p. when total cell population, mitotic activity and goblet cells of crypt registered an increase while percentage of PNNC showed a fall. Percentage of total cell population and goblet cells/villus column also increased. The recovery continued up to 2 week of p.p. age. At p.p. age of 4 weeks a relapse of damage was observed when values for all the parameters of crypt and villi registered a fall except PNNC. This is followed by a second phase of recovery and by 6 and 12 weeks of post-partum age, normal value were obtained for all the parameters. (author)

  18. [Inductions and intubating conditions with sevoflurane and different doses of remifentanil without muscle relaxant in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling-Xin; Deng, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Ju-Hui; Luo, Mao-Ping; Tong, Shi-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liao, Xu; Xu, Kun-Lin

    2008-12-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of inductions and tracheal intubating conditions with 3% sevoflurane and different doses of remifentanil without muscle relaxant in children. Totally 120 peadiatric patients (aged 4-10 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I for inhalational induction) were randomly allocated into group I (remifentanil 1 microg/kg), group II (remifentanil 2 microg/kg), group III (remifentanil 3 microg/kg), and control group (vecuronium bromide 0.1 mg/kg). After inhalational induction with 3% sevoflurane and 60% nitrous oxide in 40% oxygen for 2 minutes, remifentanil 1 microg/kg, 2 microg/ kg, and 3 microg/kg were intravenously injected over 1 minute into patients in group I , group II, and group III, respectively. After remifentanil administration and manual ventilation for 1 minute, the trachea was intubated. In the control group, 2 minutes after intravenous administration of vecuronium bromide 0.1 mg/kg, tracheal intubation was attempted. Agitation, intubating satisfactoriness, and the circulation changes after tracheal intubation and anesthesia induction were observed. In these four groups, agitation occurred in 37.5% of patients during sevoflurane induction. Satisfactory intubation rate was 70.0% in group I, 86.7% in group II, 90.0% in group III, and 93.3% in the control group. Compared with the control group, the impact of tracheal intubation on the circulatory system was smaller in group I , II , and III. Induction with 3% sevoflurane combined with remifentanil can be smoothly performed, followed by the successful tracheal intubation. The intubating conditions are more satisfactory with 3% sevoflurane combined with remifentanil 2 microg/kg or 3 microg/kg.

  19. Yield in cultivars of the West Indian gherkin for different doses of biofertiliser = Produtividade de cultivares de maxixeiro em função de doses de biofertilizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of the West Indian gherkin is greatly appreciated in Brazilian cuisine, especially in the north and northeast of Brazil. However, it is still considered a secondary crop, and is cultivated using non-technical management. As it is a crop produced mainly by small farmers, any research should be directed towards its cultivation using inputs produced on the farm itself, such as bio-fertilisers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the yield of two West Indian gherkin cultivars, of different doses of bio-fertiliser consisting of cattle manure and commercial products containing bacteria and enzymes that degrade organic molecules. A completely randomised design was used in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with four replications. The factors included two cultivars (Do Norte and Liso Gibão and four doses of bio-fertiliser (0, 8, 16 and 24 m3 ha-1 applied through fertigation. The experiment lasted for 100 days, with six collections being made, for which the following variables were evaluated: number of fruits, fruit weight, production and yield. All the variables were affected by the interaction between the factors under study. The cultivars did not differ as to yield, however the De North cultivar gave the highest number of fruits, while the Liso Gibão cultivar produced fruit of a greater weight. From the results obtained, a dose of 14 m3 ha-1 is recommended for the Liso Gibão cultivar. For the De Norte cultivar, further studies with higher doses of bio-fertiliser are recommended. = Os frutos de maxixeiro são de grande apreciação na culinária brasileira, principalmente nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. No entanto, é considerada uma cultura secundária e seu cultivo é realizado sem adoção de manejo tecnificado. Devido o seu cultivo ser realizado, principalmente, por pequenos produtores, as pesquisas empregando insumos produzidos na própria propriedade, como o biofertilizante, na adubação do maxixe são relevantes

  20. Measurements of the Cosmic Rays Dose at Different Altitudes of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Jafarizadeh, M.; Sina, S.; Zehtabian, M.; Taheri, M.

    2012-01-01

    The amount of cosmic rays varies widely with the altitude, latitude and longitude in each region. In this study, the radiation doses due to the cosmic rays were estimated in two steps: in the first step, the neutron and gamma components of the radiation dose were measured for a roundtrip flight on 3 flight routes (Shiraz-Asaluye, Asaluye-Rasht and Shiraz-Mashhad) using a gamma-tracer photon detector and a Thyac 190 N, neutron detector. The minimum values of the measured gamma and neutron doses of 0.15 and 0.04μSv were measured on the Asaluyeh-Shiraz route at the lowest altitude of 19000 ft, while for Rasht-Asaluyeh route at an altitude of 35000 ft those values were found to be 2.52 and 1.09 mSv, respectively. In the second step, a number of air crew members were equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD cards) for evaluating the gamma dose and polycarbonate dosimeters (SSNTD) for assessing the neutron dose for one year. The measured value of the annual effective dose received by the crew ranged between 0.5 mSv/y and 1.16 mSv/y, with an average of 0.9 mSv/y for the gamma component and between 0.37 mSv/y and 0.77 mSv/y with an average of 0.61 mSv/y for the neutron component. The results of this investigation are comparable with the investigations that have been conducted in other countries. For instance in UK, the reported annual effective dose of air crew is about 2 mSv, and in Canada, it is estimated to be between 1 to 5 mSv, depending on the flight situations (such as the latitude and longitude of the cities, the flight altitude, etc).

  1. Multi-Hazard Analysis for the Estimation of Ground Motion Induced by Landslides and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Rubén; Koudogbo, Fifame; Ardizzone, Francesca; Mondini, Alessandro; Bignami, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors allow obtaining all-day all-weather terrain complex reflectivity images which can be processed by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) for the monitoring of displacement episodes with extremely high accuracy. In the work presented, different PSI strategies to measure ground surface displacements for multi-scale multi-hazard mapping are proposed in the context of landslides and tectonic applications. This work is developed in the framework of ESA General Studies Programme (GSP). The present project, called Multi Scale and Multi Hazard Mapping Space based Solutions (MEMpHIS), investigates new Earth Observation (EO) methods and new Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions to improve the understanding and management of disasters, with special focus on Disaster Risk Reduction rather than Rapid Mapping. In this paper, the results of the investigation on the key processing steps for measuring large-scale ground surface displacements (like the ones originated by plate tectonics or active faults) as well as local displacements at high resolution (like the ones related with active slopes) will be presented. The core of the proposed approaches is based on the Stable Point Network (SPN) algorithm, which is the advanced PSI processing chain developed by ALTAMIRA INFORMATION. Regarding tectonic applications, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. In this context, a low-resolution approach based in the integration of differential phase increments of velocity and topographic error (obtained through the fitting of a linear model adjustment function to data) will be evaluated. Data from the default mode of Sentinel-1, the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode, will be considered for this application. Regarding landslides

  2. Investigation of organ dose difference of age phantoms for medical X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Ran; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Choon Sik

    2003-01-01

    Methodology for calculating the organ equivalent doses and the effective doses of pediatric and adult patients undergoing medical X-ray examinations were established. The MIRD-type mathematical phantoms of 4 age groups were constructed with addition of the esophagus to the same phantoms. Two typical examination procedures, chest PA and abdomen AP, were simulated for the pediatric patients as well as the adult as illustrative examples. The results confirmed that patients pick up approximate 0.03 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.4 to 1.7 mSv from an abdomen AP examination depending on the ages. For dose calculations where irradiation is made with a limited field, the details of the position, size and shape of the organs and the organ depth from the entrance surface considerably affect the resulting doses. Therefore, it is important to optimize radiation protection by control of X-ray properties and beam examination field. The calculation result, provided in this study, can be used to implement optimization for medical radiation protection

  3. Nanoindentation and in situ microcompression in different dose regimes of proton beam irradiated 304 SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lupinacci, A. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Vo, H.; Howard, C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jiao, Z. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Minor, A.M. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chou, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hosemann, P., E-mail: peterh@berkeley.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in micromechanical testing have allowed for the efficient evaluation of radiation effects in micron-scale volumes of ion-irradiated materials. In this study, both nanoindentation and in situ SEM microcompression testing are carried out on 10 dpa proton beam irradiated 304 stainless steel to assess radiation hardening and radiation-induced deformation mechanisms in the material. Using a focused ion beam (FIB), arrays of 2 μm × 2 μm cross-section microcompression pillars are fabricated in multiple dose regimes within the same grain, providing dose-dependent behavior in a single crystal orientation. Analysis of the microcompression load-displacement data and real-time SEM imaging during testing indicates significant hardening, as well as increased localization of deformation in the irradiated material. Although nanoindentation results suggest that irradiation hardening saturates at low doses, microcompression results indicate that the pillar yield stress continues to rise with dose above 10 dpa in the tested orientation. - Highlights: •Mechanical properties are probed in small volumes of proton irradiated 304SS. •Nanoindentation indicates saturation of irradiation hardening at doses of 5–10 dpa. •Microcompression of irradiated specimens suggest localized deformation.

  4. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  5. Difference in temporal lobe dose between two radiotherapy techniques in the treatment of NPC with anterior nasal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V.W.C.; Luk, J.H.Y.; Wong, S.F.T.; Lam, E.C.H.; Fung, M.C.Y.; Tong, S.M.; Ku, I.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with anterior extension are treated with special radiotherapy techniques. The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of temporal lobe dose between two radiotherapy techniques (A and B) which are commonly used in the treatment of such condition in Hong Kong. The study is carried out by performing radiation treatments to a humanoid phantom under simulated conditions of the two techniques. The dose measurement is done by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) which are placed inside the phantom. Both techniques employ a '3-field' arrangement: a heavy-weighted anterior facial fields with two lateral opposing facial fields. The main difference lies in the anterior facial field in which technique A uses electron beam throughout while technique B uses a mixture of photon and electron beams. The results demonstrates that technique A delivers higher dose to temporal lobe than technique B. In a course of radical external beam radiotherapy (66 Gy), the mean dose to inferior temporal lobe are 59.29 Gy in technique A and 34.06 Gy in technique B respectively (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, it is found that the temporal lobe dose difference between the two techniques is mainly due to their phase I treatment. (p < 0.0001 for phase I and p = 0.078 for phase II). (authors)

  6. Difference in temporal lobe dose between two radiotherapy techniques in the treatment of NPC with anterior nasal involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, V.W.C.; Luk, J.H.Y.; Wong, S.F.T.; Lam, E.C.H.; Fung, M.C.Y.; Tong, S.M.; Ku, I.K.M. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, (Hong Kong). Department of Radiography and Optometry

    1997-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with anterior extension are treated with special radiotherapy techniques. The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of temporal lobe dose between two radiotherapy techniques (A and B) which are commonly used in the treatment of such condition in Hong Kong. The study is carried out by performing radiation treatments to a humanoid phantom under simulated conditions of the two techniques. The dose measurement is done by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) which are placed inside the phantom. Both techniques employ a `3-field` arrangement: a heavy-weighted anterior facial fields with two lateral opposing facial fields. The main difference lies in the anterior facial field in which technique A uses electron beam throughout while technique B uses a mixture of photon and electron beams. The results demonstrates that technique A delivers higher dose to temporal lobe than technique B. In a course of radical external beam radiotherapy (66 Gy), the mean dose to inferior temporal lobe are 59.29 Gy in technique A and 34.06 Gy in technique B respectively (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, it is found that the temporal lobe dose difference between the two techniques is mainly due to their phase I treatment. (p < 0.0001 for phase I and p = 0.078 for phase II). (authors). 14 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Effects of different 137Cs γ radiation dose on mouse hematopoietic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yueying; Wu Hongying; Li Deguan; Wang Xiaochun; Song Naling; Lu Lu; Zhang Junling; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effects of different dose of radiation on the mouse's hematopoietic system. Methods: Mice of 615 strain, ICR strain and IRM-2 strain were given a one-time 4.0 Gy total body irradiation,and then the changes of peripheral white blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) among those mice were observed at different time points. Mice of IRM-2 and C57BL/6 were given a one-time 6.0 Gy total body irradiation and the changes of peripheral hematological between the two strains were observed forty-five days after irradiation. Results: Two days after irradiation,white blood cell and BMNC counts decreased to the lowest level in all the mice of 615 strain, ICR strain and IRM-2 strain. During the following days,white blood cell and BMNC counts raised again. Nine days after irradiation, BMNC count in IRM-2 mice was significantly higher than that in 615 and ICR mice (t=3.725, P<0.01; t=8.487, P<0.001). Twelve days after irradiation,white blood cell count in IRM-2 mice was significantly higher than that in the 615 and ICR mice (t=4.811 and 4.302, both P <0.001). Twenty-one days after irradiation,compared to the control group,white blood cell count was recovered to 52.0%, 60.7% and 50.8% of the normal range in IRM-2, ICR and 615 mice separately and BMNC count was recovered to 90.8%, 82.1%, 75.4% of the normal range in IRM-2, ICR and 615 mice separately. Forty-five days after 6.0 Gy irradiation,white blood cell, BMNC, hemoglobin and hematocrit counts in IRM-2 mice were significantly higher than those indexes in C57BL/6 strain (t=5.629, 7.788, 4.9289, 6.064, all P<0.001). Compared to the control group, white blood cells, red blood cells,hemoglobin and hematocrit were recovered to 75.0%, 98.9%, 98.7%, and 97.5% of the normal range separately in IRM-2 mice. And white blood cells, red blood cells,hemoglobin and hematocrit were recovered to 40.6%, 93.8%, 93.3%, and 93.8% of the normal range separately in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion: There are similar

  8. The impact of CT radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction algorithms from four different vendors on coronary calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Jong, Pim A. de; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleys, Ronald L.A.W. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy, Utrecht (Netherlands); Das, Marco; Wildberger, Joachim E. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Buls, Nico; Mey, Johan de [UZ Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    To analyse the effects of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Fifteen ex vivo human hearts were examined in an anthropomorphic chest phantom using computed tomography (CT) systems from four vendors and examined at four dose levels using unenhanced prospectively ECG-triggered protocols. Tube voltage was 120 kV and tube current differed between protocols. CT data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and reduced dose CT data with IR. CCS was quantified with Agatston scores, calcification mass and calcification volume. Differences were analysed with the Friedman test. Fourteen hearts showed coronary calcifications. Dose reduction with FBP did not significantly change Agatston scores, calcification volumes and calcification masses (P > 0.05). Maximum differences in Agatston scores were 76, 26, 51 and 161 units, in calcification volume 97, 27, 42 and 162 mm{sup 3}, and in calcification mass 23, 23, 20 and 48 mg, respectively. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes with significant differences for one vendor (P < 0.05). Median relative differences between reference FBP and reduced dose IR for Agatston scores remained within 2.0-4.6 %, 1.0-5.3 %, 1.2-7.7 % and 2.6-4.5 %, for calcification volumes within 2.4-3.9 %, 1.0-5.6 %, 1.1-6.4 % and 3.7-4.7 %, for calcification masses within 1.9-4.1 %, 0.9-7.8 %, 2.9-4.7 % and 2.5-3.9 %, respectively. IR resulted in increased, decreased or similar calcification masses. CCS derived from standard FBP acquisitions was not affected by radiation dose reductions up to 80 %. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes. (orig.)

  9. Applications of different dose of irradiation on dates followed by quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Sofien

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of radiation on the conservation of dates and the development of micro-organisms. Deglet Nour variety of dates were purchased from local market and irradiated at doses 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 kGy and stored at room temperature for 30 days. During storage, we evaluated the effects of radiation on the evolution of fructose, glucose, sucrose, pH, organic acid and moisture which are parameters of quality of dates. We have also checked its effect on the development on micro-organisms. During storage, there has been a change in the chemical composition and microbiological quality. However, these changes are proportional to the radiation doses applied. 1 kGy dose appears to be the best. It completely inhibits the development of micro-organisms and slows senescence dates. (Author)

  10. Different doses of tramadol in dogs: analgesic, sedative and cardiopulmonary effects

    OpenAIRE

    Paolozzi, Rodrigo Jesus; Cassu, Renata Navarro; Cruz, Fernando Silvério Ferreira da; Parrilha, Letícia Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos cardiorrespiratório, analgésico e sedativo de diferentes doses de tramadol em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Foram avaliadas 24 cadelas SRD, adultas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos de oito animais, tratados com tramadol pela via intravenosa (IV) nas doses de 1, 2 e 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 e T4, respectivamente). Na medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrada acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 IV). Vinte minutos após, a anestesia foi induzid...

  11. Open-label comparative clinical study of chlorproguanil-dapsone fixed dose combination (Lapdap alone or with three different doses of artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Wootton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of artesunate for use in a fixed dose combination therapy with chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.Open-label clinical trial comparing CPG-DDS alone or with artesunate 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg at medical centers in Blantyre, Malawi and Farafenni, The Gambia. The trial was conducted between June 2002 and February 2005, including 116 adults (median age 27 years and 107 children (median age 38 months with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Subjects were randomized into 4 groups to receive CPG-DDS alone or plus 4, 2 or 1 mg/kg of artesunate once daily for 3 days. Assessments took place on Days 0-3 in hospital and follow-up on Days 7 and 14 as out-patients. Efficacy was evaluated in the Day 3 per-protocol (PP population using mean time to reduce baseline parasitemia by 90% (PC90. A number of secondary outcomes were also included. Appropriate artesunate dose was determined using a pre-defined decision matrix based on primary and secondary outcomes. Treatment emergent adverse events were recorded from clinical assessments and blood parameters. Safety was evaluated in the intent to treat (ITT population.In the Day 3 PP population for the adult group (N = 85, mean time to PC90 was 19.1 h in the CPG-DDS group, significantly longer than for the +artesunate 1 mg/kg (12.5 h; treatment difference -6.6 h [95%CI -11.8, -1.5], 2 mg/kg (10.7 h; -8.4 h [95%CI -13.6, -3.2] and 4 mg/kg (10.3 h; -8.7 h [95%CI -14.1, -3.2] groups. For children in the Day 3 PP population (N = 92, mean time to PC90 was 21.1 h in the CPG-DDS group, similar to the +artesunate 1 mg/kg group (17.7 h; -3.3 h [95%CI -8.6, 2.0], though the +artesunate 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg groups had significantly shorter mean times to PC90 versus CPG-DDS; 14.4 h (treatment difference -6.4 h [95%CI -11.7, -1.0] and 12.8 h (-7.4 h [95%CI -12.9, -1.8], respectively. An analysis of mean time

  12. Evaluation of absorbed dose in organs far from the target volume for different therapies of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletsch, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in radiotherapy are the result of innovations in technology and engineering as well as the information technology revolution applied to the treatment planning of patients. The intensity modulated radiation therapy (lMRT) is a sophisticated treatment technique that allows the concentration of the dose prescribed by radiotherapist in tumor volume, while sparing healthy tissues that surround it. However, the disadvantage of the technique is a potential induction of secondary cancers in distant organs related to the target volume due to leakage and scattered radiation, which generate these higher doses to the distant organs when compared to those measured in conventional treatments. These higher doses are is due to the greater use of monitor units and a larger amount of treatment fields. In this study the absorbed dose values in distant organs from the head and neck region were assessed, comparing conventional treatments and treatments using the IMRT techniques. The evaluation was made considering the assessment of dose in radiological significant organs distant from the treatment area. All measurements were performed using the RANDO Alderson anthropomorphic phantom that has internal components equivalent to muscle, bones and lungs and is sliced for placing thermoluminescent detectors in appropriate holes existing in the slices. This phantom, tilled with TLD-100 dosimeters, was submitted to a head and neck treatment with a cobalt-60 irradiator and a Trilogy linear accelerator. Three treatments were carried out with the accelerator, namely a conventional one and two treatments of IMRT with different complexities, all treatments using the 6MV beam. The results show that IMRT techniques generate large doses in distant organs when compared to those generated due to the conventional 6 MV beam treatment. However, these doses are not very different from those measured in the case of 60 Co treatment. (author)

  13. Optimal density assignment to 2D diode array detector for different dose calculation algorithms in patient specific VMAT QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Yeon; Park, Jong Min; Choi, Chang Heon; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assign an appropriate density to virtual phantom for 2D diode array detector with different dose calculation algorithms to guarantee the accuracy of patient-specific QA. Ten VMAT plans with 6 MV photon beam and ten VMAT plans with 15 MV photon beam were selected retrospectively. The computed tomography (CT) images of MapCHECK2 with MapPHAN were acquired to design the virtual phantom images. For all plans, dose distributions were calculated for the virtual phantoms with four different materials by AAA and AXB algorithms. The four materials were polystyrene, 455 HU, Jursinic phantom, and PVC. Passing rates for several gamma criteria were calculated by comparing the measured dose distribution with calculated dose distributions of four materials. For validation of AXB modeling in clinic, the mean percentages of agreement in the cases of dose difference criteria of 1.0% and 2.0% for 6 MV were 97.2%±2.3%, and 99.4%±1.1%, respectively while those for 15 MV were 98.5%±0.85% and 99.8%±0.2%, respectively. In the case of 2%/2 mm, all mean passing rates were more than 96.0% and 97.2% for 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively, regardless of the virtual phantoms of different materials and dose calculation algorithms. The passing rates in all criteria slightly increased for AXB as well as AAA when using 455 HU rather than polystyrene. The virtual phantom which had a 455 HU values showed high passing rates for all gamma criteria. To guarantee the accuracy of patent-specific VMAT QA, each institution should fine-tune the mass density or HU values of this device

  14. Optimal density assignment to 2D diode array detector for different dose calculation algorithms in patient specific VMAT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yeon; Park, Jong Min; Choi, Chang Heon; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assign an appropriate density to virtual phantom for 2D diode array detector with different dose calculation algorithms to guarantee the accuracy of patient-specific QA. Ten VMAT plans with 6 MV photon beam and ten VMAT plans with 15 MV photon beam were selected retrospectively. The computed tomography (CT) images of MapCHECK2 with MapPHAN were acquired to design the virtual phantom images. For all plans, dose distributions were calculated for the virtual phantoms with four different materials by AAA and AXB algorithms. The four materials were polystyrene, 455 HU, Jursinic phantom, and PVC. Passing rates for several gamma criteria were calculated by comparing the measured dose distribution with calculated dose distributions of four materials. For validation of AXB modeling in clinic, the mean percentages of agreement in the cases of dose difference criteria of 1.0% and 2.0% for 6 MV were 97.2%±2.3%, and 99.4%±1.1%, respectively while those for 15 MV were 98.5%±0.85% and 99.8%±0.2%, respectively. In the case of 2%/2 mm, all mean passing rates were more than 96.0% and 97.2% for 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively, regardless of the virtual phantoms of different materials and dose calculation algorithms. The passing rates in all criteria slightly increased for AXB as well as AAA when using 455 HU rather than polystyrene. The virtual phantom which had a 455 HU values showed high passing rates for all gamma criteria. To guarantee the accuracy of patent-specific VMAT QA, each institution should fine-tune the mass density or HU values of this device.

  15. A Micronutrient Fortified Beverage Given at Different Dosing Frequencies Had Limited Impact on Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Filipino Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Lloyd, Beate B.; Hilmers, David C.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were randomly allocated into groups: Daily dose (HD: high dose), 5X/week (MD: Moderate Dose), 3X/week (LD: Low Dose) and unfortified (Control). Pre- and post-study measurements of micronutrients were collected from 228 children. At the endpoint, significant Hb increases were observed in all groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was a significant reduction in anemia prevalence in all groups from 100% to 36% (Control), 30% (LD), 23% (MD) and 26% (HD). No dose-response effect was observed in Hb in this population. Most likely, this resulted from better than expected micronutrient status and lower than expected severity of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in this cohort. It is unlikely that the addition of a fortified beverage to school feeding programs in this population would have a positive impact. Whether such an intervention would be cost-effective as a preventative approach needs to be assessed. This study demonstrates the importance of targeting such interventions to appropriate populations. PMID:28895887

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Daikenchuto for Constipation and Dose-Dependent Differences in Clinical Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hirose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Daikenchuto (DKT is a Kampo medicine used for the treatment of constipation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DKT against constipation. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three patients administered DKT for constipation were selected and divided into low-dose (7.5 g DKT; n=22 and high-dose (15 g DKT; n=11 groups. We retrospectively evaluated weekly defaecation frequency, side effects, and clinical laboratory data. Results. Median defaecation frequencies after DKT administration (5, 5.5, 5, and 8 for the first, second, third, and fourth weeks, resp. were significantly higher than that before DKT administration (2 in all 33 cases (P<0.01. One case (3% of watery stool, one case of loose stools (3%, and no cases of abdominal pain (0% were observed. Median defaecation frequencies in the high-dose group (7 and 9 were significantly higher than those in the low-dose group (4 and 3 in the first (P=0.0133 and second (P=0.0101 weeks, respectively. There was no significant change in clinical laboratory values. Conclusion. We suggest that DKT increases defaecation frequency and is safe for treating constipation.

  17. Liposome accumulation in irradiated tumors display important tumor and dose dependent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; Fliedner, Frederikke Petrine; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy may affect several important parameters in the tumor microenvironment and thereby influence the accumulation of liposomes by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-effect. Here we investigate the effect of single dose radiation therapy on liposome tumor accumulation by PET...

  18. Comparison of two different loading doses of milrinone for weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, S. G.; Moens, M. M.; Jorens, P. G.; Delrue, G. L.; DePaep, R. J.; Vermeyen, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the hemodynamic effects, pharmacokinetic profiles, and the need for vasoactive agents between a low (20 micrograms/kg during 15 minutes [group 1; n = 10]) and a high (40 micrograms/kg during 15 minutes [group 2; n = 10]) loading dose of milrinone. DESIGN: Prospective,

  19. What is the effect of different skin types on the required dose for photodynamic therapy?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For effective laser treatment it is very important to provide the correct dose at the required treatment depth. In South Africa we have a richness of ethnic groups contributing to a large variety in skin tones. Effective laser treatment of skin...

