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Sample records for mothers families childbirth

  1. Family leave after childbirth and the mental health of new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that short maternity leave, and, more generally, full-time maternal employment during the first year of life, detract from children's health, cognitive development, and behavioral outcomes. Much less is known, however, about how early parental employment affects the mental and physical health of the mothers themselves. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between short family leave length (less than 12 weeks of total leave after childbirth, less than 8 weeks of paid leave) and mental and physical health outcomes among new mothers. Data come from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of 14,000 children born in 2001 and followed until kindergarten entry. We focus on a sample of ECLS-B mothers from the first wave of the survey who had worked during pregnancy and who had returned to work by the time of the first follow-up interview, which was conducted about 9 months after childbirth. When examining the effects of paternal leave, we further restrict this sample to mothers who were married at the time of the first follow-up interview. The maternal health outcomes of interest are measures of depression and overall health status. We use standard OLS and ordered probit models, as well as two-stage least squares and two-stage residual inclusion methods which address the potential endogeneity of family leave with respect to maternal health. Our findings from the OLS and ordered probit models indicate that, for mothers who worked prior to childbirth and who return to work in the first year, having less than 12 weeks of maternal leave and having less than 8 weeks of paid maternal leave are both associated with increases in depressive symptoms, and having less than 8 weeks of paid leave is associated with a reduction in overall health status. Findings from models that address the potential endogeneity of maternal leave generally support these results, and suggest that longer

  2. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  3. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  4. Health and turnover of working mothers after childbirth via the work-family interface: an analysis across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-09-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women's health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers After Childbirth Via the Work–Family Interface: An Analysis Across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work–family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women’s health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PMID:21604833

  6. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree....... SETTING: Denmark, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Nine fathers and 11 mothers of 14 children born before 28 completed weeks of gestation at a tertiary centre were interviewed when their children were 7-10 years old. RESULTS: Whereas developmental delay, functional limitations, family burden, and parental distress...

  7. Experiences of Primiparous Mothers Regarding Natural Childbirth Problems (A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Women experience several problems during the childbirth process which always remain with them throughout their lives. These problems affect the health of the mother and the child, the emotional relationship between them, the sexual activity and the desire to have her next child in the future. This qualitative study is designed to explore the experiences of primiparous women about natural childbirth problems. This qualitative study is conducted on primiparous women who referred to the health center of Imam Javad in Zahedan. The sample selection is based on objective; the data are collected using semi-structured interviews with 18 primiparous mothers who had healthy natural childbirth. The data are collected through an interview that is done in the first visit within 72 hours after the childbirth, and the data are analyzed through content analysis. After analysis of the data, four themes associated with the problem of the first natural childbirth are extracted. The first is the fear and stress of the labor pain that most participants expressed as the major problem of natural childbirth. The second theme is lack of awareness and lack of information about the process of labor and the delivery room environment; this means that participants of this study are mostly unfamiliar with the process of labor and the delivery room environment and this leads to their fear and pain. The other two themes are the need for protection and support of the mothers by the midwives, their family and their friends. Based on the results of this study, the problems of human resources are stated as being more serious than the problems regarding the environment and modern equipment. This leads to the increase of attention of the midwives and other medical staff on psychological and spiritual needs of mothers and supporting them during the labor in addition to the physical health of the mother and the fetus. In this regard, childbirth classes are recommended in outlining the

  8. Effects of extended childbirth education by midwives on the childbirth fear of first-time mothers: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapio, Sari; Kaunonen, Marja; Arffman, Martti; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates how extended childbirth education intervention affects first-time mothers' fear of childbirth and its manifestation during pregnancy. A randomised controlled trial was conducted. A total of 659 first-time mothers were recruited before week 14 of gestation during the first ultrasound screening at the hospital's maternity outpatient clinic. The mothers were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 338) or a control group (n = 321). The control group received all available regular childbirth education. In addition, the intervention group received an enhanced 2-hour childbirth education at the maternity hospital. The objects of childbirth fears (childbirth-related fear, fear for the mother's and the child's well-being, fear related to Caesarean section) were the primary outcomes. The manifestations of childbirth fears (everyday life, stress symptoms and the wish to have a Caesarean section) were the secondary outcomes. These outcomes were measured over 34 weeks of gestation using two parts of the instrument 'Feelings of Fear and Security Associated with Pregnancy and Childbirth'. Logistic and ordinal linear regression models were used to model the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. The mothers in the intervention group had less childbirth-related fear than those in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95% confidence level (CL) 0.38-0.88]. Also, fear influenced the mothers in the intervention group less in everyday life than it did the mothers in the control group [OR 0.64, 95% CL 0.44-0.94]. The effectiveness of the intervention can be considered moderate: one of three objects and one of three manifestations of fears were reduced. The intervention proved most efficient in alleviating relatively limited objects of fears. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Critical care nurses' experiences of nursing mothers in an ICU after complicated childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Asa; Lindberg, Inger

    2013-09-01

    Providing nursing care for a critically ill obstetric patient or a patient who has just become a mother after a complicated birth can be a challenging experience for critical care nurses (CCNs). These patients have special needs because of the significant alterations in their physiology and anatomy together with the need to consider such specifics as breastfeeding and mother-child bonding. The aim with this study was to describe CCNs' experience of nursing the new mother and her family after a complicated childbirth. The design of the study was qualitative. Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with 13 CCNs in three focus groups during spring 2012. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the formulation of four categories: the mother and her vital functions are prioritized; not being responsible for the child and the father; an environment unsuited to the new family and collaboration with staff in neonatal and maternity delivery wards. When nursing a mother after a complicated birth the CCNs give her and her vital signs high priority. The fathers of the children or partners of the mothers are expected to take on the responsibility of caring for the newborn child and of being the link with the neonatal ward. It is suggested that education about the needs of new families for nursing care would improve the situation and have clinical implications. Whether the intensive care unit is always the best place in which to provide care for mothers and new families is debatable. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  10. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  11. [Development of an Instrument to Assess the Quality of Childbirth Care from the Mother's Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Geum Hee; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Young Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Kyung Won

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess the quality of childbirth care from the perspective of a mother after delivery. The instrument was developed from a literature review, interviews, and item validation. Thirty-eight items were compiled for the instrument. The data for validity and reliability testing were collected using a questionnaire survey conducted on 270 women who had undergone normal vaginal delivery in Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability coefficients. The exploratory factor analysis reduced the number of items in the instrument to 28 items that were factored into four subscales: family-centered care, personal care, emotional empowerment, and information provision. With respect to convergence validation, there was positive correlation between this instrument and birth satisfaction scale (r=.34, pinstrument could be used as a measure of the quality of nursing care for women who have a normal vaginal delivery. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  12. Fear of childbirth: mothers' experiences of team-midwifery care - a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate mothers' fear of childbirth and their experiences of the team-midwifery care model during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. Maternal anxiety and fear of childbirth lead to emotional suffering and affected women's well-being. A previous negative experience of childbirth may result in postnatal depression or avoidance of future pregnancies. This hermeneutic study comprised interviews with 13 women, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, after which interpretative content analysis was performed. Ethical approval was granted. The findings revealed one main theme: The woman's right to ownership of the pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care as a means of maintaining dignity and three themes; Being aware of barriers and reasons for fear; Being prepared for childbirth and Being confirmed and treated with dignity by the midwife. Each theme contained several sub-themes. The findings contribute insights into how midwives can be educated to reduce fear of childbirth and promote positive birth experiences, despite the existence of negative memories of previous births. In order to achieve continuity and a trusting relationship it is necessary to organise leadership and to adopt models that are flexible and support women's health.

  13. Flexible work arrangements and work-family conflict after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Mira M; McGovern, Patricia M; Alexander, Bruce H

    2008-10-01

    Previous research has revealed that work-family conflict negatively influences women's health following childbirth. To examine if flexible work arrangements were associated with work-family conflict among women, 1 year after childbirth. Employed women, aged >or=18, were recruited while hospitalized for childbirth. Flexible work arrangements were measured at 6 months and work-family conflict was measured at 12 months. General linear models estimated the association between flexible work arrangements and work-family conflict. Of 1157 eligible participants, 522 were included in this analysis giving a 45% response rate. Compared to women who reported that taking time off was very hard, those who reported it was not too hard (beta = -0.80, SE = 0.36, P hours was associated with greater home spillover (beta = 0.46, SE = 0.18, P work home was associated with increased home spillover (beta = 0.35, SE = 0.14, P work hours and the ability to take work home were associated with increased home spillover to work. The ability to take time off was associated with decreased job spillover to home. Additional research is needed to examine the intentional and unintentional consequences of flexible work arrangements.

  14. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekenga, Columba K; Pembe, Andrea B; Darj, Elisabeth; Christensson, Kyllike; Olsson, Pia

    2013-01-15

    Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health.

  15. Reproductive history and involvement in pregnancy and childbirth of fathers of babies born to teenage mothers in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeus, Cecilia; Christensson, Kyllike

    2003-06-01

    to describe and compare sexual and reproductive history as well as reactions to the pregnancy and attendance in antenatal care, family classes and childbirth of fathers of babies born to teenage mothers and fathers of babies born to average aged mothers. a descriptive comparative study using a structured questionnaire for data collection. eleven postnatal wards at the five obstetric and gynaecological departments in the Stockholm area. 132 fathers of babies born to primiparous teenage mothers (Group A) and the same number of fathers of babies born to primiparous women aged between 25-29 years (Group B) who were present in the postnatal wards. 43 of Group A compared to 17% of the Group B fathers had their first intercourse before 15 years of age. This early sexual debut was related to other health hazard, such as use of illicit drugs and cigarette smoking. The majority of the pregnancies in Group A were unplanned but most fathers reacted positively to the pregnancy and participated in the antenatal care. In contrast, only half of these fathers attended family classes. fathers of babies born to teenage mothers differed from fathers of babies to older mothers regarding reproductive background as well as involvement during pregnancy. The findings of this study challenge midwives to organise clinical practice in order to meet the specific needs of this group.

  16. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs of Malawian women as perceived by Malawian mothers and midwives in order to design a .... lecturers in Midwifery at Bachelor's degree level. The second .... to avoid anything that would delay the progress of labour. On the other hand, .... granted to the first author as part of PhD studies in Nursing. Sincere gratitude is ...

  17. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  18. Balancing work and family after childbirth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Mira M; McGovern, Patricia M; Alexander, Bruce H; Ukestad, Laurie; Hellerstedt, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    in the United States, women with young children have dramatically increased their participation in the workforce, resulting in greater potential conflict between work and family roles. However, few studies have examined postpartum work-family conflict. This study examined associations between work-family conflict and women's health after childbirth. employed women, 18 years of age and older, were recruited while hospitalized for childbirth and followed for 18 months (n = 541; 66% response rate). Health outcomes were measured using the Short Form 12, version 2. Longitudinal fixed-effects models estimated the associations between work-family conflict (modeled as job and home spillover) and health. women who reported high levels of job spillover to home had mental health scores slightly, but significantly, worse than women who reported low levels of spillover (β = -1.26; SE = 0.47). Women with medium and high levels of home spillover to job also reported worse mental health (β = -0.81, SE = 0.30; and β = -1.52, SE = 0.78) relative to those with low spillover. Women who reported medium (versus low) levels of home spillover reported slightly improved physical health (β = 0.64, SE = 0.30). There was no significant association between job spillover and physical health. this study focused exclusively on employed postpartum women. Results illustrate that job and home spillover are associated with maternal mental and physical health. Findings also revealed that flexible work arrangements were associated with poorer postpartum mental health scores, which may reflect unintended consequences, such as increasing the amount of work brought home. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Loeber, R.; Pardini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Aims Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this

  20. Effects of natural childbirth preparation versus standard antenatal education on epidural rates, experience of childbirth and parental stress in mothers and fathers: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, M; Kieler, H; Waldenström, U

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with psychoprophylactic training versus standard antenatal education on the use of epidural analgesia, experience of childbirth and parental stress in first-time mothers and fathers. Design Randomised controlled multicentre trial. Setting Fifteen antenatal clinics in Sweden between January 2006 and May 2007. Sample A total of 1087 nulliparous women and 1064 of their partners. Methods Natural group: Antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with training in breathing and relaxation techniques (psychoprophylaxis). Standard care group: Standard antenatal education focussing on both childbirth and parenthood, without psychoprophylactic training. Both groups: Four 2-hour sessions in groups of 12 participants during third trimester of pregnancy and one follow-up after delivery. Main outcome measures Epidural analgesia during labour, experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (B), and parental stress measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire. Results The epidural rate was 52% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the experience of childbirth or parental stress between the randomised groups, either in women or men. Seventy percent of the women in the Natural group reported having used psychoprophylaxis during labour. A minority in the Standard care group (37%) had also used this method, but subgroup analysis where these women were excluded did not change the principal findings. Conclusion Natural childbirth preparation including training in breathing and relaxation did not decrease the use of epidural analgesia during labour, nor did it improve the birth experience or affect parental stress in early parenthood in nulliparous women and men, compared with a standard form of antenatal education. PMID:19538406

  1. The Effect of Work-family Balance Policy on Childbirth and Women's Work

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuochi, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of Japan's 2005 work-family legislation?the Act on Advancement of Measures to Support Raising Next-Generation Children? on childbirth and women's job continuity. This Act requires firms to support their employees in bearing and rearing children. In particular, it helps working women to continue their careers, thereby reducing the opportunity cost of having children and boosting childbirth. Although the Act requires large firms to support their employees in this ...

  2. Giving birth and returning to work: the impact of work-family conflict on women's health after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Mira M; Feda, Denise; McGovern, Patricia; Alexander, Bruce H; McCaffrey, David; Ukestad, Laurie

    2007-10-01

    Since 1970, women of childbearing age have increasingly participated in the workforce. However, literature on work-family conflict has not specifically addressed the health of postpartum women. This study examined the relationship between work-family conflict and mental and physical health of employed mothers 11 weeks after childbirth. Employed women, 18 years and older, were recruited while in the hospital for childbirth (N = 817; 71% response rate). Mental and physical health at 11 weeks postpartum was measured using SF-12 version 2. General linear models estimated the associations between the independent variables and health. A priori causal models and directed acyclic graphs guided selection of confounding variables. Analyses revealed that high levels of work interference with family were associated with significantly lower mental health scores. Medium and high levels of family interference with work revealed a dose-response relationship resulting in significantly worse mental health scores. Coworker support was strongly and positively associated with better physical health. Work-family conflict was negatively associated with mental health but not significantly associated with physical health. Availability of social support may relieve the burden women can experience when balancing work roles and family obligations.

  3. Family Responsive Policies and Employee Retention Following Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer L.; Riley, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Among 324 employed women in Indiana, followed from pregnancy through 12 months postpartum, job attrition after childbirth was significantly decreased by employer policies, particularly length of maternity leave and ability to avoid mandatory overtime upon return, and was also decreased by supervisor and coworker social support, greater educational…

  4. Childbirth traditions and cultural perceptions of safety in Nepal: critical spaces to ensure the survival of mothers and newborns in remote mountain villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Sabitra; Hancock, Heather; Newman, Lareen A

    2013-10-01

    to uncover local beliefs regarding pregnancy and birth in remote mountainous villages of Nepal in order to understand the factors which impact on women's experiences of pregnancy and childbirth and the related interplay of tradition, spiritual beliefs, risk and safety which impact on those experiences. this study used a qualitative methodological approach with in-depth interviews framework within social constructionist and feminist critical theories. the setting comprised two remote Nepalese mountain villages where women have high rates of illiteracy, poverty, disadvantage, maternal and newborn mortality, and low life expectancy. Interviews were conducted between February and June, 2010. twenty five pregnant/postnatal women, five husbands, five mothers-in-law, one father-in-law, five service providers and five community stakeholders from the local communities were involved. Nepalese women, their families and most of their community strongly value their childbirth traditions and associated spiritual beliefs and they profoundly shape women's views of safety and risk during pregnancy and childbirth, influencing how birth and new motherhood fit into daily life. These intense culturally-based views of childbirth safety and risk conflict starkly with the medical view of childbirth safety and risk. if maternity services are to improve maternal and neonatal survival rates in Nepal, maternity care providers must genuinely partner with local women inclusive of their cultural beliefs, and provide locally based primary maternity care. Women will then be more likely to attend maternity care services, and benefit from feeling culturally safe and culturally respected within their spiritual traditions of birth supported by the reduction of risk provided by informed and reverent medicalised care. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress and mother-child relationships following childbirth and at 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen; Iles, Jane

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms at 2 years postpartum and the relationship between such symptoms and both self-reported parenting stress and perceptions of the mother-child relationship. 81 women completed measures of childbirth-related PTS symptoms at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum; these results were used in an exploration of their predictive links with mother-child relationship and parenting measures at 2 years. 17.3% of respondents reported some PTS symptoms at a clinically significant level at 2 years postpartum. However, these symptoms were only weakly linked to parenting stress and were not related to mothers' perceptions of their children. However earlier PTS symptoms within 3 months of childbirth did show limited associations with parenting stress at 2 years but no association with child relationship outcomes once current depression was taken into account. Implications for clinical practice and the concept of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  6. Pregnancy and childbirth: What changes in the lifestyle of women who become mothers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a period influenced by the interaction of several factors, therefore this study aimed to identify changes in lifestyles due to pregnancy and childbirth in Portuguese and immigrant women in Portugal. This is a qualitative study, using the semi-structured interview, with eighty-two Portuguese and immigrant women. Content analysis was used, with verbatim classification supported by Nvivo 10. It was authorized by an Ethics Commission. Results revealed that the primary changes in lifestyles due to pregnancy were in eating habits (nutrition, daily activity, exposure to danger, sleep and rest patterns, social and family relationships, going out, self-care, work, clothing and footwear, travel, health monitoring and sexual activity and substances consumption. The main change after the birth, manifested by these women, was that their lives began to revolve around their baby.

  7. Perceptions of Adult Women on Losing Their Mothers at an Early Age: Implications for Nursing Care During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jennie; Huebner, Carroll Gunn; McCoy, Kristen

    To explore the lived experience of women over the age of 21 who lost their mothers before the age of 18. Using qualitative methodology, motherless child-adult women were gathered through emails, word of mouth, and snowballing techniques. Interviews were conducted at the convenience of the women. The women coparticipated with identification of emerging themes using thematic analysis. Eight women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 participated. Eight themes emerged: (1) Understanding: For wounded hearts only; (2) Coming apart: Finding my mother's daughter and self-worth; (3) Unconditional love: Grieving for and identifying with my champion; (4) Finding help: Filling the empty place with God; (5) Pitying the motherless child: Making it worse; (6) Filling in: Others as mother; (7) The ebb and flow: Grieving; and (8) Becoming mother: Taking on the Role. The nurse has the opportunity to improve care for women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 years. During pregnancy, childbirth, and childrearing, the woman may feel sad and anxious without the guidance of her mother. Special ways of caring may be instituted to provide her comfort such as allowing and encouraging her to bring a special item of her mother's to procedures and events so that she may feel connected with her, allowing someone to stand in for her mother, perhaps assisting in finding of another motherless child adult to be with her as needed, and the voicing of understanding of her loss while remaining nonjudgmental about her emotions during these times.

  8. An Investigation into Breastfeeding Characteristics of Mothers Attending Childbirth Education Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiye Mete, PhD

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: On the basis of the study results it could be argued that attending childbirth preparation class with the husband has a positive effect over breastfeeding. Childbirth education classes will greatly contribute to the health of the society by affecting breastfeeding positively.

  9. Coping and help in birth: An investigation into 'normal' childbirth as described by new mothers and their attending midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darra, Susanne; Murphy, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    to investigate how 'normal' childbirth is described by new mothers and their attending midwives. a qualitative, reflexive, narrative study was used to explore birth stories using in-depth, un-structured interviews. 21 new mothers and their 16 attending midwives were recruited from the locality surrounding a district general hospital in South Wales, United Kingdom (UK). the findings identified that the mothers wanted to cope with labour and birth, by breathing through it and using some birth interventions with the help of knowledgeable midwives. Midwives aimed to achieve 'normality' in birth but also commonly utilised birth interventions. Consequently the notion of 'normal' birth as not involving interventions in birth was not found to be a useful defining concept in this study. Furthermore, current dichotomous models and theories of birth and midwifery in particular those relating to pain management did not fully explain the perspectives of these women and their midwives. dichotomous models and theories for birth and midwifery practice and those which incorporate the term 'normal' birth are shown to be not entirely useful to fully explain the contemporary complexity of childbirth in the UK. Therefore it is now necessary to consider avoiding using dichotomous models of birth and midwifery in the UK and to instead concentrate on developing integrated models that reflect the real life current experiences of women and their midwives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Midwives' supervisory styles and leadership role as experienced by Norwegian mothers in the context of a fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the midwives' supervisory style and leadership role as experienced by pregnant women and new mothers in the context of a fear of childbirth. A service led by midwives can influence the quality of care. The sample consisted of 13 mothers. Data were interpreted by means of qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed that the midwives' supervisory styles were related to their ability to create a trusting and caring relationship, demonstrate problem-solving capacity, and showing willingness, preparedness and courage to support the women. The midwives' leadership role was described as involving a crucial set of professional management skills and techniques. The findings have strengthened the argument for the provision of continuity of care to women who are afraid of childbirth. Further studies should focus more specifically on the implementation of research in practice. It is necessary for midwives to demonstrate leadership in order to develop practice, predict challenges and changes, provide different care delivery models and acquire an evidence base for care. This also demands systematic supervision to improve care outcomes.

  11. "Is the doctor God to punish me?!" An intersectional examination of disrespectful and abusive care during childbirth against single mothers in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amroussia, Nada; Hernandez, Alison; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-03-04

    Disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth is a violation of women's right to dignified, respectful healthcare throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although reports point out that marginalized groups in society such as single mothers are particularly vulnerable to abusive and disrespectful care, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring single mothers' encounters at the maternal healthcare facilities, especially in Tunisia. In Tunisia, single mothers are particularly vulnerable due to their social stigmatization and socio-economic marginalization. This study examines the self-perceptions and childbirth experiences of single mothers at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. This study follows a qualitative design. Eleven single mothers were interviewed in regard to their experiences with maternal healthcare services and their perceptions of the attitudes of the health workers towards them. The interviews also addressed the barriers faced by the participants in accessing adequate maternal healthcare services, and their self-perceptions as single mothers. The data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach guided by the feminist intersectional approach. Emergent codes were grouped into three final themes. Three themes emerged during the data analysis: 1) Experiencing disrespect and abuse, 2) Perceptions of regret and shame attributed to being a single mother, and 3) The triad of vulnerability: stigma, social challenges, and health system challenges. The study highlights that the childbirth experiences of single mothers are shaped by intersectional factors that go beyond the health system. Gender plays a major role in constructing these experiences while intersecting with other social structures. The participants had experienced disrespectful and discriminatory practices and even violence when they sought maternal healthcare services at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. Those experiences reflect not only the poor quality of

  12. Returning to work one year after childbirth: data from the mother-child cohort EDEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2013-10-01

    The amount of time women spend out of work postpartum has implications for both health and economic trajectories which may result in long-term social inequities or exacerbate those already existing. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the characteristics of women who return to work within the first year postpartum and to identify specific occupational and health factors associated with returning to work among women who worked during pregnancy. The EDEN cohort is comprised of pregnant women recruited in two French university hospitals before 24 weeks gestation with a singleton pregnancy. Questionnaires were administered at 4, 8, and 12 months after birth. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of returning to work within 1 year of childbirth with inclusion of sociodemographic, health, and occupational variables that were significantly related to returning to work at the level of p worked during pregnancy in our sample had resumed work before their infant's first birthday. After adjustment, occupational level, full-time work, standing position, job reward, desire to change job, education, and father's occupational level remained significantly associated with returning to work. Women's perception of their work as rewarding was the strongest predictor of resuming employment (OR comparing high reward to low reward: 2.48, 95 % CI: 1.60-3.83 for women with parity 0 or 1). Experiencing an adverse birth outcome had no relation to returning to work within 1 year postpartum. Across all indicator variables, women of higher socioeconomic status or with greater resources had greater odds of returning to work compared to those of lower status. This suggests that the crucial period of employment transition around the time of childbirth may intensify preexisting social inequalities.

  13. Does fear of childbirth or family history affect whether pregnant Dutch women prefer a home- or hospital birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Anne-Marie; Cleiren, Marc P H D; Scherjon, Sicco A; Wijma, Klaas

    2015-12-01

    It is a generally accepted idea that women who give birth at home are less fearful of giving birth than women who give birth in a hospital. We explored fear of childbirth (FOC) in relation to preferred and actual place of birth. Since the Netherlands has a long history of home birthing, we also examined how the place where a pregnant woman׳s mother or sisters gave birth related to the preferred place of birth. A prospective cohort study. Five midwifery practises in the region Leiden/Haarlem, the Netherlands. 104 low risk nulliparous and parous women. Questionnaires were completed in gestation week 30 (T1) and six weeks post partum (T2). No significant differences were found in antepartum FOC between those who preferred a home or a hospital birth. Women with a strong preference for either home or hospital had lower FOC (mean W-DEQ=60.3) than those with a weak preference (mean W-DEQ=71.0), t (102)=-2.60, p=0.01. The place of birth of close family members predicted a higher chance (OR 3.8) of the same place being preferred by the pregnant woman. Pre- to postpartum FOC increased in women preferring home- but having hospital birth. The idea that FOC is related to the choice of place of birth was not true for this low risk cohort. Women in both preference groups (home and hospital) made their decisions based on negative and positive motivations. Mentally adjusting to a different environment than that preferred, apart from the medical complications, can cause more FOC post partum. The decreasing number of home births in the Netherlands will probably be a self-reinforcing effect, so in future, pregnant women will be less likely to feel supported by their family or society to give birth at home. Special attention should be given to the psychological condition of women who were referred to a place of birth and caregiver they did not prefer, by means of evaluation of the delivery and being alert to anxiety or other stress symptoms after childbirth. These women have higher

  14. Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganchimeg, T; Ota, E; Morisaki, N; Laopaiboon, M; Lumbiganon, P; Zhang, J; Yamdamsuren, B; Temmerman, M; Say, L; Tunçalp, Ö; Vogel, J P; Souza, J P; Mori, R

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among adolescents in 29 countries. Secondary analysis using facility-based cross-sectional data of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. Twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East. Women admitted for delivery in 359 health facilities during 2-4 months between 2010 and 2011. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between young maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. A total of 124 446 mothers aged ≤24 years and their infants were analysed. Compared with mothers aged 20-24 years, adolescent mothers aged 10-19 years had higher risks of eclampsia, puerperal endometritis, systemic infections, low birthweight, preterm delivery and severe neonatal conditions. The increased risk of intra-hospital early neonatal death among infants born to adolescent mothers was reduced and statistically insignificant after adjustment for gestational age and birthweight, in addition to maternal characteristics, mode of delivery and congenital malformation. The coverage of prophylactic uterotonics, prophylactic antibiotics for caesarean section and antenatal corticosteroids for preterm delivery at 26-34 weeks was significantly lower among adolescent mothers. Adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy prevention strategies and the improvement of healthcare interventions are crucial to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among adolescent women in low- and middle-income countries. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  15. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  16. Influence of older primiparity on childbirth, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Mami; Usui, Masami; Hiroi, Kayoko; Asai, Hiromi; Hiramatsu, Mayumi; Nekoda, Yasutoshi; Hirose, Taiko

    2016-04-01

    Delivery at 35 years and above has increased in Japan. While there is much research concerning obstetrical risk and delivery at advanced age, little research addresses child-rearing after birth. This study seeks to identify how older primiparas' characteristics of child-rearing, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction differ from those of younger mothers. Participants were primipara women aged 35 years and above and primiparas aged 20-29 years; all delivered in the hospital. Questionnaires were distributed during hospitalization after birth and during home visits at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years post-partum. Mother-child interactions during home visits were assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). The older group included 13 primiparas, and the control group included seven primiparas at the study's end. Some older primiparas used fertility treatment and cesarean section, but primiparas in their 20s used neither. There were no significant differences in terms of depression, psychological health, size of networks, and number of daytime or night-time feedings. Statistically significant differences were as follows. Older primiparas experienced more social isolation and overall stress, and their children exhibited greater hypersensitivity/lack of adaptability at 3 months. Older mothers were more likely to report little effort by their children to please them at 1 and 2 years after birth. Under observation, older primiparas received higher NCATS caregiver scores, but children of primiparas in their 20s received higher child scores. Mothers and child-care specialists should recognize that older primiparas interact more favorably with their children, but have more parenting stress. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  17. 76 FR 60355 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... grief their families carry we can never fully know. Gold Star mothers and families know the immeasurable... inspired by their strength and determination. Through heartbreaking loss, our Gold Star families continue...

  18. Psychometric Properties of an Instrument to Measure Mother-Infant Togetherness After Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Carol L; Norris, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument to measure mother-infant togetherness, Mother-Infant Togetherness Survey (MITS). Stage 1 examined content validity. Stage 2 pretested the readability and understandability and further examined content validity. Stage 3 examined women's ability to accurately self-report on the Delivery Events subscale. Stages 4 and 5 examined construct validity. Good content validity was obtained at the scale/subscale level (CVI = .91-1.00). Internal consistency reliability was evaluated at the scale/subscale level (α = .62-.89). Construct validity was supported with known groups testing and factor analysis. Study findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the MITS. Future research should be done to improve the internal consistency reliability of the Postpartum Events subscale.

  19. Mothers without companionship during childbirth: an analysis within the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Holly N; Pickett, Kate E

    2008-12-01

    Studies have highlighted the benefits of social support during labor but no studies focused on women who choose to be unaccompanied or who have no companion available at birth. Our goals were, first, to identify characteristics of women who are unaccompanied at birth and compare these to those who had support and, second, to establish whether or not being unaccompanied at birth is a risk marker for adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. The sample comprised 16,610 natural mother-infant pairs, excluding women with planned cesarean sections in the Millennium Cohort Study. Multivariable regression models were used to examine, first, sociodemographic, cultural, socioeconomic, and pregnancy characteristics in relation to being unaccompanied and, second, being unaccompanied at birth in relation to labor and delivery outcomes, maternal health and health-related behaviors, parenting, and infant health and development. Mothers who were single (vs not single), multiparous (vs primiparous), of black or Pakistani ethnicity (vs white), from poor households (vs nonpoor), with low levels of education (vs high levels), and who did not attend antenatal classes (vs attenders) were at significantly higher risk of being unaccompanied at birth. Mothers unaccompanied at birth were more likely to have a preterm birth (vs term), an emergency cesarean section (vs spontaneous vaginal delivery) and spinal pain relief or a general anesthetic (vs no pain relief), a shorter labor, and lower satisfaction with life (vs high satisfaction) at 9 months postpartum. Their infants had significantly lower birthweight and were at higher risk of delayed gross motor development (vs normal development). Being unaccompanied at birth may be a useful marker of high-risk mothers and infants in need of additional support in the postpartum period and beyond.

  20. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Four hundred and sixty-two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half-yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self-reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent-child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Holding the baby: early mother-infant contact after childbirth and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Kruske, Sue

    2014-05-01

    to describe the timing, type and duration of initial infant contact and associated demographic and clinical factors in addition to investigating the impact of early contact on breastfeeding and maternal health and well being after birth. data from a recent population survey of women birthing in Queensland, Australia were used to describe the nature of the first hold and associated demographic characteristics. Initial comparisons, with subsequent adjustment for type of birthing facility and mode of childbirth, were used to assess associations between timing, type and duration of initial contact and outcomes. Further analyses were conducted to investigate a dose-response relationship between duration of first contact and outcomes. women who had an unassisted vaginal birth held their infant sooner, and for longer than women who had an assisted vaginal birth or caesarean and were more satisfied with their early contact. Multivariate models showed a number of demographic and clinical interventions contributing to timing, duration and type of first contact with type of birthing facility (public/private), area of residence, and assisted birth as prominent factors. For women who had a vaginal birth; early, skin-to-skin, and longer duration of initial contact were associated with high rates of breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding at discharge, but not breastfeeding at 13 weeks. Some aspects of early contact were associated with improved maternal well being. However, these associations were not found for women who had a caesarean birth. With longer durations of first contact, a dose-response effect was found for breastfeeding. results of the study provide a description of current practice in Queensland, Australia and factors impacting on early contact. For vaginal births, findings add to the evidence in support of early skin-to-skin contact for an extended period. It is suggested that all research in this area should consider the effects of early contact separately for

  2. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-12-01

    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  3. 75 FR 60283 - Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... Star Mothers and Families. For those in our Armed Forces who gave their last full measure of devotion..., it echoes in the enduring love of their spouses-- the backbone of our military families--who...

  4. The monster within: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and a patient's fears of childbirth and mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B R

    1998-08-01

    This paper explores the fantasy, widespread among women, of giving birth to a monster, particularly a psychological monster. The author hypothesises two central intrapsychic issues underlying these fears: monsters are viewed as 'incest babies' or as reflections of maternal aggression--evil, destructive parts of the mother passed on to the infant. Shame about femaleness is postulated as a third factor in the fear of producing something monstrous. Mary Shelley's novel, 'Frankenstein', is an iconic literary representation of these themes. The author presents and discusses some psychobiographical material about Mary Shelley, speculating on her motives for writing this novel and tracing the intrapsychic concerns about incest and aggression as reflected in the novel itself. Some recent feminist and psychoanalytic critical readings of 'Frankenstein' are referenced as they reflect on the novel's concern with themes of female sexuality and procreation. Clinical material from the author's own practice is presented to illustrate these fears, so similar to those with which Mary Shelley was dealing. A discussion, citing some relevant literature, follows.

  5. Single Mothers, Social Capital, and Work--Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattari, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine work-family conflict among low-income, unmarried mothers. Analyzing the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national sample of nonmarital births, I examine how social capital affects work-family conflict and how both social capital and work-family conflict affect employment. Results show that…

  6. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  7. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  8. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  9. 78 FR 60179 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In... is home to an unbroken line of patriots willing to lay down their lives for the land they love. As we... behind. Most of us can only imagine the pain of a mother who loses a daughter, the husband who loses his...

  10. Do Mothers Stay on the Job? What Employers Can Do To Increase Retention after Childbirth. Research-in-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer

    According to a recent study of how women manage maternity in the workplace, more than 70% of pregnant employees were still employed at the same job 6 months after childbirth (compared to 80% of young women who had not been pregnant). A study of 324 randomly selected employed women in the Midwest yielded similar results. Six months after giving…

  11. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76 articles. Family violence (FV) is a term used to describe any form of .... causes, among which adverse life events are prominent;21,22 .... work (71% of mothers v. 58% of .... The balance of these symptoms suggests depression, meaning.

  12. Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and psychosocial conditions of Swedish teenage mothers and their perception of health and social support during pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahn, Elisabeth Hertfelt; Nissen, Eva

    2008-06-01

    Among Swedish pregnant teenage girls it is unusual to continue pregnancy and to choose to have a baby. Swedish teenage mothers can therefore be expected to differ from adult mothers, at a group level. The aim of this study was to describe and compare teenage mothers who were giving birth in hospital with adult mothers as to sociodemographic background, perception of health and social support. A descriptive comparative study was conducted over one year, in a county in south-western Sweden, which comprised a group of all teenage mothers aged 15-19, who gave birth at hospital (study group n=97) and the same number of adult mothers aged 25-29, matched for parity and birth of a baby closest to the index mother (reference group). Both groups answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, health, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and support. Information on the mothers' pregnancy and delivery was obtained from their maternal health and delivery charts. Teenage mothers had more often been exposed to a difficult family situation, had more often experienced school failure than adult mothers, and showed health-risk behavior. Teenage mothers perceived less support, had lower self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms than adult mothers. Teenage mothers differed from adult mothers regarding family situation and health behavior as well as perception of support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms, which may negatively influence their ability to cope with parenthood. Efforts should be made early in pregnancy to meet both health and support needs of teenage mothers.

  13. Complications of childbirth and maternal deaths in Kinshasa hospitals: testimonies from women and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourbin Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kinshasa is high despite near universal availability of antenatal care and hospital delivery. Possible explanations are poor-quality care and by delays in the uptake of care. There is, however, little information on the circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. This study describes and compares the circumstances of survivors and non survivors of severe obstetric complications. Method Semi structured interviews with 208 women who survived their obstetric complication and with the families of 110 women who died were conducted at home by three experienced nurses under the supervision of EK. All the cases were identified from twelve referral hospitals in Kinshasa after admission for a serious acute obstetric complication. Transcriptions of interviews were analysed with N-Vivo 2.0 and some categories were exported to SPSS 14.0 for further quantitative analysis. Results Testimonies showed that despite attendance at antenatal care, some women were not aware of or minimized danger signs and did not seek appropriate care. Cost was a problem; 5 deceased and 4 surviving women tried to avoid an expensive caesarean section by delivering in a health centre, although they knew the risk. The majority of surviving mothers (for whom the length of stay was known had the caesarean section on the day of admission while only about a third of those who died did so. Ten women died before the required caesarean section or blood transfusion could take place because they did not bring the money in time. Negligence and lack of staff competence contributed to the poor quality of care. Interviews revealed that patients and their families were aware of the problem, but often powerless to do anything about it. Conclusion Our findings suggest that women with serious obstetric complications have a greater chance of survival in Kinshasa if they have cash, go directly to a functioning referral hospital and have some leverage when dealing

  14. Effects of an antenatal mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting programme on the postpartum experiences of mothers: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Malis, Françoise; Meyer, Thorsten; Gross, Mechthild M

    2017-02-07

    Applications of mindfulness during the perinatal period have recently been explored and appear to offer a decrease in stress, anxiety and depression during this period. However, it still remains unclear what practical use women make of mindfulness during the postpartum period and the mechanisms through which it works. The subjective experience of mindfulness practice by mothers is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to explore how women enrolled in a "Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting programme" experienced mindfulness practice during the postpartum period. Ten pregnant women over 18 years of age with singleton pregnancies, no diagnoses of mental illness and participation in a "Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting programme" were recruited to take part in a postpartum interview. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically based on a phenomenological approach. The transcripts of nine interviews were submitted to a coding process consisting of the identification of words, sentences or paragraphs expressing common ideas. These ideas were classified in codes, each code representing a specific description, function or action (e.g. self-perception, personal organization, formal/informal meditation practice). Progressively, a framework of thematic ideas was extracted from the transcripts, allowing the interviews to be systematically organized and their content analysed in depth. Five themes emerged from the descriptions of practices of mindfulness during the postpartum period: perception of the present moment, breathing, acceptance, self-compassion and the perception of mindfulness as a shelter. Mindfulness practices during the postpartum period may contribute to a mother's psychological wellbeing. The perception of mindfulness as a shelter had not previously been reported. Future research could address whether this role is specific to the postpartum period.

  15. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  16. We are mothers too: childbearing experiences of lesbian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Michelle T

    2007-01-01

    To describe lesbians' personal and health care experiences of becoming pregnant, giving birth, and being mothers and comothers within the context of potentially oppressive family, social, and political structures. Critical ethnography. Participants' homes, lesbian mother support group, and prenatal clinics and hospitals in the Pacific Northwest. English-speaking self-identified lesbian women, including 21 interview and six focus-group participants and approximately 43 observed in a support group. In-depth open-ended interviews, focus group, and participant observation. Content/categorical analysis followed by discussion of the mother's stories and a critical conversation about lesbian mothering. The seven organizing themes are as follows: preparing the way: becoming ready; conception: you can't just fall into it; you can hear a heartbeat: pregnancy; birthing our babies; the work of mothers and mothers who work; families who sustain and families who oppose; and sources of support in everyday life. The first four are described in this article. Health care providers, policy makers, and the public can be better informed about the specific needs of childbearing lesbians.

  17. Work-Family Facilitation and Conflict, Working Fathers and Mothers, Work-Family Stressors and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Work-family research frequently focuses on the conflict experienced by working mothers. Using data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 1,314), this study also examined work-family facilitation and working fathers. Ecological systems, family stress, family resilience, and sex role theories were used to organize the data and…

  18. A woman-centred childbirth model | Maputle | Health SA Gesondheid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for woman-centred childbirth was developed through four phases in accordance with the objectives of the study, namely, a description of mothers' experiences of childbirth and that of attending midwives of managing mothers during childbirth concept analysis of woman-centred care, model development, and an ...

  19. Increasing Working Mothers' Earnings: The Importance of Race, Family, and Job Characteristics. Research-in-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Taleria R.

    Women's economic responsibility for their families has increased as more married women contribute to family income and more mothers head families alone. In view of this fact, a study compared the characteristics of Black, White, and Hispanic working mothers and the factors affecting working mothers' wages. Black working mothers were much less…

  20. Mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in families with incarcerated mothers: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.

  1. Using Young Mothers' Clubs to Improve Knowledge of Postpartum Hemorrhage and Family Planning in Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndirangu, Gathari; Gichangi, Anthony; Kanyuuru, Lynn; Otai, Jane; Mulindi, Rose; Lynam, Pamela; Koskei, Nancy; Tappis, Hannah; Archer, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Women living in Nairobi's informal settlements face a higher risk of maternal death than those living elsewhere in the country, and have limited knowledge of actions they can take to improve their chances of survival during pregnancy and childbirth. As one strategy to reach this high risk group, Jhpiego has implemented young mothers' clubs (YMCs). These clubs comprise mothers aged 18-30 who come together on a weekly basis to share experiences and solutions to their challenges while receiving health education from health facility staff and community health workers (CHWs). The aim of this study was to assess whether the YMC strategy could be used to improve participants' knowledge of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), positive behavior around childbirth, and family planning. Participants in nine YMCs (n = 193) across four informal settlements were interviewed to assess their knowledge of safe motherhood topics before and after a series of eight health education sessions. Data were analyzed with the McNemar test to determine significance of change in knowledge pre- and post-intervention. The largest improvements were observed in knowledge about what to include in a birth plan, with correct responses increasing from 32 to 73% (p planning topics, suggesting that the materials and methods used were generally effective for improving knowledge among this high risk group.

  2. 77 FR 60279 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... they were willing to give their lives for it. Today, we pay solemn tribute to all who did. Sons and... goes without equal, these proud Americans gave of themselves until they had nothing more to give. As a...

  3. Parent-Child Relationships in Nondivorced, Divorced Single-Mother, and Remarried Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Margaret Stanley; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Over time, mother-child relationships in families with remarried mothers grew increasingly similar to those in families whose parents had never divorced. Relationships in single-mother families remained different from those in the other two types of families. Stepfathers were less likely to be authoritative than were nondivorced fathers. (BC)

  4. Family Planning and Family Vision in Mothers after Diagnosis of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…

  5. A WEB-BASED SURVEY OF MOTHER-INFANT BOND, ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCES, AND METACOGNITION IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS FOLLOWING CHILDBIRTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlotte; Patricia Taylor, Emily; Schwannauer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal depression is linked to adverse outcomes for parent and child, with metacognition and parenting experiences key variables in the development and maintenance of depression. The attachment between mother and infant is especially vulnerable to the effects of untreated postnatal depression. Despite high levels of reported postnatal stress symptoms, less attention has been given the relationship between attachment, metacognition, and postnatal traumatic symptoms in the context of birth trauma. This study tested several hypotheses regarding the relationships between recalled parenting experiences, metacognition, postnatal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and perceptions of the mother-infant bond, confirming and extending upon metacognitive and mentalization theories. A Web-based, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire design was employed in an analog sample of new mothers. Participants were 502 women recruited via open-access Web sites associated with birth organizations. Structural equation modeling was employed for the principal analysis. Metacognition fully mediated the relationship between recalled parenting experiences and postnatal psychological outcomes. Posttraumatic stress was indirectly associated with maternal perceptions of the bond, with this relationship mediated by depression. Metacognition may have a key role in postnatal psychological distress. Where postnatal depression or traumatic birth experiences are identified, screening for posttraumatic stress is strongly indicated. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Working mothers: Family-work conflict, job performance and family/work variables

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia J Patel; Vasanthee Govender; Zubeda Paruk; Sarojini Ramgoon

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between family-work conflict, job performance and selected work and family characteristics in a sample of working mothers employed at a large retail organization. The hypothesis of a negative relationship between family-work conflict and job performance was rejected. Married women reported significantly higher family-work conflict than unmarried women, while women in the highest work category gained the highest job performance rating. More than half...

  7. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  9. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  10. The Lived Experience of Knowing in Childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jane Staton

    2006-01-01

    Research on knowing in childbirth has largely been a quantitative process. The purpose of this study was to understand the ways first-time mothers learn about birth. A phenomenological approach, using a feminist view, was used to analyze two in-depth interviews and journals to understand nine first-time expectant mothers' experiences of knowing in childbirth. The findings demonstrated a range of knowledge that contributed to issues of control and conflict. The participants also described an i...

  11. Families, markets, and medicalization: the role of paid support for childbirth and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jennifer M C

    2015-07-01

    Much attention has been given to the commercialization of care and its relationship to the outsourcing of family life, as well as larger social and cultural processes that can change the nature of caring. I engage with this question of why certain aspects of care are provided by the market, using 72 interviews with lactation consultants, doulas, clients, and clinicians, as well as 150 hours of ethnographic observation in the USA. Examining how participants understood the role of these services in the maternity care system and the reasons why clients turned to these services, I found that, in several ways, these forms of care work reflected outsourcing trends. However, lactation consultants and doulas were also acting as advocates and guides, helping their clients navigate the complex medical maternity system. This reflects a fundamental transformation in the nature of maternity support, attributed to the impact of medicalization, both historically and currently. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. "It's not that straightforward": when family support is challenging for mothers living with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Dinali N; Short, Liz; Fernbacher, Sabin

    2014-09-01

    Mental health service providers often have limited or problematic understanding of parents' support needs or experiences and family relationships. Moreover, the impact of family life and relationships for mothers with mental illness, and whether these relationships are experienced as positive or negative, have been largely underinvestigated. This article aims to increase understanding about the complexity of family relationships and support for mothers. Findings may be useful for services when considering family involvement, and for how to better meet the needs of mothers with mental illness and support their recovery. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 8 mothers with mental illness and 11 mental health service providers. This article presents a grounded theory analysis of the complexity of family relationships and support for mothers with mental illness. Family relationships of mothers with mental illness can be complex, potentially difficult, and challenging. Problems in relationships with partners and families, and experiences of abuse, can have harmful consequences on parenting, on mothers' and children's well-being, and on the support mothers receive. This project highlights a need to recognize and work with positive aspects and difficulties in family relationships as part of mental health service provision. Policies can be reviewed to increase the likelihood that mental health care will combine family-sensitive practice with practice that acknowledges difficult family relationships and experiences of family violence in order to maximize support to mothers with mental illness and their children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  15. Choice of place for childbirth: prevalence and correlates of utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Independent predictors for utilisation of a health facility were place of last childbirth, and knowledge that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are given none food items (excluding money) after assisting delivery. Compared to mothers who delivered their last pregnancy at a health facility, mothers who had their last childbirth at ...