  20. Influence on dose calculation by difference of dose calculation algorithms in stereotactic lung irradiation. Comparison of pencil beam convolution (inhomogeneity correction: batho power law) and analytical anisotropic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Masayuki; Noguchi, Yoshitaka; Fukunaga, Jyunichi; Hirano, Naomi; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Hirose, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    The monitor unit (MU) was calculated by pencil beam convolution (inhomogeneity correction algorithm: batho power law) [PBC (BPL)] which is the dose calculation algorithm based on measurement in the past in the stereotactic lung irradiation study. The recalculation was done by analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), which is the dose calculation algorithm based on theory data. The MU calculated by PBC (BPL) and AAA was compared for each field. In the result of the comparison of 1031 fields in 136 cases, the MU calculated by PBC (BPL) was about 2% smaller than that calculated by AAA. This depends on whether one does the calculation concerning the extension of the second electrons. In particular, the difference in the MU is influenced by the X-ray energy. With the same X-ray energy, when the irradiation field size is small, the lung pass length is long, the lung pass length percentage is large, and the CT value of the lung is low, and the difference of MU is increased. (author)

  1. Gender differences in onabotulinum toxin A dosing for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Michael Z; Lerner, Benjamin A; Patel, Amit A; Blitzer, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of gender on onabotulinum toxin A dosing for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia symptoms. Retrospective review. A chart review of the senior author's database of botulinum toxin injections was performed. Patients diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia who received onabotulinum toxin A (BoNTA) injections to the thyroarytenoid muscle for at least 5 years were included for study. Patients who received alternate formulations of botulinum toxin (Myobloc, Dysport, or Xeomin) and patients with alternate diagnoses, such as abductor spasmodic dysphonia, tremor, and oromandibular dystonia, were excluded. The average BoNTA dose was calculated for each patient and statistical analysis was performed comparing the male and female groups. A total of 201 patients (52 males and 149 females) met inclusion criteria. The average follow-up times for the male and female groups were 10.2 ± 3.6 and 11.1 ± 4 years, respectively. The average BoNTA doses for the male and female groups were 0.6 ± 0.42 U and 1.3 ± 1.1 U, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using an independent samples two-tailed t test yielding a P value of .0000000002. A large effect size was noted with Cohen's d = 0.85. The data from this retrospective chart review reveal a statistically and clinically significant correlation between female gender and higher average BoNTA dose for symptom control in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Explanations for this observation are speculative and include a possible inverse relationship between optimal BoNTA dose and vocal fold mass and possibly greater neutralizing antibody formation among female patients. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1131-1134, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Different doses of Pilates-based exercise therapy for chronic low back pain : a randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Franco, Katherinne Ferro Moura; van Dongen, Johanna M; Franco, Yuri Rafael Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Amaral, Diego Diulgeroglo Vicco; Branco, Amanda Nery Castelo; da Silva, Maria Liliane; van Tulder, Maurits W; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-utility of the addition of different doses of Pilates to an advice for non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) from a societal perspective. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation. SETTING: Physiotherapy clinic in São Paulo,

  3. Numerical variation of cell lysosomes of the proximal convoluted tubules of mice Kidneys submitted to different X-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lapa, R. de C.R. da; Pacheco, I.P.; Segreto, C.

    1984-01-01

    The number of cell lysosomes of the proximal convoluted tubules of mice Kidneys (Mus musculus) before and after whole-body irradiation with different X-ray doses is confronted. The mice were sacrificed after 72 hours and the cortex fragments were conduct to electron microscopy. A statistically significant numerical reduction of the lysosomas was observed in 72 hours. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. The assessment of external photon dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. An intercomparison of different monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Lauterbach, U.

    1993-01-01

    Four environmental dose rate instruments having different detectors, a high pressure ionisation chamber, a Geiger-Muller counter, a proportional counter and a scintillation counter, were used to make continuous measurements over a four month period of the air kerma rate at a location close to a n...

  5. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects

  6. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  7. Determination of doses to different organs and prediction of health detriment, after hypothetical accident in mtr reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, E A; Abd El-Ghani, A H [National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    As a result of pypothetical accidents with release of high amount of fission products, the doses to different organs consequent upon inhalation of radioactive fission products are calculated. The processes are modeled using the ORIGIN and TIRION-4 codes: source term, containment and activity enclosure, time dependent activity behaviour in the building, and radiation exposure in the reactor building. Prediction of health detriments were calculated using ICRP-60 nominal probability coefficients and organ doses determined for bone, lung, and thyroid gland, after whole body exposure from internal inhalation and external emmersion. 11 tabs.

  8. Pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1) infection in chickens inoculated with three different doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Aida J; Busquets, Nuria; Campos, Naiana; Ramis, Antonio; Dolz, Roser; Rivas, Raquel; Valle, Rosa; Abad, F Xavier; Darji, Ayub; Majo, Natalia

    2011-04-01

    To study the pathogenesis of a H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain, specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with decreasing concentrations of virus: 10(5.5) median embryo lethal dose (ELD(50)) (G1), 10(3.5) ELD(50) (G2) and 10(1.5) ELD(50) (G3). Disease progression was monitored over a period of 16 days and sequential necropsies and tissue samples were collected for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Viral RNA loads were also quantified in different tissues, blood, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Clinical signs of depression, apathy, listlessness, huddling and ruffled feathers were recorded in G1 and a few G2 birds, whilst neurological signs were only observed in chickens inoculated with the highest dose. Gross lesions of haemorrhages were observed in the unfeathered skin of the comb and legs, and skeletal muscle, lung, pancreas and kidneys of birds inoculated with 10(5.5) ELD(50) and 10(3.5) ELD(50) doses. Microscopic lesions and viral antigen were demonstrated in cells of the nasal cavity, lung, heart, skeletal muscle, brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, bone marrow, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland and skin. Viral RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in kidney, lung, intestine, and brain samples of G1 and G2 birds. However, in birds infected with the lowest dose, viral RNA was detected only in brain and lung samples in low amounts at 5 and 7 days post infection. Interestingly, viral shedding was observed in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs with proportionate decrease with the inoculation dose. We conclude that although an adequate infectious dose is critical in reproducing the clinical infection, chickens exposed to lower doses can be infected and shed virus representing a risk for the dissemination of the viral agent.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Daikenchuto for Constipation and Dose-Dependent Differences in Clinical Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yasutaka; Kuroda, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aya; Mitsuoka, Machiko; Mori, Kouki; Kawachi, Yuki; Moriya, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kouji; Takeda, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Kampo medicine used for the treatment of constipation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DKT against constipation. Thirty-three patients administered DKT for constipation were selected and divided into low-dose (7.5 g DKT; n = 22) and high-dose (15 g DKT; n = 11) groups. We retrospectively evaluated weekly defaecation frequency, side effects, and clinical laboratory data. Median defaecation frequencies after DKT administration (5, 5.5, 5, and 8 for the first, second, third, and fourth weeks, resp.) were significantly higher than that before DKT administration (2) in all 33 cases ( P DKT increases defaecation frequency and is safe for treating constipation.

  10. The impact of different doses of clopidogrel used after percutaneous coronary intervention on cardiovascular events: a Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Diangeng; Chen Yao; Li Rongshan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To make a comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of different doses of clopidogrel that was used after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in preventing the cardiovascular events in order to provide scientific basis for physician in making therapeutic strategic decision. Methods: The authors searched the electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI and Wan Fan) and reference lists from original studies and reviewed the related articles.Statistical analysis was performed by using RevMan 4.2 software. Results: A total of 6 studies containing 1027 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that significant differences in the rate of cardiovascular events [OR = 0.52, 95%CI (0.36, 0.77)] existed between higher clopidogrel maintenance dose and standard dose. No obvious difference was found in major or minor bleeding [OR=1.25, 95%CI(0.43, 3.63)] and [OR = 1.25, 95%CI (0.77, 2.02)]. Conclusion: A higher maintenance dose of clopidogrel employed in patients undergoing PCI can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events after PCI without increasing the bleeding risk. (J Intervent Radiol, 2011, 20 : 97-102) (authors)

  11. Radiation dose to the supraclavicular cavity for different field adjustments of post-irradiated mastectomized women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    It was investigated by exact dose measurements in the supraclavicular fossa whether the skin reactions occasionally found in the median region of the supraclavicular fossa and in the adjoining regions of the neck of mastectomized women treated by conventional radiotherapy using four steady state fields are due to excessive amounts of radiation or to a special property of the skin at this point. X-ray dose measurements were performed by means of capacitor chambers. The highest X-ray doses are measured in the middle of the supraclavicular fossa as a result of direct supraclavicular field irradiation. The strong exposure of the skin as a result of this field setting is unavoidable and cannot be the cause of the skin reactions in the median region because the other areas of the skin are exposed even more strongly. A major fraction of the exposure of the skin in the supraclavicular fossa is contributed by the axillary field irradiation in which a non-uniformity of the angles is to be observed in repeated settings of the irradiation field, which has major consequences upon the skin of the supraclavicular fossa. It can be shown by intentional systematic variation of the angle of exposure that the radiation will be distributed most uniformly throughout the supraclavicular fossa at angles between 30 0 and 40 0 and, hence, that the exposure of the skin accordingly will not be concentrated upon a specific point. (orig./RF) [de

  12. Manufacturing of different gel detectors and their calibration for spatial radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.

    2008-05-01

    Three types of gel dosemeter have been made and their most important properties for radiation dosimetry were studied. The comparison between the three categories helps to widen knowledge in each of these detectors and to establish a method for the preparation as well as testing of this radiation sensitive materials. Experiments show the technical application possibility for using these gel detectors to measure the spatial radiation dose distribution in the range of doses given for cancer treatment. The experimental results give some important characteristic for the three gel dosemeter used in comparison to that of the traditional dosimetry systems. It also shows the simplicity of manufacturing the dosemeter from low cost materials and its radiation response to ionizing. The relationships between the dosemeter response and the dose rate as well as the radiation energy were also investigated. Important subjects that have been also taken into consideration are the effects of ambient conditions and storage likelihood of the studied materials. Recommendation was made for the use of these materials in practical applications and for handling as well as their long term storage possibility. (author)

  13. Humoral response to blastospores and mycelium in mice injected with different doses of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesón, O E; Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N G; Sirena, A; Perdigón, G

    1992-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence assay was carry out to determine the IgM and IgG antibody responses to yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicans in mice injected with a 5 x 5(5) and 5 x 10(7) live cells suspensions. Prior adsorption of the serum samples with heat-killed blastospores enabled us to follow the specific antimycelial response which were detected considerably later than expected. Slow level of antibodies were obtained within an infection of 5 x 10(5) cell for both antibody classes and for yeast and mycelial forms. When a 5 x 10(7) cell dose was used for inoculation, maximum titers of antibodies to blastospores and mycelium in non-adsorbed sera appeared almost simultaneously (days 15 and 13, respectively). When serum samples from mice infected with the same dose were previously adsorbed with blastospores, the antimycelium antibodies for both types of Igs, were detected delayed during the infection course. In this case the higher titer for IgG appeared on day 33 and on day 23 for IgM. We suggest that the high titer obtained with the blastospore forms for the 5 x 10(7) cell dose may be due to a major immunogenicity of this forms, for to induce an immune response in the host, or that the delay in the antimycelium antibodies detection could be due to that a blastospore form is the predominant in the infection early stages. Implications of this fact for pathogenesis are discussed.

  14. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  15. A cross section study on low-dose lonization radiation and health effects in different sex subgroups of occupational population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiayuan; Yang Fei; Huang Zhonghang; Lu Xiaoqing; Liu Hui; Jiang Di; Yang Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between long-time exposure to low-dose ionization radiation and health effects. Methods: 1052 occupational subjects exposed to ionization radiation in Chengdu city were recruited in monitoring cohort in 2007, including 785 men (74.62%) and 267 women (25.38%). Individual exposure dose were monitored by Thermoluminescent Measurement. Health effects include blood routine examination, Chromosomal aberration, eye lens test, etc. Variance Analysis (ANOVA), χ 2 Test and Univariate Procedure of General Liner Model (Covariance Analysis) were implemented to test the difference among subgroups with SPSS 13.0 software. Results: Annual average of exposure dose of male and female were (0.76 ± 0.65) mSv and (0.75 ± 0.64) mSv. There is no statistical significant between sex subgroups (F= (0.136, P = 0.712). In females subgroup, the frequencies and ratios with low WBC, Low platelet, high RBC and high HGB were 30 (11.2%), 45(16.9%), 4(1.5%) and 3(1.1%) respectively. And in male subgroup, frequencies and ratios of above index were 32 (4.1%), 147 (18.7%), 64 (8.2%) and 115 (14.6%) respectively. Except low platelet, the distribution differences of the rest three blood indexes between sex subgroups were statistically significant (χ 2 test, P<0.01). Either in male or in female subgroups, no statistically significant difference of all health indexes(RBC, WBC, Platelet, HGB, and Chromosomal aberration) was observed in different radiation dose teams. Conclusion: In this monitoring cohort, the health effects were related to hormesis and adaptive response as well as radiation damage accumulation effect of low-dose ionization radiation. Females were the sensitive group to suffer adverse effects, while blood indexes were the sensitive indexes for monitoring radiation exposure. (authors)

  16. Thermoluminescence of LiNaSo4: TI after exposure to radiation doses from electrons of different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kolaly, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Lithium sodium sulphate doped by rare impurities (LiNaSO 4 : TI) has been locally prepared. Its Thermoluminescence properties (TL) have been performed from room temperature up to 300 degree C. The used heating rate was 5 degree C/sec. The samples were irradiated by electrons of different energies (5, 7, 9 and 13 MeV.). These samples were exposed to different duration to attain different radiation doses. It has been observed that the glow curves are consisted of four glow peaks at 75, 125, 225 and 250 degree C respectively. The first peak showed a linear dependence with electron radiation doses and can be used in radiation measurement. The irradiated impurities LiNaSO 4 : TI with energies higher than 5 MeV showed no appreciable change in the TL peak height. The obtained results will explore the probability of using such system (double sulphates doped by rare earth impurities) in the field of radiation measurements

  17. Characterization of death of human fetal bone marrow CD34+ cells after different dose of γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yingsong; Yang Rujun; Tang Gusheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characterization of death of the human hematopoietic stem cells after irradiation. Methods: Human fetal bone marrow mononuclear cells were irradiated with different doses of 60 Co γ-rays at different high dose rates. Apoptosis and necrosis of CD34 + cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, following three-color labelling with PE-CD34/FITC-Annexin V/7AAD at different times after irradiation. Results: The death of CD34 + cells after 5 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation showed a continuous process of reproductive death during the first week,and the main death type was apoptosis. A majority of CD34 + cells died of necrosis during the first day after 10 Gy and 12 Gy irradiation, and all of them died within a week. Conclusion: Niches are continuously vacated every day within a week following irradiation and reproductive death of hematopoietic stem cells occurred

  18. Full Range of Motion Induces Greater Muscle Damage Than Partial Range of Motion in Elbow Flexion Exercise With Free Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Bruno M; Pompermayer, Marcelo G; Cini, Anelize; Peruzzolo, Amanda S; Radaelli, Régis; Brusco, Clarissa M; Pinto, Ronei S

    2017-08-01

    Baroni, BM, Pompermayer, MG, Cini, A, Peruzzolo, AS, Radaelli, R, Brusco, CM, and Pinto, RS. Full range of motion induces greater muscle damage than partial range of motion in elbow flexion exercise with free weights. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2223-2230, 2017-Load and range of motion (ROM) applied in resistance training (RT) affect the muscle damage magnitude and the recovery time-course. Because exercises performed with partial ROM allow a higher load compared with those with full ROM, this study investigated the acute effect of a traditional RT exercise using full ROM or partial ROM on muscle damage markers. Fourteen healthy men performed 4 sets of 10 concentric-eccentric repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion on the Scott bench. Arms were randomly assigned to partial-ROM (50-100°) and full-ROM (0-130°) conditions, and load was determined as 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the full- and partial-ROM tests. Muscle damage markers were assessed preexercise, immediately, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Primary outcomes were peak torque, muscle soreness during palpation and elbow extension, arm circumference, and joint ROM. The load lifted in the partial-ROM condition (1RM = 19.1 ± 3.0 kg) was 40 ± 18% higher compared with the full-ROM condition (1RM = 13.7 ± 2.2 kg). Seventy-two hours after exercise, the full-ROM condition led to significant higher soreness sensation during elbow extension (1.3-4.1 cm vs. 1.0-1.9 cm) and smaller ROM values (97.5-106.1° vs. 103.6-115.7°). Peak torque, soreness from palpation, and arm circumference were statistically similar between conditions, although mean values in all time points of these outcomes have suggested more expressive muscle damage for the full-ROM condition. In conclusion, elbow flexion exercise with full ROM seems to induce greater muscle damage than partial-ROM exercises, even though higher absolute load was achieved with partial ROM.

  19. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  20. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Different concentrations and volumes of p-phenylenediamine in pet. (equivalent doses) are associated with similar patch test outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hamann, Carsten R; Andersen, Klaus E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern about causing active sensitization when patch testing is performed with p-phenylenediamine (PPD) 1% pet. has led to a recommendation to use PPD 0.3% pet. as a potentially safer preparation. However, the dose per area of allergen delivered, and hence the risk of active...... sensitization, depend on the amount dispensed into the patch test chamber, which can vary widely. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patch testing with equivalent doses of different concentrations of PPD in pet. is associated with similar outcomes. METHODS: Seventeen known PPD-sensitive subjects were patch tested...... with different volumes and concentrations of PPD in pet. that deliver the same allergen dose per unit area (6 mg of PPD 1% pet. and 20 mg of PPD 0.3% pet. in Finn Chambers®, both equivalent to ∼ 0.09 mg/cm2 ). RESULTS: Eleven patients (65%) had positive reactions to both doses; 4 patients (24%) had negative...

  2. Different gamma radiation doses effects of 60 Co on buds of banana plant (Nanicao-AAA) breeded in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Gilberto Dias; Colaco, Waldeciro

    1999-01-01

    Buds from banana cv. Nanicao-AAA (3 mm x 3 mm) were aseptically cultured in a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplement with bezylaminepurine and sucrose, and solidified with agar. Buds placed on sterile Petri dishes were irradiated with increasing gamma rays doses (10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy). The statistical design was completely randomized with 5 doses and 30 replications. After irradiation, buds were transferred to 10 ml of the same medium into test tubes, and allowed to grow in a controlled environment (25 deg C, 16 h illumination ) for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences (Tukey, 0,05) between doses in terms of oxidation: in around 20% for all treatments. On the other hand, a statistically significant decrease in the germination of new buds with increased doses of irradiation was observed. The treatment with 40 Gy reduced in 80% the germination of new buds by the end of the evaluated period (4 weeks), resulting in a mean production of 1,5 buds. Mean production in the control was 7,6 buds. no statistically significant differences were detected between treatments with 10, 20, and 30 Gy, with a mean production of 3 buds, less than half obtained in the control. (author)

  3. Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in 'Gala' apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Gabrielle Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is a food preservation method aimed to extend the life of the product, inactivate microorganisms, and stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ‘Gala’ apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses.The fruits were harvested, sanitized, selected and inserted into a UV-C radiation chamber, and different radiation doses were applied as follows:0 KJ m-2 (0 min., 0.68 KJ m-2 (2 minutes,2.73 KJ m-2 (4 minutes, and 4.10 KJ m-2 (6 minutes. The apples were stored for 120 days at 5 ± 1°C and analyzed after 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of storage. Radiation doses had no influence on parameters, such as weight loss, firmness and Hue angle, and physicochemical aspects, such as pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. The 4.10 KJ m-2 dose was effective and increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activity for up to 90 days while maintaining the content of vitamin C during storage.

  4. The Effects of Different Doses of Curcuma longa Aqueous Extract on Memory Retention and Retrieval in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Curcumin belongs to ginger family, which is used as food and drug from ancient times. Different studies have shown beneficial effects of curcumin on peptic ulcer, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and various types of cancer. In this study, the effect of different doses of Curcuma longa aqueous extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice, was investigated using passive avoidance apparatus. Methods: Mice were divided into 6 groups of 8 each for memory retention test and 6 groups of 8 each for memory retrieval test {experimental groups receiving the extract intraperitoneally at doses of 100, 200, 400, 800mg/kg, blank group, and control group}. In memory retention test, the curcumin extract was administered immediately after electric shock, while in the memory retrieval test, it was administered 24 h after receiving electric shock. To compare the complete stepping in the experiment days, One-way ANOVA and post-test LSD were used. The level of significance was considered p<0.05. Results: In this study, curcuma longa aqueous extract significantly increased memory retention and retrieval on the 4th day compared to blank and control groups. The best response for memory retention was obtained at the dose of 100mg/kg and for memory retrieval at the dose of 200mg/kg. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that Curcuma longa aqueous extract improves memory retention and retrieval in healthy mice.  

  5. Effective dose in two different dental CBCT Systems: NewTom VGi and Planmeca 3D Mid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedizirgar, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reza; Paydar, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography, CBCT, is a kind of CT scanner producing conical diverging X-rays, in which a large area of a two-dimensional detector is irradiated in each rotation. Different investigations have been performed on dosimetry of dental CBCT. As there is no special protocol for dental CBCT, CT scan protocols are used for dosimetry. The purpose of this study is measurement of dose to head and neck organs in two CBCT systems, i.e. Planmeca 3D Mid (PM) and NewTom VGi (NT), using thermoluminescence dosimetry and Rando phantom. The thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD)-100 chips were put at the position of different organs of the head and neck. Two TLD-100 chips were inserted at each position, the dose values were measured for several different field sizes, i.e. 8 x 8, 12 x 8 and 15 x 15 cm"2 for NewTom, and 10 x 10 and 20 x 17 cm"2 for Planmeca systems. According to the results, the average effective dose in PM is much more than the NT system in the same field size, because of the greater mAs values. For routine imaging protocols used for NT, the effective dose values are 70, 73 and 121 μSv for 8 x 8, 12 x 8 and 15 x 15 cm"2 field sizes, respectively. In PM, the effective dose in 10 x 10 cm"2 and 17 x 20 cm"2 is 259 and 341 μSv, respectively. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  7. Radiation doses from radiation sources of neutrons and photons by different computer calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, F.; Lippolis, G.; Bruno, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the present paper the calculation technique aspects of dose rate from neutron and photon radiation sources are covered with reference both to the basic theoretical modeling of the MERCURE-4, XSDRNPM-S and MCNP-3A codes and from practical point of view performing safety analyses of irradiation risk of two transportation casks. The input data set of these calculations -regarding the CEN 10/200 HLW container and dry PWR spent fuel assemblies shipping cask- is frequently commented as for as connecting points of input data and understanding theoric background are concerned

  8. Kinetic and dose dependences of the SOS-induction in E.coli K-12 (uvrA) cells exposed to the different UV doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komova, O.V.; Kandiano, E.S.; Malavya, G.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetic and dose dependences of the SOS-induction in E.coli (uvrA) cells exposed to UV light were investigated. Below 2 J/m 2 the rate of the SOS-induction increased with dose. The maximal level of the SOS-response was proportional to the UV dose. Pyrimidine dimers were necessary for the induction. In the dose range 2-10 J/m 2 the rate of the SOS-induction decreased with dose. The dose-response curve was non-linear. Pyrimidine dimers were not required for the induction. The nature of the molecular events leading to the SOS-induction at low and high UV doses was discussed. (author)

  9. Kinetic and dose dependencies of the SOS-induction in E.coli K-12 (uvrA) cells exposed to different UV doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komova, O.V.; Kandiano, E.S.; Malavina, G.; )

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic and dose dependencies of the SOS-induction in E. coli (uvrA) cells exposed to UV light were investigated. below 2 J/m 2 the rate of the SOS-induction increased with dose. Maximal level of the SOS-response was proportional to the UV dose. Pyrimidine dimers were necessary for the induction. In the dose range 2-10 J/m 2 the rate of SOS-induction decreased with dose. Dose-maximum response curve was non-linear. Pyrimidine dimers were not required for the induction. nature of the molecular events leading to the SOS-induction at low and high doses was discussed [ru

  10. The effect of different doses of hyaluronan on sperm morphology, motility, vitality and fertilization capability in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sayadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyaluronan has an important role on the permeability and motility of sperm and the interaction of gametes and these can play a considerable role on the fertility rate. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the effect of different doses of hyaluronan on the morphology, motility, vitality and fertility rate of mice. Methods: We used 40 mice (6-8 week in this study which twenty of them were male and the rest were female. The sperm of each male mouse were divided into four groups. The group 1 (control: They were maintained in RPMI media without any hyaluronan supplementation for 2 hour. Hyaluronan with the doses of 750, 1000 and 1250 µg/ml were added into RPMI media in groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After 2 hour. incubation, the numbers of sperms were assessed, using haemocytometer. Also, their morphology with papanicolaeu staining and their vitality with Eosin B dye were assessed. As well as sperms motility measured under inverted microscope by observation and fertility rate evaluated after routine IVF by counting two-cell stage embryos. Results: Our results demonstrated that, the dose of 750 µ g/ml has the greatest effect on the motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms. The effect of dose of 1000 µ g/ml also was positive on them. On the other hand, none of these doses had any effect on sperm morphology. Conclusion: Hyaluronan may have an influence on motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms and the dose of 750µ g/ml had a significant effect on these factors.