  16. Mothers’ Part-time Employment: Associations with Mother and Family Well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    The associations between mothers’ part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children’s preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child-rearing years. PMID:22004432

  17. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Working mothers: Family-work conflict, job performance and family/work variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Patel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between family-work conflict, job performance and selected work and family characteristics in a sample of working mothers employed at a large retail organization. The hypothesis of a negative relationship between family-work conflict and job performance was rejected. Married women reported significantly higher family-work conflict than unmarried women, while women in the highest work category gained the highest job performance rating. More than half the sample indicated that paid work was more important than their housework and reported that their working had a positive impact on their families. The findings are discussed in relation to the changing work and family identities of non-career women.

  19. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  1. Mothers' Implicit Appraisals of Their Adolescents as Unlovable: Explanatory Factor Linking Family Conflict and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Meredith J.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Romero, Christine V.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the consequences of negative change in mothers' implicit appraisals of their adolescents after engaging in a family disagreement. Participants included 194 mothers and their early adolescents (M[subscript age] = 12.4 at Wave 1; 50% female) followed over 1 year. Mothers' implicit appraisals of her child as "unlovable"…

  2. When a mother has cancer: strains and resources of affected families from the mother's and father's perspective - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhestern, Laura; Bergelt, Corinna

    2018-05-25

    When a mother has cancer, families with minor children are confronted with major challenges for all family members. According to the Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response (FAAR) Model, the (im) balance between strains and resources of families affected by cancer can be an important indicator on the families' adjustment to the situation. Hence, this study aims to explore the strains and resources of families of mothers with cancer from the mother's and father's perspective. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 mothers diagnosed with cancer and ten fathers. The data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Both, mothers and fathers, reported a general impact of the disease regarding social and practical changes as well as strong emotional reactions. Parents reported specific strains and stressors regarding their parental role e.g. changes in the self-concept as a parent or fears and concerns about the children. Many mothers additionally experienced feelings of guilt. All fathers reported an increase of responsibilities and pressure. Both, the ill and healthy parent, reported strains and stressors for their children, e.g. parents observed behavioral changes and strong emotional reactions in their children. Families used a variety of resources and coping strategies on external, family and intrapersonal levels to encounter the challenges of the disease. They reported that e.g. support networks, flexible working hours and competent medical staff were helpful. Moreover, on the family level e.g. family time, open communication and the children themselves were considered to be important resources. On the intrapersonal level, parents reported resources such as setting small aims for the future and taking time for oneself. Our findings indicate a high amount and diversity of stressors and strains for the ill and healthy parent and for their children. At the same time, parents use diverse resources and coping strategies on external, family

  3. Person-environment fit: everyday conflict and coparenting conflict in Mexican-origin teen mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother-daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers' adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person-environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother-daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother-daughter conflict. In addition, mother-daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Associations between perceptions of care and women's childbirth experience: a population-based cross-sectional study in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamurigo, Judith U; Berg, Marie; Ntaganira, Joseph; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Dencker, Anna

    2017-06-09

    In recent years Rwanda has achieved remarkable improvement in quality of maternity care services but there is evidence of deficiencies in care quality in terms of disrespectful care. Women's overall childbirth experience is an important outcome of childbirth and a factor in assessing quality of care. The aim of this study was to investigate how women's overall childbirth experience in Rwanda was related to their perceptions of childbirth care. A cross-sectional household study of women who had given birth 1-13 months earlier (n = 921) was performed in the Northern Province and in the capital city. Data was collected via structured interviews following a questionnaire. Significant variables measuring perceptions of care were included in a stepwise forward selection logistic regression model with overall childbirth experience as a dichotomised target variable to find independent predictors of a good childbirth experience. The majority of women (77.5%) reported a good overall childbirth experience. In a logistic regression model five factors of perceived care were significant independent predictors of a good experience: confidence in staff (Adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.20-2.49), receiving enough information (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.00), being treated with respect (AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18-2.43), getting support from staff (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.20-2.56), and having the baby skin-to-skin after birth (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.52-3.19). To further improve childbirth care in Rwanda and care for women according to their preferences, it is important to make sure that the childbirth care includes the following quality aspects in national and clinical guidelines: build confidence, provide good information, treat women and families with respect, provide good professional support during childbirth and put the newborn baby skin-to-skin with its mother early after birth.

  5. Space and power: young mothers' management of smoking in extended families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aimei

    2013-05-01

    Multigenerational co-residence is a widespread phenomenon in China but there is little knowledge about the impact of power dynamics on smoking behaviors among extended family residents. Using a gender lens, this ethnographic study explored how young mothers in extended families in mainland China managed the smoking of their husbands and other family members. Analysis of data resulted in a model of 'two units-three domains' to reflect gendered relationships between young mothers and other family members, and young mothers' participation in family management. Exploration of the mothers' efforts to deal with household smoking using the model provided an explanation for why the young mothers had limited control over household space and could only impose partial restrictions on home smoking in the extended family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy in women suffering from familial hypercholesterolemia: a harmful period for both mother and newborn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avis, Hans J.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Twickler, Marcel Th B.; Kastelein, John J. P.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Stalenhoef, Anton F.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review aims to highlight the consequences for mother and child of profound hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy of women with familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is increasingly diagnosed in younger patients due to the existence

  7. Mentor mother support for mothers experiencing intimate partner violence in family practice: A qualitative study of three different perspectives on the facilitators and barriers of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Maartje J W; Daemen, Jasper; Wester, Fred P J F; Laurant, Miranda G H; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and associated with physical and mental health problems. Mentor mother support is a low threshold intervention in family practice consisting of support by non-professionals trained to support mothers experiencing IPV. A mentor mother support study showed reduced exposure to IPV and decreased symptoms of depression. Identify factors determining implementation success of mentor mother support in family practice. Individual interviews were conducted with 12 family physicians, 16 abused mothers and three mentor mothers. Four mentor mothers participated in a focus group. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The identification and discussion of abuse is hindered by family physicians' attitudes because they considered mothers experiencing IPV as a difficult target group with a responsibility of their own to break out of their violent situation. Some family physicians doubted the partner's violence because he was known as a patient as well. Acceptance of mentor mother support is related to the readiness for change of mothers experiencing IPV. Mentor mothers facilitate acceptance and completion of their support by connecting as a friend who is equal and less threatening than professionals. To improve successful implementation of mentor mother support in primary care, we should focus on family physicians' attitudes towards IPV. To change these attitudes, we recommend continuous training of family physicians. By being paraprofessional friends, mentor mothers offer low threshold support that is complementary to professional support and should be embedded more widely in primary care. [Box: see text].

  8. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  9. Family Relationships during Infancy and Later Mother and Father Vocabulary Use with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.

    2008-01-01

    Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic…

  10. Love flows downstream: mothers' and children's neural representation similarity in perceiving distress of self and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to capture empathy processing in an interpersonal context. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 22) each completed an empathy task during fMRI, in which they imagined the target person in distressing scenes as either themselves or their family (i.e. child for the mother, mother for the child). Using multi-voxel pattern approach, we compared neural pattern similarity for the self and family conditions and found that mothers showed greater perceptual similarity between self and child in the fusiform face area (FFA), representing high self-child overlap, whereas adolescents showed significantly less self-mother overlap. Adolescents' pattern similarity was dependent upon family relationship quality, such that they showed greater self-mother overlap with higher relationship quality, whereas mothers' pattern similarity was independent of relationship quality. Furthermore, adolescents' perceptual similarity in the FFA was associated with increased social brain activation (e.g. temporal parietal junction). Mediation analyses indicated that high relationship quality was associated with greater social brain activation, which was mediated by greater self-mother overlap in the FFA. Our findings suggest that adolescents show more distinct neural patterns in perceiving their own vs their mother's distress, and such distinction is sensitive to mother-child relationship quality. In contrast, mothers' perception for their own and child's distress is highly similar and unconditional. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Values transferred and cherished by mothers in the rural families in the Polish Second Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA JÓZEFOWICZ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish Second Republic, so in the country rebom afiter one hundred twenty three years of captivity, the role of a woman as a woman-mother, was significantly emphasized. Press, literature, researchers have proved that safety and order in the whole country depend on safety and order in individual families. The key notion became: „from education of a mother to education of a child”. While analyzing sources such as newspapers, magazines, diaries, guidebooks, I noticed the following values for which mothers in rural families were held to be responsible: 1 ,value of work connected with obligation in farm and household, so role of mother asahousewife; 2.the value of the family as a community and the mother's role in it. Mother was the first protector, tutor, patron of a child. Mother took care of child and other members in the family, she helped them, she guaranteed the positive atmosphere at home, took care of safety in a wide context. It was significant that mother appealed in the process of socialization to common traditions and experiences; 3.value of education and social consciousness, so the role of the mother in shaping social consciousness; 4.patriotic value, so the role of the mother in shaping patriotic attitude

  12. The Lived Experience of Knowing in Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jane Staton

    2006-01-01

    Research on knowing in childbirth has largely been a quantitative process. The purpose of this study was to understand the ways first-time mothers learn about birth. A phenomenological approach, using a feminist view, was used to analyze two in-depth interviews and journals to understand nine first-time expectant mothers' experiences of knowing in childbirth. The findings demonstrated a range of knowledge that contributed to issues of control and conflict. The participants also described an increased dependency on their mothers and a lack of their own intuition contiguous to the birth process. These findings contribute understanding to how expectant mothers know birth, suggesting that their knowing does not diminish conflict surrounding the event and may even exacerbate it when not combined with learning skills to manage conflict. Childbirth educators may want to include instruction on negotiating power differential in relationships encountered during childbirth in order to strengthen a first-time mother's ability to receive the care she wants. Educators may also want to assess the expectant mother's view of birth and her expectations for birth. Schools of nursing should consider the inclusion of women-centered care curricula at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The mothers' responses in this study clearly reveal that the politics surrounding birthing remain in place and must be removed in order to provide a supportive environment for normal birth. PMID:17541456

  13. Psychological peculiarities and family emotional communications of the mothers of drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Bereza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study of peculiarities of emotional communication in families of drug addicts as well as personal characteristics of their mothers, and possible violations in receiving of social assistance. 91 families have been surveyed: 30 families of healthy individuals and 61 families of patients with drug addiction. Survey included: level of co-dependence, the intensity of psychopathological symptoms, level of anxiety and depressive experience of the mothers of drug addicts, their styles of emotional communication and level of social assistance. Study revealed the negative styles of emotional communications in the parent families of drug addicts in comparison with the styles of emotional communications in the families of healthy persons. The mothers of drug addicts differed from the mothers of healthy persons with increased level of paranoid features, suspiciousness, high hostility, anxiety, increased number of phobic fears and obsessions; they are less socially integrated, and are reluctant to seek emotional and instrumental support from others. 

  14. Factors Related to Women's Childbirth Satisfaction in Physiologic and Routine Childbirth Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Elham; Mohebbi, Parvin; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

    2017-01-01

    Women's satisfaction with childbirth is an important measure of the quality of maternity care services. This study aims to address factors related to women's childbirth satisfaction in physiological and routine childbirth groups. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted among 340 women in physiological and routine childbirth groups in 2012. Women were selected through convenience sampling method in the routine group and by census in the physiological group. Data were collected using a 5-part questionnaire composed of demographic and obstetrics details, Mackey's Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale (CSRS), satisfied with birth setting, Labor Agentry Scale (LAS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), which was completed by interview 24 hours after childbirth. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software using Pearson correlation test, independent t -test, analysis of variance, and linear, multivariate regression model at the significant level of P toward the recent pregnancy ( P = 0.007), and perceived severity of pain ( P = 0.016). However, in the routine group, satisfaction was related only to intentional pregnancy ( P = 0.002). In neither group, satisfaction was related to demographic characteristics, maternal parity, and participation in pregnancy and childbirth classes or maternal feelings toward the onset of childbirth ( P > 0.05). Improved physical structure and setting of birth room, nonmedical pain relief, mothers' involvement in the process of labor, and sense of being in control are associated with mothers' satisfaction.

  15. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  17. Mothers', fathers' and children's perceptions of parents' expectations about children's family obligations in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat

    2016-10-01

    Children's family obligations involve assistance and respect that children are expected to provide to immediate and extended family members and reflect beliefs related to family life that may differ across cultural groups. Mothers, fathers and children (N = 1432 families) in 13 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and United States) reported on their expectations regarding children's family obligations and parenting attitudes and behaviours. Within families, mothers and fathers had more concordant expectations regarding children's family obligations than did parents and children. Parenting behaviours that were warmer, less neglectful and more controlling as well as parenting attitudes that were more authoritarian were related to higher expectations regarding children's family obligations between families within cultures as well as between cultures. These international findings advance understanding of children's family obligations by contextualising them both within families and across a number of diverse cultural groups in 9 countries. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  19. Perceived family perceptions of breastfeeding and Chinese new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Li, Hongyan; Ma, Shuqin; Xia, Lijuan; Christensson, Kyllike

    2011-11-01

    To provide an understanding of Chinese new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors and especially to explore the relationship between the mothers perceived family perception about breastfeeding and the new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Beijing and Yinchuan, the capital of Ning Xia Province, China. 214 new mothers with a baby at the age of 4 months were recruited to the study. The family perception of breastfeeding scale and the new mothers' breastfeeding behavior record were used. The response rate was n=200, 94%. Most of the new mothers perceived positive family perceptions about breastfeeding with an average score of 23.13 using the family perception of breastfeeding scale. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they exclusively breastfed their infants (n=94, 47%). The main reason for breastfeeding difficulty was inadequate lactation (n=56, 69%). The new mothers who breastfed their infants mentioned significantly stronger family perceptions/support compared to those who used mixed feeding or artificial feeding (p0.05) in the types of mothers' feeding behaviors across the different age group, occupation, ethnicity, educational level, mode of delivery, the time of the baby's first suck, bottle feeding before the baby's first suck and the time of having colostrums. It is suggested to develop some strategies, such as family-centered antenatal and postnatal education programmes, to increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding by influencing new mothers' families about breastfeeding. Further research is needed to explore socio-demographic variables associated with new-mothers' breastfeeding behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Incarcerated mothers' contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-09-01

    Concurrent relations among contact with children, perceived family relationships, early experiences of relationship disconnection and trauma, and maternal depressive symptoms were examined in 94 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 7 years. Qualitative analysis revealed that most mothers experienced intense distress when initially separated from their children, although many women currently viewed the situation in a more balanced way. Quantitative findings indicated that fewer visits from children and early experiences of relationship disconnection and trauma were associated with elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Mother-child relationships were more positive when mothers had more frequent telephone contact with older children. Moreover, conflicted relationships with caregivers related to less contact between mothers and their children. Results highlight the need for mental health services for incarcerated women and suggest that interventions aimed at increasing contact between imprisoned mothers and their children should consider the quality of the mother-caregiver relationship. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Couple and Family Contextual Influences, Parent Involvement, and School-Age Child Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…

  2. Arguments and Relationships within the Family: Differences in Young Children's Disputes with Mother and Sibling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomkowski, Cheryl L.; Dunn, Judy

    1992-01-01

    A study of 33-month-old children, their mothers, and their older siblings concentrated on arguments used when 2 family members were in conflict with a third. There were some direct relationships between partners' arguments. Arguments children used with their mothers differed from those they used with their siblings. (BG)

  3. Family Literacy Practices and Parental Involvement of Latin American Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…

  4. Using social marketing to understand the family dinner with working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers.

  5. Work, family, support, and depression: employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen M; Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Han, Young-Joo

    2014-07-01

    Our research revealed differences in work-family constructs for employed mothers in 3 countries, Israel (N = 105), Korea (N = 298), and the United States (N = 305). Although levels of work-family conflict were comparable, the Korean women had the lowest levels of work-family enrichment compared with the Israeli and American mothers. Moreover, Korean women reported the most depression and the least support from both spouses and employers. Spousal support mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression for employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. As hypothesized by conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), threat of resource loss (operationalized as work-family conflict) was related to depression more strongly than was resource gain (i.e., work-family enrichment). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Families in the making: gestational surrogate mothers in California

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn, Henriette Hårseide

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is based on a field work I conducted in California from January to June 2012, where I explore how gestational surrogate mothers experience the process of surrogacy and how California law has dealt with ART-cases. Through exploring surrogacy from different view point, and in particular from the view of surrogate mothers, this has given an insightful view into surrogacy in California. I have identified two court cases which are important for the establishment of parental rights in s...

  7. Food choice motives and the importance of family meals among immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Marie; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2005-01-01

    To determine the health and social benefits of the family mealtime, we examined the contribution of immigrant mothers' food motives to the importance placed on family meals, and cultural differences in mothers' food motives and the importance ascribed to family meals. Data were taken from a study on food choice factors among ten- to 12-year-old children from three cultural communities in Montreal. A 24-item, self-administered questionnaire was used to explore food choice motives. Each mother was also asked how important it was for her family to take the time to eat together, and if the child enjoyed sharing meals with his or her family. In all, 209 of the 653 questionnaires distributed were valid; 68 were from Haitian, 75 from Portuguese, and 66 from Vietnamese mothers. Five factors emerging from factor analyses explained 61.67% of the variance. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences between mothers' countries of origin for the importance placed on health, pleasure, familiarity, and ingredient properties (pmotivations emerged as the only significant predictor of the importance given to family meals, whereas for Vietnamese mothers, both health and eating familiar foods were predictors (p<0.05).

  8. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  9. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Dynamics, and Mother-Child Interactions During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C

    2018-03-01

    The rising number of parents who work nonstandard schedules has led to a growing body of research concerned with what this trend means for children. The negative outcomes for children of parents who work nonstandard schedules are thought to arise from the disruptions these schedules place on family life, and thus, the types of parenting that support their children's development, particularly when children are young. Using a nationally representative sample of two-parent families (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort, n = 3,650), this study examined whether mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' parenting when children were 2 and 4 years old. Structural equation models revealed that mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' lower scores on measures of positive and involved parenting. These associations were mediated by fathers' lower levels of participation in cognitively supportive parenting and greater imbalance in cognitively supportive tasks conducted by mothers versus fathers.

  10. Mothers in "incest families": a critique of blame and its destructive sequels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J

    1996-09-01

    This paper critically reviewed the blame-oriented explanations of mothers' roles in father-daughter incest, which was contrasted with feminist reassessments in a sociopolitical context. The concept of the dysfunctional family forms the matrix in which views of blaming the mother take life. The mother is characterized as the ¿cornerstone¿ of the family dynamics that create and maintain the incestuous behavior of the spouse. Several categories of maternal behavior were reported to set up conditions in the family for father-daughter incest, including the contention that the mother colludes in the abuse either by unconscious passivity or by active conscious involvement in arranging the act. In addition, the mother's alleged inadequacies in the areas of intimacy and sexuality are often viewed as central factors in the dynamics of father-daughter incest. Identified as additional victims in the complex matrix of family and community, mothers are revictimized by the clinical establishment that upholds the unconscious patriarchal ideology underlying violence against women. Clinicians need to validate and support mothers in their ¿disenfranchised grief¿ so they can help their daughters to heal, and to design and lobby for programs that will promote social changes that are necessary for a more egalitarian society.

  11. Children of Deviants: A Fifteen Year Follow-Up Study of Children of Schizophrenic Mothers, Welfare Mothers, Matched Controls and Random Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy; And Others

    How does a psychotic mother affect the emotional development of her child? Studies have found that mental illness in the family and intra-family conflict are important concomitants of neurosis, but most studies have failed to link the child's experiences with a mentally ill mother clearly with later development of a similar mental illness. Our own…

  12. Mothers of Children with Developmental Disorders in the Bedouin Community in Israel: Family Functioning, Caregiver Burden, and Coping Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study compares the family functioning, caregiver burden, and coping abilities between mothers of 300 children with developmental disorders and mothers of 100 children with no such disorders in the Bedouin community in Israel. The mothers completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device Scale, the Caregiver Burden Index, and the…

  13. Fathers' experience of starting family life with an infant born prematurely due to mothers' severe illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Værland, Inger Emilie; Vevatne, Kari; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2017-10-01

    To describe fathers' experiences of starting family life with an infant delivered prematurely out of necessity of saving the mother's and infant's lives due to the mother's severe preeclampsia. A descriptive, qualitative design was used. Six fathers were interviewed twice: from 6 to 24 days and from 4 to 22 weeks after delivery. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a reflective lifeworld research approach. The essence of the fathers' experiences of establishing a family with a seriously ill mother and a premature infant can be described as a process of becoming a family through reflection on life and death in a context of separation. The essence specifically comprised the following constituents: (1) starting fatherhood facing existential issues, (2) connecting the family, (3) becoming familiar with your infant, and (4) becoming a father in a public area. The fathers were able to develop their relationship to their infants; this emphasizes the importance of the fathers being able to spend their time in the NICU. The privacy of the fathers were more or less challenged, health professionals should be aware of individualize their approach to the fathers. The study reveals that family life started with separation. Health professionals should try to ensure that the family should be together. Mutual guidelines between the wards that treats mother and child should be implemented. When new mother and child-centers are planned a family friendly environment should be prioritized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Family Dynamics of the Stay-at-Home Father and Working Mother Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Cassie; Powell, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    A phenomenological qualitative study was utilized to explore family dynamics in stay-at-home father and working mother households. A total of 20 working mothers were asked to describe family interactions and daily routines with regard to their stay-at-home father and working mother dynamic. All participants were married, heterosexual women with biological children ages 1 to 4 and who worked outside the home and the father stayed home as primary caretaker and did not contribute financially. The study indicated that the family dynamic of a working mother and stay-at-home father provided a positive parent-child relationship, enhanced parenting cohesion, and enhanced quality time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Family meals. Associations with weight and eating behaviors among mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, HWM; Joregnsen, TD; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, ME

    2018-01-01

    Study question:\\ud Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment, and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?\\ud \\ud Summary answer:\\ud There were no differences in parental wellbeing.\\ud \\ud What is known already: \\ud The only other study of parental ...

  17. The effects of job and family conditions on cumulative fatigue of working mothers in double income family.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirono Ishikawa

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors in the workplace and in the home which may have effects on cumulative fatigue, and to examine the moderating effect of the quality of family life on the relationship between job related stress and cumulative fatigue. The subject is the sample of working mothers with young children in double income family. Two hypotheses were examined in this study. First, higher level of job related stress and family related stress are both associated ...

  18. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  19. Mothers and fathers : parenting practices in families with two children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide insight in the differences and similarities between mothers' and fathers' parenting practices. Further, this dissertation examines the effect of biological factors (i.e., parental sex hormones) and child factors (i.e.,

  20. Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, E.; Hart, O. van der; Kleber, R.J.; Son, M.J.M. van

    To assess the empirical basis of prevalence and risk factors of childbirth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and PTSD in mothers, the relevant literature was critically reviewed. A MEDLINE and PSYCHLIT search using the key words bposttraumatic stressQ, bPTSDQ, bchildbirthQ and btraumatic

  1. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  2. Work-Family Relations among Mothers of Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2008-01-01

    The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…

  3. Perceived family stress, parenting efficacy, and child externalizing behaviors in second-generation immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    Examining family stress and parenting efficacy in relation to child externalizing problems in immigrant families. In this study, we compared the levels of family stress, parenting efficacy, and toddler externalizing behaviors in Dutch (n = 175) and second-generation Turkish immigrant families (n = 175) living in the Netherlands. In addition, the influence of Turkish mothers' acculturation on toddler externalizing behaviors and its association with perceived stress and efficacy were examined. Turkish mothers reported higher levels of daily stress and marital discord than Dutch mothers, but did not differ in perceptions of parenting efficacy and children's externalizing behaviors. The associations between child and family variables were similar in the Dutch and the Turkish groups, as more family stress was related to more externalizing behaviors in toddlers. Low parenting efficacy was the most important predictor of child externalizing behaviors in both groups. Acculturation of Turkish mothers was not associated with family and child variables, and did not moderate the association between family variables and child externalizing behaviors. However, emotional connectedness to the Turkish culture was related to less daily stress and fewer marital problems. The results support the no-group differences hypothesis and also imply that cultural maintenance may be adaptive for parental well-being.

  4. 3 CFR 8422 - Proclamation 8422 of September 25, 2009. Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8422 of September 25, 2009. Gold Star... 8422 of September 25, 2009 Proc. 8422 Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2009By the President of the... and sorrow of the family members they leave behind. Few know the honor of service and the costs of war...

  5. The influence of childhood atopic dermatitis on health of mothers, and its impact on Asian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Roger C M; Giam, Y C; Ng, T P; Mak, Anselm; Goh, Daniel; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Cheak, Alicia; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2010-05-01

    This study examines maternal perceptions of paediatric atopic dermatitis (AD) on family and determines risk factors including severity of AD, maternal physical and mental health (MH), quality of life of patients and sociodemographics which predict a negative family impact. A cross-sectional assessment using the Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaire Scale to assess the impact of AD on family, Infant's Dermatitis Quality of Life Index (family impact were assessed using multiple regression analysis. One hundred and four patients with AD and their mothers were studied. Their mean ages (+/-s.d.) were respectively 6.4 +/- 4.3 and 37.2 +/- 6.6 yrs. In multiple regression analysis, Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) appeared to be associated with negative family impact and the association remained significant after adjustment for bio-psycho-social factors and HRQOL of patients. The association remained insignificant after adjustment for physical and MH of the mothers. Our results show that the severity of paediatric AD leads to negative family impact through reduction of physical and MH of the mothers, and is independent of patients' HRQOL and sociodemographics. The current approach for managing paediatric AD in Asian society could include early multidisciplinary intervention, aiming at enhancing physical and MH of mothers while minimizing negative impact on family and social isolation. Further research will be welcomed as the results of this study mainly applied to Asian society which could be different to populations from other geographic areas.

  6. What is a family? Kinship, reproductive practices and single mothers by choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    of single mothers by choice, the paper explores how the women conceive and enact the notions of family and kinship in terms of creating significant relations and networks. Furthermore, the paper shows and discusses how a complex interplay of biogenetic and social ties impacts on these family conceptions...... to one emerging ‘new’ family form represented by single mothers by choice (SMC’s) who by means of donor insemination and/or IVF treatment, intentionally choose to conceive a child and act as the sole parent. Based on very initial findings from a larger Danish biographical narrative interview study...

  7. Coparenting profiles in the context of Mexican-origin teen pregnancy: links to mother-daughter relationship quality and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan; Guimond, Amy

    2015-06-01

    The current study explored the multifaceted nature of the mother-adolescent coparental relationship with data from 167 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their own mothers at 10 months post childbirth. Profiles of mother-adolescent coparenting were created with latent profile analysis using adolescents' reports of three dimensions of coparenting (communication, involvement, and conflict). Four profiles were identified: (a) Harmonious Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, low conflict); (b) Harmonious-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, high communication, low conflict); (c) Conflictual Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, high conflict); and (d) Conflictual-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, moderate communication, high conflict). Families characterized by high mother-daughter conflict and psychological control prior to childbirth were more likely to belong in the Conflictual Coparents profile. In addition, adolescents' and mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting efficacy after childbirth were linked to profile membership, such that the Harmonious-Adolescent Primary profile reported the most positive adjustment patterns, whereas profiles with high coparental conflict (i.e., Conflictual Coparenting and Conflictual-Adolescent Primary profiles) showed the least positive adjustment patterns. Discussion considers the applied implications of identifying precursors to healthy and problematic mother-daughter coparenting for families of adolescent mothers in the early years of parenting. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  8. Mothers' work–family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work–family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. Methods In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results/Conclusion Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work–family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. PMID:24673505

  9. Mothers' work-family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-03-01

    Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work-family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work-family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pregnancy and childbirth: is the doctor necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1979-05-01

    The changing fashions in childbirth over the past 200 years are related to the present demand by women and their partners for "participatory" childbirth, including homebirth. The argument is advanced that doctors must be responsive to these changes. The opinion is made that home birth is currently inappropriate, but that hospitals should provide "birth centres"; and that obstetrics should be conducted by a "team", in which nurse-midwives and family doctors play as important a role as specialist obstetricians.

  11. Vulnerability within families headed by teen and young adult mothers investigated by child welfare services in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdestad, W; Shields, M; Williams, G; Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008) were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger) and 800 young mothers (19-21 years) and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother) received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10%) and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18%) and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%). Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%). All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.

  12. Vulnerability within families headed by teen and young adult mothers investigated by child welfare services in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hovdestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Methods: Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008 were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger and 800 young mothers (19-21 years and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Results: Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10% and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18% and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%. Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%. All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Conclusion: Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.

  13. Women's employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heejung; van der Horst, Mariska

    2018-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work-life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009-2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work-life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals' work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers' careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market.

  14. Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression for Adolescents in Single-Mother and Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; McArthur, Brae Anne; Steinberg, Laurence; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Although research consistently suggests that adolescents in single-mother families are at increased risk for depression, the mechanisms that explain this relationship are unclear. In a community sample of adolescents (N = 368; ages 12-16; 50 % female; 50 % White) and their mothers (42 % single), adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and depressogenic inferential style at baseline and two yearly follow-ups. Mothers reported on stressful events that occurred in the child's life from birth until baseline. Adolescents raised by single mothers, relative to partnered mothers, experienced more childhood stressors and higher rumination levels at 1-year follow-up. Additionally, higher rumination mediated the relationship between single motherhood and greater youth depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up. Clinical implications and developmental considerations are discussed.

  15. Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression for Adolescents in Single-Mother and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L.; McArthur, Brae Anne; Steinberg, Laurence; Abramson, Lyn. Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    Although research consistently suggests that adolescents in single-mother families are at increased risk for depression, the mechanisms that explain this relationship are unclear. In a community sample of adolescents (N = 368; ages 12–16; 50% female; 50% White) and their mothers (42% single), adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and depressogenic inferential style at baseline and two yearly follow-ups. Mothers reported on stressful events that occurred in the child’s life from birth until baseline. Adolescents raised by single mothers, relative to partnered mothers, experienced more childhood stressors and higher rumination levels at one-year follow-up. Additionally, higher rumination mediated the relationship between single motherhood and greater youth depressive symptoms at the two-year follow-up. Clinical implications and developmental considerations are discussed. PMID:27858293

  16. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  17. Familial occurrence of signs of temporomandibular disorders in headache children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Marjo-Riitta; Aromaa, Minna; Bell, Yrsa Le; Jämsä, Tapio; Helenius, Hans; Virtanen, Ruut; Anttila, Pirjo; Metsähonkala, Liisa; Rautava, Päivi; Alanen, Pentti; Sillanpää, Matti

    2007-06-01

    Earlier studies have provided evidence of genetic inheritance of headache, especially migraine, but no familial occurrence has been found regarding temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In adults, headache and TMD have been found to be associated with each other, but studies on children are few. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there is no association between signs of TMD in 13-year-old headache children and their mothers. The study population was a nested case-control study of the population-based Finnish Family Competence Study originally consisting of over 1000 families. A structured questionnaire was sent to the families of 6-year-old children. A clinical examination was performed in 96 children with headache and 96 pairwise controls. At the age of 13 years, 75 of these same 96 children with headache and 79 of 96 headache-free controls participated in pediatric and stomatognathic examinations. Moreover, the mothers (n=154) filled in a structured headache questionnaire and participated in the stomatognathic examination. No association between mother's and child's TMD signs was found. There was a significant association between signs of TMD and both migraine and tension-type headache in children. In mothers, the association was significant only between migraine and TMD signs. Familial occurrence of signs of TMD cannot be found in headache children and their mothers.

  18. Factors related to women's childbirth satisfaction in physiologic and routine childbirth groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jafari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's satisfaction with childbirth is an important measure of the quality of maternity care services. This study aims to address factors related to women's childbirth satisfaction in physiological and routine childbirth groups. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted among 340 women in physiological and routine childbirth groups in 2012. Women were selected through convenience sampling method in the routine group and by census in the physiological group. Data were collected using a 5-part questionnaire composed of demographic and obstetrics details, Mackey's Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale (CSRS, satisfied with birth setting, Labor Agentry Scale (LAS, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, which was completed by interview 24 hours after childbirth. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software using Pearson correlation test, independent t-test, analysis of variance, and linear, multivariate regression model at the significant level of P 0.05. Conclusions: Improved physical structure and setting of birth room, nonmedical pain relief, mothers' involvement in the process of labor, and sense of being in control are associated with mothers' satisfaction.

  19. Young Children's Self-Concepts: Associations with Child Temperament, Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting, and Triadic Family Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Frosch, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how children's self-concepts were related to child temperament, dyadic parenting behavior, and triadic family interaction. At age 3, child temperament, mothers' and fathers' parenting behavior, and triadic (mother, father, and child) family interaction were observed in the homes of 50 families. At age 4, children's…

  20. Risk, Conflict, Mothers' Parenting, and Children's Adjustment in Low-Income, Mexican Immigrant, and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…

  1. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  2. Atopic Eczema and Stress among Single Parents and Families: An Empirical Study of 96 Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieler, Uwe; Schoof, Stefanie; Gieler, Tanja; Scheewe, Sibylle; Schut, Christina; Kupfer, Jörg

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the extent to which single mothers of children with atopic eczema experience disease-related stress. A total of 96 mothers were divided into 4 groups: mothers living with a partner, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema, and single mothers, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema. The following questionnaires were used to assess psychological burden: Short Stress Questionnaire (Kurzer Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Belastung; KFB), Satisfaction with Life Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit; FLZ), General Depression Scale (Allgemeine Depressions-Skala; ADS), and the Questionnaire for Parents of Children with Atopic Eczema (Fragebogen für Eltern von Neurodermitis kranken Kindern; FEN). Single mothers had higher levels of helplessness and aggression due to their child's scratching behaviour than did mothers living with a partner and a child with atopic eczema. Single mothers of children with atopic eczema had the highest scores regarding experienced stress in the family and the lowest scores concerning general life satisfaction. Special care should be provided for single mothers with higher stress, in order to teach them how to deal with the scratching behaviour of their children.

  3. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "The Whole Family Suffered, so the Whole Family Needs to Recover": Thematic Analysis of Substance-Abusing Mothers' Family Therapy Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenhoff, Brittany; Slesnick, Natasha

    2015-03-01

    Substance abusing mothers and their children are more likely to experience a range of social, behavioral, and psychological difficulties. Despite the significant challenges faced by these families, little is known about their experiences in treatment. The current study analyzed 12 sessions of family therapy using thematic analysis to identify common themes that arose during substance abusing mothers and their children's discussion during family therapy. Mothers' ages ranged from 28 to 35 years and the children's ages ranged from 12 to 14 years. Four therapy sessions from three families were coded for a total of 12 therapy sessions. An ecological framework was used to classify themes, in which themes related to each level of the families' ecological systems were identified. Thematic analysis of the therapy sessions indicated that mothers and their children primarily discussed topics related to their relational and emotional needs. The findings indicated that substance use disordered mothers and their children have unique treatment needs that should be addressed when the mother seeks treatment. More research is needed to further clarify and confirm the observations in this study. In particular, future research should include a larger sample and quantitative methodology.

  5. Mothers going to war: the role of nurse practitioners in the care of military mothers and families during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazio, Janice; Hillier, Shannon L; Throop, Meryia; Goodman, Petra; Padden, Diane; Greiner, Shawna; Turner, Annette

    2013-05-01

    Many military women are being called to separate from their children to go to war. Most previous research has focused upon paternal, rather than, maternal, separation. The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of military mothers and their children during wartime deployments with clinical implications for nurse practitioners (NPs) in military or community settings. Using grounded theory methods, 37 active duty and reserve component military women participated in a one-time interview. Included were women who deployed for at least 4 months to Iraq or Afghanistan and had at least one child under the age of 12 during the separation. Military families present unique challenges for NPs. Mother deployments offer opportunities for intervention and anticipatory guidance across the trajectory of the separation. Military women's emotional and physical health must be supported before, during, and following deployment. NPs are ideally positioned to support military families. During deployment, the NP's focus may shift to care of the children and their caregiver. Before and at reintegration, NPs are in a key position to intervene early for posttraumatic stress and support family readjustment. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-12-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.

  7. Work and health among Latina mothers in farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-03-01

    Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Up to 220 Latina women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 to July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Three fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, on the basis of the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers.

  8. Work-family conflict and work engagement among mothers: Conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J. Opie

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement. Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect well-being. It is thus necessary to explore personal factors that relate to work-family conflict, particularly in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample (N = 267 was comprised of working mothers from several organisations. Data was gathered using the work-to-family conflict questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Main findings: The results indicated that work-family conflict negatively predicts work engagement. Conscientiousness positively predicts work engagement, and neuroticism negatively predicts work engagement. A significant interaction effect was found for conscientiousness but not for neuroticism. The findings showed that for participants with high levels of conscientiousness, work engagement decreases significantly more with an increase in work-family conflict than for participants with low levels of conscientiousness. Practical/Managerial implications: Organisations should consider those individuals who have high levels of conscientiousness and low levels of neuroticism in the selection and placement of employees. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to provide conscientious women, particularly mothers, with adequate support to ensure that work-family conflict does not adversely impact their levels of work engagement.

  9. The relation of family and partner support to the adjustment of adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, D G; Wandersman, L P

    1988-08-01

    The influence of teenage mothers' perceptions of family and partner social support on their postpartum adjustment was examined in this study. A structured interview with teenage mothers was conducted prenatally and a follow-up assessment was done when their children were 8 months of age. Both partner and family support were related to greater satisfaction with life, but each was associated in a different way with parenting and concerns about daily living. The results indicate the importance of distinguishing between specific sources of social support and different aspects of adjustment to teen parenthood.

  10. Effects of an antenatal mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting programme on the postpartum experiences of mothers: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Malis, Fran?oise; Meyer, Thorsten; Gross, Mechthild M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Applications of mindfulness during the perinatal period have recently been explored and appear to offer a decrease in stress, anxiety and depression during this period. However, it still remains unclear what practical use women make of mindfulness during the postpartum period and the mechanisms through which it works. The subjective experience of mindfulness practice by mothers is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to explore how women enrolled in a ?Mindfulness...

  11. Finding time over time: Longitudinal links between employed mothers' work-family conflict and time profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), this study examined the links between work-family conflict and employed mothers' profiles of time resources for work and parenting roles. Using a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of time use and perceived time adequacy in a sample of mothers employed in the extended-care industry (N = 440): a Work-Oriented profile, characterized by spending relatively more time at work, perceiving lower time adequacy for work, spending less time with children, and perceiving lower time adequacy for children; a Parenting-Oriented profile, characterized by the opposite pattern; and a Role-Balanced profile, characterized by average levels across the 4 dimensions. Mothers in the Work-Oriented profile reported greater work-to-family conflict and family to-work conflict than those in the Role-Balanced and Parenting-Oriented profiles. Greater work-to-family conflict was linked to membership in the Work-Oriented profile, net of personal, family, and work characteristics. Longitudinal latent profile transition analysis showed that increases in work-to-family conflict across 12 months were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Work-Oriented profile (relative to staying in the same profile), whereas decreases in work-to-family conflict were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Parenting-Oriented profile. Results illuminate the heterogeneity in how employed mothers perceive and allocate time in work and parenting roles and suggest that decreasing work-to-family conflict may preserve time resources for parenting. Intervention efforts should address ways of increasing employees' family time resources and decreasing work-family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Book reading styles in dual-parent and single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea

    2006-09-01

    Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and between mothers from single- and dual-parent families. It also related types of parental verbalizations during book reading to children's reported language measures. Dual-parent (29) and single-parent (24) families were observed in shared book reading with their toddlers (15-month-olds) or young preschoolers (27-month-olds). Parent-child dyads were videotaped while book reading. The initiator of each book-reading episode was coded. Parents' verbalizations were exhaustively coded into 10 categories. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, and the children were given the Bayley scales. All parents differentiated their verbalizations according to the age rather than the gender of the child, but single mothers imitated female children more than males. Few differences in verbalizations were found between mothers and fathers or between mothers from single- and dual-parent families. Fathers allowed younger children to initiate book-reading episodes more than mothers. For both age groups of children, combined across families, verbalizations that related the book to the child's experience were correlated with reported language measures. Questions and imitations were related to language measures for the older age group. The important types of parental verbalizations during shared book reading for children's language acquisition are relating, questions and imitations.

  13. Does It Matter if Preschool Children and Mothers Discuss Positive vs. Negative Events during Reminiscing? Links with Mother-Reported Attachment, Family Emotional Climate, and Socioemotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differential relations between mother-child reminiscing about a positive emotional event vs. a negative emotional event and attachment security, family climate, and young children's socioemotional development. Fifty preschool children (M age = 50.69 months, SD = 4.64) and their mothers completed two…

  14. Teen Mothers Parenting their Own Teen Offspring: The Moderating Role of Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson; Paikoff, Roberta; Bryant, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting support moderated relations between age of mother at childbirth and parental responsiveness and monitoring. The sample included 212 African American families living in urban public housing; offspring were entering adolescence when data were collected. Parenting support was measured by assessing the…

  15. Mother-adolescent physiological synchrony in naturalistic settings: within-family cortisol associations and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the authors examined parent-adolescent cortisol associations in 45 families with adolescent children (24 girls; M age = 15.78 years, SD = 1.44 years). Family members' salivary cortisol levels were measured seven times a day on 2 typical weekdays. Family members provided reports of demographic and health variables, and adolescents rated parent-child relationship characteristics. After accounting for the effects of time of day and relevant demographic and health control variables on cortisol levels, hierarchical linear models indicated the presence of significant covariation over time in mother-adolescent cortisol (i.e., physiological synchrony). Furthermore, moderating tests revealed that mother-adolescent cortisol synchrony was strengthened among dyads characterized by mothers and adolescents spending more time together, and in families rated higher on levels of parent-youth shared activities and parental monitoring or supervision. Analysis of momentary characteristics indicated that maternal presence at the time of cortisol sampling lowered adolescent cortisol levels but did not account for mother-adolescent cortisol synchrony. Within-family physiological synchrony was amplified in momentary contexts of elevated maternal negative affect and elevated adolescent negative affect.

  16. Perceptions of injury prevention and familial adjustment among mothers of teen parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Duzinski, Sarah V; Brown, Juliette M; Lawson, Karla A

    2015-02-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death for infants and children. Teen mothering has been shown to put children at increased risk of injury. The mothers of teen parents often play a predominant role in the lives and caregiving of the children born to their children. This article presents the findings of three focus groups conducted with 21 mothers of teen parents. Grounded theory methodology was used to explore family dynamics and how they relate to injury prevention beliefs and practices regarding infants and children. Our findings revealed the difficulty mothers of teen parents and the teens themselves have in adjusting to the knowledge of the pregnancy. Unique barriers to injury prevention were also uncovered. Our findings provide evidence for the need of a multigenerational approach to programs aimed at improving the safety and well-being of children in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the social origins of Dutch mothers' ideal family lives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, J.; de Beer, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how Dutch mothers’ ideal family lives (traditional, adaptive or egalitarian) have been formed in interaction with other people, an assumption that is central to socialization theories. With nominal regression analysis of data from a representative survey in 2010 among 935 Dutch

  18. Characteristics of Incarcerated Fathers and Mothers: Implications for Preventive Interventions Targeting Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  19. Postpartum depression is a family affair: addressing the impact on mothers, fathers, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Benzies, Karen; Duffett-Leger, Linda; Stewart, Miriam; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Este, Dave; Watson, William

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present research on the effects of postpartum depression (PPD) on mothers, fathers, and children that point to a re-conceptualization of PPD as a mental health condition that affects the whole family. As such, the objectives of this paper are to discuss: (1) the incidence and effects of PPD on mothers and fathers; (2) common predictors of PPD in mothers and fathers, and (3) the effects of PPD on parenting and parent-child relationships, and (4) the effects of PPD on children's health, and their cognitive and social-emotional development. Finally, the implications for screening and intervention if depression is re-conceptualized as a condition of the family are discussed.

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2004-01-01

    Childbirth qualifies as an extreme traumatic stressor that can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. The reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth ranges from 1.5% to 6%. The aim of this phenomenologic study was to describe the essence of mothers' experiences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The qualitative research design used for this study was descriptive phenomenology. The main recruitment approach was via the Internet through the help of Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust in New Zealand. Purposive sampling was used and resulted in 38 mothers participating from the countries of New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The participants were asked to describe their experiences with post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Their stories were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis. Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth struggle to survive each day while battling terrifying nightmares and flashbacks of the birth, anger, anxiety, depression, and painful isolation from the world of motherhood. This glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

  1. Family business women in media discourse : the business role and the mother role

    OpenAIRE

    Bjursell, Cecilia; Bäckvall, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Writings in the media have the potential to influence our standpoint and, thereby, our actions. In this paper, the authors analyze how women in family business are represented in media to understand the frames set by this discourse in terms of women owning and leading family businesses. The aim of the paper is to explore how the counterposed roles of business person and mother are presented in media and what implications this might have for role enactment. Design/methodology/approac...

  2. Work-family conflict and work engagement among working mothers : personality as a moderator

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Industrial Psychology) Orientation: An increasing number of women entering the workplace are experiencing inter-role conflict in their home and work domains. As a result, work-family conflict may occur. This may impact level of work engagement women experience. Research purpose: The study aimed to determine the effect of work-family conflict on work engagement amidst working mothers. In addition, the study investigated the moderating effect of the personality traits extraversion an...