  11. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florian B; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters, and recent studies have demonstrated that dosing of copper can stimulate the removal of ammonium. Here, we investigated if copper dosing could generically improve ammonium removal of biofilters, at treatment plants with different characteristics. Copper was dosed at ≤1.5 μg Cu/L to biofilters at 10 groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH 4 + /L by a factor of 2-12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of plants, regardless of the differences in raw water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time to reach complete ammonium removal than for filters receiving prefiltered water, likely due to sorption of copper to iron oxides, at plants without prefiltration. With complete ammonium removal, we subjected two plants to short-term loading rate upshifts, to examine the filters' ability to cope with loading rate variations. After 2 months of dosing and an average loading rate of 1.0 g NH 4 + -N/m 3 filter material/h, the loading rate was upshifted by 50%. Yet, a filter managed to completely remove all the influent ammonium, showing that with copper dosing the filter had extra capacity to remove ammonium even beyond its normal loading rates. Depth sampling revealed that the ammonium removal rate of the filter's upper 10 cm increased more than 7-fold from 0.67 to 4.90 g NH 4 + -N/m 3 /h, and

  12. Effect of different doses of oxytocin on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias induced by ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Fariba; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Imani, Alireza; Kheiri, Soleiman

    2017-01-01

    The onset of acute myocardial ischemia (MI) is accompanied by a rapid increase in electrical instability and often fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated that whether oxytocin (OT) can modulate ischemia-induced arrhythmias and considered relationships between the severity of arrhythmia and the electrocardiogram parameters during ischemia. OT (0.0001-1 μg) was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before ischemia. To examine receptor involved, a selective OT-receptor antagonist, atosiban (ATO), was infused 10 min before OT. OT caused a significant and biphasic dose-dependent reduction in ectopic heart activity and arrhythmia score. OT doses that reduced ventricular arrhythmia elicited significant increase in QT interval. OT attenuated the electrophysiological changes associated with MI and there was significant direct relationship between QRS duration and arrhythmia score. ATO treatment reduced beneficial effects of OT on arrhythmogenesis. Nevertheless, ATO failed to alter OT effects on premature ventricular contractions. We assume that the ability of OT to modulate the electrical activity of the heart may play an important role in the antiarrhythmic actions of OT.

  13. Effect of different doses of oxytocin on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias induced by ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Houshmand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The onset of acute myocardial ischemia (MI is accompanied by a rapid increase in electrical instability and often fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated that whether oxytocin (OT can modulate ischemia-induced arrhythmias and considered relationships between the severity of arrhythmia and the electrocardiogram parameters during ischemia. OT (0.0001–1 μg was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before ischemia. To examine receptor involved, a selective OT-receptor antagonist, atosiban (ATO, was infused 10 min before OT. OT caused a significant and biphasic dose-dependent reduction in ectopic heart activity and arrhythmia score. OT doses that reduced ventricular arrhythmia elicited significant increase in QT interval. OT attenuated the electrophysiological changes associated with MI and there was significant direct relationship between QRS duration and arrhythmia score. ATO treatment reduced beneficial effects of OT on arrhythmogenesis. Nevertheless, ATO failed to alter OT effects on premature ventricular contractions. We assume that the ability of OT to modulate the electrical activity of the heart may play an important role in the antiarrhythmic actions of OT.

  14. Effect of different 1-methylcyclopropene doses on the postharvest period of pitahaya fruits (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez-Herrera

    2016-07-01

    application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the preservation and quality of dragon fruit, given that it has been effective in the conservation and postharvest quality of many agricultural species allowing longer life, using a completely randomized experiment design with three treatments: 0, 300 and 600 mg L-1 of 1-MCP, with four replications. The 600 mg L-1 of 1-MCP dose was able to maintain the quality of the dragon fruit longer (28 days after harvest (dah because it managed to reduce the respiratory rate. The application of 1-MCP did not affect the firmness, loss of mass, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, or total carotenoids in the fruits. The application of 1-MCP slowed the loss of fruit quality in terms of color because the 600 mg L-1 dose maintained the lightness of the fruits longer, reduced the color changes as expressed in a* and b* values and decreased the chlorophyll degradation.

  15. Use of two doses of cloprostenol in different intervals for estrus synchronization in hair sheep under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Menezes de Almeida, Sheylla Foligno; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; Balaro, Mario Felipe Alvarez; Bragança, Gláucia Mota; Pinto, Pedro Henrique Nicolau; de Almeida, José Gabriel; Moura, Ana Beatriz Bossois; da Fonseca, Jeferson Ferreira; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two doses of prostaglandin at different intervals on reproductive parameters of crossbred ewes. In Experiment 1, 30 ewes received two doses of 120 μg cloprostenol at 7 (G 7 days ), 9 (G 9 days ), or 11.5 (G 11.5 days ) days apart. Ultrasound assessments were performed from the first and second cloprostenol administration for 5 days or ovulation detection. Estrus signs were checked by a teaser male. Plasma progesterone concentration was measured before each cloprostenol dose. In Experiment 2, 95 ewes were allocated into the same treatments and after the second dose, ewes in estrus were mated. At 30 days after breeding, pregnancy diagnosis was conducted and prolificacy was evaluated at lambing. In Experiment 1, at the first cloprostenol administration, 50% of ewes had an active CL and all showed estrus. At the second administration, 66.7% of ewes had an active CL and one did not present estrus. There was no difference (P > 0.05) after the second dose for as follows: overall estrous response (90%), interval from cloprostenol administration to estrous onset (42.0 ± 4.9 h), estrus duration (31.5 ± 2.1 h), ovulation rate (100.0%), and number of ovulations (1.5 ± 0.3). In Experiment 2, both pregnancy and prolificacy rates were similar (P > 0.05) for G 7 days (73.3; 145%), G 9 days (75.9; 125%), or G 11.5 days (75.9; 145%), leading to an overall pregnancy rate of 75.0% (66/88) and prolificacy rate of 137% . Therefore, the three treatments proposed were able to promote high pregnancy and prolificacy rates in crossbred ewes.

  16. Effect of Two Different Doses of Dexmedetomidine on Stress Response in Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty: A Randomized Prospective Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Rafat; Srivastava, Shashi; Rastogi, Amit; Kishore, Kamal; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2017-01-01

    Clonidine, opioids, β-blockers, and dexmedetomidine have been tried to attenuate stress responses during laparoscopic surgery. We evaluated the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in two different doses in attenuating stress responses on patients undergoing laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Ninety patients were assigned to one of the three groups: Group A, Group B, and Group C. Group B received dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg as loading dose, followed by 0.7 mcg/kg/h for maintenance; Group C received dexmedetomidine 0.7 mcg/kg as a loading dose, followed by 0.5 mcg/kg/h for maintenance. Group A received normal saline. Stress responses were assessed by the variations in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose levels, and serum cortisol levels. One-way analysis of variance test was applied. Multiple comparisons between groups were done with post hoc Bonferroni test. The HR and MAP were found to be higher in Group A. The difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05) during intubation, carbon dioxide insufflation, and extubation when compared with Groups B and C. Blood glucose levels at postintubation and at extubation were higher in Group A and statistically significant ( P < 0.05) when compared with Groups B and C. Serum cortisol levels at postintubation, during midsurgery, and 2 h after extubation were higher in Group A and statistically significant ( P < 0.05) when compared with Groups B and C. However, HR, MAP, blood glucose levels, and serum cortisol levels were similar in dexmedetomidine groups. Dexmedetomidine decreases stress response and provides good condition for maintenance of anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine when used in lower dose in Group C decreases stress response comparable to higher dose in Group B.

  17. Intra-arterial infusion of MTX for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy: a comparative study between different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weijin; Wang Haiyun; Wan Jun; Zhang Lei; Wang Ying; Wang Wei; Ji Fang; Ji Lihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effective dose of methotrexate (MTX) via intra-arterial infusion for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy. Methods: Thirty-six cases of incisional scar pregnancy at the gestational age of 5-9 weeks received bilateral uterine arterial infusion of MTX. According to the dose of MTX used, the patients were randomly and equally divided into four groups with MTX dose of 60, 100, 150 and 200 mg respectively. After the perfusion was completed the embolization of both uterine arteries with Gelfoam was carried out until the uterine arteries were no longer visualized on DSA. Uterine curettage was conducted within 1-7 days after the treatment. Results: In one week after the procedure, the difference in the decreasing rate of serum β-HCG and progesterone between group 60 mg and group 200 mg was of statistical significance (P 0.05). The hospitalization days of group 60 mg was the longest, while that of group 200 mg was the shortest. Conclusion: The recommended dose of MTX used via intra-arterial infusion in treating cesarean scar pregnancy is 200 mg. The interventional procedure can kill the embryo tissue and quickly lower the serum β-HCG and progesterone levels,it can also shorten the patient's hospitalization time. (authors)

  18. Results of radiotherapy with different doses in epicondylitis humeri. Ergebnisse der Strahlentherapie der Epicondylitis humeri bei unterschiedlicher Dosierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, R.; Bollmann, G.; Schwenger, P.; Michael, G.; Koeppen, D. (Klinik fuer Radiologie, Medizinische Akademie Magdeburg (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective analysis the effectiveness of roentgen irradiation with minimal doses (daily single dosis 0.3Gy up to a total dose of 1.5Gy) was investigated in 207 patients with an epicondylitis humeri. Compared with a group of 92 patients, who were irradiated with higher doses beeing in general use (weekly 2 x single dosis 1.0 Gy to a total dose of 4.0 Gy), the therapeutic results show no sihnificant differences. After termination of the first irradiation series an improvement of complaints was seen in half of the patients (48.8% or 50.0%). A further increase of the quota in success to 74.9% or 70.6% was found 6 weeks after termination or irradiation. By reason of radiotherapeutic results, mainly attained in chronic states of epicondylitis humeri after primary conservative therapy without success for months and partly surgical pretreatment, the radiotherapy should be used more frequently than till now, especially in consideration of its slight side-effects and injuries of patients. (orig.).

  19. Assessment of vaccination with schistosomules attenuated by using different doses of γ-radiation on experimental schistosomiasis mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    Current strategies for the control of schistosomiasis are based primarily on chemotherapy but successful vaccination against infection has been also demonstrated in several host parasite models.The present study was designed to asses the immunogenic effects of the vaccination with autogenic targets in the form of schistosomula attenuated by different doses of γ-radiation (15, 20, 25 kilo rad) in mice challenged with S. mansoni cercariae as regard parasitological, histological, biochemical and immunological aspects.

  20. Countrywide radiation dose in different locations, dwellings and free spaces of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan Chakraborty, Shyamal; Kowsar Alam, Md.

    2014-01-01

    The research work was aimed to determine the fatal cancer risk due to the radiation exposure on population of Bangladesh. The total risk is somewhat higher. However, the average total fatal probability coefficient was found to be 101 cases per million people, the range of which was from 78 to 144 per million people. The lowest risk was found for the people of Srimangal (Maulavibazar) and Sandweep, while the risk was highest for the people of Nachole (Chapai Nawabgonj) and Badalgachhi (Naogaon), the two locations are in the Borendra region. The risk factors were found to be around average level for the people of Dhaka, Chittagong and Rajshahi. Since a very significant portion of people of Bangladesh live in these areas, the calculated average risk factor become more meaningful. Moreover, as both the average effective dose equivalents and the population density in Bangladesh are higher than those of the countries compared, the people of Bangladesh are in more risk than those countries. (authors)

  1. Study of the influence of ionizing radiation on biometrical parameters of eggplantand tomato at different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyeva, L.M.; Eminova, N.M.; Jafarov, E.S.; Babayev, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The problem of influence of low-dose of ionizing radiation on plants for a long time attracted attention of researchers. Increasing interest in this issue is caused by many circumstances, especially by global radiation contamination of environment. By this time in radiobiology it has been gained great data about the negative effects of ionizing radiation on plants. It is well known that at the time of germination seed is very susceptible to a variety of physical and chemical agents which are capable of impacting their development. It is appropriate to conduct studies reflecting changes in biometrical parameters of agricultural plants importance for Azerbaijan. It was seen that radiation influence increases the productivity of the plants, the size of the stems, fruits, and the color more saturated

  2. Changes in peak fat oxidation in response to different doses of endurance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Reichkendler, M H; Auerbach, P

    2015-01-01

    enzymes determined by Western blotting. PFO increased in both MOD [1.2 mg/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08:2.3, P = 0.03] and HIGH (1.8 mg/kg FFM/min, CI: 0.6:2.9, P ..., and mitochondrial oxphos complexes II-V increased similarly in MOD and HIGH. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with backward elimination of individual variables correlated with changes in PFO revealed increases in cycling efficiency, FFM, and VO2 peak as the remaining associated variables. In conclusion......, PFO during exercise increased with both moderate- and high-dose endurance training. Increases in PFO were mainly predicted by changes in VO2 peak, FFM, and cycling efficiency, and less with skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes....

  3. Multi-dose vitamin d supplementation in stable very preterm infants: Prospective randomized trial response to three different vitamin D supplementation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ozlem; Uras, Nurdan; Sari, Fatma Nur; Atay, Funda Yavanoglu; Sahin, Suzan; Alkan, Ayse Dogan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Oguz, Serife Suna

    2017-09-01

    Preterm newborns are born with lower vitamin D stores. Although vitamin D supplementation is recommended there is no consensus regarding the adequate dose of supplementation for preterm infants. To assess the effect of three different doses of vitamin D supplementation (400, 800 and 1000IU/d) in preterm infants ≤32weeks gestation on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and 25(OH) D levels at 36weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Prospective randomized trial. 121 preterm infants with gestational age of 24-32weeks were randomly allocated to receive 400, 800 or 1000IU/d vitamin D. Serum concentration of 25(OH) D and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency at 36weeks PMA. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH) D concentrations vitamin D levels before supplementation. The average 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations at 36weeks PMA were significantly higher in 800IU (40±21.4ng/ml) and 1000IU group (43±18.9ng/ml) when compared to 400IU group (29.4±13ng/ml). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (2.5 vs 22.5; RR: 0.09; CI:0.01-0.74) and insufficiency (30 vs 57.5; RR:0.32; CI:0.13-0.80) was significantly lower in 1000IU group when compared to 400IU group at 36weeks PMA. 1000IU/d of vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants ≤32weeks gestation age effectively decreases the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and leads to higher concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D at 36weeks PMA TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02941185. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dose response toxic effects of different oximes in vivo: pathohystological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacevic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The acute toxicity of oximes is crucial for the assessment of a dose applied as a treatment for organophosphorus intoxications. This is why we decided to investigate which morphological lesions could be produced in Wistar rats after treatment with increasing doses of HI-6, Obidoxime, K027, K048, and K075. In the first part of this study, tested oximes were preliminarily tested in order to obtain their LD50 values. Survival rates were monitored 24 hours after application of each oxime. In separate experiment animals were sacrificed 7 days after single im application of 0.1 LD50 and 0.5 LD50 of each oxime, and hearts, diaphragms and musculus popliteus were obtained for pathohistological analysis. Tissue damage score (TDS) was based on an estimation scale from 0 (no damage) to 5 (strong damage, massive necrotic fields). In rats treated with of 0.1 LD50 of HI-6 and K027 microscopic findings were similar to those evaluated in the control groups, only. More intensive alterations, but still mild and reversible degenerative and vascular changes, were established in tissue samples after treatment with 0.1 LD50 of Obidoxime, K048 and K075, but their values were also similar to the control group. Acute lesions were developed in tissue samples within 7 days following treatment with 0.5 LD50 of all oximes. The most severe tissue alterations were found in rats treated with 0.5 LD50 of K048 and K075 (p < 0.001 vs. control and HI-6). These observations of the earliest tissues events are helping to guide of applications of novel development oximes.(author)

  5. Comparison of Different Dosing Protocols of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) in Snake Bite Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, B R; Chandanwale, A S; Kadam, D B; Ghongane, B B; Ghorpade, V S; Manu, H C

    2017-09-01

    Considering the cost of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) and irregularity in its supply, there is often a need to curtail doses of ASV, despite guidelines for management of snake bite. During June 2013 to September 2013, when ASV was in short supply, our institutional committee reviewed the overall hospital statistics of snake bite cases as well as scientific literature and formulated a working modified protocol that used low dose of ASV in snake bite cases. To retrospectively analyse and compare the modified ASV protocol versus conventional ASV protocol with respect to outcome, number of ASV vials required, duration of stay in the hospital/ ICU, and additional supportive interventions needed. This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Maharashtra, India. Hospital records of inpatients admitted for snake bite during June 2013 to September 2013 (since introduction of the modified protocol) as well as during June 2012 to September 2012, (when patients received conventional protocol-historical controls) were retrospectively analysed to assess the number of ASV vials received by the patients during the stay, need for supportive therapy, duration of stay and outcome of the patients. There was a significant reduction in average number of ASV vials per patient, required vide the modified protocol compared to their historical controls (10.74±0.95 vs 28.17±2.75 pcost of management of each patient reduced by approximately 11974.41 INR per treated patient, based on the requirement of ASV. The modified ASV protocol used in this study is more cost effective as compared to the conventional protocol, deserves prospective evaluation and may be followed at least during prime time of scarcity of ASV.

  6. Nonlinearity and thresholds in dose-response relationships for carcinogenicity due to sampling variation, logarithmic dose scaling, or small differences in individual susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, W.K.; Gaylor, D.W.; Conolly, R.B.; Lutz, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear and threshold-like shapes of dose-response curves are often observed in tests for carcinogenicity. Here, we present three examples where an apparent threshold is spurious and can be misleading for low dose extrapolation and human cancer risk assessment. Case 1: For experiments that are not replicated, such as rodent bioassays for carcinogenicity, random variation can lead to misinterpretation of the result. This situation was simulated by 20 random binomial samplings of 50 animals per group, assuming a true linear dose response from 5% to 25% tumor incidence at arbitrary dose levels 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4. Linearity was suggested only by 8 of the 20 simulations. Four simulations did not reveal the carcinogenicity at all. Three exhibited thresholds, two showed a nonmonotonic behavior with a decrease at low dose, followed by a significant increase at high dose ('hormesis'). Case 2: Logarithmic representation of the dose axis transforms a straight line into a sublinear (up-bent) curve, which can be misinterpreted to indicate a threshold. This is most pronounced if the dose scale includes a wide low dose range. Linear regression of net tumor incidences and intersection with the dose axis results in an apparent threshold, even with an underlying true linear dose-incidence relationship. Case 3: Nonlinear shapes of dose-cancer incidence curves are rarely seen with epidemiological data in humans. The discrepancy to data in rodents may in part be explained by a wider span of individual susceptibilities for tumor induction in humans due to more diverse genetic background and modulation by co-carcinogenic lifestyle factors. Linear extrapolation of a human cancer risk could therefore be appropriate even if animal bioassays show nonlinearity

  7. MO-DE-207A-09: Low-Dose CT Image Reconstruction Via Learning From Different Patient Normal-Dose Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H; Xing, L [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Liang, Z [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a novel low-dose CT (LdCT) image reconstruction strategy for lung CT imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: The proposed approach consists of four steps: (1) use the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) method to reconstruct the LdCT image; (2) calculate structure similarity (SSIM) index between the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image and a set of normal-dose CT (NdCT) images, and select the NdCT image with the highest SSIM as the learning source; (3) segment the NdCT source image into lung and outside tissue regions via simple thresholding, and adopt multiple linear regression to learn high-order Markov random field (MRF) pattern for each tissue region in the NdCT source image; (4) segment the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image into lung and outside regions as well, and apply the learnt MRF prior in each tissue region for statistical iterative reconstruction of the LdCT image following the penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) framework. Quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images was based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) metrics. Results: It was observed that lung and outside tissue regions have different MRF patterns predicted from the NdCT. Visual inspection showed that our method obviously outperformed the traditional FBP method. Comparing with the region-smoothing PWLS method, our method has, in average, 13% increase in SNR, 15% decrease in LBP difference, and 12% decrease in HOG difference from reference standard for all regions of interest, which indicated the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of image resolution and texture preservation. Conclusion: We proposed a novel LdCT image reconstruction method by learning similar image characteristics from a set of NdCT images, and the to-be-learnt NdCT image does not need to be scans from the same subject. This approach is particularly important for enhancing image quality in radiation therapy.

  8. MO-DE-207A-09: Low-Dose CT Image Reconstruction Via Learning From Different Patient Normal-Dose Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H; Xing, L; Liang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a novel low-dose CT (LdCT) image reconstruction strategy for lung CT imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: The proposed approach consists of four steps: (1) use the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) method to reconstruct the LdCT image; (2) calculate structure similarity (SSIM) index between the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image and a set of normal-dose CT (NdCT) images, and select the NdCT image with the highest SSIM as the learning source; (3) segment the NdCT source image into lung and outside tissue regions via simple thresholding, and adopt multiple linear regression to learn high-order Markov random field (MRF) pattern for each tissue region in the NdCT source image; (4) segment the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image into lung and outside regions as well, and apply the learnt MRF prior in each tissue region for statistical iterative reconstruction of the LdCT image following the penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) framework. Quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images was based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) metrics. Results: It was observed that lung and outside tissue regions have different MRF patterns predicted from the NdCT. Visual inspection showed that our method obviously outperformed the traditional FBP method. Comparing with the region-smoothing PWLS method, our method has, in average, 13% increase in SNR, 15% decrease in LBP difference, and 12% decrease in HOG difference from reference standard for all regions of interest, which indicated the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of image resolution and texture preservation. Conclusion: We proposed a novel LdCT image reconstruction method by learning similar image characteristics from a set of NdCT images, and the to-be-learnt NdCT image does not need to be scans from the same subject. This approach is particularly important for enhancing image quality in radiation therapy.

  9. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  10. Effects of different doses of glucose and insulin on morphine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M R; Zarrindast, M R; Djahanguiri, B

    2004-10-01

    Behavioral effects of morphine, including its effect on memory, have been demonstrated to be influenced by glucose pretreatment. The measurement of step-down latency in passive avoidance has been used to study memory in laboratory animals. The pre-training injection of 5 mg/kg morphine impaired memory, which was restored when 24 h later the same dose of the drug was administered. To investigate the effects of glucose and insulin alone or in combination with morphine, on pre-test day, on memory recall in mice. The effects of different doses of glucose (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, IP) and insulin (5, 10, and 20 IU/kg, IP) alone or in combination with morphine, have been studied in mice. The blood glucose level and locomotor activity of the animals were also measured. Although the administration of glucose alone showed no effect on morphine-induced memory impairment, its co-administration with morphine resulted in a significant and dose-dependent memory enhancement compared with the effects of morphine administration alone. Like glucose, the administration of different doses of insulin alone produced no change in the memory, but when the drug was co-administered with morphine, it significantly reduced morphine-induced memory retrieval. The effect of insulin was the opposite of glucose. None of the animals subjected to insulin treatment showed convulsions. Glucose is suggested to increase, on the test day, the morphine-induced memory enhancement by three different mechanisms: cholinergic or opioidergic modulations, or regulation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels.

  11. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  12. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on conservation of the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Frederico Scarin do; Sanches, Maria Angelica Santos Fernandes; Arthur, Valter

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes, conserved under temperature of refrigeration from 7 to 10 deg C. The irradiation process aims to discharge the refrigeration that increases the cost of the product and the useful life and decreases the microbial load. The previously fried potatoes were in the commerce of Piracicaba City and led to CENA - a laboratory of Food Irradiation. The potatoes were defrosted and stored in plastic packages and irradiated. They were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 698 Gy/hour), with doses of 2,0 kGy, 4,0 kGy and 6,0 kGy. The loss of fresh weight was analyzed as well as smell and color (factors L, a, b), after 1, 4 and 6 days of radiation. The experimental delineation used was entirely at random with six repetitions. The irradiated previously fried potatoes presented more significant variations in relation to those not irradiated in relation to their color and smell. The potatoes were darkened and there was alteration of smell (rancidity) more intense in the samples with doses of irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation happens because of the state of rancidity of the oil used in the previous-fried process. In the sample of 2,0 kGy there was no alteration of color and smell. The colorimetric rates: L, a, b, did not present statistically - coherent results. However it was visually noted in the irradiated samples with doses of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy the loss of the characteristic coloration of the previously fried potato, predominating an opaque color (gray) because of the degradation of pigments (betacarotenoids, etc). It is also an consequence of the irradiation. By analyzing the results it was concluded that the irradiated sample with doses of 2,0 kGy was the sample that maintained

  13. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on conservation of the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Frederico Scarin do; Sanches, Maria Angelica Santos Fernandes [Fundacao Educacional de Fernandopolis FEF-SP, Fernandopolis, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: maengal@yahoo.com.br; frescarin@yahoo.com.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this work was to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes, conserved under temperature of refrigeration from 7 to 10 deg C. The irradiation process aims to discharge the refrigeration that increases the cost of the product and the useful life and decreases the microbial load. The previously fried potatoes were in the commerce of Piracicaba City and led to CENA - a laboratory of Food Irradiation. The potatoes were defrosted and stored in plastic packages and irradiated. They were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 698 Gy/hour), with doses of 2,0 kGy, 4,0 kGy and 6,0 kGy. The loss of fresh weight was analyzed as well as smell and color (factors L, a, b), after 1, 4 and 6 days of radiation. The experimental delineation used was entirely at random with six repetitions. The irradiated previously fried potatoes presented more significant variations in relation to those not irradiated in relation to their color and smell. The potatoes were darkened and there was alteration of smell (rancidity) more intense in the samples with doses of irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation happens because of the state of rancidity of the oil used in the previous-fried process. In the sample of 2,0 kGy there was no alteration of color and smell. The colorimetric rates: L, a, b, did not present statistically - coherent results. However it was visually noted in the irradiated samples with doses of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy the loss of the characteristic coloration of the previously fried potato, predominating an opaque color (gray) because of the degradation of pigments (betacarotenoids, etc). It is also an consequence of the irradiation. By analyzing the results it was concluded that the irradiated sample with doses of 2,0 kGy was the sample that maintained

  14. Comparison of gamma knife validation film's analysis results of different film dose analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Conghua; Liu Han; Dai Fuyou; Hu Chuanpeng; Liu Cheng; Yao Zhongfu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the analytical result of different kinds of film dose analysis software for the same gamma knife, analyze the reasons of difference caused, and explore the measurements and means for quality control and quality assurance during testing gamma knife and analyzing its result. Methods: To test the Moon Deity gamma knife with Kodak EDR2 film and γ-Star gamma knife with GAFCHROMIC® EBT film, respectively. All the validation films are scanned to proper imagine format for dose analysis software by EPSON PERFECTION V750 PRO scanner. Then imagines of Moon Deity gamma knife are analyzed with Robot Knife Adjuvant 1.09 and Fas-09 1.0, and imagines of γ-Star gamma knife with Fas-09 and MATLAB 7.0. Results: There is no significant difference in the maximum deviation of radiation field size (Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM) and its nominal value between Robot Knife Adjuvant and Fas-09 for Moon Deity gamma knife (t=-2.133, P>0.05). The analysis on the radiation field's penumbra region width of collimators which have different sizes indicated that the differences are significant (t=-8.154, P<0.05). There is no significant difference in the maximum deviation of FWHM and its nominal value between Fas-09 and MATLAB for γ-Star gamma knife (t=-1.384, P>0.05). However, following national standards,analysis of φ4 mm width of collimators can obtain different results according to the two kinds software, and the result of Fas-09 is not qualified while MATLAB is qualified. The analysis on the radiation field's penumbra region width of collimators which have different sizes indicates that the differences are significant (t=3.074, P<0.05). The imagines are processed with Fas-09. The analysis of imagine in the pre-and the post-processing indicates that there is no significant difference in the maximum deviation of FWHM and its nominal value (t=0.647, P>0.05), and the analytical result of the radiation field's penumbra region width indicates that there is

  15. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT

  16. Bioavailability and bioactivity of three different doses of nasal growth hormone (GH) administered to GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Grandjean, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    1996-01-01

    different occasions. On three occasions GH was administered intranasally in doses of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 IU/kg, using didecanoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine as an enhancer. On the other two occasions the patients received an sc injection (0.10 IU/kg) and an i.v. injection (0.015 IU/kg) of GH, respectively....... The absolute bioavailability of GH following s.c. relative to i.v. administration was 49.5%. The bioavailabilities of the nasal doses were: 7.8% (0.05 IU). 8.9% (0.10 IU) and 3.8% (0.20 IU). Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels increased significantly after s.c. administration only. Mean levels...... of the i.v. (p insulin and blood glucose (p

  17. Gender differences in liver disease and the drug-dose gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Elena; Parikh, Pathik M; Gerussi, Alessio; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Although gender-based medicine is a relatively recent concept, it is now emerging as an important field of research, supported by the finding that many diseases manifest differently in men and women and therefore, might require a different treatment. Sex-related differences regarding the epidemiology, progression and treatment strategies of certain liver diseases have long been known, but most of the epidemiological and clinical trials still report results only about one sex, with consequent different rate of response and adverse reactions to treatment between men and women in clinical practice. This review reports the data found in the literature concerning the gender-related differences for the most representative hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to 111In and 123I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by 111 In and 123 I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of 111 In, 123 I, 201 Tl, and 99m Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The 111 In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the 111 In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and 201 Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay 99m Tc. For 111 In and 123 I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when 111 In and 123 I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of 111 In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of 123 I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in 111 In and 123 I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither 201 Tl nor 99m Tc measurements. The activities of 111 In and 123 I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  19. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  20. Differences in delineation guidelines for head and neck cancer result in inconsistent reported dose and corresponding NTCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Gort, Elske; Kamphuis, Marije E.; Laan, Hans Paul van der; Veld, Aart A. van’t; Sijtsema, Nanna M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that delineation of swallowing organs at risk (SWOARs) based on different guidelines results in differences in dose–volume parameters and subsequent normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values for dysphagia-related endpoints. Materials and methods: Nine different SWOARs were delineated according to five different delineation guidelines in 29 patients. Reference delineation was performed according to the guidelines and NTCP-models of Christianen et al. Concordance Index (CI), dosimetric consequences, as well as differences in the subsequent NTCPs were calculated. Results: The median CI of the different delineation guidelines with the reference guidelines was 0.54 for the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, 0.56 for the laryngeal structures and 0.07 for the cricopharyngeal muscle and esophageal inlet muscle. The average difference in mean dose to the SWOARs between the guidelines with the largest difference (maxΔD) was 3.5 ± 3.2 Gy. A mean ΔNTCP of 2.3 ± 2.7% was found. For two patients, ΔNTCP exceeded 10%. Conclusions: The majority of the patients showed little differences in NTCPs between the different delineation guidelines. However, large NTCP differences >10% were found in 7% of the patients. For correct use of NTCP models in individual patients, uniform delineation guidelines are of great importance

  1. Comparison of different doses of epinephrine on myocardial perfusion and resuscitation success during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, K H; Ahnefeld, F W; Bowdler, I M

    1991-01-01

    Published results of dose-response effects of adrenergic drugs (epinephrine [E]) vary so much between studies because of differences in animal models and duration of ischemia before drug administration. In this investigation the effects of different doses of E on coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), left ventricular myocardial blood flow (MBF) and resuscitation success were compared during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after a 4-minute period of ventricular fibrillation in 28 pigs. MBF was measured during normal sinus rhythm using tracer microspheres. After 4 minutes of ventricular fibrillation CPR was performed with the use of a pneumatic piston compressor. After 4 minutes of mechanical measures only, the animals were randomly allocated into four groups of seven, receiving 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, and 0.090 mg/kg E intravenously respectively. MBF measurements were started 45 seconds after E administration; hemodynamic measurements after 90 seconds. Four minutes after the first administration, the same E dose was given before defibrillation. The CPP of animals given 0.015, 0.030, 0.045 and 0.090 mg/kg E were as follows: 16.3 +/- 6.1, 25.6 +/- 5.8, 33.2 +/- 8.4 and 30.4 +/- 6.3 mm Hg. The left ventricular MBF values were: 14 +/- 9, 27 +/- 11, 43 +/- 6, 46 +/- 10 mL/min/100 g. The differences between the groups receiving 0.015 and 0.045 mg/kg and between the groups receiving 0.015 mg/kg and 0.090 mg/kg were statistically significant (P less than .05). Resuscitation success was 14.3%, 42.9%, 100% and 86.7% respectively. A significant difference in resuscitation success was found only between 0.015 mg/kg and 0.045 mg/kg E.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Postoperative irradiation for the prevention of heterotopic bone: Analysis of different dose schedules and shielding considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blount, L.H.; Thomas, B.J.; Tran, L.; Selch, M.T.; Sylvester, J.E.; Parker, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-seven high risk hips were irradiated postoperatively for prevention of heterotopic bone (HTB) in the UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology from 1980 to 1988. Ninety-two hips in 82 patients were eligible for analysis with a minimum follow-up of 2 months and a median follow-up of 10 months. Forty-nine of the hips had porous coated ingrowth prostheses. From 1980 to 1986, 2 Gy fractions were used to deliver 20 Gy (8 hips), 12 Gy (1 hip), and 10 Gy (27 hips). Since December of 1986, 38 hips received 8 Gy in two increments and 18 hips received a single 7 Gy fraction. All porous ingrowth components were shielded with custom blocks. Six out of 92 hips developed clinically significant. There was one clinically significant failure in 78 hips (1.3%) when irradiation was initiated before post-operative day (POD) No.6 and shielding was properly placed. One clinical failure occurred in 38 hips which received 8 Gy in two increments. One clinical failure occurred out of the 18 hips treated with 7 Gy in one fraction. This failure could be related to block malposition. There were four clinical failures in the 36 hips treated with 2 Gy fractions to total doses of 10 Gy, 12 Gy, or 20 Gy. Three of these failures were associated with initiation of treatment after POD No.5, and the fourth was related to block malposition. Unshielded trochanteric osteotomies resulted in five migrations and seven fibrous unions for a total non-osseous union rate of 12/36 (33%). Shielding of the remaining 28 trochanteric osteotomies resulted in a non-osseous union rate of 7%. There were no failures of union of components, and the only side effects noted in the series were the five trochanteric migrations. In conclusion, the use of 8 Gy in two increments or 7 Gy in one fraction was found to be as efficacious as conventional 2 Gy fractionation schemes with no increase in side effects

  3. GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF FORMOSA ‘PAPAYA’ CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT DOSES OF COATED AND CONVENTIONAL UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL BARBOSA DA SILVA JÚNIOR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizer management is one of the most important agronomic techniques applied in papaya cultivation, which generally extracts large amounts of nutrients from soil, especially nitrogen. This study aimed to assess the phytotechnical and physiological attributes and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya hybrid Caliman 01 as a function of different doses of coated and conventional urea in the region of Bom Jesus - PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (2 × 4 and distributed in a randomized block design with four replications, corresponding to 2 nitrogen sources (coated urea, 43% of N; and conventional urea, 45% of N and 4 doses nitrogen (350, 440, 530 and 620 g per plant. The N doses used corresponded to 80, 100, 120 and 140% of the nitrogen fertilization. It was used six plants per plot with two row borders, totaling 192 plants cultivated in the field. It was assessed the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (int.PAR, radiation interception efficiency (PAREff., leaf area index (LAI, plant height, stem diameter and yield. The coated urea promotes a higher growth and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya compared to the conventional urea. The application of 1.0 g of coated N promotes the production of 2.87 g of fruit per hectare while the application of 1.0 g of conventional N produces only 1.89 g of fruit per hectare, showing that the source of polymerized N increases the use efficiency of N applied to soil.

  4. Evaluation of ingestion dose to different age groups of public of Chutka (MP) environment due to 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejpal, Menaria; Tiwari, S.N.; Mulchandani, U.; Goyal, S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The activity levels of 40 K in the locally produced biological samples of food items as well as trend indicator samples from different locations of Chutka area of Madhya Pradesh site, were estimated by gamma spectrometry as part of preoperational survey. The observed 40 K activity in these samples is comparable with reported values from other areas of India. The annual effective dose through ingestion pathway due to 40 K is estimated for infant, child and adult categories of local population. The computed average ingestion dose due to intake of 40 K is found to be highest for infant child (0.34 mSv/y). Radionuclides enter the human body through complex mechanism including foodstuffs via the food chain. The most predominant naturally occurring radionuclides in foodstuffs is 40 K, other contributions to the radionuclides in foods include deposited fallouts from fission and activation products released during nuclear accidents and constituents of weapons tests released after detonation. The primary objective of the present study is to estimate the activity levels of 40 K in the dietary matrices and to evaluate internal dose due to annual intake of various dietary items by the population around Chutka environment, a proposed nuclear power station site near Jabalpur of Madhya Pradesh

  5. Evaluation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator columns after irradiation with different absorbed doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: ntfukumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator is widely used in nuclear medicine and it consists of a glass column containing Teflon® strips and alumina in which {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 235}U fission is adsorbed. The {sup 99}mTcO4- eluate shall meet the sterile and pyrogen free conditions for injectable radiopharmaceuticals as determined by the Good Manufacturing Practices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using gamma radiation in the sterilization of the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator column and the influence on the elution efficiency. Alumina-containing columns were irradiated with 10, 15, 25 and 50 kGy absorbed doses. Alumina samples and control (non-irradiated) were submitted to X-ray diffraction and the combined use of scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Teflon® samples were evaluated by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffractograms and micrographies with elemental analysis showed no significant changes in the crystalline structure of the alumina because it was stable α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TGA demonstrated that higher doses showed changes in lower temperatures and times than the control material. For DSC the higher the absorbed dose, the greater the polymer chain breakage and crosslinking in the material. The generator system without radioactivity was set up with the irradiated columns and the eluates demonstrated to be sterile and pyrogen free. The effects of different absorbed doses on the generator column, although some reported changes in the materials, demonstrated that the sterilization of the columns by irradiation with gamma rays as an alternative to wet heat sterilization is feasible from a technical and financial point of view. (author)

  6. Effects of different doses of melamine in the diet on melamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets containing different levels of melamine on melamine concentrations in milk, plasma, rumen fluid, urine and feces in Holstein dairy cows. Sixteen Chinese Holstein dairy cows fixed with permanent ruminal cannulas were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments ...

  7. Static and Dynamic Water Motion-Induced Instability in Oxide Thin-Film Transistors and Its Suppression by Using Low-k Fluoropolymer Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungbeom; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Kim, Jaeyoung; Song, Seungho; Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2017-08-09

    Here, we report static and dynamic water motion-induced instability in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and its effective suppression with the use of a simple, solution-processed low-k (ε ∼ 1.9) fluoroplastic resin (FPR) passivation layer. The liquid-contact electrification effect, in which an undesirable drain current modulation is induced by a dynamic motion of a charged liquid such as water, can cause a significant instability in IGZO TFTs. It was found that by adopting a thin (∼44 nm) FPR passivation layer for IGZO TFTs, the current modulation induced by the water-contact electrification was greatly reduced in both off- and on-states of the device. In addition, the FPR-passivated IGZO TFTs exhibited an excellent stability to static water exposure (a threshold voltage shift of +0.8 V upon 3600 s of water soaking), which is attributed to the hydrophobicity of the FPR passivation layer. Here, we discuss the origin of the current instability caused by the liquid-contact electrification as well as various static and dynamic stability tests for IGZO TFTs. On the basis of our findings, we believe that the use of a thin, solution-processed FPR passivation layer is effective in suppressing the static and dynamic water motion-induced instabilities, which may enable the realization of high-performance and environment-stable oxide TFTs for emerging wearable and skin-like electronics.

  8. Response of pig skin to single doses of irradiation from strontium-90 sources of differing surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopewell, J.W.; Hamlet, R.; Peel, D. (Churchill Hospital, Oxford (UK). Research Inst.)

    1985-08-01

    In the present investigations the effects of irradiation of pig skin with 22.5 and 40 mm diameter /sup 90/Sr plaques are compared. In addition to comparing peak epithelial reactions, comparisons were also made as to the healing times for comparable peak skin reactions for each field size. The ED/sub 50/ values (dose to produce moist desquamation in 50% of the skin fields) 26.5 +- 1.5 Gy for the 22.5 diameter field was not significantly different from that obtained for the larger 40 mm diameter source (ED/sub 50/ 29.0 +- 1.5 Gy).

  9. The response of pig skin to single doses of irradiation from strontium-90 sources of differing surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.; Hamlet, R.; Peel, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the present investigations the effects of irradiation of pig skin with 22.5 and 40 mm diameter 90 Sr plaques are compared. In addition to comparing peak epithelial reactions, comparisons were also made as to the healing times for comparable peak skin reactions for each field size. The ED 50 values (dose to produce moist desquamation in 50% of the skin fields) 26.5+-1.5 Gy for the 22.5 diameter field was not significantly different from that obtained for the larger 40 mm diameter source (ED 50 29.0+-1.5 Gy). (U.K.)

  10. Effects of different doses of tramadol added to levobupivacaine in continuous wound infusion for postoperative pain treatment following cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan; Çağlar, Gamze S; Yilmaz, Hakan; Kazbek, Baturay K; Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Kiseli, Mine; Tüzüner, Filiz

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different doses of tramadol added to levobupivacaine as continuous wound infusion, on VAS scores following cesarean section. The study was conducted in an University Hospital and was approved by the Local Ethical Committee. Sixty-five ASA I-II parturients, between 18 and 45 years were enrolled. The participants were randomized to three groups. Group T1 (n = 21) was given the study solution consisting of levobupivacaine 0.25% + tramadol 1 mg/kg. Group T2 (n = 21) was given levobupivacaine 0.25% + tramadol 2 mg/kg and Group L (n = 21) was given levobupivacaine 0.25%, subcutaneously, alone. Each patient who delivered by cesarean section was applied a triple orifice epidural catheter above rectus fascia for continious wound infiltration. VAS at rest and with 20 degrees leg lift, time to first additional analgesic, total additional analgesic consumption, side effects, and sedation scores were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences among groups, concerning VAS scores at rest and VAS scores at leg lift. Total amount of additional analgesics and sedation scores were also similar for three groups. Different doses of tramadol as adjunct to local anesthetics in continuous wound infiltration following cesarean section do not seem to provide superior analgesia.

  11. Morphological differences in the response of mouse small intestine to radiobiologically equivalent doses of X and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.; Watt, C.

    1984-01-01

    A scale has been developed to describe the effects of radiation on small intestinal villi. The scale has been used to compare the damage done to the villi in the period 0-5 days after irradiation by X-irradiation or neutron irradiation, using 10 Gy X-rays and 5 Gy neutrons, doses which are radiobiologically equivalent when assessed by the microcolony assay method. Use of the scale indicates that the damage done to the villi by neutrons is greater than that produced by X-rays. This has implications for the interpretation of radiobiological equivalent doses (R.B.E.). Resin light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) have also been used to examine small intestinal damage after 10 Gy X-irradiation and 5 Gy neutron irradiation. Differences include variations in crypt shape, mitotic activity and the proportion of crypts which are heavily parasitised. As well as the differences in villous shape which have been reflected in the different values on the scoring system, there are also variations in the response of the constituent cells of the epithelial compartment of the villi. In general, the effect of the neutron irradiation is more severe than that of the X-rays, particularly as would be suggested by a simple quantitation of crypt regeneration

  12. The Effects of Different Doses of Ketamine on Quality of Normal Ejaculated Sperm

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    Forouzan Absalan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketamine, an injectable anesthetic in human and animal medicine, is also a recreational drug used by young adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ketamine on membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and sperm parameters in humans. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 40 males with normal semen samples over one month (August 2012. Subjects were randomly allocated to four groups (Control and case I, II and III whose semen samples were adjusted to different concentrations of ketamine (1, 3, 5 μL for one hour. Sperm analysis was performed for routine parameters, motility and morphology. Evaluation of membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation was done by eosin-Y staining and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total sperm motility in all case groups were significantly lower compared with the control group. In case group III, progressive motility showed significant difference with case group II. After addition of ketamine, sperm had evidence of coiled tails in all case groups compared to the control group however this observation was not significant. Evaluation of membrane integrity showed the rate of necrospermia increased in all case groups. However, ketamine only significantly affected membrane integrity in case group III. SCD staining showed that in the control group nucleoids with medium halos (63.44 ± 1.2 were significantly different compared to the case groups I (15.44 ± 0.45, II (9.05±1.16 and III (10.55 ± 1.14, respectively. Between case groups, nucleoids with large and medium halos showed significant differences in case groups II and III compared with case group I. Nucleoids with medium halos were significantly different between case groups II and III. Conclusion: Ketamine, through its effect on membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation, decreased

  13. SU-F-T-314: Estimation of Dose Distributions with Different Types of Breast Implants in Various Radiation Treatment Techniques for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M; Lee, S; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S; Cho, Y; Lee, I [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the effects of different kinds and designs of commercialized breast implants on the dose distributions in breast cancer radiotherapy under a variety of conditions. Methods: The dose for the clinical conventional tangential irradiation, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) breast plans was measured using radiochromic films and stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD). The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the OSLDs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of dose from individual segment. The films were placed at various slices in the Rando phantom and between the body and breast surface OSLDs were used to measure skin dose at 18 positions spaced on the two (right/left) breast. The implant breast was placed on the left side and the phantom breast was remained on the right side. Each treatment technique was performed on different size of the breasts and different shape of the breast implant. The PTV dose was prescribed 50.4 Gy and V47.88≥95%. Results: In different shapes of the breast implant, because of the shadow formed extensive around the breast implant, dose variation was relatively higher that of prescribed dose. As the PTV was delineated on the whole breast, maximum 5% dose error and average 3% difference was observed averagely. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin by an average of 25% compared with IMRT. The both IMRT and VMAT techniques resulted in lower doses to normal critical structures than tangential plans for nearly all dose analyzation. Conclusion: Compared to the other technique, IMRT reduced radiation dose exposure to normal tissues and maintained reasonable target homogeneity and for the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body.

  14. SU-F-T-314: Estimation of Dose Distributions with Different Types of Breast Implants in Various Radiation Treatment Techniques for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M; Lee, S; Suh, T; Jung, J; Kim, S; Cho, Y; Lee, I

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the effects of different kinds and designs of commercialized breast implants on the dose distributions in breast cancer radiotherapy under a variety of conditions. Methods: The dose for the clinical conventional tangential irradiation, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) breast plans was measured using radiochromic films and stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD). The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the OSLDs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of dose from individual segment. The films were placed at various slices in the Rando phantom and between the body and breast surface OSLDs were used to measure skin dose at 18 positions spaced on the two (right/left) breast. The implant breast was placed on the left side and the phantom breast was remained on the right side. Each treatment technique was performed on different size of the breasts and different shape of the breast implant. The PTV dose was prescribed 50.4 Gy and V47.88≥95%. Results: In different shapes of the breast implant, because of the shadow formed extensive around the breast implant, dose variation was relatively higher that of prescribed dose. As the PTV was delineated on the whole breast, maximum 5% dose error and average 3% difference was observed averagely. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin by an average of 25% compared with IMRT. The both IMRT and VMAT techniques resulted in lower doses to normal critical structures than tangential plans for nearly all dose analyzation. Conclusion: Compared to the other technique, IMRT reduced radiation dose exposure to normal tissues and maintained reasonable target homogeneity and for the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body.

  15. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews; this review compares different platelet transfusion doses. Objectives To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy with or without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT that compared different platelet component doses (low dose 1.1 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, standard dose 2.2 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, high dose 4.4 × 1011/m2 ± 25%). Data collection and analysis We used the standard

  16. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

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    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  17. Nitrogen fertilization in irrigated common bean at different times, with and without dose division

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    Danilo Pereira Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization at different times on the agronomic characteristics of common bean cultivars, within the intercrop period. An experiment was installed in the town of Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, with randomized blocks, under a 3 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of 3 cultivars and 5 nitrogen application times, with 4 repetitions. We evaluated the cultivars IAC Alvorada, IPR Juriti, and BRS Requinte. Regarding nitrogen fertilization, we evaluated 5 times, the first corresponding to control (E1 = N zero and the others applying 100 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen, using urea as their source, as follows: E2 = 100% of N applied at sowing; E3 = 100% of N applied 25 days after emergence (DAE; E4 = 50% of N applied 20 DAE and 50% 30 DAE; E5 = 33% of N applied 15 DAE, 33% 25 DAE, and 33% 35 DAE. There was genetic variability among cultivars with regard to response, as well as differences between nitrogen fertilization times. The cultivars IAC Alvorada and IPR Juriti obtained higher grain yields. The nitrogen application time divided into 15, 25 and 35 DAE enabled a higher grain yield for the cultivars IAC Alvorada and IPR Juriti.

  18. Peri-anal surgery under saddle block anaesthesia comparing three different doses of hyperbaric 0.75% bupivacaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Alam, W.; Abbas, M.A.; Ali, U.

    2017-01-01

    To compare three doses of hyperbaric 0.75% bupivacaine and measuring time for home readiness after day care perianal surgery under saddle block anaesthesia. Study Design: Non randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the department of Anaesthesia, CMH Rawalpindi from Jun 2014 to Apr 2015. Material and Methods: In this study 90 patients who presented for perianal day care surgery, were divided in three equal groups. Group A received 7.5 mg, group B 6.0 mg and group C 4.5 mg of hyperbaric 0.75% bupivacaine. Intrathecal injection was given in L4-5 space by 25 G spinal needle in sitting position. Lithotomy position was made after five minutes. After surgery patients were monitored in recovery room. After fulfilling ambulatory and discharge criteria patients were allowed to go home with attendants. Time of intrathecal injection, assessment of above criteria and time of discharge were noted and analyzed. Results: Male patients were 85.6% and females were 14.4%. Mean time of surgery was 48 +- 10.59 min. Mean time of discharge in minutes for group A was 235.86 +- 49.38, for group B 217.7 +- 42.49 and for group C 205.76 +- 32. Time of discharge was significantly different between group A and group C (p=0.02). While it was not significantly different between group A and group B (p=0.29) and between group B and group C (p=0.819). Conclusion: Lower dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine can reduce the time for home readiness compared to higher dose. Time of discharge is mainly dependent on time to micturate after saddle block anaesthesia. (author)

  19. Low-dose X-irradiation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Efficacy of different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, A.; Hindemith, M.; Jahns, J.; Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G.; Madaj-Sterba, P.; Weisheit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: low-dose radiotherapy is widely accepted as a very effective treatment option for inflammatory symptoms associated with painful degenerative joint disorders. Radiation doses and fractionation schedules in practical use are empirical and mainly based on clinical observations. Experimental data are rare. The efficacy of low-dose X-irradiation on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats using different fractionation schemes was investigated in vivo, in order to explore whether there is a dose and fractionation dependence. Material and methods: adjuvant arthritis in female lewis rats (n = 128) was induced by intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis on day 0. Both arthritic hind paws were sham-irradiated (group 1: days 10-14; group 2: days 15-19; group 3: days 22-26) or X-irradiated with either 5 x 1.0 Gy (group 4: days 10-14; group 6: days 15-19; group 8: days 22-26; group 10: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) or 5 x 0.5 Gy (group 5: days 10-14; group 7: days 15-19; group 9: days 22-26; group 11: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18; group 12: days 10-14 and 22-26). The clinical parameters arthritis score (AS), hind paw volume (HPV), and body weight were determined. Results: a significant decrease of the clinical arthritis parameters was observed following 5 x 0.5 Gy or 5 x 1.0 Gy during the acute maximum of the inflammatory response (days 15-19). The most pronounced treatment effect was reached after two daily fractionated series of 5 x 0.5 Gy with an early treatment onset (days 10-14) and repetition in interval (days 22-26). After the application of 5 x 1.0 Gy on days 10-14 or in a protracted scheme (days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18), only a nonsignificant positive trend could be detected. Daily fractionated X-irradiation in the chronic phase of adjuvant arthritis (days 22-26) did not show any positive clinical effect. Conclusion: low-dose radiotherapy is able to prevent a full-blown arthritic reaction if given during the florid phase of

  20. An experimental study on the toxicity of several radionuclides inhaled at different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M.; Masse, R.; Metivier, H.; Nolibe, D.; Skupinski, W.