  3. The health-seeking behaviours of first-time mothers with persistent pelvic girdle pain after childbirth in Ireland: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Francesca; Curtis, Elizabeth; Begley, Cecily

    2015-11-01

    to explore the health-seeking behaviours of primiparous women with pelvic girdle pain persisting for more than three months post partum. a descriptive qualitative design involving face-to-face semi-structured interviews following institutional ethical approval. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. an urban hospital in Ireland. a purposive sample of 23 consenting first-time mothers with pelvic girdle pain persisting for at least three months post partum. 'they didn't ask, I didn't tell' was a key theme, which included emerging categories of a perceived lack of follow-up post partum, and feeling ignored by healthcare professionals. The theme 'Seeking advice and support' describes women's role of talking to others, and triggers and barriers to getting help. 'Coping strategies' was the third theme emerging from the interviews, whereby participants described different strategies they used to deal with their symptoms, although many expressed uncertainty about what to do or who to see. our findings show the importance of appropriate information and follow-up care for women with pelvic girdle pain and highlight barriers they encounter in seeking help. They also question the duration of postnatal care as participants felt that postnatal care was stopped too early. The findings may assist maternity care providers in addressing mothers' expectations and needs related to persistent pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Battered Wives or Dependent Mothers? Negotiating Familial Ideology in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Chulani

    2018-06-01

    More than a decade after its passing, Sri Lanka's Prevention of Domestic Violence Act (PDVA) remains a remedy of last resort for female survivors of intimate partner violence, as there is little support to take on a rights-defined identity as a battered woman both inside and outside the courtroom. However, large numbers of women are accessing the Maintenance Act of 1999 to exit violent relationships without the censure and stigma that attaches to the PDVA. The key to understanding this phenomenon is to consider how familial ideology works in unpredictable ways within the Sri Lankan judicial system. This article examines the reach and different impacts of familial ideology within the judiciary and argues that female survivors of violence navigate this ideology to their own advantage. However, the preference to address violence through the Maintenance Act renders such violence invisible. The price for judicial redress is silence.

  5. Structural Model for Antisocial Behavior: Generalization to Single-Mother Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David V.; Skinner, Martie L.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the "basic training" structural model in Patterson's (1982) coercion theory, extending its scope to single-mother families with younger (six- to eight-year-old) boys. Significance of the successful replication was seen to lie in implications for the generalizability of the model across family…

  6. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: A Comparison of Risks for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigates differences between inmate mothers' and fathers' reported rates of incarceration for family members, adult children, predictors of adult children's incarceration, and living situations of minor children. Participants included 6,146 inmates who participated in the U.S. Department of Justice Survey of Inmates in State…

  7. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  8. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  9. Coparenting Profiles in the Context of Mexican-Origin Teen Pregnancy: Links to Mother-Daughter Relationship Quality and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan; Guimond, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the multifaceted nature of the mother-adolescent coparental relationship with data from 167 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their own mothers at ten months post-childbirth. Profiles of mother-adolescent coparenting were created with latent profile analysis using adolescents’ reports of three dimensions of coparenting (communication, involvement and conflict). Four profiles were identified: (a) Harmonious Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, low conflict); (b) Harmonious-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, high communication, low conflict); (c) Conflictual Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, high conflict); and (d) Conflictual-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, moderate communication, high conflict). Families characterized by high mother-daughter conflict and psychological control prior to childbirth were more likely to belong in the Conflictual Coparents profile. In addition, adolescents’ and mothers’ depressive symptoms and parenting efficacy after childbirth were linked to profile membership, such that the Harmonious-Adolescent Primary profile reported the most positive adjustment patterns, whereas profiles with high coparental conflict (i.e., Conflictual Coparenting and Conflictual-Adolescent Primary profiles) showed the least positive adjustment patterns. Discussion considers the applied implications of identifying precursors to healthy and problematic mother-daughter coparenting for families of adolescent mothers in the early years of parenting. PMID:25438748

  10. The Participation of Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Burton, Claire; Le Grange, Daniel; Sawyer, Susan M

    2017-10-27

    In family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa, all family members are encouraged to attend sessions with the understanding that absences negatively impact treatment. There are, however, many obstacles to family members' attendance, and there is no research to indicate whether family member attendance improves treatment outcomes. We examined attendance patterns of 198 families who participated in FBT at a specialist pediatric eating disorders program and assessed the extent to which participation by mothers (n = 194), fathers (n = 175), and siblings (n = 165; 50% female) predicted outcome. All mothers attended at least one session, and 74% attended all sessions. By comparison, 95% of fathers and 73% of siblings attended at least one session, and 33% of fathers and 1% of siblings attended all sessions. The mean proportion of sessions attended was 94% for mothers, 72% for fathers, and 20% for siblings. Over 6 months of treatment, the proportion of mothers who attended each session was largely stable; fathers' attendance declined slowly, and siblings' attendance declined more rapidly. Greater attendance by fathers predicted higher weight and lower eating disorder symptoms in adolescents at end of treatment. Remission at end of treatment was associated with higher attendance by fathers (M = 81% vs. M = 69%). Achieving sustained engagement of the whole family system in FBT is a considerable challenge. However, this study demonstrates that implementing processes that encourage and enable family members to attend treatment sessions could have significant benefits for patient outcomes.

  11. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  12. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  13. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  14. The relations among child quality, family structure, and the value of the mother's time in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppel, K

    1982-10-01

    A model of the determinants of child quality and of the value of a woman's time is developed and tested using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1976-1977. Child quality is measured by educational attainment; factors influencing the value of the mother's time include size and age composition of household, family income, education, and hours worked. The results indicate that size and age composition of household affect a woman's asking wage. However, more data are needed before the effects of family structure on schooling can be measured with confidence.

  15. Childbirth in ancient Rome: from traditional folklore to obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, Donald

    2007-04-01

    In ancient Rome, childbirth was a hazardous event for both mother and child with high rates of infant and maternal mortality. Traditional Roman medicine centred on folklore and religious practices, but with the development of Hippocratic medicine came significant advances in the care of women during pregnancy and confinement. Midwives or obstetrices played an important role and applied rational scientific practices to improve outcomes. This evolution from folklore to obstetrics was a pivotal point in the history of childbirth.

  16. Meaning in Life, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Family Cohesion as Predictors of Family Satisfaction among Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Sweeney, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested whether self-efficacy, coping styles, family cohesion, and meaning in life predicted family satisfaction among 64 mothers of children with disabilities. They also examined whether meaning in life mediated the relationship between cohesion and family satisfaction or served as a resource whose effects on family satisfaction were…

  17. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 'What Does Donor Mean to a Four-Year-Old?': Initial Insights into Young Children's Perspectives in Solo Mother Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Sophie; Freeman, Tabitha; Golombok, Susan

    2017-05-01

    This study reports on the questions, thoughts and feelings of children aged 4-9 conceived by donor insemination to single mothers. Fifty-one mothers and 47 children from the same families were each administered a semi-structured interview. Mothers generally reported that while children either lack understanding, or have not yet been told, about their donor conception, they may be thinking and talking about the absence of a father. Most children did not mention either donor conception or father absence and reported positive feelings about their families and friendships. Possible explanations for the discrepancy between mothers' and children's reports are discussed.

  19. Cherish the family: A program model of strengths and attachment in reunifying substance-abusing mothers with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie H; Camejo, Stephanie T; Hernandez, Maria; Sellas-Lamberty, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The Cherish the Family (CTF) program targets mothers with children (age 0-3) engaged in the child welfare system, and provide services to strengthen a mother's ability to care for her child. A multimodal design was used with data collected at three points of time. Program results revealed positive changes in the areas of child well-being, parental capabilities, family interactions, family safety, caregiver/child ambivalence, and readiness for reunification among the treatment group.

  20. Marriage Migration Versus Family Reunification : How Does the Marriage and Migration History Affect the Timing of First and Second Childbirth Among Turkish Immigrants in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the fertility of first-generation female and male Turkish migrants in Germany. To evaluate whether timing effects such as fertility disruption or an interrelation of marriage, migration and childbirth occur, we examine first and second births in the years before and after

  1. Coparenting Experiences in African American Families: An Examination of Single Mothers and their Non-Marital Coparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2015-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their non-marital coparents who participated in a study of African American single mother families with an 11 to 16 year old child. Specifically, the study examines: 1) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; 2) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and 3) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612

  2. “Pinklining” and Childbirth Education

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Domestic violence in a family is often found to have begun during a pregnancy. “Pinklining” is denying insurance to victims of domestic violence. Both domestic violence and pinklining are concepts with which the childbirth educator should be familiar, including the relevant laws and resources.

  3. Parenting While Incarcerated: Tailoring the Strengthening Families Program for Use with Jailed Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Weston, Lauren E; Perryman, Jamie; Horwitz, Talia; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley

    2014-09-01

    Most incarcerated women are mothers. Parenting programs may benefit women, children and families, yet effectively intervening in correctional settings is a challenge. An evidence-based parenting intervention (the Strengthening Families Program) was tailored and implemented with women in a jail setting. Goals were to assess mothers' needs and interests regarding parenting while they were incarcerated, adapt the program to address those needs, and establish intervention delivery and evaluation methods in collaboration with a community-based agency. Women reported wanting to know more about effective communication; how children manage stress; finances; drug and alcohol use; self-care; and stress reduction. They reported high program satisfaction and reported reduced endorsement of corporal punishment after the intervention. Barriers to implementation included unpredictable attendance from session to session due to changing release dates, transfer to other facilities, and jail policies (e.g., lock-down; commissary hours). Implications for sustainable implementation of parenting programs in jail settings are discussed.

  4. The mother who cannot provide liberation: family atom analysis of women victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Guglielmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents the discussion about the analysis carried out on family atoms that were completed in the first psychodrama group meetings carried out in all the Empower Daphne III program partner countries. The issue of the relationship with the mother is central to the aim of the project, in that we hypothesise that the mothers of victims are incapable of educating their daughters about personal autonomy in relation to men, due to the traditional culture in which they grew up in. The article presents information about the use and processing of the survey tool “Family atom ” created by Jacob Moreno and the analysis of the data that emerged in parallel to the reports sent periodically by the psychodramatists to the monitoring and analysis team. From the results three types of maternal relationships emerge (positive, negative and incongruent that enable us to confirm the initial hypothesis of this action research.

  5. Supporting Pakistani and Chinese families with young children: perspectives of mothers and health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, R; de Kok, B; Netto, G; Hanley, J; Haycock-Stuart, E

    2015-05-01

    In the UK, public health nurses (health visitors) provide support and advice to families with young children, including those from minority ethnic communities. While the need for cultural sensitivity is being increasingly recognized, the factors which contribute to this sensitivity are poorly understood. The Pakistani and Chinese communities constitute the two largest minority ethnic groups in Scotland. This study explored Pakistani and Chinese women's experience of motherhood and of the health visiting service and public health nurses' experiences of working with Chinese and Pakistani mothers. Semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with 16 Pakistani and 15 Chinese mothers. Eight health visitors took part in two focus groups. The study was undertaken in an urban area of Scotland. Data were analysed thematically. Chinese and Pakistani mothers negotiate complex processes in order to ensure that their children maintain their own ethnic identity while fitting in with their peers in their adopted country. Health visitors were seen as supportive, although sometimes advice and information given was culturally inappropriate, and their role was often poorly understood. Health visitors were anxious to be sensitive to families' religious and cultural beliefs. Cultural sensitivity is an important factor in providing appropriate advice and help to Pakistani and Chinese families, and involves health visitors in considering views and practices on parenting which may differ across cultures, including their own. Family characteristics need to be understood on an individual basis, rather than making assumptions about clients' cultural norms and lifestyles. This is best achieved by exploring with mothers if they understand the advice and information they are being offered and also if it is appropriate to their cultural and religious beliefs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The First Teenage Pregnancy in the Family: Does It Affect Mothers’ Parenting, Attitudes, or Mother-Adolescent Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing for the family, 189 mothers from three types offamilies were studied: families in which all teenage daughters had never been pregnant, families in which only one teenager was currently pregnant, and families in which only one teenager had delivered a baby within the previous 6 months. in the latter two family types, the current pregnancy or childbearing was the first to occur in the family. Mothers were assessed twice, 13 months apart. Results indicated that, compared with the mothers of never-pregnant teens, the mothers of parenting teens monitored their children less. expected less of their older daughters, and were more accepting of teenage childbearing. Across-time analyses showed that, in families in which the teenager was initially pregnant, mothers monitored and communicated less with their other children and were more accepting of teenage sex after the older daughter gave birth. In families in which the teenager was initially parenting, mothers perceived more difficulty for their teenage daughters and reported being less strict with their other children across time. PMID:23700352

  7. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  8. Father- and Mother-Adolescent Decision-Making in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and correlates of decisional autonomy within specific cultural contexts is necessary to fully understand how family processes are embedded within culture. The goals of this study were to describe mothers’ and fathers’ decision-making with adolescents (M = 12.51 years, SD = 0.58; 51% female), including parent-unilateral, joint, and youth-unilateral decision-making, and to examine the socio-cultural and family characteristics associated with these different types of decision-making in 246 Mexican-origin families. Mothers reported more joint and youth-unilateral decision-making and less parent-unilateral decision-making than did fathers. Fathers reported more youth-unilateral decision-making with sons than with daughters. Further, for mothers, more traditional gender role attitudes and higher levels of mother-adolescent conflict were associated with more parent-unilateral and less joint decision-making. In contrast, for fathers, lower levels of respect values were associated with more youth-unilateral decision-making with sons, and higher levels of parent-adolescent warmth was associated with more youth-unilateral decision-making with daughters. The importance of understanding the different correlates of mothers’ and fathers’ decision-making with sons versus daughters is discussed. PMID:21484288

  9. Work-family conflict, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment among employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Wendy J; Martin, Jennifer A; Buffardi, Louis C; Erdwins, Carol J

    2002-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of work interfering with family (WIF) and family interfering with work (FIW) on women's organizational commitment and examined both the direct and moderating effects of their perceived organizational support. Participants were 143 professional employed mothers with at least 1 preschool-age child. The study found that WIF was positively related to continuance organizational commitment but unrelated to affective commitment, and FIW was not related to either form of organizational commitment. Results also indicated that perceived organizational support exhibited a main effect on both types of commitment.

  10. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Di Blasio; Sarah Miragoli; Elena Camisasca; Angela Maria Di Vita; Rosalia Pizzo; Laura Pipitone

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thou...

  11. Families parenting adolescents with substance abuse--recovering the mother's voice: a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jackie M; Estefan, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol and substance dependency are complex, problematic phenomena, which are growing worldwide. In particular, drug use and abuse among young people is a significant concern. Although addiction presents as a problem of dependent individuals, families are also profoundly affected by the family member's addiction. In this narrative literature review, we review published research from 1937 to 2014 to capture a narrative and historical perspective of addiction and family. We condense and analyze the experiences of parents with alcohol- and drug-dependent children, to emphasize the need for a more specific, in-depth exploration of mothers' experiences. Such exploration may advance nurses' understandings of individual, familial, and social complexities of parenting an addicted child. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  13. Fathering and mothering in the family system: linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-04-01

      Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and parenting. We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, and assessments of parental personality and financial strain to assess the effects of context on relationships between marriage and parenting of both mothers and fathers.   Participants were 308 adoption-linked families comprised of an adopted child, her/his biological mother (BM), adoptive mother (AM) and adoptive father (AF). BMs were assessed 3-6 and 18 months postpartum and adoptive families were assessed when the child was 18 and 27 months old. Structural equations models were used to examine associations between marital hostility, fathers' and mothers' parenting hostility, and child aggressive behavior at 27 months of age. In addition, the contribution of financial strain and adoptive parent personality traits was examined to determine the associations with the spillover of marital hostility to hostile parenting.   A hostile marital relationship was significantly associated with hostile parenting in fathers and mothers, which were associated with aggressive behavior in toddlers. Subjective financial strain was uniquely associated with marital hostility and child aggression. Antisocial personality traits were related to a more hostile/conflicted marital relationship and to hostile parenting.   Results clarify mechanisms that may account for the success of early parent-child prevention programs that include a focus on parental economic strain and personality in addition to parent training. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for

  14. Life events, social support and depression in childbirth: perspectives from a rural community in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A; Iqbal, Z; Harrington, R

    2003-10-01

    High rates of depression associated with childbirth have been reported in many parts of the developing world. However, the prevalence and associations of antenatal and post-natal depression in the rural population remain unknown. Disability associated with depression and its impact on infant health and development could have important public health implications for many developing countries where large proportions of the population are rural. All women living in southern Kahuta, Pakistan, in their third trimester of pregnancy were interviewed at 6 weeks before delivery (N = 632) and again at 10-12 weeks after delivery (N = 541), using WHO Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ) and Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ). The point prevalence of ICD-10 depressive disorder was 25% in the antenatal period and 28 % in the post-natal period. Depressed mothers were significantly more disabled, had more threatening life events, and poorer social and family support than non-depressed mothers. Vulnerable mothers were more likely to be depressed during pregnancy, rather than have an onset in the post-natal period. Over one-quarter of mothers in a rural sub-district of Pakistan suffer from depression shortly before and after childbirth. Rapidly changing traditional family structures and practices may be increasing the risk of depression in many women. Recognizing and treating depression should be initiated during the antenatal, rather than post-natal period.

  15. Mothers and Sons: A Look at the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems, Marital Satisfaction, Maternal Depression, and Family Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Work-Family Strains and Gains, Work Commitment, and Subsequent Employment Status among Partnered Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; McNall, Laurel A.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the work-family interface on mothers' commitment to work and the implications of that work commitment for subsequent employment. The study included a sample of employed partnered mothers who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child…

  17. Self-stigma, insight, and family burden among Israeli mothers of people with serious mental illness: Ethno-national considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Roe, David

    2017-06-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated and compared the associations between insight, self-stigma, and family burden among Jewish and Arab mothers of an adult son or daughter with serious mental illness (SMI) in Israel. A total of 162 Israeli mothers of a person with SMI participated in the study; 95 were Jewish (58.6%), and 67 were Arab (41.4%). Insight, self-stigma, and family burden scales were administered. Jewish mothers reported higher levels of insight into their son's or daughter's illness and reported greater family burden compared to Arab mothers. No significant differences in self-stigma scores were found between Jewish and Arab mothers. The pattern of associations between insight, self-stigma, and burden differed between Jewish and Arab mothers. Self-stigma was found to mediate the relationship between insight and burden among Jewish mothers but not among Arab mothers. Ethno-national affiliation should be taken into consideration regarding how family members conceptualize and experience mental illness, as this might affect care.

  18. The Role of Personal Resources in Work-Family Conflict: Implications for Young Mothers' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Frish-Burstein, Smadar; Benjamin, Benny A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role that personal resources (person-environment [PE] congruence and personality types associated with resilience) and work-family conflict (WFC) play in the sense of well-being (as reflected by burnout and life-satisfaction) of mothers of young children. A sample of 146 mothers holding demanding…

  19. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-10-29

    Family is a major determinant of children's and adolescents' eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother-father-adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members' diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: "families with an unhealthy diet" (39.3%), "families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers' diets require changes" (14.3%), and "families that require changes in their diet" (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  20. The transition of childbirth practices among tribal women in Gujarat, India - a grounded theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Under the National Rural Health Mission, the current emphasis is on achieving universal institutional births through incentive schemes as part of reforms related to childbirth in India. There has been rapid progress in achieving this goal. To understand the choices made as well as practices and perceptions related to childbirth amongst tribal women in Gujarat and how these have been influenced by modernity in general and modernity brought in through maternal health policies. Method A model depicting the transition in childbirth practices amongst tribal women was constructed using the grounded theory approach with; 8 focus groups of women, 5 in depth interviews with traditional birth attendants, women, and service providers and field notes on informal discussions and observations. Results A transition in childbirth practices across generations was noted, i.e. a shift from home births attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to hospital births. The women and their families both adapted to and shaped this transition through a constant ’trade-off between desirable and essential’- the desirable being a traditional homebirth in secure surroundings and the essential being the survival of mother and baby by going to hospital. This transition was shaped by complex multiple factors: 1) Overall economic growth and access to modern medical care influencing women’s choices, 2) External context in terms of the international maternal health discourses and national policies, especially incentive schemes for promoting institutional deliveries, 3) Socialisation into medical childbirth practices, through exposure to many years of free outreach services for maternal and child health, 4) Loss of self reliance in the community as a consequence of role redefinition and deskilling of the TBAs and 5) Cultural belief that intervention is necessary during childbirth aiding easy acceptance of medical interventions. Conclusion In resource poor settings where choices are

  1. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  2. Mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica D; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Drotar, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship of mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management to diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. One hundred thirty-six mothers and fathers of youth with Type 1 diabetes reported on the youth's diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and amount of paternal involvement in diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used to measure glycemic control. As hypothesized, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management were positively associated with frequency of diabetes-specific family conflict. Contrary to hypotheses, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management predicted poorer glycemic control for youth with less involved fathers only. Results highlight the importance of caregivers being consistent about pediatric illness management and support the idea that informant discrepancies represent an important window into the functioning of the family system. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Child impact on family functioning: a multivariate analysis in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Katja; Jacob, Christian; Philipsen, Alexandra; Matthies, Swantje; Graf, Erika; Hennighausen, Klaus; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Weyers, Peter; Warnke, Andreas; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; von Gontard, Alexander; Hänig, Susan; Freitag, Christine; Sobanski, Esther; Schumacher-Stien, Martina; Poustka, Luise; Bliznak, Lucia; Becker, Katja; Holtmann, Martin; Colla, Michael; Gentschow, Laura; Kappel, Viola; Jaite, Charlotte; Jans, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    ADHD seriously impacts family functioning, even the more in families with simultaneous parental and child ADHD. The aim of the study was to examine associations between family impact of child ADHD and child, mother and family characteristics in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by ADHD. One hundred and forty-four mother-child pairs were assessed (children: mean age 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 73.6 % male). Family impact of child ADHD was rated by mothers using the Family Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with child and maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics such as employment, partnership status and number of children as predictors and FIQ subscores as criteria. Rates of variance explained by family variables were 49 % for negative feelings towards the child, 37 % for impact on partnership, 31 % for impact on social life and 27 % for impact on finances (p ADHD and co-morbid symptoms of the mother. The strongest independent predictor was oppositional defiant child behaviour. In ADHD multiplex families, mothers' perception of the impact of an ADHD child on its family can be explained to a substantial degree by child psychopathology, maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics. Although a cross-sectional design does not allow for causal interpretations, the findings of this study offer important targets for the treatment of ADHD in a family context pointing to the need for assessing and treating parental mental health and co-morbid symptoms besides ADHD core symptoms.

  4. Food management behaviours in food-insecure, lone mother-led families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Meaghan; Glanville, N Theresa; McIntyre, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how food is managed in households where food resources are scarce. In this study, the household food management behaviours utilized by food-insecure, lone mother-led families from Atlantic Canada were characterized, and relationships among these behaviours and diet quality were examined. Thematic analysis of 24 in-depth interviews from a larger study of mother-led, low-income families was integrated with sociodemographic characteristics, food-insecurity status, and four weekly 24-hour dietary recalls for all household members to yield a family behaviour score (FBS) as a summative measure of food management behaviours, and a healthy plate score (HPS) as a measure of diet quality. Five distinct food management behaviours were identified: authoritative, healthism, sharing, structured, and planning behaviours. An increase in the FBS was associated with a proportional increase in the HPS. Authoritative, healthism, and planning food management behaviours were the strongest predictors of the HPS for all household members (p<0.05). The structured management behaviour was related to the degree of food insecurity. The FBS and HPS tools hold promise as a way to identify food-insecure families at risk of low diet quality. The next phase of this research will validate the use of these tools in the practice setting.