    1975-01-01

    For over 5 years investigations have been carried out on large lots of rats on the toxicological action of several inhaled radionuclides. Various physico chemical forms of α-emitting actinides and β-emitting lanthanides were used, respectively 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, as oxide or nitrate solution at pH1, 244 Cm nitrate, and 144 Ce chloride and 141 Ce chloride and oxide. The activities deposited per gram of lung varied between 10nCi and 10μCi. The first effect observed was life-shortening. A comparison of the survival curves shows a heterogeneity factor whose values for the various radionuclides is given. Lung cancers were also observed. Rarely lung carcinomas were the cause of death, which was unknown and seemed to vary with the different compounds [fr

  1. Genetic differences in transcript responses to low-dose ionizing radiation identify tissue functions associated with breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Antoine M; Marchetti, Francesco; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Duru, Nadire; Han, Ju; Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Gray, Joe W; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    High dose ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6) for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks) did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a) diminished immune response, (b) increased cellular stress, (c) altered TGFβ-signaling, and (d) inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p = 0.0001), and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (pidentify genetic features that predispose or protect individuals from LD-induced breast cancer.

  2. Different Nebulized Budesonide Dosing Regimens in a Mouse Model of Chronic Asthma

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    Pınar Uysal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different inhaled steroid regimens on the lungs and their potential side effects on the bone tissues in chronic asthma model. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The mice in all of the study groups except the control group were sensitized with chicken egg albumin. After sensitization, the mice in group 2 were treated with saline modeling twice daily, the mice in group 3 were treated with 250 mcg of nebulized budesonide twice daily, the mice in group 4 were treated with 500 mcg of budesonide once daily, and the mice in group 5 were treated with 1000 mcg of budesonide every other day for the last 14 days of the challenge period. After challenge, the mice were sacrificed and lung and tibia samples were histologically examined. Results: Pulmonary parameters, including subepithelial smooth muscle thickness, goblet cell count, mast cell count and epithelial thickness, were the lowest in group 5 compared to other groups (p0.01. Conclusion: The beneficial effect on lung tissue was highest in the treatment group receiving budesonide every other day (group 5 and no further measureable side effects on bone mineralization were observed in this group compared with the other treatment groups. Every-other-day treatment application seems to be the most effective regimen in chronic asthma model.

  3. Uncertainty assessment and comparison of different dose algorithms used to evaluate a two element LiF:Mg,Ti TL personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an uncertainty assessment and comparison study of different dose algorithms used for evaluating our routine two element TL whole body dosemeter. Due to the photon energy response of the two different filtered LiF:Mg,Ti detector elements the application of dose algorithms is necessary to assess the relevant photon doses over the rated energy range with an acceptable energy response. Three dose algorithms are designed to calculate the dose for the different dose equivalent quantities, i.e. personal dose equivalent H p (10) and H p (0.07) and photon dose equivalent H x used for personal monitoring before introducing personal dose equivalent. Based on experimental results both for free in air calibration as well as calibration on the ISO water slab phantom (type test data) a detailed uncertainty analysis war performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The uncertainty contribution of the individual detector element signals was taken into special consideration. (author)

  4. Weed infestation of a winter wheat canopy under the conditions of application of different herbicide doses and foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    control treatment were significantly higher in comparison with the herbicide treated plots. The application of different herbicide doses did not differentiate significantly the weed infestation level in the winter wheat canopy. Galium aparine, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis and Apera spica-venti were dominant weed species in the winter wheat canopy. Foliar application of fertilizers did not influence the weed infestation level in the crop canopy. Molecular analysis showed that herbicide application did not affect genetic variation in the populations of Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti.

  5. Effectiveness of sinbiotic at different doses in Pacific white shrimp pond culture

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    , Sukenda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing demand of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei requires the application of intensive culture system. However, intensive culture system of white shrimp could increase the risk of disease outbreak. The application of sinbiotic may provide solution to the problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of technical sinbiotic on the survival and growth of white shrimp in ponds. This study consisted of four treatments; treatment K (control, treatment A (probiotic 0.5% and prebiotic 1%, treatment B (probiotic 1% and prebiotic 2%, and treatment C (probiotic 2% and prebiotic 4%. The results showed that administration of sinbiotic had no significant differences on survival rate, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, size, and biomass of shrimp (P>0.05. However, based on analysis of business, sinbiotic A provided higher profits to the farmer (Rp10.230 compared to other symbiotic treatments and control. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei, sinbiotic, technical media ABSTRAK Permintaan terhadap udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei yang semakin meningkat membuat sistem budidaya udang sebaiknya menggunakan sistem budidaya intensif. Namun demikian sistem intensif pada budidaya udang vaname dapat meningkatkan risiko timbulnya penyakit. Penggunaan sinbiotik diharapkan dapat memberikan solusi dalam mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas penggunaan sinbiotik teknis terhadap sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan keuntungan usaha udang vaname yang dipelihara di tambak. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan K (kontrol, perlakuan A (probiotik 0,5% dan prebiotik 1%, perlakuan B (probiotik 1% dan prebiotik 2%, dan perlakuan C (probiotik 2% dan prebiotik 4%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian sinbiotik tidak berbeda nyata dalam nilai sintasan, laju pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, size, dan biomassa udang (P>0,05. Namun demikian, berdasarkan analisis usaha perlakuan A

  6. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  7. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-["1"8F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases, the

  8. Results of radioiodine therapy of patients with immunogenic and non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism using different radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, E.; Pickardt, C.R.; Mann, K.; Engelhardt, D.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Tatsch, K.; Kreisig, T.; Kurz, C.; Saller, B.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen; Muenchen Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to check the efficacy of radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy (RIT) in a large number of patients (n = 506) suffering from immunogenic or non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease, Plummer's disease). Since there is no causal cure for immunogenic hyperthyroidism RIT provides, like all other modalities, only a moderate rate of success which is clearly dose-related. Applying 60 Gy, normal thyroid function can be achieved is only 54% of the cases. A dose of 150 Gy succeeds in 86% of the cases. The solitary decompensated autonomous adenoma (DAA) can be eliminated surgically as well as by RIT with a high degree of success (95%). Contrary to surgery, RIT does not have any noticeable early or late morbidity. The high rate of success of RIT in patients with DAA could be confirmed in two groups with different follow-up periods (16 and 65 months). As expected, the rate of hypothyroidism increased from 11% in the early group to 23% in the late group. Multinodular autonomous adenomas can be eliminated successfully using RIT as well. The concept to apply a dose of 400 Gy to the total functional autonomous tissue as determined by ultrasound yields better results (95%) than 150 Gy to the whole thyroid gland as measured by ultrasound (88%). The rate of hypothyroidism as shown by these results (up to a maximum of 62% after RIT of Graves' disease using 150 Gy) is the lesser evil compared to remaining or recurrent hyperthyroidism since these patients can be treated with thyroid hormones without problems. (orig.) [de

  9. SU-F-T-315: Comparative Studies of Planar Dose with Different Spatial Resolution for Head and Neck IMRT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, T; Koo, T [Hallym University Medical Center, Chuncheon, Gangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively investigate the planar dose difference and the γ value between the reference fluence map with the 1 mm detector-to-detector distance and the other fluence maps with less spatial resolution for head and neck intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) therapy. Methods: For ten head and neck cancer patients, the IMRT quality assurance (QA) beams were generated using by the commercial radiation treatment planning system, Pinnacle3 (ver. 8.0.d Philips Medical System, Madison, WI). For each beam, ten fluence maps (detector-to-detector distance: 1 mm to 10 mm by 1 mm) were generated. The fluence maps with larger than 1 mm detector-todetector distance were interpolated using MATLAB (R2014a, the Math Works,Natick, MA) by four different interpolation Methods: for the bilinear, the cubic spline, the bicubic, and the nearest neighbor interpolation, respectively. These interpolated fluence maps were compared with the reference one using the γ value (criteria: 3%, 3 mm) and the relative dose difference. Results: As the detector-to-detector distance increases, the dose difference between the two maps increases. For the fluence map with the same resolution, the cubic spline interpolation and the bicubic interpolation are almost equally best interpolation methods while the nearest neighbor interpolation is the worst.For example, for 5 mm distance fluence maps, γ≤1 are 98.12±2.28%, 99.48±0.66%, 99.45±0.65% and 82.23±0.48% for the bilinear, the cubic spline, the bicubic, and the nearest neighbor interpolation, respectively. For 7 mm distance fluence maps, γ≤1 are 90.87±5.91%, 90.22±6.95%, 91.79±5.97% and 71.93±4.92 for the bilinear, the cubic spline, the bicubic, and the nearest neighbor interpolation, respectively. Conclusion: We recommend that the 2-dimensional detector array with high spatial resolution should be used as an IMRT QA tool and that the measured fluence maps should be interpolated using by the cubic spline interpolation or the

  10. Differences in dose-volumetric data between the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the x-ray voxel Monte Carlo algorithm in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Miyabe, Yuki; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in dose-volumetric data obtained using the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) vs the x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Dose-volumetric data from 20 patients treated with SBRT for solitary lung cancer generated using the iPlan XVMC for the Novalis system consisting of a 6-MV linear accelerator and micro-multileaf collimators were recalculated with the AAA in Eclipse using the same monitor units and identical beam setup. The mean isocenter dose was 100.2% and 98.7% of the prescribed dose according to XVMC and AAA, respectively. Mean values of the maximal dose (D max ), the minimal dose (D min ), and dose received by 95% volume (D 95 ) for the planning target volume (PTV) with XVMC were 104.3%, 75.1%, and 86.2%, respectively. When recalculated with the AAA, those values were 100.8%, 77.1%, and 85.4%, respectively. Mean dose parameter values considered for the normal lung, namely the mean lung dose, V 5 , and V 20 , were 3.7 Gy, 19.4%, and 5.0% for XVMC and 3.6 Gy, 18.3%, and 4.7% for the AAA, respectively. All of these dose-volumetric differences between the 2 algorithms were within 5% of the prescribed dose. The effect of PTV size and tumor location, respectively, on the differences in dose parameters for the PTV between the AAA and XVMC was evaluated. A significant effect of the PTV on the difference in D 95 between the AAA and XVMC was observed (p = 0.03). Differences in the marginal doses, namely D min and D 95 , were statistically significant between peripherally and centrally located tumors (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). Tumor location and volume might have an effect on the differences in dose-volumetric parameters. The differences between AAA and XVMC were considered to be within an acceptable range (<5 percentage points)

  11. Dietary supplementation of different doses of NUTRIOSE FB, a fermentable dextrin, alters the activity of faecal enzymes in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Wils, Daniel; Pasman, Wilrike J; Saniez, Marie-Hélène; Kardinaal, Alwine F M

    2005-10-01

    It is well documented that fermentation of carbohydrates that escape digestion exert several effects supposed to be beneficial for (colonic) health, including an increase in stool volume, a shorter intestinal transit time, production of short chain fatty acids and a decrease of colonic pH (Kritchevsky 1988). NUTRIOSE FB is a dextrin that is not completely hydrolysed and absorbed in the small intestine, due to many alpha-1.6 linkages and the presence of non-digestible glucoside linkages (e. g. alpha-1.2 and alpha-1.3). To be beneficial for 'colonic' health effective NUTRIOSE FB must reach the cecum in some form. To estimate how much non digested NUTRIOSE FB is fermented and to determine the fibre-like effect of the wheat dextrin NUTRIOSE((R))FB by analysing enzymatic activity in faeces. In a randomized, double-blind,multiple dose, placebo-controlled, combined cross-over and parallel trial, 20 healthy men (age 31.7 +/- 9.1 yrs; BMI 24.5 +/- 2.9 kg.m(-2) received different treatments. One group of ten subjects consumed on top of their diet 10, 30 and 60 g daily of NUTRIOSE FB or maltodextrin (placebo). The other group of 10 subjects consumed 15, 45 and 80 g daily. Each dose was consumed for 7 days. On the last two days of each of the 7-day period, faeces were collected in which the enzymatic activity and NUTRIOSE FB residue were analysed. As expected, the faecal residue of NUTRIOSE FB non-linearly increased with the dose of NUTRIOSE FB to approximately 13% of 80 g/d. Compared with the placebo, 30, 45, 60 and 80 g/d of NUTRIOSE FB increased the concentration of alpha-glucosidase significantly. All daily doses of NUTRIOSE FB (10 g/d to 80 g/d) led to significant changes in concentration of beta-glucosidase. The small amount of the residue of NUTRIOSE FB in the faeces suggests that approximately 87% or more of NUTRIOSE FB is digested or fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermentation of NUTRIOSE FB led to an increased faecal concentration of alpha- and beta-glucosidase.

  12. Angular dependence of dose sensitivity of nanoDot optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters in different radiation geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jursinic, Paul A., E-mail: pjursinic@wmcc.org [West Michigan Cancer Center, 200 North Park Street, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: A type of in vivo dosimeter, an optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter, OSLD, may have dose sensitivity that depends on the angle of incidence of radiation. This work measures how angular dependence of a nanoDot changes with the geometry of the phantom in which irradiation occurs and with the intrinsic structure of the nanoDot. Methods: The OSLDs used in this work were nanoDot dosimeters (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL), which were read with a MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL). Dose to the OSLDs was delivered by 6 MV x-rays. NanoDots with various intrinsic sensitivities were irradiated in numerous phantoms that had geometric shapes of cylinders, rectangles, and a cube. Results: No angular dependence was seen in cylindrical phantoms, cubic phantoms, or rectangular phantoms with a thickness to width ratio of 0.3 or 1.5. An angular dependence of 1% was observed in rectangular phantoms with a thickness to width of 0.433–0.633. A group of nanoDots had sensitive layers with mass density of 2.42–2.58 g/cm{sup 3} and relative sensitivity of 0.92–1.09 and no difference in their angular dependence. Within experimental uncertainty, nanoDot measurements agree with a parallel-plate ion chamber at a depth of maximum dose. Conclusions: When irradiated in cylindrical, rectangular, and cubic phantoms, nanoDots show a maximum angular dependence of 1% or less at an incidence angle of 90°. For a sample of 78 new nanoDots, the range of their relative intrinsic sensitivity is 0.92–1.09. For a sample of ten nanoDots, on average, the mass in the sensitive layer is 73.1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C and 26.9% polyester. The mass density of the sensitive layer of a nanoDot disc is between 2.42 and 2.58 g/cm{sup 3}. The angular dependence is not related to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C loading of the nanoDot disc. The nanoDot at the depth of maximum dose has no more angular dependence than a parallel-plate ion chamber.

  13. Aspect of sucrose and its monomers from sugarcane juice submitted to different doses of cobalt-60 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Rela, Paulo; Arthur, Valter; Souza, Juliana Ap.; Prezotto, Mariane P.; Baptista, Antonio S.; Aguiar, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane is an important source of sucrose, which has been for years an essential source of energy, even for consumption as food or to produce liquid fuels. During the manufacturing process of crystal sugar, one of the main concerns is to avoid the inversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose, which could decrease the efficiency of crystal's production. The increase of sugar production and the growing interest of foreign market have encouraged the development of numerous investigative studying, searching for alternative technologies and a better efficiency of process of current clarifying, sulphitation, producing a whiter sugar in a process named 'sulfur free' with effectiveness production of crystal sucrose. In acid conditions or extended exposure to high temperatures, inversion reaction can occur, resulting in the formation of reducing sugars - i.e. mainly glucose and fructose - which affect the sucrose crystallization process. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gamma irradiation (Co-60) on the rate of reducing sugars and also totals reducing sugars (i.e., sucrose, glucose and fructose) into sugarcane juice before and after treatment with different doses: 5, 10 and 20 kGy. Some parameters were evaluated, such as: Brix, pH, reducing sugar and total reducing sugar, and from the results it was observed that parameters such as Brix and pH did not have a significant variation between the control and irradiated samples, varying from 13.2 Brix (Control) to 13.0 Brix (20 kGy) and 5.26 (10KGy) to 5.36 (20 kGy), respectively. For the analysis of reducing sugar, the contents varying from 29 ±0.87 to 43±1.43 mg.mL -1 with the largest rise occurred in the sample irradiated at 20 kGy. For analysis of total reducing sugar, the results ranged from 12.02±0.46% in control sample to 11.93±0.21% in the sample which received the highest radiation dose, 20 kGy. Against these results, we could conclude that the impact of gamma radiation emitted to dose rate of 3.88 KGy

  14. Aspect of sucrose and its monomers from sugarcane juice submitted to different doses of cobalt-60 irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Rela, Paulo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear da Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Souza, Juliana Ap.; Prezotto, Mariane P.; Baptista, Antonio S.; Aguiar, Claudio L., E-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP, (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    The sugarcane is an important source of sucrose, which has been for years an essential source of energy, even for consumption as food or to produce liquid fuels. During the manufacturing process of crystal sugar, one of the main concerns is to avoid the inversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose, which could decrease the efficiency of crystal's production. The increase of sugar production and the growing interest of foreign market have encouraged the development of numerous investigative studying, searching for alternative technologies and a better efficiency of process of current clarifying, sulphitation, producing a whiter sugar in a process named 'sulfur free' with effectiveness production of crystal sucrose. In acid conditions or extended exposure to high temperatures, inversion reaction can occur, resulting in the formation of reducing sugars - i.e. mainly glucose and fructose - which affect the sucrose crystallization process. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gamma irradiation (Co-60) on the rate of reducing sugars and also totals reducing sugars (i.e., sucrose, glucose and fructose) into sugarcane juice before and after treatment with different doses: 5, 10 and 20 kGy. Some parameters were evaluated, such as: Brix, pH, reducing sugar and total reducing sugar, and from the results it was observed that parameters such as Brix and pH did not have a significant variation between the control and irradiated samples, varying from 13.2 Brix (Control) to 13.0 Brix (20 kGy) and 5.26 (10KGy) to 5.36 (20 kGy), respectively. For the analysis of reducing sugar, the contents varying from 29 {+-}0.87 to 43{+-}1.43 mg.mL{sup -1} with the largest rise occurred in the sample irradiated at 20 kGy. For analysis of total reducing sugar, the results ranged from 12.02{+-}0.46% in control sample to 11.93{+-}0.21% in the sample which received the highest radiation dose, 20 kGy. Against these results, we could conclude that the impact of gamma radiation

  15. The effect of different lung densities on the accuracy of various radiotherapy dose calculation methods: implications for tumour coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Lasse Rye; Nahum, Alan E; Zacharatou, Christina

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate against Monte-Carlo the performance of various dose calculations algorithms regarding lung tumour coverage in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dose distributions in virtual lung phantoms have been calculated using four commercial Treatm...... target dose, the AAA(Ecl) and CCC(OMP) algorithms appear to be adequate alternatives to MC....

  16. Source term assessment using inverse modeling of radiation dose measured with environmental radiation monitors located at different positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Rakesh, P.T.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    Source term is an important input for consequence analysis using Decision Support Systems (DSS) to project radiological impact in the event of nuclear emergencies. A source term model called 'ASTER' is incorporated in the Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) operational at Kalpakkam site for decision making during nuclear emergencies. This computes release rates using inverse method by employing an atmospheric dispersion model and gamma dose rates measured by environmental radiation monitors (ERM) deployed around the nuclear plant. The estimates may depend on the distribution of ERMs around the release location. In this work, data from various gamma monitors located at different radii 0.75 km and 1.5 km is used to assess the accuracy in the source term estimation for stack releases of MAPS-PHWR at Kalpakkam

  17. Comparison of rocuronium at two different doses and succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S G; Gangadharan, S; Gopakumar, A K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of rocuronium at two different doses, that is, 0.6 mg/kg (2 × ED95) and 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95), were compared with succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) when used for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries under general anesthesia. Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 each. Groups A, B received injection rocuronium at 0.6 mg/kg, 0.9 mg/kg respectively and Group C received succinylcholine at 2 mg/kg. Onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate and duration of action were compared. To compare the statistical difference in the age, weight, height of the study subjects, onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate, and duration of action analysis of variance and unpaired t -test were used. The onset time was considerably shorter with rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg than 0.6 mg/kg. The onset time of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be significantly longer than succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. Time taken to intubate was shortest with succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. The time taken to intubate with the rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be comparable to that of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Intubation score of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was the best (17.75), which was comparable with succinylcholine. However, the intubation score obtained with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was inferior. Duration of action was shortest with succinylcholine. The duration of action is prolonged when the dose of rocuronium is increased from 0.6 to 0.9 mg/kg. Rapid sequence induction of anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, succinylcholine allowed a more rapid endotracheal intubation sequence and created superior intubation conditions than rocuronium. However, the technique of using a large dose of rocuronium to achieve perfect conditions for tracheal intubation may have application whenever succinylcholine is relatively contraindicated.

  18. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim7071@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  19. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  20. The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDIvol to account for differences between scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDI vol measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDI vol values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDI vol value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDI vol values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses

  1. Therapeutical evaluation of different dose regimens of praziquantel in schistosomiasis mansoni, based on the quantitative oogram technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Sales da Cunha

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial involving 80 patients of both sexes, from ages 15 to 55, with chronic intestinal or hepatointestinal schistosomiasis mansoni, was carried out to evaluate the therapeutical efficacy of different dose regimens of praziquantel. The patients were randomly allocated into four groups with an equal number of cases and were then treated with one of the following dosages: 60 mg/kg for 1 day; 60 mg/kg daily for 2 days; 60 mg/kg daily for 3 days; and 30 mg/kg daily for 6 days. The assessment of parasitological cure was based on the quantitative oogram technique through rectal mucosa biopsies which were undertaken prior to, as well as, 1,2,4 and 6 months post-treatment. Concurrently, stool examinations according to the qualitative Hoffman, Pons & Janer (HPJ and the quantitative Kato-Katz (K-K methods were also performed. The best tolerability was observed with 30 mg/kg daily for 6 days whereas the highest incidence of side-effects (mainly dizziness and nausea was found with 60 mg/kg daily for 3 days. No serious adverse drug reaction has occurred. The achieved cure rates were: 25% with 60 mg/kg for 1 day; 60% with 60 mg/kg daily for 2 days; 89.5% with 60 mg/kg daily for 3 days; and 90% with 30 mg/kg daily for 6 days. At the same time there has been a downfall of 64%, 73%, 87% and 84% respectively, in the median number of viable S. mansoni ova per gram of tissue. Thus, a very clear direct correlation between dose and effect could be seen. The corresponding cure rates according to stool examinations by HPJ were 39%, 80%, 100% and 95%; by K-K 89%, 100%, 100% and 100%. This discrepancy in results amongst the three parasitological methods is certainly due to their unequal accuracy. In fact, when the number of viable eggs per gram of tissue fell below 5,000 the difference in the percentage of false negative findings between HPJ (28% and K-K (80% became significative. When this number dropped to less than 2,000 the percentage of false negative

  2. The effects of different doses of IGF-1 on cartilage and subchondral bone during the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Li, L; Yang, W; Cao, Y; Shi, Y; Li, X; Zhang, Q

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the cartilage layer and subchondral bone (SB) during repair of full-thickness articular cartilage (AC) defects. IGF-1-loaded collagen membrane was implanted into full-thickness AC defects in rabbits. The effects of two different doses of IGF-1 on cartilage layer and SB adjacent to the defect, the cartilage structure, formation and integration, and the new SB formation were evaluated at the 1st, 4th and 8th week postoperation. Meanwhile, after 1 week treatment, the relative mRNA expressions in tissues adjacent to the defect, including cartilage and SB were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. Different doses of IGF-1 induced different gene expression profiles in tissues adjacent to the defect and resulted in different repair outcomes. Particularly, at high dose IGF-1 aided cell survival, regulated the gene expressions in cartilage layer adjacent defect and altered ECM composition more effectively, improved the formation and integrity of neo-cartilage. While, at low dose IGF-1 regulated the gene expressions in SB more efficaciously and subsequently promoted the SB remodeling and reconstruction. Different doses of IGF-1 induced different responses of cartilage or SB during the repair of full-thickness AC defects. Particularly, high dose of IGF-1 was more beneficial to the neo-cartilage formation and integration, while low dose of it was more effective for the SB formation. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  4. Efficacy and safety of two different tolvaptan doses in the treatment of hyponatremia in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Luigi Mario; Baldrighi, Marco; Panizza, Alice; Bartoli, Ettore; Avanzi, Gian Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Hyponatremia (plasma sodium concentration or P [Na + ] 12 mEq/L/24 h) in 41.7 % of the patients, while the low dose did not cause any (P = 0.037). No osmotic demyelination syndrome was observed. A 7.5 mg tolvaptan dose can be considered both effective and safe in treating hyponatremia in the ED, while a 15 mg dose implicates too high risk of overcorrection.

  5. Effects of different premature chromosome condensation method on dose-curve of 60Co γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yicao; Yang Haoxian; Yang Yuhua; Li Xi'na; Huang Weixu; Zheng Qiaoling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional method and improved method of the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) on the dose-effect curve of 60 Co γ ray, for choosing the rapid and accurate biological dose estimating method for the accident emergency. Methods: Collected 3 healthy male cubits venous blood (23 to 28 years old), and irradiated by 0, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 Gy 60 Co γ ray (absorbed dose rate: 0.635 Gy/min). Observed the relation of dose-effect curve in the 2 incubation time (50 hours and 60 hours) of the traditional method and improved method. Used the dose-effect curve to verify the exposure of 10.0 Gy (absorbed dose rate: 0.670 Gy/min). Results: (1) In the traditional method of 50-hour culture, the PCC cell count in 15.0 Gy and 20.0 Gy was of no statistical significance. But there were statistical significance in the traditional method of 60-hours culture and improved method (50-hour culture and 60-hour culture). Used the last 3 culture methods to make dose curve. (2) In the above 3 culture methods, the related coefficient between PCC ring and exposure dose was quite close (all of more than 0.996, P 0.05), the morphology of regression straight lines almost overlap. (3) Used the above 3 dose-effect curves to estimate the irradiation results (10.0 Gy), the error was less than or equal to 8%, all of them were within the allowable range of the biological experiment (15%). Conclusion: The 3 dose-effect curves of the above 3 culture methods can apply to biological dose estimating of large doses of ionizing radiation damage. Especially the improved method of 50-hour culture,it is much faster to estimate and it should be regarded as the first choice in accident emergency. (authors)

  6. Impact of different infliximab dose regimens on treatment response and drug survival in 462 patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn; Krogh, Niels Steen

    2014-01-01

    Icelandic patients at baseline [median 3.1 (interquartile range 3.0-3.8) vs 2.3 (2.1-2.9) mg/kg, P drug survival than...... Icelandic patients (1183 vs 483 days). In univariate analyses stratified by country, time until dose escalation, response rates, drug survival and 1-year's disease activity were independent of starting dose. Drug survival was shorter among patients not receiving concomitant MTX. CONCLUSION: In clinical...... practice, > 70% of Icelandic and Danish PsA patients treated with infliximab received sustained doses below the 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks recommended in international guidelines. Lower starting doses did not affect drug survival or response....

  7. Different doses of Pilates-based exercise therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Franco, Katherinne Ferro Moura; van Dongen, Johanna M; Franco, Yuri Rafael Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Amaral, Diego Diulgeroglo Vicco; Branco, Amanda Nery Castelo; da Silva, Maria Liliane; van Tulder, Maurits W; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2018-03-10

    To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-utility of the addition of different doses of Pilates to an advice for non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) from a societal perspective. Randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation. Physiotherapy clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. 296 patients with NSCLBP. All patients received advice and were randomly allocated to four groups (n=74 per group): booklet group (BG), Pilates once a week (Pilates group 1, PG1), Pilates twice a week (Pilates group 2, PG2) and Pilates three times a week (Pilates group 3, PG3). Primary outcomes were pain and disability at 6-week follow-up. Compared with the BG, all Pilates groups showed significant improvements in pain (PG1, mean difference (MD)=-1.2, 95% CI -2.2 to -0.3; PG2, MD=-2.3, 95% CI -3.2 to -1.4; PG3, MD=-2.1, 95% CI -3.0 to -1.1) and disability (PG1, MD=-1.9, 95% CI -3.6 to -0.1; PG2, MD=-4.7, 95% CI -6.4 to -3.0; PG3, MD=-3.3, 95% CI -5.0 to -1.6). Among the different doses, PG2 showed significant improvements in comparison with PG1 for pain (MD=-1.1, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.1) and disability (MD=-2.8, 95% CI -4.5 to -1.1). The cost-utility analysis showed that PG3 had a 0.78 probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Adding two sessions of Pilates exercises to advice provided better outcomes in pain and disability than advice alone for patients with NSCLBP; non-specific elements such as greater attention or expectation might be part of this effect. The cost-utility analysis showed that Pilates three times a week was the preferred option. NCT02241538, Completed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. No difference in frontal cortical activity during an executive functioning task after acute doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg eBolstad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is characterized by partial dopamine D2 receptor agonism. Its pharmacodynamic profile is proposed to be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment, which is prevalent in psychotic disorders. This study compared brain activation characteristics produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist, during a task targeting executive functioning.Methods: Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo before performing an executive functioning task while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was carried out. Results: There was a tendency towards reduced performance in the aripiprazole group compared to the two other groups. The image analysis yielded a strong task-related BOLD-fMRI response within each group. An uncorrected between-group analysis showed that aripiprazole challenge resulted in stronger activation in the frontal and temporal gyri and the putamen compared with haloperidol challenge, but after correcting for multiple testing there was no significant group difference. Conclusion: No significant group differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in frontal cortical activation were obtained when corrected for multiple comparisons.This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: 2009-016222-14; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  9. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  10. PRODUTIVIDADE DE CAPIM-MOMBAÇA (Panicum maximum, COM DIFERENTES DOSES DE BIOFERTILIZANTE / MOMBAÇA GRASS PRODUCTIVITY (Panicum maximum, WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF BIOFERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo verificar a influência da aplicação do dejeto de bovino leiteiro tratados em biodigestores anaeróbios, na forma de biofertilizante, sobre a produtividade da capim Mombaça, em condições de sequeiro.  O trabalho foi conduzido no Instituto de Biotecnologia – IBIOTEC, pertencente à UNIARA, Araraquara – SP. Para obtenção do biofertilizante, foi feita a diluição dos dejetos em água e armazenado em um biodigestor modelo indiano de fibra de vidro com capacidade útil de 1000 L, instalado no referido instituto. As fertilizações foram feitas a lanço após cada rebaixamento das parcelas. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, com diferentes doses do biofertilizante, sendo: 0; 50m³; 100m³ e 200m³/ha-1.  As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura, produção por hectare (matéria seca e matéria verde, e qualidade bromatológica. Foram observados que os tratamentos que receberam a maior dosagem de biofertilizante, apresentaram maiores valores para produtividade Matéria Seca, Matéria Verde e teor de proteína. Conclui-se que a aplicação de biofertilizante é benéfico ao sistema de pastagem, porém suas doses devem ser estudadas e a sua resposta na produção pode obtidas a longo prazo.

  11. Statistical Review of surface dose in the period 1995-2010, measured by different types of TLD dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor Antolin, S.; Munoz Blasco, J.; Llansana Arnalot, J.; Gultresa Colomer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the evolution of the number of special controls over the period 1985 to 2010 and the evolution of the doses in the period 1995 to 2010. Comparing the standard dose extremities respect to whole body in cases where users use both types of control in the same installation.

  12. Changes in weight, waist circumference and compensatory responses with different doses of exercise among sedentary, overweight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Church

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that exercise training results in compensatory mechanisms that attenuate weight loss. However, this has only been examined with large doses of exercise. The goal of this analysis was to examine actual weight loss compared to predicted weight loss (compensation across different doses of exercise in a controlled trial of sedentary, overweight or obese postmenopausal women (n = 411.Participants were randomized to a non-exercise control (n = 94 or 1 of 3 exercise groups; exercise energy expenditure of 4 (n = 139, 8 (n = 85, or 12 (n = 93 kcal/kg/week (KKW. Training intensity was set at the heart rate associated with 50% of each woman's peak VO(2 and the intervention period was 6 months. All exercise was supervised. The main outcomes were actual weight loss, predicted weight loss (exercise energy expenditure/ 7700 kcal per kg, compensation (actual minus predicted weight loss and waist circumference. The study sample had a mean (SD age 57.2 (6.3 years, BMI of 31.7 (3.8 kg/m(2, and was 63.5% Caucasian. The adherence to the intervention was >99% in all exercise groups. The mean (95% CI weight loss in the 4, 8 and 12 KKW groups was -1.4 (-2.0, -0.8, -2.1 (-2.9, -1.4 and -1.5 (-2.2, -0.8 kg, respectively. In the 4 and 8 KKW groups the actual weight loss closely matched the predicted weight loss of -1.0 and -2.0 kg, respectively, resulting in no significant compensation. In the 12 KKW group the actual weight loss was less than the predicted weight loss (-2.7 kg resulting in 1.2 (0.5, 1.9 kg of compensation (P<0.05 compared to 4 and 8 KKW groups. All exercise groups had a significant reduction in waist circumference which was independent of changes in weight.In this study of previously sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women we observed no difference in the actual and predicted weight loss with 4 and 8 KKW of exercise (72 and 136 minutes respectively, while the 12 KKW (194 minutes produced only about half of the predicted

  13. Low Doses of Cadmium Chloride and Methallothionein-1-Bound Cadmium Display Different Accumulation Kinetics and Induce Different Genes in Cells of the Human Nephron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Cucu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the renal tubular handling of inorganic cadmium (Cd2+ by exposing primary human tubular cell cultures to physiologically relevant doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2. Furthermore, the cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was compared to that of metallothionein-1-bound Cd (Cd7MT-1. Finally, this study aimed to investigate the effect of the accumulation of Cd (both Cd2+ and Cd7MT-1 in renal cells on the expression of genes relevant to nephrotoxic processes. Methods: Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results: Cd2+ accumulated into human tubular cells in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was different from the cellular accumulation of Cd7MT-1, indicative for different uptake routes. Finally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding the anti-oxidative proteins metallothionein-1 (MT-1 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 as well as the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax were upregulated by CdCl2 and not by Cd7MT1. Conclusion: In the presence of physiologically relevant Cd concentrations, tubular accumulation of the element in its inorganic form is different from that of Cd7MT-1. Furthermore, the tubular accumulation of inorganic Cd induces mRNA expression of genes of which the protein products may play a role in Cd-associated renal toxicity.

  14. Postoperative pain relief using intrathecal morphine for lumbar spine decompression and instrumentation surgery: A comparative study of two different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Patients undergoing lumbar spine instrumentation surgery suffer severe postoperative pain which is difficult to treat by conventional multimodal analgesic methods. We aimed to compare the analgesic effect of two different doses of intrathecal morphine (ITM 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg in patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression and instrumentation surgery. Design: This was a randomized, prospective, double-blinded study. Materials and Methods: After approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee, forty American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients of either sex aged 18 years or older undergoing lumbar spine surgery were randomly assigned to receive ITM either 0.2 mg (Group A, n = 20 or 0.3 mg (Group B, n = 20 in 2 ml saline before general anesthesia. A morphine intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA device was used for rescue analgesia in the postoperative period. Assessment parameters included hemodynamics, sedation score, pain using numeric rating scale (NRS, total consumption of PCA morphine recorded for 24 h, and patient's satisfaction score. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student's t-test for quantitative variables. Results: NRS score was significantly low in Group B at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h as compared to Group A (P < 0.05. Group B also had decreased requirement for rescue analgesia (P = 0.001 with higher patient satisfaction. There was no significant difference between the two groups in other studied parameters. Conclusions: 0.3 mg ITM provided superior analgesia postoperatively in terms of NRS score and higher patient satisfaction compared to 0.2 mg with no significant difference in the incidence of side effects.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of the impacts of different heterogeneity correction algorithms on target doses in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Masaru; Mizowaki, Takashi; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Takayama, Kenji; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity correction algorithms can have a large impact on the dose distributions of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Treatment plans of 20 patients who underwent SBRT for lung tumors with the prescribed dose of 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter were reviewed retrospectively and recalculated with different heterogeneity correction algorithms: the pencil beam convolution algorithm with a Batho power-law correction (BPL) in Eclipse, the radiological path length algorithm (RPL), and the X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm (XVMC) in iPlan. The doses at the periphery (minimum dose and D95) of the planning target volume (PTV) were compared using the same monitor units among the three heterogeneity correction algorithms, and the monitor units were compared between two methods of dose prescription, that is, an isocenter dose prescription (IC prescription) and dose-volume based prescription (D95 prescription). Mean values of the dose at the periphery of the PTV were significantly lower with XVMC than with BPL using the same monitor units (P<0.001). In addition, under IC prescription using BPL, RPL and XVMC, the ratios of mean values of monitor units were 1, 0.959 and 0.986, respectively. Under D95 prescription, they were 1, 0.937 and 1.088, respectively. These observations indicated that the application of XVMC under D95 prescription results in an increase in the actually delivered dose by 8.8% on average compared with the application of BPL. The appropriateness of switching heterogeneity correction algorithms and dose prescription methods should be carefully validated from a clinical viewpoint. (author)

  16. Different Dose-Dependent Modes of Action of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florie Desriac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP, a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms of action of this human hormone on P. aeruginosa were deciphered. CNP was shown to inhibit dynamic biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth at any tested concentrations. The most effective concentrations were 1 and 0.1 µM. At 0.1 µM, the biofilm formation inhibition was fully dependent on the CNP sensor protein AmiC, whereas it was only partially AmiC-dependent at 1 µM, revealing the existence of a second AmiC-independent mode of action of CNP on P. aeruginosa. At 1 µM, CNP reduced both P. aeruginosa adhesion on glass and di-rhamnolipid production and also increased the bacterial membrane fluidity. The various effects of CNP at 1 µM and 0.1 µM on P. aeruginosa shown here should have major consequences to design drugs for biofilm treatment or prevention.

  17. Low-dose topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of different severity of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Xiang, Lei-Hong; Yu, Bo; Yin, Rui; Chen, Lei; Wu, Yan; Tan, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Yong-Bin; Tian, Hong-Qing; Li, Hui-Zhong; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xiu-Li; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Hui-Lan; Lai, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of low-concentration 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in the treatment of different severity of acne vulgaris and optimize the treatment regimen. A self-controlled multicenter clinical trial was carried out in 15 centers throughout China. A total of 397 acne patients of grade II-IV received 3- or 4-session PDT treatment. 5% ALA gel was applied topically to acne lesions for 1h incubation. The lesions were irradiated by a LED light of 633 nm at dose levels of 96-120 J/cm(2). Clinical assessment was conducted before and after every treatment up to 8 weeks. The effective rate overall and of grade II, III and IV are 82.1%, 71.6%, 79.6% and 88.2%, respectively. The effective rate rises significantly proportionally to the severity of acne (P0.05). The count of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions gradually decrease after each treatment (Pacne vulgaris in Chinese patients. Superior efficacy is found in severe cystic acne of grade IV with mild side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermoluminescence analysis for detection of irradiated food - luminescence characteristics of minerals for different types of radiation and radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soika, C.; Delincée, H.

    2000-01-01

    Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Institute of Nutritional Physiology, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany) Thermoluminescence analysis is used to detect radiation processing of foods which are contaminated with sand or dust. Silicate minerals are isolated, their radiation-induced luminescence is measured and compared to the thermoluminescence from a second measurement after exposure to a dexned radiation dose (normalization). In the present study, the mineral mixture *sand+ and its main components feldspar and quartz were investigated for their thermoluminescence behaviour using different types of radiation, in order to determine adequate radiation sources for the purpose of normalization. The material was irradiated with types of ionizing radiation commonly used for commercial food irradiation, i.e. accelerated electrons with beam energies of 5 MeV as well as 10 MeV, and 60 Co--rays. After thermoluminescence measurements, samples were re-irradiated using either accelerated electrons with beam energies of 2 MeV, 5 MeV or 10 MeV, or 60 Co--rays, 90 Sr--rays or ultraviolet rays (200}280 nm). Evaluation of the xrst and corresponding second glow curve revealed that their shapes depend on the type of minerals in the mixture. The second radiation treatment (normalization) is satisfactory when accelerated electrons (2, 5 and 10 MeV) as well as 60 Co--rays and 90 Sr--rays are employed. Normalization with ultraviolet rays, however, has only a limited range of use

  19. Long-term evacuation after the nuclear accident in Fukushima. Different daily living under low-dose radioactive suffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    One year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. Even currently, more than 150,000 evacuees in Fukushima Prefecture are forced to leave their home and to move throughout Japan. Because of the limited space of temporary housing and the weakening of personal ties in local communities, many families need to move and have separate lives. As a consequence, Fukushima has a serious shortage of caregivers for the elderly. There have been more than 1,300 disaster-related deaths due to shock and stress after long-distance drifts from town to town. Most of the victims were the elderly, who collapsed, caught pneumonia, suffered stroke and heart attack. Concerns about the safety of low-dose radiation exposure deprived the elderly of important contact with playing outside with their grandchildren in Fukushima. Fear of invisible radioactive contamination inactivated outdoor activities such as farming, dairy, fishing, gardening, hiking and wild-vegetable/mushroom hunting, although most of these activities have been traditionally supported by the wisdom of the elderly. Several recent questionnaire investigations revealed that older evacuees wish to go home even if the environment has significant contamination. In contrast, more than half of younger generation with small children have a different attitude. Nuclear accident brought serious social pains although it did not acutely hurt our bodies. (author)

  20. Biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring exposed to different doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Ineu, Rafael P; Moraes-Silva, Lucélia; Pereira, Maria E

    2012-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of low and high doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water on biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were treated during pregnancy with 0, 0.2, 0.5, 10 or 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL as HgCl(2). Rats were euthanized on day 20 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats presented a decrease in total water intake in all doses of mercury tested. At high doses, a decrease in the total food intake and in body weight gain was observed. Pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in kidney relative weight. Mercury exposure did not change serum urea and creatinine levels in any of the doses tested. Moreover, mercury exposure did not change porphobilinogen synthase activity of kidney, liver and placenta from pregnant rats in any of the doses tested, whereas fetuses of pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in the hepatic porphobilinogen synthase activity. In general, pregnant rats presented alterations due to HgCl(2) exposure in drinking water. However, only the dose 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL appeared to be enough to cross the blood-placenta barrier, since at this dose the fetuses presented change in the porphobilinogen synthase activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-07

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  2. Effects of irradiation at different dose rates on the onset of type I diabetes in model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takashi; Sakai, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) increased the level of antioxidants and decreased the level of lipid peroxide in normal mice. We also found that 0.5 Gy-irradiation of NOD mice suppressed the onset of type I diabetes. These results were obtained by the irradiation at high dose rate. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects at the low dose rate. The mice were acutely irradiated with 0.5 Gy of X-rays (300 kVp) at 94.2 Gy/hr at 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14 weeks of age, or chronically irradiated with 0.5 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays at 0.95 mGy/hr starting at 10,11,12,13 or 14 weeks of age. When irradiated at 12th week with the high dose rate X-rays, the onset of diabetes suppressed, and the increase in the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in pancreas was observed. On the other hand, the low dose rate γ-rays delivered from 12th week of age to 14th was less effective in the suppression of the incidence of diabetes than the high dose rate X-rays at the 12-14 weeks of age. Furthermore, the significant increase in pancreatic SOD activity was not observed after the low dose irradiation. Splenic macrophage activities of superoxide generation were not affected by the high dose rate irradiation nor the low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  3. Uso de diferentes doses de manipueira na cultura da alface em substituição à adubação mineral Use of different doses of cassava wastewater in lettuce crop in substitution of mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria de S. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito ocasionado pelo uso de diferentes doses de manipueira nas características agronômicas da alface em substituição à adubação mineral. O referido estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área pertencente ao Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, no período de maio a agosto de 2010. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos compostos das seguintes doses: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45, 65 m³ ha-1 e cinco repetições. Utilizou-se a cultivar de alface Regina 2000, dispondo-se uma planta por vaso de 4 L. Foram avaliadas, em função das doses aplicadas, as seguintes características agronômicas da alface: área foliar, altura de planta, número de folhas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da alface. Ao final do experimento constatou-se que a dose de 45 m³ ha-1 foi a que propiciou maior ganho de altura de planta, área foliar e, consequentemente, também maior produção de matéria fresca e seca. Assim sendo, o uso da manipueira serviu como fonte de adubação para a cultura da alface, dependendo da dose aplicada.The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect on agronomic characteristics of the lettuce when using different doses of cassava wastewater instead of mineral fertilizer. This study was conducted at the Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, from May to August 2010. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized blocks, with six treatments and five repetitions. Following doses were used: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45 and 65 m³ ha-1. The lettuce cultivar Regina 2000 was used (one plant per pot and leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, fresh leaf mass and dry leaf mass were evaluated for each dose of cassava wastewater. At the end of the experiment, the dose of 45 m³ ha-1 provided the best results by

  4. Differences in the dose-volume metrics with heterogeneity correction status and its influence on local control in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Nami; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Shibuya, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dose-volume metrics under different heterogeneity corrections and the factors associated with local recurrence (LR) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients who underwent SBRT for pathologically proven stage I NSCLC were reviewed retrospectively. The prescribed dose was 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter (IC) under heterogeneity correction with the Batho power law (BPL). The clinical plans were recalculated with Eclipse (Varian) for the same monitor units under the BPL and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and with no heterogeneity correction (NC). The dose at the IC, dose that covers 95% of the volume (D95), minimum dose (Min), and mean dose (Mean) of the planning target volume (PTV) were compared under each algorithm and between patients with local lesion control (LC) and LR. The IC doses under NC were significantly lower than those under the BPL and AAA. Under the BPL, the mean PTV D95, Min and Mean were 8.0, 9.4 and 7.4% higher than those under the AAA, and 9.6, 9.2 and 4.6% higher than those under NC, respectively. Under the AAA, all dose-volumetric parameters were significantly lower in T1a patients than in those with T1b and T2a. With a median follow-up of 35.9 months, LR occurred in 18 patients. Between the LC and LR groups, no significant differences were observed for any of the metrics. Even after stratification according to T-stage, no significant difference was observed between LC and LR. (author)

  5. Effect of three different doses of arginine enhanced enteral nutrition on nutritional status and outcomes in well nourished postsurgical cancer patients: a randomized single blinded prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, D A; Izaola, O; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L; Ventosa, M; Martin, T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high occurrence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients, using an enhanced enteral formula with three different doses of arginine could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcome, depending of arginine dose. A population of 84 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer was enrolled. At surgery patients were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups, each one containing at less 28 patients. Group I (28 patients) received an enteral diet supplements with a low physiological dose of arginine (5.7 g per day), group II (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a medium dose of arginine (12.3 g per day) and group III (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a high dose of arginine (18.9 g per day). The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). No differences were detected in postoperative infections complications and diarrhea. Fistula was less frequent in groups II and III than I (10.7% group I vs 3.6% group II vs 3.6% group III: p = 0.033), The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). Our results suggest that these patients could benefit from a high dose of arginine enhanced enteral formula to decrease length of hospital stay and fistula wound complications.

  6. Estimated radiation doses to different organs among patients treated for ankylosing spondylitis with a single course of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.A.; Smith, P.G.; Stratton, I.M.; Darby, S.C.; Doll, R.

    1988-01-01

    A follow-up study of over 14000 patients treated with a single course of X rays for ankylosing spondylitis demonstrated substantial excess risk of developing cancer. Previously the excess risk of leukaemia has been related to the estimated mean radiation dose to active bone marrow but detailed estimates were not made of the radiation doses to other organs. Data extracted from the original treatment records of a random sample of one in 15 patients have been used to make dose estimates, using Monte Carlo methods, for 30 specific organs or body regions and 12 bone marrow sites. Estimates of mean and median organ doses, standard deviations and ranges have been tabulated. Detailed distributions are presented for six organs (lung, bronchi, stomach, oesophagus, active bone marrow and total body). Comparison with the earlier bone marrow estimates and more recent theoretical estimates shows good agreement. (author)

  7. Dose estimation using different ways of irradiation in a group of infants from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Jova Sed, L.; Corripio, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A dosimetry study is done to 4506 children from the Republic of Ukraine (69,3%), Belarus (8,1%) and Russian (22,5%) from 659 village and with ages between 1 and 17 years old. The study covers several stages. We can mention, for example, the dose estimation of iodine 121 in thyroids, the dose estimation for contamination with strontium 90 in the field and the calculation of the effective dose integrated in 70 years for the incorporation of cesium 137 in the body of the children, assuming a model of chronic incorporation. The estimation of the effective dose due to the strontium 90 was limited to a small group of 1314 children of those zones where the values of surface contamination of the field with this radionuclide are know

  8. Experimental article – Reducing effective dose to a paediatric phantom by using different combinations of kVp, mAs and additional filtration whilst maintaining image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Elsbeth; Schaake, Wouter; Visser, Ruurd; Bloomfield, Charlotte; Boavida, Filipa; Chabloz, Diane; Crausaz, Emilie; Hustveit, Hanne; Knight, Heidi; Pereira, Anna; Harsaker, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether using different combinations of kVp and mAs with additional filtration can reduce the effective dose to a paediatric phantom whilst maintaining diagnostic image quality. Methods: 27 images of a paediatric AP pelvis phantom were acquired with different kVp, mAs and

  9. Experimental article – Reducing effective dose to a paediatric phantom by using different combinations of kVp, mAs and additional filtration whilst maintaining image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsbeth Huizinga; Ana Pereira; Wouter Schaake; Charlotte Bloomfield; Heidi Knight; Emilie Crausaz; Hanne Hustveit; Ruurd Visser; Vanja Harsaker; Diane Chabloz; Filipa Boavida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether using different combinations of kVp and mAs with additional filtration can reduce the effective dose to a paediatric phantom whilst maintaining diagnostic image quality. Methods: 27 images of a paediatric AP pelvis phantom were acquired with different kVp, mAs

  10. Pulmonary Nodule Volumetry at Different Low Computed Tomography Radiation Dose Levels With Hybrid and Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction: A Within Patient Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, Annemarie M; Willemink, Martin J; van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Vonken, Evertjan P A; Schilham, Arnold M R; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Luijk, Bart; Budde, Ricardo P J; Leiner, Tim; de Jong, Pim A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) on pulmonary nodule volumetry. In this prospective study, 25 patients scheduled for follow-up of pulmonary nodules were included. Computed tomography acquisitions were acquired at 4 dose levels with a median of 2.1, 1.2, 0.8, and 0.6 mSv. Data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid IR, and model-based IR. Volumetry was performed using semiautomatic software. At the highest dose level, more than 91% (34/37) of the nodules could be segmented, and at the lowest dose level, this was more than 83%. Thirty-three nodules were included for further analysis. Filtered back projection and hybrid IR did not lead to significant differences, whereas model-based IR resulted in lower volume measurements with a maximum difference of -11% compared with FBP at routine dose. Pulmonary nodule volumetry can be accurately performed at a submillisievert dose with both FBP and hybrid IR.