  5. Mothers', fathers', and siblings' perceptions of parents' differential treatment of siblings: Links with family relationship qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2017-10-01

    A family systems perspective directs attention to the potentially different experiences and perspectives of family members. This study examined parents' differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, discrepancies between parent and youth reports of PDT, and their links with relationships between adolescents and their mothers and fathers across three years. Participants were first- (Time 1 M age = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (Time 1 M age = 13.18, SD = 1.29) siblings from 381, predominately white, working and middle class families. Analyses revealed that siblings' perceptions of being favored predicted less conflict with and greater warmth from both mothers and fathers, primarily for secondborn adolescents. Larger discrepancies between maternal and youth reports of differential affection were linked to more maternal conflict and less warmth for firstborns. These findings may suggest a hierarchy within families: parents may serve as referents for firstborns and firstborns as referents for secondborns. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disclosure of sperm donation: a comparison between solo mother and two-parent families with identifiable donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tabitha; Zadeh, Sophie; Smith, Venessa; Golombok, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Disclosure of donor conception to children was compared between solo mother and two-parent families with children aged 4-8 years conceived since the removal of donor anonymity in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 heterosexual solo mothers and 47 heterosexual mothers with partners to investigate their decisions and experiences about identifiable donation and disclosure to their children. No significant difference was found in the proportion of mothers in each family type who had told their children about their donor conception (solo mothers 54.8%; partnered mothers 36.2%). Of those who had not told, a significantly higher proportion of solo mothers than partnered mothers intended to disclose (P parents will tell their children about their origins or their entitlement to request the identity of their donor at the age of 18 years. Further qualitative research would increase understanding of solo mothers' attitudes towards disclosure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Daily Family Routines of Italian and Ecuadorian Immigrant Mothers in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Rania

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compares Italian mothers’ and Ecuadorian immigrant mothers’ daily family routines. Thirty mothers took part in this investigation: 15 Italians (M = 37.5 years, with ages ranging from 30 to 42 years and 15 Ecuadorians (M = 36.1 years, with ages ranging from 18 to 46 years and having lived in Italy for an average of 15 years, with children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years. The objective is to highlight the differences and similarities between the daily routines and family relations that characterize the lives of each of the two groups of participants. The instruments employed in service of these aims were in-depth interviews and diaries. The results showed similarities regarding the routines of Italian and Ecuadorian families. However, a relevant difference emerged regarding their perceptions of social support. Specifically, Italians receive more social support from their parents than do Ecuadorians, who are supported more by other relatives or by friends.

  8. MATERNAL ACCOUNTS OF THEIR BREASTFEEDING INTENT AND EARLY CHALLENGES AFTER CESAREAN CHILDBIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding outcomes are often worse after cesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. Objectives This study characterizes mothers’ breastfeeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after cesarean childbirth. Methods Data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1–6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled cesarean. Results Thematic analysis of the data suggested breastfeeding was mostly considered the “right thing to do,” preferable, natural, and “supposedly healthier,” but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for “thinking about yourself” was part of cesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breastfeeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following cesarean section. Some breastfeeding difficulty stemmed from “mucus” expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be “interested” in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breastfeeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breastfeed on the postnatal unit after their cesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. Conclusions For the majority of mothers, breastfeeding after a cesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breastfeeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after cesarean section childbirth. PMID:24252711

  9. The ambiguity of disabled women's experiences of pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood: a phenomenological understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Gallagher, Dympna; Sinclair, Marlene; Mc Conkey, Roy

    2012-04-01

    there is limited knowledge about the pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood experiences of women living with a disability. Traditionally, such women have been viewed unsympathetically by society and professionals have challenged their fitness for motherhood. The situation is compounded by a lack of robust evidence regarding the life experience of pregnant women with a disability and their perspective on childbirth. seventeen pregnant women from the island of Ireland who had a physical, sensory and/or intellectual disability were interviewed at home, pre and post birth, using a qualitative approach derived from descriptive phenomenology. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), was chosen for data analysis. the women in this study welcomed pregnancy as affirming their identity and worth as women and as mothers. They encountered mixed reactions from partners and families, while professionals tended to view them as liabilities, regarding most as 'high risk'. These reactions intensified mothers' fears. They felt their ability to make choices and maintain control over their childbirth experiences was removed as the usual services were geared to provide for 'normal', able bodied women and were not adapted to their individual needs. Moreover, a proportion were offered a termination and, although all refused, they subsequently went on to indicate feeling pressurised to place their newborn babies into social services care. pregnant women with disabilities, in particular those labelled 'high risk', should expect equal ease of access to appropriate maternity care and consultation as that enjoyed by their mainstream, 'low risk' or 'normal' counterparts. Maternity services should foster these vulnerable women's independence and autonomy as far as practicable and uphold their identity and worth as women and as mothers. Three strategies are proposed for doing this. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research Paper: Determination of the Needs of Mothering Handling Training for Family Caregiving of Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy at Home Based on a Family- Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Dalvand

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion The results showed that the highest priority of needs of mothering handling training was self-care, feeding, toileting, and functional mobility. However, the needs of mothering handling training enhanced with increasing severity of fine motor function lesions and age. The simultaneous relationships between age and MACS levels in children with CP have no effect on the priorities of mothering handling training. Organized training of families and caregivers about needs of mothering handling training and proper care of their children are facilitating steps in promoting the education of mothers of children with CP. It seems that the understanding and education of mothering handling for therapists responsible for managing children with CP and the education of their parents can open the way to effective caring and treatment.

  11. Prevalência e preditores de sintomatologia depressiva após o parto Prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms after childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A depressão pós-parto é uma patologia que ocorre nas primeiras semanas após o parto com conseqüências negativas não só para a mãe, como também para o bebê e para a família. OBJETIVO: Examinar a prevalência de depressão após o parto, bem como as circunstâncias suscetíveis de predizer a sintomatologia depressiva 1 semana e 3 meses após o parto. MÉTODOS: 197 grávidas preencheram o Questionário de Antecipação do Parto (QAP (Costa et al., 2005a no segundo trimestre de gestação. Na primeira semana após o parto, responderam ao Questionário de Experiência e Satisfação com o Parto (QESP (Costa et al., 2005b e à Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS (Augusto et al., 1996, esta última aplicada novamente no terceiro mês do puerpério. RESULTADOS: Uma percentagem significativa de mulheres encontra-se clinicamente deprimida (EPDS 13 na primeira semana e 3 meses após o parto (12,4% e 13,7%, respectivamente. Das que têm EPDS > 13 na primeira semana, 25% estão ainda deprimidas 3 meses após o parto. Circunstâncias relativas à saúde física, à experiência emocional de parto e ao primeiro contato com o bebê predizem a sintomatologia depressiva na primeira semana do puerpério. A sintomatologia depressiva na primeira semana após o parto e a experiência emocional negativa de parto predizem a sintomatologia depressiva 3 meses após o parto. CONCLUSÕES: Constata-se a importância da experiência emocional de parto e do primeiro contato com o bebê, enfatizando a necessidade de atender às necessidades psicológicas da mulher.BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression is a pathology occurring in the first weeks after childbirth with negative consequence not only for mothers, but also for theirs babies and families. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of postnatal depression and factors that might predict depressive symptoms one week and three months after childbirth. METHODS: 197 pregnant women filled out the

  12. Like Mother(-in-Law) Like Daughter? Influence of the Older Generation's Fertility Behaviours on Women's Desired Family Size in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bordone, Valeria; Muttarak, Raya

    This paper investigates the associations between preferred family size of women in rural Bihar, India and the fertility behaviours of their mother and mother-in-law. Scheduled interviews of 440 pairs of married women aged 16-34 years and their mothers-in-law were conducted in 2011. Preferred family size is first measured by Coombs scale, allowing us to capture latent desired number of children and then categorized into three categories (low, medium and high). Women's preferred family size is estimated using ordered logistic regression. We find that the family size preferences are not associated with mother's fertility but with mother's education. Mother-in-law's desired number of grandchildren is positively associated with women's preferred family size. However, when the woman has higher education than her mother-in-law, her preferred family size gets smaller, suggesting that education provides women with greater autonomy in their decision-making on childbearing.

  13. Economics of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Michael; Doyle, Orla; Denny, Kevin; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Robson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Increasing birth rates have raised questions for policy makers and hospital management about the economic costs of childbirth. The purpose of this article is to identify and review all existing scientific studies in relation to the economic costs of alternative modes of childbirth delivery and to highlight deficiencies in the existing scientific research. We searched Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EconLit, the Excerpta Medica Database, the Health Economic Evaluations Database, MEDLINE and PubMed. Thirty articles are included in this review. The main findings suggest that there is no internationally acceptable childbirth cost and clinical outcome classification system that allows for comparisons across different delivery modes. This review demonstrates that a better understanding and classification of the costs and associated clinical outcomes of childbirth is required to allow for valid comparisons between maternity units, and to inform policy makers and hospital management. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heejung; van der Horst, Mariska

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work–life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009–2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work–life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals’ work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers’ careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market. PMID:29276304

  15. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile, including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%, “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%, and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%. These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  16. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%), “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%), and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life. PMID:29109387

  17. Influences underlying family food choices in mothers from an economically disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Blake, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes that underlie food choices, and, the impact of a school-based healthy eating intervention in mothers from an economically-disadvantaged community. The aim of the intervention was to educate children to act as 'health messengers' to their families. Sixteen semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with mothers with four receiving a second interview. Interviews were conducted following their child's participation in a six-week after school healthy cooking intervention. Thematic content analysis revealed four main themes: Cost and budget influence on food choices, diversity in household rules controlling food, role of socialisation on diet, and improved cooking skills and confidence to make homemade meals. The interview findings demonstrated the positive influence of the after-school cooking intervention on children and their families in cooking skills, promoting healthier cooking methods and increasing confidence to prepare homemade meals. The findings demonstrated the wider economic and social influences on food choices and eating practices. Socialisation into, and strong cultural norms around, eating habits were significant influences on family diet and on parental decisions underpinning food choices and attitudes towards the control of food within the family. The intervention was perceived to be successful in terms of improving nutritional knowledge, cooking skills and increasing confidence to make healthy and tasty homemade meals. The study demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in school-based interventions if improvements in healthy eating are to be evidenced at the family level and maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single Mothers' Experiences with Pregnancy and Child Rearing in Korea: Discrepancy between Social Services/Policies and Single Mothers' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Sang Hyung

    2018-05-10

    This study aims to explore single mothers’ experiences with social services/policies for their independent living and to identify gaps between these experiences and the needs of single mothers. A focus group discussion was performed to collect data. Seven single mothers discussed their experiences in significant periods of their lives: pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Findings from the qualitative thematic analysis show discrepancies between the direction of social services/policies and single mothers’ needs, in terms of difficulties in healthcare, childcare, housing, employment, and income security. To the single mothers in this study, the social safety net is not inclusive, compared to that which is available to two-parent families or adoptive families. It is necessary to intervene in current blind spots of services/policies for single mothers, and to provide a social safety net to strengthen single mothers’ self-reliance and their children’s social security in the long term.

  19. Father-child and mother-child interaction in families with a child feeding disorder: The role of paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal; Millikovsky, Maaian; Barkai, Anat; Dunaevsky-Idan, Maayan; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    To date, research about feeding disorder (FD) has focused almost exclusively on the mother-child dyad, ignoring fathers' roles. The current study investigated father-child interactions with children having FD. The sample consisted of 67 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Thirty-four children, diagnosed with a nonorganic-based FD (FD group) and 33 children without an FD (control group) were matched for age, gender, birth order, and maternal education. Data were collected during home visits. Mothers were interviewed about their and the father's involvement in childcare. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped during play and feeding. Both mothers and fathers from the FD group experienced less positive parent-child interactions than did parents in the control group. Furthermore, mothers in the FD group reported greater maternal versus paternal childcare involvement than did control group mothers. Finally, FD group mothers exhibited more parental sensitivity than did fathers during feeing interactions; however, this difference was observed only when coupled with low paternal involvement. In families where fathers were highly involved, no difference was evident in paternal and maternal sensitivity. These findings highlight the importance of fathers' involvement, especially in families with children exhibiting an FD. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Parental attitude, depression, anxiety in mothers, family functioning and breath-holding spells: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Kanik, Ali; Sargin, Enis; Selkie, Ellen; Korkmaz, Nurhan; Baydan, Figen; Akar, Ebru; Sarioglu, Berrak

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in the antenatal stressful life events, parenting style, family functioning, depression and anxiety of mothers who have children with breath-holding spells (BHS) compared with controls. This case control study divided 66 children into a group of children with BHS and a control group, with the children's ages ranging between 6 months and 5 years of age. This study explored underlying anxiety and depression in mothers as well as functioning of their families. Socio-demographical data and stressful life events that the mother experienced during pregnancy were analysed. In order to evaluate the effects of family structure, depression and anxiety in mothers on BHS in children, the Family Assessment Device, and both the Parental Attitude Research Instrument and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess both groups. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy (P overprotective maternal characteristics (P = 0.027) and most of the family functioning subscales were found to be significantly different between BHS and control groups. The association of anxiety, depression, prenatal stressful events and poor family functioning in mothers who have children with BHS is significantly higher than controls. An evaluation of these problems may be beneficial in the management of BHS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Family Processes in Child Anxiety: the Long-Term Impact of Fathers and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Parrigon, Kaela L; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated links between parent and child anxiety, and family process factors, over a 9 year period. Specifically, we examined the role of partner conflict, attachment security and parental autonomy granting in explaining changes in child, father, and mother anxiety symptoms. We utilized data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 661), from when target children were in first grade (6 years), fifth grade (10 years), and 15 years of age. We tested a longitudinal path model including both fathers and mothers, and found that the model was a good fit for the data. We also found that lower attachment security to fathers and a restriction of maternal autonomy granting predicted which children maintained anxiety into adolescence. Partner conflict explained the association between earlier and later parental anxiety, which is a novel finding in the literature. Together, these findings suggest that fathers play an important long-term role in child anxiety, alongside the role of mothers.

  2. Educational and Mothering Discourses and Learner Goals: Mexican Immigrant Women Enacting Agency in a Family Literacy Program. Research Brief #8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    Family literacy programs promote certain ideas about literacy and parenting. This study examined how Mexican immigrant women in a family literacy program used mainstream ideas, or discourses, of mothering and parent involvement in education to pursue their own personal and academic goals. The findings revealed that women were at times faced with…

  3. Long-term effects of divorce on parent-child relationships: within-family comparisons of fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using national representative survey data from the Netherlands, this article examines the effects of a parental divorce in childhood on relationships between adult children and their parents. Using a within-family design, we make comparisons between fathers and mothers within the same family. Our

  4. Work-Family Conflict, Resources, and Role Set Density: Assessing Their Effects on Distress among Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Liberman, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationships between the experience of work-family conflict and levels of distress in the family and at work among a sample of 227 Israeli working mothers. We also examined how role set density (RSD, the number of roles they perform) and personal and environmental resources are related to the women's experience of distress.…

  5. Assessment of Maternal Satisfaction with Facility-based Childbirth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In Senegal, only 60% of mothers in rural areas deliver in health facilities. ... experience is one of the factors in their choosing to deliver in such facilities in ... maternal satisfaction with childbirth care and 23 standard care survey items was assessed. .... cost*. 0.64. Cheap. 30 (11.6). Affordable. 140 (54.1). Expensive. 68 (26.3).

  6. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  7. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Ayinmode

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The attention given to family violence (FV in primary medical care in Nigeria is still very insufficient in relation to its known adverse medical and psychosocial implications for women’s health. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the prevalence rate, correlates and effects of FV among mothers attending a primary care facility in Nigeria, with the aim of gaining an understanding of whether screening for FV in the primary care setting in Nigeria would be beneficial. Methodology . A cross-sectional study of FV among 250 mothers attending the General Outpatient Department of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital was undertaken over a 5-month period. Data on the mothers’ sociodemographic characteristics, and experience of FV and its psychosocial correlates and effects were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and a 20-item Self- Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ as instruments. Data analysis . EPI Info version 6 was used to analyse the data. Results. Sixty-nine mothers (28% had experienced FV at the hands of their husbands. Of these women, 49 (71% indicated occurrences within the preceding 2 years; in 17 (25%, the violence was severe enough to warrant a hospital visit or treatment. Mothers who experienced FV were significantly more likely to have had previous experiences of violence by an in-law; to have reported child cruelty by a husband; to have children with difficult behaviour; and to have reported that they were neglected by their husbands and not enjoying their marriages. They were also significantly more likely to have a high score on the SRQ and be identified as probable cases with psychological problems (SRQ score ≥ 5. Conclusion. In view of these findings, screening for FV in the primary care setting would be beneficial. Primary care physicians should therefore increase their interest, improve their skill, and carry out more research in the identification and management of FV.

  8. Mothers and fathers of young Dutch adolescents with Down syndrome: Health related quality of life and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2016-12-01

    Like any child, children with Down syndrome (DS) affect the lives of their families. Most studies focus on the adaptation of parents and families of young children with DS, while relatively few studies include the perspective of fathers. To determine 1) whether mothers and fathers of 11 to 13-year-olds with DS differ from reference parents in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and family functioning, and 2) whether HRQoL in parents of children with DS changes over time, from when the child was 6-8 years old to when the child was 11-13 years old. 80 mothers and 44 fathers completed HRQoL and family functioning questionnaires. 58 parents (53 mothers) had completed the HRQoL-questionnaire in a previous study. Mothers differed from reference mothers in one HRQoL-domain (Sexuality), while fathers' HRQoL did not significantly differ from reference fathers. Both mothers and fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Total family functioning, and in the domains Partner relation and Social network. Furthermore, fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Responsiveness and Organization. HRQoL showed no significant change over time. Our findings indicate frequent family functioning problems but few HRQoL problems in parents and families of children with DS. In offering care, a family based approach with special attention for partner relation and social functioning is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  10. Cortical thickness and VBM in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalay, Ozgun; Aksoy, Burcu; Tunay, Sebnem; Simsek, Fatma; Chandhoki, Swati; Kitis, Omer; Eker, Cagdas; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2016-06-30

    It has been demonstrated that compared to low-risk subjects, high-risk subjects for depression have structural and functional alterations in their brain scans even before the disease onset. However, it is not known if these alterations are related to vulnerability to depression or epiphenomena. One way to resolve this ambiguity is to detect the structural alterations in the high-risk subjects and determine if the same alterations are present in the probands. In this study, we recruited 24 women with the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with recurrent episodes and their healthy daughters (the high-risk for familial depression group; HRFD). We compared structural brain scans of the patients and HRFG group with those of 24 age-matched healthy mothers and their healthy daughters at similar ages to the HRFD group; respectively. Both cortical gray matter (GM) volume and thickness analyses revealed that HRFD daughters and their MDD mothers had similar GM differences in two regions: the right temporoparietal region and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These results suggested that the observed alterations may be related to trait clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of MDD and may present before the onset of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences between self-employed and employed mothers in balancing family and work responsibilities: Evidence from Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are co...

  12. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Mothers and Fathers: Family Level Interactions in Relation to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte; Noyes, Amira; Stewart, Kurtis; Weiss, Margaret D

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies linking parent ADHD symptoms to parenting have typically focused on each parent individually. To provide a broader understanding of family context, in this study, levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in mothers and fathers were examined, both individually and in combination, in relation to negative parenting and child-rearing disagreements. Two-parent families of 5 to 13 year old boys (126 with ADHD and 53 typically developing) participated. Parents reported their own ADHD symptoms and their perceptions of child-rearing disagreements. Parenting was measured using self-, partner-, and child-reports as well as observations. Controlling for child ADHD symptoms, inattention symptoms in fathers predicted parenting difficulties. For mothers, inattention symptoms were linked to parenting problems only when fathers also had high levels of inattention. In contrast, parenting was most problematic for both mothers and fathers in families in which fathers had higher and mothers had lower levels hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. These results remained essentially unchanged when child externalizing behavior and mother depression and hostility were controlled, but father depression reduced the significance of some interactions. The results highlight the importance of the match between father and mother levels of symptoms, and point to differential relations of parenting to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms in parents.

  13. Working Mothers in Finland: A Cross-Country Comparison of Work to Family Interference, Work Characteristics and Satisfaction with Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Weckström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was examined whether work-related experiences of Finnish mothers are different from work-related experiences of mothers in 11 other European countries. The data was based on European Social Survey, round 2, conducted in the years 2004-2005. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were used to assess the outcomes. Work to home interference was not especially frequent among mothers in Finland. However, interference that comprised other family members was more common than in the other countries investigated. With regard to work characteristics, Finnish mothers differed both negatively and positively from mothers in the other countries. Long working hours increased time-based interference from work to family members. Time pressure at work increased both time- and strain-based interferences. Social support from co-workers decreased strain-based interference. Work to family member interferences, especially strain-based interference, were negatively connected to life satisfaction. Both working and non-working mothers in Finland appeared to be satisfied with their life.