  11. Randomized comparative study of intravenous infusion of three different fixed doses of milrinone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, Neeraj Kumar; Umbarkar, Sanjeeta Rajendra; Sarkar, Manjula Sudeep; Dias, Raylene J

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease is a common problem in pediatric patients presenting for open heart surgery. Milrinone has been shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure in pediatric patients and neonates postcardiac surgery. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcome in such patients with three different fixed maintenance doses of milrinone. Patients were randomized into three groups. All patients received fixed bolus dose of milrinone 50 μg/kg on pump during rewarming. Following this, patients in low-dose group received infusion of milrinone at the rate of 0.375 μg/kg/min, medium-dose group received 0.5 μg/kg/min, and high-dose group received 0.75 μg/kg/min over 24 h. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean airway pressure (MaP), oxygenation index (OI), and central venous pressure (CVP) were compared at baseline and 24 h postoperatively. Dose of inotropic requirement, duration of ventilatory support and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay were noted. MAP, MaP, OI, and CVP were comparable in all three groups postoperatively. All patients in the low-dose group required low inotropic support while 70% of patients in the high-dose group needed high inotropic support to manage episodes of hypotension (P = 0.000). Duration of ventilatory support and ICU stay in all three groups was comparable (P = 0.412, P = 0.165). Low-dose infusions while having a clinical impact were more beneficial in avoiding adverse events and decreasing inotropic requirement without affecting duration of ventilatory support and duration of ICU stay.

  12. Randomized comparative study of intravenous infusion of three different fixed doses of milrinone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing open heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Barnwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease is a common problem in pediatric patients presenting for open heart surgery. Milrinone has been shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure in pediatric patients and neonates postcardiac surgery. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcome in such patients with three different fixed maintenance doses of milrinone. Methodology: Patients were randomized into three groups. All patients received fixed bolus dose of milrinone 50 μg/kg on pump during rewarming. Following this, patients in low-dose group received infusion of milrinone at the rate of 0.375 μg/kg/min, medium-dose group received 0.5 μg/kg/min, and high-dose group received 0.75 μg/kg/min over 24 h. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP, mean airway pressure (MaP, oxygenation index (OI, and central venous pressure (CVP were compared at baseline and 24 h postoperatively. Dose of inotropic requirement, duration of ventilatory support and Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay were noted. Results: MAP, MaP, OI, and CVP were comparable in all three groups postoperatively. All patients in the low-dose group required low inotropic support while 70% of patients in the high-dose group needed high inotropic support to manage episodes of hypotension (P = 0.000. Duration of ventilatory support and ICU stay in all three groups was comparable (P = 0.412, P = 0.165. Conclusion: Low-dose infusions while having a clinical impact were more beneficial in avoiding adverse events and decreasing inotropic requirement without affecting duration of ventilatory support and duration of ICU stay.

  13. Consolidation Radiotherapy in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Impact on Outcome of Different Fields and Doses in Patients in Complete Remission After Upfront Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, Andres Jose Maria; Verona, Chiara; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Chiara, Anna; Perna, Lucia; Villa, Eugenio; Reni, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Avoidance radiotherapy or reduction of irradiation doses in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in complete remission (CR) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy has been proposed to minimize the neurotoxicity risk. Nevertheless, no study has focused on the survival impact of radiation parameters, as far as we know, and the optimal radiation schedule remains to be defined. Methods and Materials: The impact on outcome and neurologic performance of different radiation fields and doses was assessed in 33 patients with PCNSL who achieved CR after MTX-containing chemotherapy and were referred to consolidation whole-brain irradiation (WBRT). Patterns of relapse were analyzed on computed tomography-guided treatment planning, and neurologic impairment was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination. Results: At a median follow-up of 50 months, 21 patients are relapse-free (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 51%). WBRT doses ≥40 Gy were not associated with improved disease control in comparison with a WBRT dose of 30 to 36 Gy (relapse rate, 46% vs. 30%; 5-year FFS, 51% vs. 50%; p = 0.26). Disease control was not significantly different between patients irradiated to the tumor bed with 45 to 54 Gy or with 36 to 44 Gy, with a 5-year FFS of 35% and 44% (p = 0.43), respectively. Twenty patients are alive (5-year overall survival, 54%); WB and tumor bed doses did not have an impact on survival. Impairment as assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination was significantly more common in patients treated with a WBRT dose ≥40 Gy. Conclusion: Consolidation with WBRT 36 Gy is advisable in patients with PCNSL in CR after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy. Higher doses do not change the outcome and could increase the risk of neurotoxicity.

  14. Histological alterations in the liver of rats induced by different gold nanoparticle sizes, doses and exposure duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs can potentially cause adverse effects on organ, tissue, cellular, subcellular and protein levels due to their unusual physicochemical properties. Advances in nanotechnology have identified promising candidates for many biological and biomedical applications. Since the properties of NPs differ from that of their bulk materials, they are being increasingly exploited for medical uses and other industrial applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the particle-size effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs on the hepatic tissue in an attempt to cover and understand the toxicity and the potential threat of their therapeutic and diagnostic use. Methods To investigate particle-size effect of GNPs on the hepatic tissue, a total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 ul of GNPs infusion of size (10, 20 and 50 nm for 3 or 7 days. Results In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced alterations in the hepatocytes, portal triads and the sinusoids. The alterations in the hepatocytes were mainly summarized as hydropic degeneration, cloudy swelling, fatty degeneration, portal and lobular infiltrate by chronic inflammatory cells and congestive dilated central veins. Conclusions The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured hepatocytes due to GNPs toxicity that became unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs. These alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced the most effects and related with time exposure of GNPs. The appearance of hepatocytes cytoplasmic degeneration and nuclear destruction may suggest that GNPs interact with proteins and enzymes of the hepatic tissue interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which in turn may induce stress in the hepatocytes to

  15. Effect of Different Doses of Granisetron on Preventing Postoperative Shivering in Patients undergoing Septorhinoplasty under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movassaghi Gargari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative shivering is a frequent complication in recovery room after general anesthesia and has been reported in 40-70% of patients undergoing surgery. Postoperative shivering might cause hypoxemia, increase in oxygen consumption, a linear increase in carbon dioxide production, lactic acidosis, and increased intraocular pressure and intracranial pressure. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different doses of granisetron on preventing postoperative shivering in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty under general anesthesia. Methods: 90 patients aged 18-60 years old with grades Ι or ΙΙ of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physicals classification were allocated to the study. The first group (G1 received Granisetron 1mg Intra Venous (IV before anesthesia induction; the second group (G2 received 3mg Granisetron IV before anesthesia induction and the last group, the control group, received Normal Saline (NS. Three groups were matched regarding age, gender, weight and duration of surgery. Shivering grade and time of operation were recorded in the recovery room. Results: 90 patients scheduled for septorhinoplasty, including 54 men and 36 women, were enrolled to the study.  The mean age of the patients was 28.53 ± 8.62 (18-60 years. The number of the patients suffering from shivering in the recovery room was significantly less in group G2 rather than control group (P=0.006 and also need to therapy was significantly less in this group (G2 compared with the control group (P=0.002.  Conclusion: Prophylactic use of granisetron (3mg, IV can be effective in preventing postoperative shivering following septorhinoplasty.

  16. SBRT of lung tumours: Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE of dose distributions including respiratory motion and comparison with different treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Wennberg, Berit; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Amor Duch, Maria; Ginjaume, Mercè; Lax, Ingmar

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to simulate with the Monte Carlo (MC) code PENELOPE the dose distribution in lung tumours including breathing motion in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Two phantoms were modelled to simulate a pentagonal cross section with chestwall (unit density), lung (density 0.3 g cm-3) and two spherical tumours (unit density) of diameters respectively of 2 cm and 5 cm. The phase-space files (PSF) of four different SBRT field sizes of 6 MV from a Varian accelerator were calculated and used as beam sources to obtain both dose profiles and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) in different volumes of interest. Dose distributions were simulated for five beams impinging on the phantom. The simulations were conducted both for the static case and including the influence of respiratory motion. To reproduce the effect of breathing motion different simulations were performed keeping the beam fixed and displacing the phantom geometry in chosen positions in the cranial and caudal and left-right directions. The final result was obtained by combining the different position with two motion patterns. The MC results were compared with those obtained with three commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs), two based on the pencil beam (PB) algorithm, the TMS-HELAX (Nucletron, Sweden) and Eclipse (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA), and one based on the collapsed cone algorithm (CC), Pinnacle3 (Philips). Some calculations were also carried out with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse system. All calculations with the TPSs were performed without simulated breathing motion, according to clinical practice. In order to compare all the TPSs and MC an absolute dose calibration in Gy/MU was performed. The analysis shows that the dose (Gy/MU) in the central part of the gross tumour volume (GTV) is calculated for both tumour sizes with an accuracy of 2-3% with PB and CC algorithms, compared to MC. At the periphery of the GTV the TPSs overestimate

  17. Effect of motion-induced PET-CT misalignment on cardiac function and myocardial blood flow measured using dynamic 15O-water PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubberink, Mark; Ebrahimi, M; Harms, Hans

    -CT misalignment on MBF, transmural MBF (MBFt), perfusable tissue fraction (PTF), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) based on dynamic 15O-water scans. Methods: 10 patients underwent 6 min PET scans after injection of 400 MBq 15O-water at rest and during adenosine......Aim: Motion-induced PET-CT misalignment artifacts are common in myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurements with 82Rb and 13N-ammonia. For 15O-water, MBF is based on the clearance rate rather than uptake of the tracer. The clearance rate is determined by the shape of the time-activity curve, not its...... amplitude, and is thus not affected by attenuation correction errors. Hence, misalignment is hypothesized not to affect 15O-water-based MBF to any large extent, but it may affect cardiac function measures derived from 15O-water scans. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of PET...

  18. TH-C-BRD-07: Minimizing Dose Uncertainty for Spot Scanning Beam Proton Therapy of Moving Tumor with Optimization of Delivery Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Zhang, X; Zhu, X; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) has been shown to be able to reduce dose to normal tissue compared to intensity modulated photon radio-therapy (IMRT), and has been implemented for selected lung cancer patients. However, respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty remain one of the major concerns for the radiotherapy of lung cancer, and the utility of IMPT for lung patients was limited because of the proton dose uncertainty induced by motion. Strategies such as repainting and tumor tracking have been proposed and studied but repainting could result in unacceptable long delivery time and tracking is not yet clinically available. We propose a novel delivery strategy for spot scanning proton beam therapy. Method: The effective number of delivery (END) for each spot position in a treatment plan was calculated based on the parameters of the delivery system, including time required for each spot, spot size and energy. The dose uncertainty was then calculated with an analytical formula. The spot delivery sequence was optimized to maximize END and minimize the dose uncertainty. 2D Measurements with a detector array on a 1D moving platform were performed to validate the calculated results. Results: 143 2D measurements on a moving platform were performed for different delivery sequences of a single layer uniform pattern. The measured dose uncertainty is a strong function of the delivery sequence, the worst delivery sequence results in dose error up to 70% while the optimized delivery sequence results in dose error of <5%. END vs. measured dose uncertainty follows the analytical formula. Conclusion: With optimized delivery sequence, it is feasible to minimize the dose uncertainty due to motion in spot scanning proton therapy

  19. Effects of two different high doses of irradiation on antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Bukan, Neslihan; Dizman, Aysen; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2004-03-01

    To examine the state of the oxidant-antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pig caused by high doses of ionizing radiation in the early period. The research was carried out on guinea pigs irradiated with the doses of 8 Gy (group 2) or 15 Gy (group 3) (single dose/whole body) in comparison with control group (group 1). The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of selenium in the liver were measured. TBARS levels in the irradiated animals were markedly higher than those in controls. In group 3, GSH levels and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased while activity of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased compared to groups 1 and 2. Liver selenium levels were not influenced by irradiation. The data have shown that gamma-irradiation at the doses of 8 Gy or 15 Gy results in significant increase in free radical formation while antioxidant enzymes were affected only at a dose of 15 Gy.

  20. Gender Differences in Radiation Dose from Nuclear Cardiology Studies Across the World: Findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lynn; Dorbala, Sharmila; Paez, Diana; Shaw, Leslee J.; Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Better, Nathan; Bokhari, Nadia; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Mercuri, Mathew; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate gender-based differences in nuclear cardiology practice, globally, with particular focus on laboratory volume, radiation dose, protocols, and best practices. BACKGROUND It is unclear if gender-based differences exist in radiation exposure for nuclear cardiology procedures. METHODS In a large multicenter observational cross-sectional study encompassing 7911 patients in 65 countries, radiation effective dose was estimated for each examination. Patient-level best practices relating to radiation exposure were compared between genders. Analysis of covariance was utilized to determine any difference in radiation exposure according to gender, region, and the interaction between gender and region. Linear, logistic, and hierarchical regression models were developed to evaluate gender-based differences in radiation exposure and laboratory adherence to best practices. We also included the United Nations’ gender inequality and human development indices as covariates in multivariable models. RESULTS The proportion of MPI studies performed in women varied between countries, however there was no significant correlation with gender inequality index. Globally, mean effective dose for nuclear cardiology procedures was only slightly lower in women (9.6±4.5 mSv) than in men (10.3±4.5 mSv men, pnuclear cardiology procedures, only small differences were observed between genders worldwide. Regional variations noted in MPI use and radiation dose offer potential opportunities to address gender-related differences in delivery of nuclear cardiology care. PMID:27056156

  1. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitzke, D.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Unterhumer, S.; Loewe, C.; Wolf, F.; Schoepf, V.; Spitzer, E.; Feuchtner, G.M.; Gyoengyoesi, M.; Uyanik-Uenal, K.; Zuckermann, A.

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  2. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitzke, D.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Unterhumer, S.; Loewe, C.; Wolf, F. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, V. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Spitzer, E. [Bern University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Bern (Switzerland); Feuchtner, G.M. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck (Austria); Gyoengyoesi, M. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Uyanik-Uenal, K.; Zuckermann, A. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Doses of Low Energy Shock Wave Therapy on the Erectile Function of Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Xin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the therapeutic effect of different doses of low energy shock wave therapy (LESWT on the erectile dysfunction (ED in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. SD rats (n = 75 were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal control, diabetic control, 3 different dose LESWT treated diabetic groups. Diabetic rats were induced by intra-peritoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg and rats with fasting blood glucose ≥ 300 mg/dL were selected as diabetic models. Twelve weeks later, different doses of LESWT (100, 200 and 300 shocks each time treatment on penises were used to treat ED (7.33 MPa, 2 shocks/s three times a week for two weeks. The erectile function was evaluated by intracavernous pressure (ICP after 1 week washout period. Then the penises were harvested for histological study. The results showed LESWT could significantly improve the erectile function of diabetic rats, increase smooth muscle and endothelial contents, up-regulate the expression of α-SMA, vWF, nNOS and VEGF, and down- regulate the expression of RAGE in corpus cavernosum. The therapeutic effect might relate to treatment dose positively, and the maximal therapeutic effect was noted in the LESWT300 group. Consequently, 300 shocks each time might be the ideal LESWT dose for diabetic ED treatment.

  5. The median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol with different doses of fentanyl during colonoscopy in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Yu, Fang; Zhu, Huichen; Yang, Yuting; Yang, Liqun; Lian, Jianfeng

    2016-04-21

    Propofol and fentanyl are the most widely administered anesthesia maintaining drugs during colonoscopy. In this study, we determined the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol required for colonoscopy in elderly patients, and the purpose of this study was to describe the pharmacodynamic interaction between fentanyl and propofol when used in combination for colonoscopy in elderly patients. Ninety elderly patients scheduled for colonoscopy were allocated into three groups in a randomized, double-blinded manner as below, F0.5 group (0.5 μg.kg(-1) fentanyl), F1.0 group (1.0 μg.kg(-1) fentanyl) and saline control group. Anaesthesia was achieved by target-controlled infusion of propofol (Marsh model, with an initial plasma concentration of 2.0 μg.ml(-1)) and fentanyl. Colonoscopy was started 3 min after the injection of fentanyl. The EC50 of propofol for colonoscopy with different doses of fentanyl was measured by using an up-and-down sequential method with an adjacent concentration gradient at 0.5 μg.ml(-1) to inhibit purposeful movements. Anaesthesia associated adverse events and recovery characters were also recorded. The EC50 of propofol for colonoscopy in elderly patients were 2.75 μg.ml(-1) (95% CI, 2.50-3.02 μg.ml(-1)) in F0.5 group, 2.05 μg.ml(-1) (95% CI, 1.98-2.13 μg.ml(-1)) in F1.0 group and 3.08 μg.ml(-1) (95% CI, 2.78-3.42 μg.ml(-1)) in control group respectively (P fentanyl up to 1.0 μg.kg(-1) reduces the propofol EC50 required for elderly patients undergoing colonoscopy, and there was no significant difference in anaesthesia associated adverse events but prolonged awake and discharge time. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR15006368. Date of registration: May 3, 2015.

  6. SU-E-J-109: Evaluation of Deformable Accumulated Parotid Doses Using Different Registration Algorithms in Adaptive Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100084 China (China); Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 China (China); Liu, B [Image processing center, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 China (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms are utilized to perform deformable dose accumulation for head and neck tomotherapy treatment, and the differences of the accumulated doses are evaluated. Methods: Daily MVCT data for 10 patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal cancers were analyzed. The data were acquired using tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Accuray) at the PLA General Hospital. The prescription dose to the primary target was 70Gy in 33 fractions.Three DIR methods (B-spline, Diffeomorphic Demons and MIMvista) were used to propagate parotid structures from planning CTs to the daily CTs and accumulate fractionated dose on the planning CTs. The mean accumulated doses of parotids were quantitatively compared and the uncertainties of the propagated parotid contours were evaluated using Dice similarity index (DSI). Results: The planned mean dose of the ipsilateral parotids (32.42±3.13Gy) was slightly higher than those of the contralateral parotids (31.38±3.19Gy)in 10 patients. The difference between the accumulated mean doses of the ipsilateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (36.40±5.78Gy, 34.08±6.72Gy and 33.72±2.63Gy ) were statistically significant (B-spline vs Demons, P<0.0001, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.002). And The difference between those of the contralateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (34.08±4.82Gy, 32.42±4.80Gy and 33.92±4.65Gy ) were also significant (B-spline vs Demons, p =0.009, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.074). For the DSI analysis, the scores of B-spline, Demons and MIMvista DIRs were 0.90, 0.89 and 0.76. Conclusion: Shrinkage of parotid volumes results in the dose increase to the parotid glands in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy. The accumulated doses of parotids show significant difference using the different DIR algorithms between kVCT and MVCT. Therefore, the volume-based criterion (i.e. DSI) as a quantitative evaluation of

  7. Ovulation time and ovulated eggs count of sneakehead Channa striata induced by prostaglandin 2α with different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits Jamlaay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Snakehead fish Channa striata is one of freshwater commodity which has high economic value. Nowadays, snakehead fish stock mostly comes from wild capture. Artificial spawning with hormonal induction is usually used to improve broodstock efficiency, as well as the quality and quantity of fish seed production. Purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α hormone on ovulation time and count of ovulated eggs. This experiment used 30–40 cm broodstock with 600–900 g body weight. Fishes were acclimated for one week in a container and then injected with different doses of PGF2α, namely: control without PGF2α (P1, 0.5 mL/kg (P2; 0.7mL/kg (P3; and 0.9 mL/kg (P4. Each treatment consisted of three fishes as replication. Ovulation time was observed until 72 hours post injection. The results showed that PGF2α injected broodstoks ovulated faster (9.17–12.24 hours post injection than control P1 (22.67 hours, while among PGF2α injected fishes were the same. Furthermore, count of ovulated eggs from PGF2α induced broodstocks were higher than control P1, and the highest (2,860 eggs was obtained in treatment 0.9 mL/kg. Thus, PGF2α at dose of 0.9 mL/kg can be used to induce eggs ovulation of snakehead fish and to increase count of ovulated eggs. Keywords: PGF2α, ovulation time, ovulated eggs count, Channa striata  ABSTRAK Ikan gabus Channa striata merupakan salah satu komoditas air tawar yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Saat ini, pemenuhan kebutuhan hanya bergantung pada hasil penangkapan di alam. Cara pemijahan buatan dengan induksi hormon biasanya digunakan untuk efisiensi penggunaan induk serta peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas benih ikan yang dihasilkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji efektivitas hormon prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α terhadap waktu ovulasi dan jumlah telur ikan gabus yang diovulasikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan induk ikan gabus berukuran 30–40 cm dengan bobot

  8. [The impacts of low-dose corticosteroids infusion given in different manners on refractory septic shock patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yang, Chunli; He, Huiwei; He, Zhaohui

    2015-06-01

    To discuss the influence of different ways of low-dose corticosteroids infusion on hemodynamics, changes in blood glucose level and prognosis in patients with refractory septic shock. A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Refractory septic shock patients admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital from April 1st, 2013 to October 31st, 2014 were enrolled for the study. The patients were divided into control group and research group by random number table. Besides conventional treatment for septic shock, patients in control group were given 200 mg/d hydrocortisone intravenous infusion lasting for 2 hours, while those of research group were given 8.33 mg/h hydrocortisone per hour with an intravenous pump. Treatment lasted for 5 continuous days for both groups. The changes in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP) and arterial blood lactic acid in both groups were observed at the time of enroldment and 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 5 days after the treatment. With a dynamic blood glucose monitor, mean blood glucose (MBG) level, largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE), glucose variability (GV), and the ratio of hyperglycaemia time were recorded. The duration of shock, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, total length of hospital stay, and 28-day mortality of both groups were recorded. Seventy-nine septic shock patients were assigned to the treatment, with 41 in control group, and 38 in research group. Compared with control group, 6-hour MAP in research group was obviously lowered [mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa): 66.31±4.38 vs. 68.58±4.86, t=1.062, P=0.033], but there were no significant differences in HR, MAP, CVP, lactic acid clearance and norepinephrine (NE) utilization rates at other time points between two groups. No significant difference in MBG was found between research group and control group (mmol/L: 8.69±2.14 vs. 9.95±3.87, t=1

  9. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  10. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L.

    2014-01-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground

  11. A numerical analysis of aspects of absorbed dose in the vicinity of the interface of different materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, J [Tsukuba Univ., (Japan); Hirayama, H [National Lab. High Enregy Phys. (Japan); Katoh, K [Ibaraki Pref. Univ. Health Sci., (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    In the measurement and/or evaluation of the absorbed dose where the charged particle distribution is far from equilibrium, knowledge on the microscopic spatial distribution of the charged particle fluence is important. Spatial distribution of secondary electrons in the vicinity of an interface of materials and the values of the absorbed dose in these regions are investigated with a monte-Carlo simulation code EGS 4. There were experiments on spatial variation of the absorbed dose in the vicinity of an interface of materials. However, the behaviour of secondary electrons were discussed only broadly and qualitatively. In this study, behaviour of the secondary electrons was analysed to clarify contribution of ruling interactions to generate secondary electrons, and influence of the interface on the energy spectra of secondary electrons. 11 figs.

  12. The effect of different doses of epidermal growth factor on liver ornithine decarboxylase and Na-K ATPase activities in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Turkozkan, N; Isman, F; Kilinc, M; Demirsoy, S

    1998-08-01

    1. Ornithine decarboxylase and Na-K ATPase activities were studied in rat livers that were treated with different doses of epidermal growth factor (EGF). 2. The ornithine decarboxylase activities were studied with spectrophotometry, and results were expressed as micromoles of putrescine per hour per milligram of protein. Na-K ATPase activities were studied on the basis of the principle of measuring the amount of inorganic phosphates released by the hydrolysis of ATP, and the results were expressed as micromoles of inorganic phosphate per hour per milligram of protein. 3. When compared with the controls, although the Na-K ATPase activities were decreased at low doses of EGF, their activities were found to be increased at high doses of EGF. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between ornithine decarboxylase activities and EGF doses. 4. The results of this study suggest that, whereas the decrease in Na-K ATPase activities at low doses of EGF can be due to the utilization of the enzyme, the increase in Na-K ATPase activities at high doses of EGF can be attributed to its enhanced synthesis.

  13. The effects of different doses of caffeine on performance, rating of perceived exertion and pain perception in teenagers female karate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study set to examine the effects of different doses of caffeine on performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and pain perception in female teenager athletes of karate. Ten female karate athletes (16.8±1.23 years; height 1.59±0.28 m; body-mass 57.73±8.33 kg; BMI 22.71±3.05 kg/m2 participated in the study. A double-blind, randomized, and crossover counterbalanced design was used. In three sessions (with an interval of seven days', ten female karate athletes ingested low dose (2 mg/kg, moderate dose (5 mg/kg caffeine, and placebo. Sixty minutes after consumption, they performed the tests as below: one repetition maximum and 60% of one repetition maximum in the leg press, explosive power test, and anaerobic RAST test. After the tests, the participants' RPE (6-20 scale and pain perception (0-10 scale were recorded using various categorical scales. The results showed that caffeine ingestion at moderate dose significantly reduced RPE and pain perception values compared with the placebo during muscular endurance test (P=0.0001 and P=0.039, respectively. The findings suggest that caffeine dose of 5 mg/kg body mass appears to improve RPE and pain perception in female teenager athletes of karate. The dose of 2 mg/kg body mass does not confer any additional improvement in performance.