  14. Sleep quality and mood in mothers and fathers accommodated in the family-centred paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelhoff, Charlotte; Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2018-02-01

    To describe sleep quality and mood in parents accommodated with their sick child in a family-centred paediatric ward. Secondary aims were to compare mothers' and fathers' sleep quality and mood in the paediatric ward and to compare the parents' sleep quality and mood between the paediatric ward and in a daily-life home setting after discharge. Frequent interruptions, ward noise and anxiety affect parents' sleep quality and mood negatively when accommodated with their sick child in paediatric wards. Poor sleep quality and negative mood decrease the parents' ability to sustain attention and focus, and to care for their sick child. This was a prospective and descriptive study. Eighty-two parents (61 mothers and 21 fathers) with children (median age 6.25 years) admitted to six paediatric wards participated in the study. Uppsala Sleep Inventory, a sleep diary and the Mood Adjective Checklist were used to measure sleep quality and mood. The parents had a good sleep quality in the paediatric ward even though they had more nocturnal awakenings compared to home. Moreover, they were less alert, less interested and had reduced concentration, and were more tired, dull and passive in the hospital than at home after discharge. Vital sign checks, noises made by the staff and medical treatment were given reasons influencing sleep. Poor sleep quality correlated with negative mood. Parents' sleep quality in family-centred paediatric care is good. However, the habitual sleep efficacy before admittance to the hospital is lower than expected and needs to be further investigated. The healthcare professionals should acknowledge parents' sleep and mood when they are accommodated with their sick child. Further should care at night be scheduled and sleep promoted for the parents to maintain health and well-being in the family. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Childbirth experience questionnaire (CEQ: development and evaluation of a multidimensional instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergqvist Liselotte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative experiences of first childbirth increase risks for maternal postpartum depression and may negatively affect mothers' attitudes toward future pregnancies and choice of delivery method. Postpartum questionnaires assessing mothers' childbirth experiences are needed to aid in identifying mothers in need of support and counselling and in isolating areas of labour and birth management and care potentially in need of improvement. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a questionnaire for assessing different aspects of first-time mothers' childbirth experiences. Methods Childbirth domains were derived from literature searches, discussions with experienced midwives and interviews with first-time mothers. A draft version of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ was pilot tested for face validity among 25 primiparous women. The revised questionnaire was mailed one month postpartum to 1177 primiparous women with a normal pregnancy and spontaneous onset of active labor and 920 returned evaluable questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and promax rotation was performed to identify dimensions of the childbirth experience. Multitrait scaling analysis was performed to test scaling assumptions and reliability of scales. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing scores from subgroups known to differ in childbirth experiences. Results Factor analysis of the 22 item questionnaire yielded four factors accounting for 54% of the variance. The dimensions were labelled Own capacity, Professional support, Perceived safety, and Participation. Multitrait scaling analysis confirmed the fit of the four-dimensional model and scaling success was achieved in all four sub-scales. The questionnaire showed good sensitivity with dimensions discriminating well between groups hypothesized to differ in experience of childbirth. Conclusion The CEQ measures important dimensions of the first

  16. Co-Occurring Trajectory of Mothers' Substance Use and Psychological Control and Children's Behavior Problems: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  17. The relationship between work-family conflict and central life interests amongst single working mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Wallis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the experiences of work-family conflict amongst a group of twenty single working mothers with pre-school age children. Dubin’s (1992 theory of Central Life Interests was utilised to fully understand how the differential importance of the roles played by the women informed the level and nature of the conflict experienced. A two-phase research design was employed in which questionnaire responses from the first phase formed the basis for the second phase of in-depth qualitative interviews. Results indicated that participants viewed motherhood as their Central Life Interest and that this priority could lead them to experience greater conflict between work and family demands. Although work was rated second in importance when compared to family, it was still seen as being of great significance, not only for instrumental reasons, but also for the intellectual stimulation that it provided and opportunities to exercise independence and responsibility. Opsomming Die werk-en-familie konflik-ervarings van twintig werkende enkel-moeders met voorskoolse kinders is ondersoek in hierdie projek. Dubin (1992 se teorie van sentrale lewensbelangstellings is gebruik om te bepaal hoe die belangrikheid van die twee rolle die vlak en aard van die konflik bepaal het. Die navorsing is in twee fases gedoen: ‘n vraelys in die eerste fase, opgevolg deur in-diepte kwalitatiewe onderhoude. Resultate het gewys dat die deelnemers moederskap as hul sentrale lewensbelangstelling beskou het, en dat hierdie prioriteit kon lei tot groter konflik tussen die eise van werk en familie. Alhoewel werk as ondergeskik aan familie beoordeel is, was dit nogtans van groot belang. Aan die een kant was dit vir instrumentele redes, maar dit het ook intellektuele stimulasie verskaf en geleenthede gegee om onafhanklik en verantwoordelik op te tree.

  18. The Effect of AND#8220; The Following and Supporting Breast-feeding ProgrammeAND#8221;, That Is Applied By Family Health Staff, On The MotherAND#8217;s Effective Breast-feeding Behaviours In The First Six Months of The Post-birth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Geckil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the education and observation of supporting breast-feeding programme that is applied by family health staff on the mother’s of the post-birth period. METHOD: This research was conducted at a Family Health Center in Adiyaman between October 2008 and December 2009. Experimentally designed, study composed of 94 (42 experimental group, 52 control group volunteer mothers with babies who have not any health problems. At the beginning of study babies less than 6 months years old were taken into control group and questionnaire was applied to mothers after 6 months. Forty two babies born after completion of control group were taken into study group and a training programme on mother milk and breast-feeding was applied by family health staff to mothers in the first week of post-birth period and mothers were followed and motivated monthly. Data collected by questionnaire at the end of six months were analyzed by the independent sample t test, chi-square and percentage using SPSS (11.0 and p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The difference between experimental and control group were not statistically significant with regard to mother’s mean age, duration of marriage, pregnancy, childbirth, number of living children and economic status (p<0.05. The duration of breast-feeding alone was longer in study group than in control group (t=-6.888, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the training and follow-up of mothers about breast feeding by Family Health staff’s positively influenced mothers’ behaviors on breast-feeding period, breast feeding alone and effective breast-feeding. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 273-280

  19. Personality and fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, Elsa Lena; Wirfelt, Eva; Wängborg, Ing-Britt; Sjögren, Berit; Edman, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors and previous experiences of delivery are known to influence pregnant women's fear of childbirth. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between stable personality traits, fear of childbirth during late pregnancy, and experience of the delivery. Self-report questionnaires were completed twice, during gestation week 34-37, and at 1-week postpartum. Comparisons were made between 85 women who had sought help from a fear-of-childbirth team, and a group (n=177) from routine antenatal care. Correlations between fear of childbirth, personality variables and experience of childbirth were calculated. The women who had sought help tended to be more anxiety-prone, more short-tempered, and lower in socialisation, although within the normal range. In spite of counselling, they reported more intense fear of delivery and fear of pain compared with the comparison group. Women with intense fear of childbirth, who were low in socialisation and high in psychasthenia, had a more negative experience of their current childbirth. Women with intense fear of childbirth differ from other pregnant women also in personality. Methods for treating fear of childbirth should be further developed in order to diminish the risk of a negative birth experience.

  20. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  1. Meet the parents? Family size and the geographic proximity between adult children and older mothers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the causal effect of family size on the proximity between older mothers and adult children by using a large administrative data set from Sweden. Our main results show that adult children in Sweden are not constrained by sibship size in choosing where to live: for families with more than one child, sibship size does not affect child-mother proximity. For aging parents, however, having fewer children reduces the probability of having at least one child living nearby, which is likely to have consequences for the intensity of intergenerational contact and eldercare.

  2. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  4. Familial Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Separate Self-Reports From Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.

  5. Family burden, child disability, and the adjustment of mothers caring for children with epilepsy: Role of social support and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jeffrey M; Miller, Paul A

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. Participants included 152, predominantly Caucasian (89.5%), married (78.9%) women (95.4%). Via a web-based interface, mothers completed questionnaires assessing the impact of their child's disability on their family (i.e., severity of their child's disability, family burden, and personal stress), social resources (i.e., perceived social support), coping (i.e., emotion-focused and social support seeking), and adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability were associated with decreased perceived social support, which was then related to higher reported levels of depression and anxiety. Similarly, low levels of perceived social support partially mediated the relation between family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, mothers' perceptions of the severity of their children's disability and family burden were unrelated to their reports of emotion-focused or social support seeking coping. However, their use of emotion-focused and social support seeking behaviors was related to lower levels of depression. Low levels of perceived social support may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the relation between mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability and family burden on their mental health adjustment, such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting Efficacy and Health-promoting Behaviors for Children of Mothers from Native and Multicultural Families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sophia Jihey; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of parenting efficacy and health-promoting behaviors for children of mothers, and to explore the relationships between parenting efficacy and the behaviors of mothers from native and multicultural families in South Korea. Data was collected by a self-report questionnaire completed by 258 mothers who had 6-month to 36-month-old children attending kindergartens or multicultural family support centers located in Seoul and in Gyeounggi Province, South Korea. No significant difference in parenting efficacy was found, depending on the maternal country of origin. However, Chinese mothers performed health-promoting behaviors more frequently for their children than Korean and Vietnamese mothers did (F = 6.87, p parenting efficacy and maternal health-promoting behaviors for children were found, regardless of maternal country of origin (r = .57, p maternal health-promoting behaviors were different depending on the native country of the mothers, maternal country of origin should be considered in designing programs for improving maternal health-promoting behaviors for their children. In addition, increasing the level of parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The Experience of Childbearing Women in the Workplace: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies and Practices. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; And Others

    Secondary analyses of data collected in the Mothers in the Workplace study examined how family-relevant workplace policies and practices may influence childbearing women's labor force participation during pregnancy and after childbirth. It focused on 2,375 women who held wage and salary jobs during pregnancy and 1,761 of these women who were…

  8. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.......Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience....

  9. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperlich Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  10. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried

    2012-01-06

    This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  11. Greater involvement of HIV-infected peer-mothers in provision of reproductive health services as "family planning champions" increases referrals and uptake of family planning among HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiope, Peter; Musingye, Ezra; Makumbi, Carolyne Onyango; Bagenda, Danstan; Homsy, Jaco; Nakitende, Mai; Mubiru, Mike; Mosha, Linda Barlow; Kagawa, Mike; Namukwaya, Zikulah; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2017-06-27

    In 2012, Makerere University Johns - Hopkins University, and Mulago National Referral Hospital, with support from the National Institute of Health (under Grant number: NOT AI-01-023) undertook operational research at Mulago National Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinics. The study employed Peer Family Planning Champions to offer health education, counselling, and triage aimed at increasing the identification, referral and family planning (FP) uptake among HIV positive mothers attending the clinic. The Peer Champion Intervention to improve FP uptake was introduced into Mulago Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinic, Kampala Uganda. During the intervention period, peers provided additional FP counselling and education; assisted in identification and referral of HIV Positive mothers in need of FP services; and accompanied referred mothers to FP clinics. We compiled and compared the average proportions of mothers in need that were referred and took up FP in the pre-intervention (3 months), intervention (6 months), and post-intervention(3 months) periods using interrupted time series with segmented regression models with an autoregressive term of one. Overall, during the intervention, the proportion of referred mothers in need of FP increased by 30.4 percentage points (P family planning can be a valuable addition to clinic staff in limited-resource settings. The study provides additional evidence on the utilization of peer mothers in HIV care, improves health services uptake including family planning which is a common practice in many donor supported programs. It also provides evidence that may be used to advocate for policy revisions in low-income countries to include peers as support staff especially in busy clinic settings with poor services uptake.

  12. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  14. Parenting stress, coping strategies and risk assessment in mothers from at-risk families assisted by Child and Family Protection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Padilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study parenting stress and coping strategies in a sample of 109 mothers from at-risk families were analyzed. Results obtained show over half of these women experienced clinical levels of parenting stress, and problem focused coping strategies were the most commonly used. Moreover, the main characteristics of these families and their trajectories in Child and Family Protection Services were correlated with parenting stress and coping strategies. The global valuation of family risk informed by professionals was significantly related to parenting stress.

  15. Observed Mother- and Father-Child Interaction Differences in Families with Medically Assisted Reproduction-Conceived Twins and Singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Koh, Bibiana D

    2017-12-01

    Increased medically assisted reproduction (MAR) use to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birth rate. Little is known about parent-child relationships for twin relative to singleton children in middle childhood. This study fills this gap by examining parent-child relationships in 57 families with eighty 6- to 12-year-old MAR twin and singleton children using observational data (warm and supportive communication, control, and hostility). Nested ANCOVAs indicate that while mothers exhibit similar interactional behaviors toward twins and singletons, fathers have less optimum behaviors toward twins relative to singletons. Twins displayed less engaged behavior with mothers and fathers relative to singletons. Given the vitality of parent-child relationships for family and child adjustment, future studies should examine determinants and outcomes of twin-singleton relationship differences to bolster twins' and their families' functioning. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. Mechanisms of Change: Testing how Preventative Interventions Impact Psychological and Physiological Stress Functioning in Mothers in Neglectful Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventative interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) or Psychoeducational Parenting (PPI) interventions was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services (CS) as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers (NC). The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were: CPP (n = 44), PPI (n = 34), CS (n = 27), and NC (n = 52). Mothers and infants who were 13-months of age were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and post-intervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year post-intervention. Results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventtive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multi-level assessments of intervention process and outcome. PMID:26535951

  17. Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Emmons, Karen; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether a family-based intervention targeting both smoking fathers and nonsmoking mothers in well-child health clinics is effective in increasing fathers' abstinence from cigarette smoking. This parallel 2-arm randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 1158 families with a daily-smoking father, a nonsmoking mother, and a child aged 0-18 months from the 22 maternal and child health centers in Hong Kong. The intervention group received the family-based intervention, including 6 nurse-led individual face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions within 1 month after recruitment and a voluntary face-to-face family counseling session (FCS). The control group received a leaflet, a self-help booklet, and brief quitting advice only. Father-reported 7-day and 6-month abstinence, smoking reduction, quit attempts, mother-reported help and support, and child salivary cotinine level were assessed at 12 months. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare these outcomes between the 2 study groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported a greater prevalence of 7-day (13.7% vs 8.0%; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; P fathers' self-reported abstinence (20.2% vs 12.3%; P = .02), mothers' help (66.1% vs 43.8%; P fathers (55.0% vs 45.4%; P family-based smoking cessation intervention for the families in the well-child healthcare setting was effective in increasing the fathers' self-reported abstinence. Additional participation in the FCS increased mothers' help and support to the fathers. Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN99111655; Hkuctr.com: HKUCTR-465. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The economic impact of work and family issues: child care satisfaction and financial considerations of employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poms, Laura Wheeler; Botsford, Whitney E; Kaplan, Seth A; Buffardi, Louis C; O'Brien, Alison S

    2009-10-01

    This article introduces the role of financial considerations into work-family research by considering the costs and benefits of employed mothers' child care satisfaction. Data from 2 samples offer empirical support for the addition of a fourth factor to a current measure of child care satisfaction so that the measure reflects mothers' satisfaction not only with caregiver attentiveness, communication, and dependability but also with child care-related financial considerations. This article also discusses relationships between child care satisfaction and work-family conflict and job satisfaction for this population. The results of this study provide both organizations and child care providers with a broader picture of the concerns that employed mothers face as they search for reliable, affordable child care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Home childbirth: progress or retrocession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira SANFELICE

    Full Text Available Giving birth at home represents a rising modality of delivery care in the Brazilian society, although in unrepresentative proportion when compared to the number of hospital childbirths. In Brazil, the topic has been broadly discussed by different professional categories, highlighting the safety issue involved in the process. The aim of this theoretical and reflective study was to present a brief overview of the overall care related to home childbirth, also questioning the reality of the contemporary Brazilian obstetric scenario. The scientific literature presents both obstetric and neonatal outcomes as favorable to home childbirth; similar risks when compared to hospital childbirth and higher rates of maternal satisfaction, and these both factors justify its practice. Therefore, a movement of women who are deeply unhappy with the current model of obstetric care is currently observed and they have been opting for home childbirth as a response to institutional violence, fragmentation and depersonalization of hospital care.

  20. [Home childbirth: progress or retrocession?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanfelice, Clara Fróes Oliveira; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2014-03-01

    Giving birth at home represents a rising modality of delivery care in the Brazilian society, although in unrepresentative proportion when compared to the number of hospital childbirths. In Brazil, the topic has been broadly discussed by different professional categories, highlighting the safety issue involved in the process. The aim of this theoretical and reflective study was to present a brief overview of the overall care related to home childbirth, also questioning the reality of the contemporary Brazilian obstetric scenario. The scientific literature presents both obstetric and neonatal outcomes as favorable to home childbirth; similar risks when compared to hospital childbirth and higher rates of maternal satisfaction, and these both factors justify its practice. Therefore, a movement of women who are deeply unhappy with the current model of obstetric care is currently observed and they have been opting for home childbirth as a response to institutional violence,fragmentation and depersonalization of hospital care.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Relationship Dissatisfaction in Women During the First Year After Childbirth: Implications for Family and Relationship Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehei, Marjan

    2016-08-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of relationship dissatisfaction among Australian women during the first year after childbirth and to uncover factors affecting their relationships. Postnatal women who had given birth during the previous 12 months were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online study. A comprehensive, multisection questionnaire, as well as the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Patient Health Questionnaire - 8 (PHQ-8), were used to collect data. Responses were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results showed that 37.2% of the participants experienced relationship dissatisfaction. Results of the multiple logistic regression revealed that the following were significant risk factors for relationship dissatisfaction during the first postpartum year: annual income of less than AU$50,000, sexual dysfunction, and a clinical diagnosis of depression and having symptoms of depression according to the PHQ-8 scores (p relationship, women who were in a same-sex relationship were less likely to have relationship dissatisfaction. In addition, in the period six to 12 months postpartum, women were less likely to have relationship dissatisfaction compared to the period 5 months or less postpartum (p < 0.05).

  2. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers and Siblings in Families of Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfaglione, Rina; Hastings, Richard P.; Felce, David; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies have reported on the psychological well-being of family members of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT). Eighty-seven mothers of girls and women with RTT completed a questionnaire survey about their daughters' behavioral phenotype, current health, and behavior problems, and their own and a sibling's well-being. Mothers…

  3. Disentangling an Invisible Trade : state interventions in Dutch and Dutch-Curaçaoan single-mother families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    The doctoral thesis sheds light on the interactional and institutional processes through which child welfare and child protection practices are delivered to fifteen Dutch and fifteen Dutch-Curaçaoan single-mother families with multiple problems in the Netherlands in order to reveal structures of

  4. Linking Mother-Father Differences in Parenting to a Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Conger, Rand D.

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a sample of 451 families with a child in eighth grade at the time of study, three research questions have been addressed: First, the study explored the ways in which mothers and fathers differ with regard to four parenting styles. Second, the study examined the manner in which individual parenting styles combine to…

  5. Value Transmissions Between Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescent and Emerging Adult Children: The Role of the Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.C.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study investigates father–child, mother–child, and father–mother transmissions on 'work-as-duty' and 'hedonism' across a 5-year period when children traverse late adolescence and emerging adulthood (N = 402 families). We found bidirectional father–child and

  6. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  7. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  8. [The actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and mother-adolescent communication on depression in mothers and adolescents in Kirogi families according to adolescent' development stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the level of depression, self-esteem and mother-adolescent (M-A) communication perceived by both mothers and adolescents between the early adolescent (E-A) group and the late adolescent (L-A) group; and to examine the actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and M-A communication on depression in mothers and adolescents. Participants were 107 Kirogi families who resided in the Midwest region of the U. S. Data were collected from September, 2008 to March, 2009 using the scales of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-esteem and Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory. Mothers in E-A group reported higher scores on depression than mothers in L-A group. Adolescents in L-A group reported higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem than adolescents in E-A group. In the E-A group, mothers' self-esteem had big actor effect on mothers' depression and partner effect on adolescents' depression. In the L-A group, self-esteem of mothers and adolescents had actor effect on their depression respectively without partner effect. M-A communication of mothers influences mothers' depression negatively and adolescents' depression positively. In both group, M-A communication influences their depression with mediating effect of self-esteem. To promote Kirogi families' mental health, programs for mothers and adolescents should be developed differently according to adolescents' development stage.

  9. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  10. Comparison of mutans streptococcal strains of father, mother, and child in indian families using chromosomal DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Amar N; Damle, Sg

    2013-09-01

    It is now understood and accepted that there is a direct transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from the mother to the child. There is also a direct correlation between the levels of MS in the mother and the caries status of the child. Advanced technologies in molecular biology like chromosomal DNA fngerprinting have established beyond doubt that the mother and the child bear similar strains of MS. A study was designed with the aim of comparing the MS strains between the father, mother and the child in Indian families. A group of 20 Indian families comprising of the father, mother and child were selected and divided into caries free and caries active groups. Mixed salivary samples were collected from the individuals and were cultured for the growth of Mutans streptococci. The colonies were counted on a colony counter and a comparison was made between the mutans streptococcal counts of the mother and the caries status of the child. Further, the genotypes of the father, mother and the child were isolated and compared using the technique of chromosomal DNA fngerprinting. Following electrophoresis, the band pattern obtained was compared for similarities or differences. The results of the same were tabulated and evaluated statistically. When the colony counts of the mother (in CFU/ml) were compared with the 'dft' status of the child, a positive correlation was seen in group II. Intergroup comparison using the unpaired T test was statistically signifcant. Electrophoretic analysis of the chromosomal DNA on the agarose gels revealed identical band patterns in 13 mother-child pairs, which was statistically signifcant. Three of the father-child pairs showed identical band patterns, which was statistically signifcant. Intergroup comparison using Chi-square test was not statistically signifcant. One may conclude that irrespective of the caries status of the child, majority of the mother child pairs share identical strains of MS and hence the mother is the primary source of

  11. Discrepancies in mother and child perceptions of spina bifida medical responsibilities during the transition to adolescence: associations with family conflict and medical adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihogios, Alexandra M; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated mother-child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother-child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time.

  12. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  13. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following Childbirth: Prevalence and Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Zainab; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2013-03-01

    Childbirth might be a traumatic event for some women. This study was conducted with the objective of investigating the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. The study was designed using a descriptive correlation scheme. The participants were selected from the women referred to the healthcare centers affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Personal interviews were conducted with 600 women who were 6-8 weeks postpartum and had been undergone to this center for postpartum and child care. One hundred and three (17. 2%) women had symptoms of PTSD following childbirth based on the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS). The results of logistic regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between maternal occupation (P = 0.01), depression level (P childbirth. PTSD from childbirth occurs in some women. Early identification of risk factors should lead to early therapeutic intervention in the mothers at risk of PTSD.

  15. Plot and irony in childbirth narratives of middle-class Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    Brazil's rate of cesarean deliveries is among the highest in the world and constitutes the majority of childbirths in private hospitals. This study examines ways middle-class Brazilian women are exercising agency in this context. It draws from sociolinguistics to examine narrative structure and dramatic properties of 120 childbirth narratives of 68 low- to high-income women. Surgical delivery constituted 62% of the total. I focus on 20 young middle-class women, of whom 17 had C-sections. Doctors determined mode of childbirth pre-emptively or appeared to accommodate women's wishes, while framing the scenario as necessitating surgical delivery. The women strove to imbue C-section deliveries with value and meaning through staging, filming, familial presence, attempting induced labor, or humanized childbirth. Their stories indicate that class privilege does not lead to choice over childbirth mode. The women nonetheless struggle over the significance of their agency in childbirth. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  16. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbekenga Columba K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care

  17. Associations between mother's and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinKyoung Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which mothers' and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary time (ST are associated across different settings (i.e., at home versus outside of the home, on weekdays versus weekends is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to: (Strong et al., 2005 describe associations between mothers' and children's levels of MVPA and ST, and (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 determine how setting and mothers' and children's characteristics moderate the associations. We used baseline data from the University of Michigan Healthy Families baseline data (2013–2015 from 55 mothers who have children in two age groups (3–5.99years [n=25] and 10–12.99years [n=30] for the analysis. MVPA and ST data were collected using accelerometry over a seven day period. Proportion of time spent in MVPA and ST between 08:00am and 08:59pm was calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine associations. After controlling for selected mother and child characteristics and setting variables, MVPA and ST levels were positively associated in mothers and their children (P<0.001. The mother-child associations for MVPA and ST were 1.7 times (β=0.365 versus β=0.216 and 2.2 times (β=0.255 versus β=0.117 stronger, respectively, when both were at home together. The association did not differ by day of the week. The variations by setting underline the importance of developing home-based, family-centered interventions to increase PA and decrease ST. Keywords: Physical activity, Sedentary time, Home environment

  18. The obstetrical and postpartum benefits of continuous support during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K D; Klaus, P H; Klaus, M H

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding the effectiveness of continuous support provided by a trained laywoman (doula) during childbirth on obstetrical and postpartum outcomes. Twelve individual randomized trials have compared obstetrical and postpartum outcomes between doula-supported women and women who did not receive doula support during childbirth. Three meta-analyses, which used different approaches, have been performed on the results of the clinical trials. Emotional and physical support significantly shortens labor and decreases the need for cesarean deliveries, forceps and vacuum extraction, oxytocin augmentation, and analgesia. Doula-supported mothers also rate childbirth as less difficult and painful than do women not supported by a doula. Labor support by fathers does not appear to produce similar obstetrical benefits. Eight of the 12 trials report early or late psychosocial benefits of doula support. Early benefits include reductions in state anxiety scores, positive feelings about the birth experience, and increased rates of breastfeeding initiation. Later postpartum benefits include decreased symptoms of depression, improved self-esteem, exclusive breastfeeding, and increased sensitivity of the mother to her child's needs. The results of these 12 trials strongly suggest that doula support is an essential component of childbirth. A thorough reorganization of current birth practices is in order to ensure that every woman has access to continuous emotional and physical support during labor.