  14. TU-F-CAMPUS-I-01: Investigation of the Effective Dose From Bolus Tracking Acquisitions at Different Anatomical Locations in the Chest for CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowik, P; Bujila, R; Merzan, D [Dept. of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stationary table acquisitions (Bolus tracking) in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) can Result in dose length products (DLP) comparable to spiral scans. It is today unclear whether or not the effective dose (E) for Bolus Tracking can be approximated using target region specific conversion factors (E/DLP). The purpose of this study was to investigate how E depends on the anatomical location of the Bolus Tracking in relation to Chest CT scans with the same DLP. Methods: Effective doses were approximated for the ICRP 110 adult Reference Male (AM) and adult Reference Female (FM) computational voxel phantoms using software for CT dose approximations (pre-simulated MC data). The effective dose was first approximated for a Chest CT scan using spiral technique and a CTDIvol (32 cm) of 6 mGy. The effective dose from the spiral scan was then compared to E approximated for contiguous Bolus Tracking acquisitions (1 cm separation), with a total collimation of 1 cm, over different locations of the chest of the voxel phantoms. The number of rotations used for the Bolus Tracking acquisitions was adjusted to yield the same DLP (32 cm) as the spiral scan. Results: Depending on the anatomical location of the Bolus Tracking, E ranged by factors of 1.3 to 6.8 for the AM phantom and 1.4 to 3.3 for the AF phantom, compared to the effective dose of the spiral scans. The greatest E for the Bolus Tracking acquisitions was observed for anatomical locations coinciding with breast tissue. This can be expected as breast tissue has a high tissue weighting factor in the calculation of E. Conclusion: For Chest CT scans, the effective dose from Bolus Tracking is highly dependent on the anatomical location where the scan is administered and will not always accurately be represented using target region specific conversion factors.

  15. Estimation of organ-absorbed radiation doses during 64-detector CT coronary angiography using different acquisition techniques and heart rates: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Kawashima, Hiroko (Dept. of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)), email: matsuk@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Noto, Kimiya; Takata, Tadanori; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki (Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kanazawa Univ. Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)); Shimono, Tetsunori (Dept. of Radiology, Hoshigaoka Koseinenkin Hospital, Hirakata (Japan)); Matsui, Osamu (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan))

    2011-07-15

    Background: Though appropriate image acquisition parameters allow an effective dose below 1 mSv for CT coronary angiography (CTCA) performed with the latest dual-source CT scanners, a single-source 64-detector CT procedure results in a significant radiation dose due to its technical limitations. Therefore, estimating the radiation doses absorbed by an organ during 64-detector CTCA is important. Purpose: To estimate the radiation doses absorbed by organs located in the chest region during 64-detector CTCA using different acquisition techniques and heart rates. Material and Methods: Absorbed doses for breast, heart, lung, red bone marrow, thymus, and skin were evaluated using an anthropomorphic phantom and radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLDs). Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated helical and ECG-triggered non-helical acquisitions were performed by applying a simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute (bpm) and ECG-gated helical acquisitions using ECG modulation (ECGM) of the tube current were performed by applying simulated heart rates of 40, 60, and 90 bpm after placing RPLDs on the anatomic location of each organ. The absorbed dose for each organ was calculated by multiplying the calibrated mean dose values of RPLDs with the mass energy coefficient ratio. Results: For all acquisitions, the highest absorbed dose was observed for the heart. When the helical and non-helical acquisitions were performed by applying a simulated heart rate of 60 bpm, the absorbed doses for heart were 215.5, 202.2, and 66.8 mGy for helical, helical with ECGM, and non-helical acquisitions, respectively. When the helical acquisitions using ECGM were performed by applying simulated heart rates of 40, 60, and 90 bpm, the absorbed doses for heart were 178.6, 139.1, and 159.3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: ECG-triggered non-helical acquisition is recommended to reduce the radiation dose. Also, controlling the patients' heart rate appropriately during ECG-gated helical acquisition with

  16. Differences in absorbed doses at risk organs and target tumoral of planning(PTV) in lung treatments using two algorithms of different calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruena Llinares, A.; Santos Rubio, A.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare, in thirty treatments for lung cancer,the absorbed doses at risk organs and target volumes obtained between the two used algorithms of calculation of our treatment planning system Oncentra Masterplan, that is, Pencil Beams vs Collapsed Cone. For it we use a set of measured indicators (D1 and D99 of tumor volume, V20 of lung, homogeneity index defined as (D5-D95)/D prescribed, and others). Analysing the dta, making a descriptor analysis of the results, and applying the non parametric test of the ranks with sign of Wilcoxon we find that the use of Pencil Beam algorithm underestimates the dose in the zone of the PTV including regions of low density as well as the values of maximum dose in spine cord. So, we conclude that in those treatments in which the spine dose is near the maximum permissible limit or those in which the PTV it includes a zone with pulmonary tissue must be used the Collapse Cone algorithm systematically and in any case an analysis must become to choose between time and precision in the calculation for both algorithms. (Authors)

  17. Behaviors of the percentage depth dose curves along the beam axis of a phantom filled with different clinical PTO objects, a Monte Carlo Geant4 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Bakkali, Jaafar; EL Bardouni, Tarek; Safavi, Seyedmostafa; Mohammed, Maged; Saeed, Mroan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the capabilities of Monte Carlo Geant4 code to reproduce the real percentage depth dose (PDD) curves generated in phantoms which mimic three important clinical treatment situations that include lung slab, bone slab, bone-lung slab geometries. It is hoped that this work will lead us to a better understanding of dose distributions in an inhomogeneous medium, and to identify any limitations of dose calculation algorithm implemented in the Geant4 code. For this purpose, the PDD dosimetric functions associated to the three clinical situations described above, were compared to one produced in a homogeneous water phantom. Our results show, firstly, that the Geant4 simulation shows potential mistakes on the shape of the calculated PDD curve of the first physical test object (PTO), and it is obviously not able to successfully predict dose values in regions near to the boundaries between two different materials. This is, surely due to the electron transport algorithm and it is well-known as the artifacts at interface phenomenon. To deal with this issue, we have added and optimized the StepMax parameter to the dose calculation program; consequently the artifacts due to the electron transport were quasi disappeared. However, the Geant4 simulation becomes painfully slow when we attempt to completely resolve the electron artifact problems by considering a smaller value of an electron StepMax parameter. After electron transport optimization, our results demonstrate the medium-level capabilities of the Geant4 code to modeling dose distribution in clinical PTO objects. - Highlights: • Assessment of the capabilities of Geant4 code to reproduce the PDD curves in heterogeneities. • Resolving artifacts due to the electron transport. • Understanding in dose distribution differences in interfaces which include water, bone, and lung interfaces.

  18. Dosimetric analysis of testicular doses in prostate intensity-modulated and volumetric-modulated arc radiation therapy at different energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem, E-mail: hcemonal@hotmail.com; Arslan, Gungor; Dolek, Yemliha; Efe, Esma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidental testicular doses during prostate radiation therapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) at different energies. Dosimetric data of 15 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated with radiotherapy were analyzed. The prescribed dose was 78 Gy in 39 fractions. Dosimetric analysis compared testicular doses generated by 7-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy with a single arc at 6, 10, and 15 MV energy levels. Testicular doses calculated from the treatment planning system and doses measured from the detectors were analyzed. Mean testicular doses from the intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy per fraction calculated in the treatment planning system were 16.3 ± 10.3 cGy vs 21.5 ± 11.2 cGy (p = 0.03) at 6 MV, 13.4 ± 10.4 cGy vs 17.8 ± 10.7 cGy (p = 0.04) at 10 MV, and 10.6 ± 8.5 cGy vs 14.5 ± 8.6 cGy (p = 0.03) at 15 MV, respectively. Mean scattered testicular doses in the phantom measurements were 99.5 ± 17.2 cGy, 118.7 ± 16.4 cGy, and 193.9 ± 14.5 cGy at 6, 10, and 15 MV, respectively, in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. In the volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy plans, corresponding testicular doses per course were 90.4 ± 16.3 cGy, 103.6 ± 16.4 cGy, and 139.3 ± 14.6 cGy at 6, 10, and 15 MV, respectively. In conclusions, this study was the first to measure the incidental testicular doses by intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy plans at different energy levels during prostate-only irradiation. Higher photon energy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy plans resulted in higher incidental testicular doses compared with lower photon energy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans.

  19. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling (Tor tambra fingerlings fed a formulated diet with different doses of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlisin Zainal A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol in the diet of keureling, Tor tambra (Val. fingerlings for optimal growth performance and feed utilization. Five doses of vitamin E were tested: 0 mg kg−1 feed (control; 150 mg kg−1 feed; 300 mg kg−1 feed; 450 mg kg−1 feed; 600 mg kg−1. The feed ratio was 5% body weight, which was delivered twice daily at 08:00 and 17:00 for 60 days. The results showed that higher growth performance, feeding conversion ratios, feed efficiency, protein retention, and protein digestibility were obtained at 600 mg kg−1 feed, but the value was not significantly different from the other doses. The optimal dose in terms of the hepatosomatic index and survival rate was 300 mg kg−1. Hence, it was concluded that the optimum, most economical dose of vitamin E supplement for keureling (T. tambra was 150 mg kg−1 feed, because this value was not significantly different from the doses of 300 and 600 mg kg−1 feed.

  20. Short-term digestive tolerance of different doses of NUTRIOSE®FB, a food dextrin, in adult men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Wils, D.; Pasman, W.J.; Bakker, M.; Saniez, M.-H.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tolerance of increasing dosages of an incompletely hydrolysed and/or incompletely absorbed food dextrin coming from wheat starch, NUTRIOSE®FB, at daily levels of 10 and 15 g up to 60 and 80 g, respectively. Design: A randomized, double-blind, multiple dose,

  1. Evaluation of doses and risks from different decontamination and decommissioning strategies using the PRESTO-II methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PRESTO-II methodology may be applied to evaluate doses and health risks from a variety of decontamination and decommissioning activities. This methodology has been implemented in the form of a computer code that has been applied to several sites, and that has been extensively documented. Radionuclide inventories are specified as separate contamination sources either present on the ground surface, covered by non-radioactive soils but lying above the water table, suspended in the atmosphere, or dissolved in surface waters. Hydrologic transport mechanisms considered in the PRESTO-II methodology include chemical exchange, ponding and overflow, surface water transport, groundwater transport, and pumping contaminated groundwater from wells. Varied scenarios of water usage are treated. Atmospheric inputs are based on both resuspension factor and resuspension rate approaches, with inhalation and immersion doses based on a Gaussian plume transport calculation. Site activities that are considered include land clearing, farming, and residing on the site. Exposure and dose calculations are derived from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Reg. Guide 1.109 approach, while risk calculations use a life-table approach developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Internal dose conversion factors are taken from ICRP 26 and 30, while risk conversion factors are values suggested by EPA. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Comparison of rocuronium at two different doses and succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Rapid sequence induction of anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, succinylcholine allowed a more rapid endotracheal intubation sequence and created superior intubation conditions than rocuronium. However, the technique of using a large dose of rocuronium to achieve perfect conditions for tracheal intubation may have application whenever succinylcholine is relatively contraindicated.

  3. Methods to Analyze Bone Regenerative Response to Different rhBMP-2 Doses in Rabbit Craniofacial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Ruggiero, S., Fantasia, J., Burakoff, R., Moorji, S.M., Paric, E., et al. Sonic hedgehog gene enhanced tissue engineering for bone regeneration. Gene Ther...discectomy and fusion: a case study. Spine J 7, 235, 2007. 8. Zara, J.N., Siu, R.K., Zhang, X., Shen, J., Ngo, R., Lee, M., et al. High doses of bone

  4. SU-E-J-203: Investigation of 1.5T Magnetic Field Dose Effects On Organs of Different Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H; Rubinstein, A; Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For the combined 1.5T/6MV MRI-linac system, the perpendicular magnetic field to the radiation beam results in altered radiation dose distributions. This Monte Carlo study investigates the change in dose at interfaces for common organs neighboring soft tissue. Methods: MCNP6 was used to simulate the effects of a 1.5T magnetic field when irradiating tissues with a 6 MV beam. The geometries used in this study were not necessarily anatomically representative in size in order to directly compare quantitative dose effects for each tissue at the same depths. For this purpose, a 512 cm{sup 3} cubic material was positioned at the center of a 2744 cm{sup 3} cubic soft tissue material phantom. The following tissue materials and their densities were used in this study: lung (0.296 g/cm{sup 3}), fat (0.95), spinal cord (1.038), soft tissue (1.04), muscle (1.05), eye (1.076), trabecular bone (1.40), and cortical bone (1.85). Results: The addition of a 1.5T magnetic field caused dose changes of +46.5%, +2.4%, −0.9%, −0.8%, −1.5%, −6.5%, and −8.8% at the entrance interface between soft tissue and lung, fat, spinal cord, muscle, eye, trabecular bone, and cortical bone tissues respectively. Dose changes of −39.4%, −4.1%, −0.8%, −0.8%, +0.5%, +6.7%, and +10.9% were observed at the second interface between the same tissues respectively and soft tissue. On average, the build-up distance was reduced by 0.6 cm, and a dose increase of 62.7% was observed at the exit interface between soft tissue and air of the entire phantom. Conclusion: The greatest changes in dose were observed at interfaces containing lung and bone tissues. Due to the prevalence and proximity of bony anatomy to soft tissues throughout the human body, these results encourage further examination of these tissues with anatomically representative geometries using multiple beam configurations for safe treatment using the MRI-linac system.

  5. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  6. Comparative risk assessment of radiation and other mutagenic agents. Low dose relative risk of different ionizing radiations and comparison with UV-radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts HP; Chadwick KH; Pruppers MJM; Wijngaard E; Sijsma MJ; Bouwens BT

    1990-01-01

    This report is the final report of a research contract of RIVM in the framework of the Radiation Protection Programme of the Commission of the European Communities. The aim of the project was to investigate the nature of the dose-effect relationship for radiobiological effects after different types

  7. Randomized pharmacokinetic evaluation of different rifabutin doses in African HIV- infected tuberculosis patients on lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiker, Suhashni; Connolly, Cathy; Wiesner, Lubbe; Kellerman, Tracey; Reddy, Tarylee; Harries, Anthony; McIlleron, Helen; Lienhardt, Christian; Pym, Alexander

    2014-11-19

    Pharmacokinetic interactions between rifampicin and protease inhibitors (PIs) complicate the management of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Rifabutin is an alternative rifamycin, for patients requiring PIs. Recently some international guidelines have recommended a higher dose of rifabutin (150 mg daily) in combination with boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), than the previous dose of rifabutin (150 mg three times weekly {tiw}). But there are limited pharmacokinetic data evaluating the higher dose of rifabutin in combination with LPV/r. Sub-optimal dosing can lead to acquired rifamycin resistance (ARR). The plasma concentration of 25-O-desacetylrifabutin (d-RBT), the metabolite of rifabutin, increases in the presence of PIs and may lead to toxicity. Sixteen patients with TB-HIV co-infection received rifabutin 300 mg QD in combination with tuberculosis chemotherapy (initially pyrazinamide, isoniazid and ethambutol then only isoniazid), and were then randomized to receive isoniazid and LPV/r based ART with rifabutin 150 mg tiw or rifabutin 150 mg daily. The rifabutin dose with ART was switched after 1 month. Serial rifabutin and d-RBT concentrations were measured after 4 weeks of each treatment. The median AUC0-48 and Cmax of rifabutin in patients taking 150 mg rifabutin tiw was significantly reduced compared to the other treatment arms. Geometric mean ratio (90% CI) for AUC0-48 and Cmax was 0.6 (0.5-0.7) and 0.5 (0.4-0.6) for RBT 150 mg tiw compared with RBT 300 mg and 0.4 (0.4-0.4) and 0.5 (0.5-0.6) for RBT 150 mg tiw compared with 150 mg daily. 86% of patients on the tiw rifabutin arm had an AUC0-24 ART, and grade 3 neutropenia (asymptomatic) was reported in 4 patients. These events were not associated with increases in rifabutin or metabolite concentrations. A daily 150 mg dose of rifabutin in combination with LPV/r safely maintained rifabutin plasma concentrations in line with those shown to prevent ARR. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00640887.

  8. Sensory techniques for measuring differences in California navel oranges treated with doses of gamma-radiation below 0.6 Kgray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, M.; Goldstein, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Navel oranges from California were given low post harvest doses of gamma radiation: 0.32-0.37 and 0.52-0.60 KGy (32-37 and 52-60 Krad); they were compared with nonirradiated controls for visual appearance, flavor by mouth, odor, taste and taste after sweetness suppression by gymnema sylvestre. Practiced judges were used as an analytical tool, with minimum cross-sensory interference, while untrained subjects were used to determine whether changes might be distinguished by nonexperts. Differences were found in appearance, flavor, taste and odor although they were less extreme at the lower dose. Untrained judges could discriminate the juice at the higher irradiation level only

  9. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect.

  10. Non-acute effects of different doses of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial memory in the Morris water maze in Sprague-Dawley male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Soleimani Asl; Mohammad Hassan Farhadi; Nasser Naghdi; Samira Choopani; Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; also known as 'ecstasy') has been shown to impair learning and spatial memory in adult and neonatal rats.Many studies have focused on the acute effects of MDMA on memory.In the present study, we intraperitoneally administered MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) to adult male rats to investigate the effects of different doses on rat spatial memory in the Morris water maze, body temperature, and mortality, twice a day, for 7 successive days.The results indicated that MDMA impaired spatial memory dose-dependently, with the highest dose (20 mg/kg) exerting the strongest effects.In addition, MDMA also caused hyperthermia and increased mortality in rats.

  11. Comparative assessment of efficacy of two different pretreatment single oral doses of betamethasone on inter-appointment and postoperative discomfort: An in vivo clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyanani, Hitesh; Chhabra, Naveen; Parmar, Ghanshyam R

    2016-01-01

    Study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two different pretreatment single oral doses of betamethasone on the incidence of inter-appointment flare up and postoperative discomfort. Fifty-four patients aged 18-59 years requiring endodontic treatment were selected and randomly assigned to three groups; single pretreatment oral dose of placebo or betamethasone in two different oral doses of 0.5 mg and 1 mg, respectively. Endodontic therapy was completed in two visits using triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicament. Patients were given a questionnaire to record their pain at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after treatment. In the second visit, obturation was done, and the patients were again instructed to record their pain scores after treatment and discharged. The verbal rating scale was used for recording the pain scores. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and the Friedman test. 0.5 mg betamethasone group showed least mean pain scores among all experimental groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between any of the groups ( P > 0.05). Pretreatment single oral dose of betamethasone is an effective in managing endodontic flare-ups; however, the results were statistically insignificant.

  12. Short-term digestive tolerance of different doses of NUTRIOSE FB, a food dextrin, in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, E G H M; Wils, D; Pasman, W J; Bakker, M; Saniez, M-H; Kardinaal, A F M

    2004-07-01

    To determine the tolerance of increasing dosages of an incompletely hydrolysed and/or incompletely absorbed food dextrin coming from wheat starch, NUTRIOSE FB, at daily levels of 10 and 15 g up to 60 and 80 g, respectively. A randomized, double-blind, multiple dose, placebo-controlled, combined crossover and parallel trial. The metabolic ward of TNO Nutrition and Food Research. A total of 20 healthy men (age 31.7 +/- 9.1 y; BMI 24.5 +/- 2.9 kg/m2). One group of 10 subjects consumed on top of their diet 10, 30 and 60 g of NUTRIOSE FB or maltodextrin (placebo) daily. The other group of 10 subjects consumed 15, 45 and 80 g daily. Each dose was consumed for 7 days. Compared with placebo, flatulence occurred more frequently over the last 6 days on 30, 60 or 80 g/day of NUTRIOSE FB (P FB, the frequency of flatulence was even higher (P FB, the frequency of defecation decreased (P FB (P FB resulted in diarrhoea. Compared to baseline levels, breath H2 excretion, which was only measured after a week with 10 and 15 g of NUTRIOSE FB daily, increased (P FB is a fermentable carbohydrate and is well tolerated up to a dose of 45 g daily. Higher daily dosages (60 and 80 g) may result in flatulence, but does not result in diarrhoea. TNO Nutrition and Food Research was assigned by Roquette Frères to perform the study.

  13. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses due to neutron activation of different materials in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, José

    2017-11-01

    All materials exposed to some neutron flux can be activated independently of the kind of the neutron source. In this study, a nuclear reactor has been considered as neutron source. In particular, the activation of control rods in a BWR is studied to obtain the doses produced around the storage pool for irradiated fuel of the plant when control rods are withdrawn from the reactor and installed into this pool. It is very important to calculate these doses because they can affect to plant workers in the area. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate activation reactions produced in the control rods inserted into the reactor. Obtained activities are introduced as input into another MC model to estimate doses produced by them. The comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements allows the validation of developed models. The developed MC models have been also applied to simulate the activation of other materials, such as components of a stainless steel sample introduced into a training reactors. These models, once validated, can be applied to other situations and materials where a neutron flux can be found, not only nuclear reactors. For instance, activation analysis with an Am-Be source, neutrography techniques in both medical applications and non-destructive analysis of materials, civil engineering applications using a Troxler, analysis of materials in decommissioning of nuclear power plants, etc.

  14. Different effects of high- and low-dose phenobarbital on post-stroke seizure suppression and recovery in immature CD1 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Geoffrey J.; Kadam, Shilpa D.; Smith, Dani R.; Johnston, Michael V.; Comi, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal stroke presents with seizures that are usually treated with phenobarbital. We hypothesized that anticonvulsants would attenuate ischemic injury, but that the dose-dependent effects of standard anticonvulsants would impact important age-dependent and injury-dependent consequences. In this study, ischemia induced by unilateral carotid ligation in postnatal day 12 (P12) CD1 mice was immediately followed by an i.p. dose of vehicle, low-dose or high-dose phenobarbital. Severity of acute behavioral seizures was scored. 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered from P18-P20, behavioral testing performed, and mice perfused at P40. Atrophy quantification and counts of BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus were performed. Blood phenobarbital concentrations were measured. 30 mg/kg phenobarbital reduced acute seizures and chronic brain injury, and restored normal weight gain and exploratory behavior. By comparison, 60 mg/kg was a less efficacious anticonvulsant, was not neuroprotective, did not restore normal weight gain, and impaired behavioral and cognitive recovery. Hippocampal neurogenesis was not different between treatment groups. These results suggest a protective effect of lower-dose phenobarbital, but a lack of this effect at higher concentrations after stroke in P12 mice. PMID:21481568

  15. The Protective Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin against Colorectal Cancer Is Unlikely Explained by Selection Bias: Results from Three Different Study Designs in Clinical Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Cea Soriano

    Full Text Available We conducted three differently designed nested case-control studies to evaluate whether the protective effect of low-dose aspirin against colorectal cancer (CRC is explained by selection bias.Using a large validated UK primary care database, we followed different cohorts of patients, who varied in their demographic and clinical characteristics, to identify first ever cases of CRC. In Studies 1 and 2, two cohorts were followed, i new users of low-dose aspirin at start of follow-up (N = 170,336 in Study 1, N = 171,527 in Study 2 and either ii non-users of low-dose aspirin (Study 1, N = 170,336 or new users of paracetamol (Study 2, N = 149,597 at start of follow-up. In Study 3 a single cohort of individuals näive to low-dose aspirin at the start of observation was followed. Controls were selected using incidence sampling and logistic regression used to obtain an unbiased estimate of the incidence rate ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Low-dose aspirin exposure was analyzed 'as-treated' before the index date (CRC date for cases, random date for controls.In the three studies, median (maximum follow-up was 5.1 (12, 5.8 (12 and 7.5 (13 years, respectively. 3033 incident CRC cases were identified in Study 1, 3174 in Study 2, and 12,333 in Study 3. Current use of low-dose aspirin was associated with a significantly reduced risk of 34%, 29% and 31% in the three studies, respectively; corresponding RRs (95% CIs were 0.66 (0.60-0.73, 0.71 (0.63-0.80 and 0.69 (0.64-0.74. In each study, significantly reduced risks of CRC were seen when low-dose aspirin was used for primary or secondary cardiovascular disease prevention, in both sexes, and across all age groups evaluated.Low-dose aspirin is associated with a significantly reduced risk of CRC. The consistency of our findings across different studies makes selection bias an unlikely explanation.

  16. In vivo imaging of serotonin transporter occupancy by means of SPECT and [123I]ADAM in healthy subjects administered different doses of escitalopram or citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, N; Sacher, J; Geiss-Granadia, T; Attarbaschi, T; Mossaheb, N; Lanzenberger, R; Pötzi, C; Holik, A; Spindelegger, C; Asenbaum, S; Dudczak, R; Tauscher, J; Kasper, S

    2006-10-01

    Escitalopram is a dual serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. It is the S-enantiomer of citalopram, and is responsible for the serotonin reuptake activity, and thus for its pharmacological effects. Previous studies pointed out that clinically efficacious doses of other SSRIs produce an occupancy of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) of about 80% or more. The novel radioligand [123I]ADAM and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) were used to measure midbrain SERT occupancies for different doses of escitalopram and citalopram. Twenty-five healthy subjects received a single dose of escitalopram [5 mg (n=5), 10 mg (n=5), and 20 mg (n=5)] or citalopram [(10 mg (n=5) and 20 mg (n=5)]. Midbrain SERT binding was measured with [(123)I]ADAM and SPECT on two study days, once without study drug and once 6 h after single dose administration of the study drug. The ratio of midbrain-cerebellum/cerebellum was the outcome measure (V3") for specific binding to SERT in midbrain. Subsequently, SERT occupancy levels were calculated using the untreated baseline level for each subject. An Emax model was used to describe the relationship between S-citalopram concentrations and SERT occupancy values. Additionally, four subjects received placebo to determine test-retest variability. Single doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg escitalopram led to a mean SERT occupancy of 60+/-6, 64+/-6, and 75+/-5%, respectively. SERT occupancies for subjects treated with single doses of 10 and 20 mg citalopram were 65+/-10 and 70+/-6%, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between SERT occupancies after application of 10 and 20 mg escitalopram, but not for 10 and 20 mg citalopram. There was no statistically significant difference between the SERT occupancies of either 10 mg citalopram or 10 mg escitalopram, or between 20 mg citalopram and 20 mg escitalopram. Emax was slightly higher after administration of