  19. Mother-child relationships, family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Siener, Shannon; Brumariu, Laura E

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the study was to examine several factors that may explain the development of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (n = 1,364 families), we examined mother-child relationships, other aspects of family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety in preadolescence. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that children who were more anxious at the beginning of middle childhood had been more behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers, and in middle childhood lived in families who experienced more negative life events and had mothers who were more anxious. Children who became more anxious across middle childhood were less behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers and in middle childhood perceived less security in their attachments to their mothers, experienced more negative life events, and had mothers who were more anxious. The findings illustrate the need to include a broad set of risk factors in etiological models of anxiety. In addition, the evidence for cumulative effects suggests several possible points of intervention with anxious children and their parents.

  20. Discrepancies in Autonomy and Relatedness Promoting Behaviors of Substance Using Mothers and Their Children: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.

  1. Fear of childbirth in primiparous Italian pregnant women: The role of anxiety, depression, and couple adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgora, Sara; Fenaroli, Valentina; Prino, Laura Elvira; Rollè, Luca; Sechi, Cristina; Trovato, Annamaria; Vismara, Laura; Volpi, Barbara; Brustia, Piera; Lucarelli, Loredana; Tambelli, Renata; Saita, Emanuela

    2018-04-01

    The prevalence of fear of childbirth in pregnant women is described to be about 20-25%, while 6-10% of expectant mothers report a severe fear that impairs their daily activities as well as their ability to cope with labour and childbirth. Research on fear of childbirth risk factors has produced heterogeneous results while being mostly done with expectant mothers from northern Europe, northern America, and Australia. The present research investigates whether fear of childbirth can be predicted by socio-demographic variables, distressing experiences before pregnancy, medical-obstetric factors and psychological variables with a sample of 426 Italian primiparous pregnant women. Subjects, recruited between the 34th and 36th week of pregnancy, completed a questionnaire packet that included the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, as well as demographic and anamnestic information. Fear of childbirth was treated as both a continuous and a dichotomous variable, in order to differentiate expectant mothers as with a severe fear of childbirth. Results demonstrate that anxiety as well as couple adjustment predicted fear of childbirth when treated as a continuous variable, while clinical depression predicted severe fear of childbirth. Findings support the key role of psychological variables in predicting fear of childbirth. Results suggest the importance of differentiating low levels of fear from intense levels of fear in order to promote adequate support interventions. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  3. The Effect of Debriefing and Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Postpartum Depression in Traumatic Childbirth: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Abdollahpour; Afsaneh Keramat; Seyyed Abbas Mousavi; Ahmad Khosravi; zahra motaghi

    2018-01-01

    Background & aim: Childbirth is a stressful event in women’s lives, and if a mother perceives it as an unpleasant event, it can influence her postpartum mental health. Depression is a common mental disorder, which can has serious consequences depending on its severity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of debriefing and brief cognitive-behavioral therapy on postpartum depression in traumatic childbirth. Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 179 mothers who experien...

  4. Impact of Relationship Status and Quality (Family Type) on the Mental Health of Mothers and Their Children: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannighofer, Jasmin; Foran, Heather; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Mothers and children of single or unstable relationships have higher rates of mental health problems than those in stable two-parent families. Despite results that mothers and children of conflictual two-parent families also show impairments, most studies do not consider relationship quality. Therefore, the present study combines relationship status and relationship quality to a "family type." The present study compares German mothers and children of two-parent families with high relationship quality to those from two-parent families with a low quality, single mothers, and unstable families. Data of n  = 249 families from a 10-year follow-up longitudinal study show that mothers with a high relationship quality show the highest levels of mental health whereas all other groups show at least a 3.2 times higher probability of mental health symptoms. Children of mothers in unstable relationships show a 8.2 times higher probability to emotional or behavioral problems than children of mothers with high relationship quality. Therefore, not only relationship status but also relationship quality should be combined and this "family type" should be considered in future research.

  5. Impact of Relationship Status and Quality (Family Type on the Mental Health of Mothers and Their Children: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Hannighofer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mothers and children of single or unstable relationships have higher rates of mental health problems than those in stable two-parent families. Despite results that mothers and children of conflictual two-parent families also show impairments, most studies do not consider relationship quality. Therefore, the present study combines relationship status and relationship quality to a “family type.” The present study compares German mothers and children of two-parent families with high relationship quality to those from two-parent families with a low quality, single mothers, and unstable families. Data of n = 249 families from a 10-year follow-up longitudinal study show that mothers with a high relationship quality show the highest levels of mental health whereas all other groups show at least a 3.2 times higher probability of mental health symptoms. Children of mothers in unstable relationships show a 8.2 times higher probability to emotional or behavioral problems than children of mothers with high relationship quality. Therefore, not only relationship status but also relationship quality should be combined and this “family type” should be considered in future research.

  6. Continuous support for women during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Meghan A; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Sakala, Carol; Fukuzawa, Rieko K; Cuthbert, Anna

    2017-07-06

    Historically, women have generally been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has often become the exception rather than the routine. The primary objective was to assess the effects, on women and their babies, of continuous, one-to-one intrapartum support compared with usual care, in any setting. Secondary objectives were to determine whether the effects of continuous support are influenced by:1. Routine practices and policies in the birth environment that may affect a woman's autonomy, freedom of movement and ability to cope with labour, including: policies about the presence of support people of the woman's own choosing; epidural analgesia; and continuous electronic fetal monitoring.2. The provider's relationship to the woman and to the facility: staff member of the facility (and thus has additional loyalties or responsibilities); not a staff member and not part of the woman's social network (present solely for the purpose of providing continuous support, e.g. a doula); or a person chosen by the woman from family members and friends;3. Timing of onset (early or later in labour);4. Model of support (support provided only around the time of childbirth or extended to include support during the antenatal and postpartum periods);5. Country income level (high-income compared to low- and middle-income). We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 June 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials, cluster-randomised trials comparing continuous support during labour with usual care. Quasi-randomised and cross-over designs were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We sought

  7. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  8. Mothers' health and work-related factors at 11 weeks postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Pat; Dowd, Bryan; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Dagher, Rada; Ukestad, Laurie; McCaffrey, David; Lundberg, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Many new mothers return to work soon after childbirth. This study examines personal and work-related factors associated with the postpartum health of employed women 11 weeks after childbirth. Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited 817 Minnesota mothers into the study while they were hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at 5 and 11 weeks postpartum. Eligible women were 18 years or older, employed, and spoke English and gave birth to a singleton infant. Multivariate models using instrumental variables (2-stage least squares) were used to estimate personal and employment characteristics associated with women's physical and mental health and postpartum symptoms. At 11 weeks postpartum, 661 participants (81% of enrollees) completed a full interview, and 50% of participants had returned to work. On average, women reported 4.1 (SD 3.2) childbirth-related symptoms, most frequently fatigue (43%). Factors significantly associated with better health outcomes included better preconception health, the absence of prenatal mood problems, more control over work and home activities, more social support at work and home, and less job stress. The findings suggest postpartum women need to be evaluated regarding their fatigue levels and mental and physical symptoms. Women whose fatigue or postpartum symptoms limit daily role function may find it helpful to have health care clinicians counsel them on strategies to decrease job stress, increase social support at work and home, and certify their use of intermittent family and medical leave to help them manage their symptoms.

  9. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  10. The association of family food security and depression in mothers having primary school children in Ray-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payab, Moloud; Motlagh, Ahmad-Reza Dorosty; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rostami, Reza; Siassi, Fereydoun

    2014-01-01

    As a major public health problem, food insecurity has adverse social and psychological effects, in addition to the impact on public health. This study aimed to determine the association of household food security and depression in mothers with primary school children in Ray County. This descriptive, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 430 mothers with primary school children in the spring 2010. During a two-stage cluster sampling, an 18-items food security questionnaire (USDA) and the Beck depression inventory were completed via interviewing mothers. Chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, simple regression and stepwise multiple regression were used to describe and analyze data, and to identify related factors using SPSS-16 software. The prevalence of food insecurity and depression in mothers were 50.2% and 51.4% respectively. Also 34.6% of mothers in the "food secure" group were depressed and 77.8% in "food insecure with hunger" group were depressed and this difference was statistically significant. Twelve out of the 20 examined variables (age, family size, number of children, economic status, home ownership, employment households, educational level of the mother and also the head of household, height, energy intake, and carbohydrate and protein intakes) were significantly associated with food security and depression. Food insecurity and depression in mothers with primary school children in Ray County showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001). The prevalence of household food insecurity and depression in the studied population were high. Since there is a significant relationship between food insecurity and depression, more attention must be paid to this group.

  11. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  12. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.

  13. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji

    2011-11-01

    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  14. Apparatus for Assisting Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Lawson, Seth W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention consists of novel, scissors-like forceps in combination with optical monitoring hardware for measuring the extraction forces on a fetal head. The novel features of the forceps together with knowledge of real time forces on the fetal head enable a user to make a much safer delivery for mother and baby.

  15. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

  16. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  17. Family Conflict and Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy Among High-Risk Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassé, Julie F.H.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Oosterman, Mirjam; van der Geest, Victor R.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Mothers with a history of institutional care in adolescence are often involved in high-conflict partner relationships, which may undermine relationships with children and confidence in oneself as a parent. Not all mothers think of themselves as bad parents under these circumstances. We turned to

  18. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  19. Of Pain and Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2017-01-01

    Childbirth is often understood as a paradigmatically "happy" event where good outcomes are expected and the process anticipated as a reason for celebration. Yet the narratives in this volume reflect sadness and grief, even when a healthy child is born. In this essay, I interrogate the genesis of and our relationship to grief in birth. To the extent such grief is a product of the chasm between the imagined ideal and what women experience, we may redress such grief by orienting around a more robust and woman-centered notion of the "good birth". Yet there is a way in which grief is also intrinsic to birth, and turning away from the loss that birth by its nature entails may compound the suffering of childbearing women. Beginning with the observation that the one narrative in which grief is accepted and attended to-a full term stillbirth-also stands out for the exemplary care provided, I consider the possibility that making space for grief in births, including those with good outcomes, will lead us to better ways of thinking about birth and providing care for childbearing women.

  20. 'Trying to make it all come together': structuration and employed mothers' experience of family food provisioning in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Edginton, Barry; O'neil, John

    2012-09-01

    This research examined the aetiology of employed mothers' food choice and food provisioning decisions using a qualitative, grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews using the Food Choice Map were conducted with eleven middle-income employed mothers of elementary school-age children. Results demonstrated that the women exhibited conflicting identities with respect to food choice and provisioning. As 'good mothers' they were the primary food and nutrition caregivers for the family, desiring to provide healthy, homemade foods their families preferred at shared family meals. They also sought to be independent selves, working outside the home, within the context of a busy modern family. Increased food autonomy of children, and lack of time due to working outside the home and children's involvement in extracurricular activities, were significant influences on their food choice and provisioning. This resulted in frequently being unable to live up to their expectations of consistently providing healthy homemade foods and having shared family meals. To cope, the women frequently relied on processed convenience and fast foods despite their acknowledged inferior nutritional status. Using Giddens' structuration theory, the dynamic relationships between the women's food choice and provisioning actions, their identities and larger structures including socio-cultural norms, conditions of work and the industrial food system were explored. The ensuing dietary pattern of the women and their families increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including obesity. These results have implications for public health responses to improve population health by shifting the focus from individual-level maternal influences to structural influences on diet.

  1. Customs and Desirable after Childbirth, in Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are a precious gift from God, and the blessing of a child is a special time in a person's life. All cultures and religious traditions have certain ways of welcoming a newborn child into the community; also, each culture and religion has its own customs and traditions for the birth of a child. During and after the birth of a Muslim child, there are certain rituals the mother and father must perform. Some of these traditions are culturally inspired, and others are performed according to passages in the Nobel Quran that detail the appropriate actions after childbirth. We explain some of these customs which include: Birth customs (the Adhan, Male circumcision, Aqiqah, Shaving the hair, Congratulate and Walīmah; Muslim baby names and Breastfeeding. There are a number of birth customs common to Muslims, an appreciation of which provides unique insights into the lives of Muslims.

  2. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ju Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  3. The Relationship Between Family, Parent, and Child Characteristics and Intimate-Partner Violence (IPV) Among Ukrainian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Savchuk, Olena; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of Ukrainian mothers of schoolchildren, and to examine the relationship between IPV and family, parent, and child characteristics utilizing multilevel models. Mothers of children aged 9-16 (n = 278, 93.5% Ukrainians) answered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) assessing IPV. We also examined the relationship between IPV and maternal age, education, employment and marital status, family income, and rural or urban residence. Eighty-one percent of women reported psychological violence and 58% reported physical assault. On average, women reported 66 instances of IPV during the last year. Multilevel modeling revealed that lower maternal education, unemployment, not living with the husband or partner, and urban residency were associated with higher IPV victimization. Younger age and family income were not significantly related to IPV. IPV was a significant social problem in the present sample of Ukrainian mothers of school age children. Future policy and violence prevention programming should focus on supporting academic and employment opportunities for women, particularly for those living in urban areas.

  4. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics. PMID:28696388

  5. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work-Family Spillover in Working Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-07-11

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  6. Adding School to Work-Family Balance: The Role of Support for Portuguese Working Mothers Attending a Master's Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cláudia; Matias, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the work, family, and study experiences of Portuguese professional women in two different career stages: early career and mid-career. Using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 22 working mothers enrolled in a master's degree, this study explores their experiences of combining the roles of mother, worker and…

  7. Coping with Childbirth: Brain Structural Associations of Personal Growth Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mangelsdorf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Major life events require psychological adaptations and can be accompanied by brain structural and functional changes. The goal of the current study was to investigate the association of personal growth initiative (PGI as a form of proactive coping strategy before childbirth, with gray matter volume after delivery. Childbirth is one of the few predictable major life events, which, while being one of the most positive experiences for many, is also accompanied by multidimensional stress for the mother. Previous research has shown that high stress is associated with reductions in gray matter volume in limbic cortices as well as the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We hypothesized that PGI before childbirth is positively related to gray matter volume after delivery, especially in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC. In a prospective study, 22 first-time mothers answered questionnaires about their PGI level 1 month before birth (T1 and 1 month after delivery (T2. Four months after giving birth, a follow-up assessment was applied with 16 of these mothers (T3. Structural brain data were acquired at both postpartal measurement occasions. Voxel-based morphometry was used to correlate prenatal PGI levels with postpartal gray matter volume. Higher PGI levels before delivery were positively associated with larger gray matter volume in the vmPFC directly after childbirth. Previous structural neuroimaging research in the context of major life events focused primarily on pathological reactions to stress (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder; PTSD. The current study gives initial indications that proactive coping may be positively associated with gray matter volume in the vmPFC, a brain region which shows volumetric reductions in PTSD patients.

  8. Steps Toward Innovative Childbirth Education: Selected Strategies From the Blueprint for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, R. Rima; Corry, Maureen P.

    2010-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of Lamaze International, Childbirth Connection celebrates landmark accomplishments in education for childbearing women and families, and takes stock of the changing educational needs and preferences of current childbearing families in looking toward the future. Childbirth Connection's multi-year, multi-stakeholder Transforming Maternity Care initiative resulted in two landmark reports: 2020 Vision for a High-Quality, High-Value Maternity Care System and Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High-Quality, High-Value Maternity Care System. Selected recommendations of greatest relevance to the field of childbirth education are discussed, and the new Transforming Maternity Care Partnership is introduced. PMID:21629389

  9. Men, masculine identities and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Alan; Coe, Christine

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, fathers' experiences during childbirth have attracted much research and policy interest. However, little of this work has been grounded in the first-hand accounts of men and there is a lack of theory-based research to help understand men's thoughts and practices around childbirth. This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken with first-time fathers and healthcare professionals. It draws on Connell's (1995) conceptualisation of hegemonic masculinity to explore how men construct masculine identities within the context of pregnancy and childbirth and also how healthcare professionals construct masculinity. The paper demonstrates the ways in which men can find themselves marginalised within the context of pregnancy and childbirth, but are still able to draw on identifiable markers of masculine practice which enable them to enact a masculine form congruent with dominant masculinity. It also illustrates how healthcare professionals' constructions of masculinity enable them to predict how men will behave and allow them to position men in ways that involve minimum disruption to their own practice. The paper also highlights how men's marginal status is embedded in the dynamics of the social structure, which produce and reproduce dominant masculine identities within the context of childbirth. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The impact of caring for children with mental retardation on families as perceived by mothers in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhani, A.; Gavino, I.; Yousafzai, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how families perceive the positive and negative impacts of caring for a child with mental retardation. Methods: The quantitative descriptive study was conducted from January to August 2007 and comprised 54 families attending a private day-care centre for children with special needs in Karachi, Pakistan. The Kansas Inventory of Parental Perceptions was used to assess mothers' perceptions on the impact of caring for a child with mental retardation. Positive contributions, social comparisons with others, understanding of disability and perception of control were assessed. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mothers reported positive contribution to family life as a result of caring for a child with mental retardation (Mean: 2.95+-0.37). There was an acceptance of the situation and a trend towards upward favourable comparison with other families (Mean: 3.13+-0.07). Conclusions: Contrary to earlier studies exploring the impact of caring for a child with disabilities having largely focused on negative contributions, the study highlights some positive contributions. (author)

  11. The mismatch between high effort and low reward in household and family work predicts impaired health among mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Siegrist, Johannes; Geyer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    So far, Siegrist's model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) has been tested almost exclusively for paid employment. This article reports results on a newly developed questionnaire measuring ERI in unpaid household and family work. Using data of a population-based sample of 3129 German mothers, logistic regression analyses were performed to test the following three main assumptions: (i) high effort combined with low reward in household and family work increases the risk of poor health; (ii) a high level of overcommitment may enhance the risk of poor health; and (iii) mothers reporting an extrinsic high ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. ERI was significantly related to self-rated health, somatic complaints and mental health. A high level of overcommitment increased the risk of poor health, whereas ERI and overcommitment combined was associated with the highest risk of poor health. Statistically significant synergy effects of combined exposure of ERI and overcommitment were found for 'anxiety'. With some limitations, all three assumptions underlying the ERI model were confirmed. Thus, we conclude that ERI is applicable to domestic work and may provide an explanatory framework to assess stress experiences in mothers.

  12. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  13. Introducing Emergency Preparedness in Childbirth Education Classes

    OpenAIRE

    DeWald, Lauren; Fountain, Lily

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of recent natural and man-made disasters and emergency situations, pregnant women are especially vulnerable. The authors of this column encourage childbirth educators to include disaster preparedness instruction and emergency childbirth techniques in their class content.

  14. Perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth: an exploratory study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana

    2013-03-01

    The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  16. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after

  17. Relating stress of mothers of children with developmental disabilities to family-school partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Hodapp, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    Although mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high levels of stress and schools constitute an important resource, the relation remains unknown between maternal stress and educational services. Responding to a national, web-based survey, 965 mothers of students with disabilities completed a 163-item questionnaire about parent stress. We examined which child, parent, and parent-school characteristics correlated with maternal stress. Mothers with lower stress levels reported better parent-school relationships and low levels of parent advocacy. However, lower stress levels were predominantly shown by mothers with good-to-excellent parent-school relationships (vs. poor-to-fair partnerships) and who engaged in virtually no (vs. any) advocacy activities. Lower maternal stress levels were also noted when children had fewer behavior problems, Down syndrome, and did not have autism. Less stress was also reported by mothers who had not enacted procedural safeguards, were minorities, and rated themselves lower on neuroticism and were more extroverted, dependable, and open to new experiences. This study has important implications for practitioners and researchers.

  18. Maternal perceptions of family-centred support and their associations with the mother-nurse relationship in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Mori, Akiko

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate maternal perceptions of family-centred support with hospitalised preterm infants and their relationship between mothers and nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Mothers who gave birth to preterm infants tend to suffer more stress and need individual support based on family-centred care. However, there may be a shortage of support for mothers to obtain parent-crafting skills before bringing their infants home. This cross-sectional study used path analysis and multiple group analysis to evaluate a structural equation model of the relationship between maternal perception based on family-centred support in parent-crafting training and the mothers-nurses collaboration. We analysed data from 98 mothers (valid response proportion, 41.0%) whose infants were hospitalised in the NICU of two types of perinatal centres in Japan. We used three revised standardised questionnaires in Japanese: Measure of Process of Care in the NICU (Neo-MPOC 20), Enabling Practice Scale in the NICU (Neo-EPS) and the author-developed Mother and Infant Questionnaire. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between mothers and nurses was linked to three factors related to the perinatal centres' support: consideration of parents' feelings, ability to deal with specific needs and coordination in dealing with situations that interact with provision of parent-friendly visual information. Separate path analyses for each perinatal centre showed the same pattern, although the standard coefficients were different. Maternal perceptions of family-centred support with hospitalised preterm infants promoted better collaboration between mothers and nurses to obtain parent-crafting skills at two types of perinatal units in Japan. Clear visual information materials might promote better maternal understanding of their infants, help in acquisition of parent-crafting skills and improve mother-nurse collaboration, with the result that mothers are better able to care for their infants

  19. Social support and the working hours of employed mothers in Europe: The relevance of the state, the workplace, and the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Anja-Kristin; van der Lippe, Tanja; Maas, Ineke

    2012-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of state, workplace, and family support on the working hours of employed mothers and how these different support sources interact. Data taken from the European Social Survey 2004/2005 as well as country-specific information were used to estimate several hierarchical models. We find evidence that the availability of supportive workplace arrangements and family support positively impact the working hours of employed mothers and that state policies facilitating the traditional family have a negative effect. There is weak support for a positive relationship between state policies facilitating the dual-earner family and working hours of employed mothers. In addition, most of the sources of support appear to be complementary. Supportive family role models and supportive workplace arrangements have a reinforcing relationship, as do publicly funded child care and supportive workplace arrangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surrogacy: outcomes for surrogate mothers, children and the resulting families-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Loft, Anne; Pinborg, Anja; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Bergh, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Surrogacy is a highly debated method mainly used for treating women with infertility caused by uterine factors. This systematic review summarizes current levels of knowledge of the obstetric, medical and psychological outcomes for the surrogate mothers, the intended parents and children born as a result of surrogacy. PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases up to February 2015 were searched. Cohort studies and case series were included. Original studies published in English and the Scandinavian languages were included. In case of double publications, the latest study was included. Abstracts only and case reports were excluded. Studies with a control group and case series (more than three cases) were included. Cohort studies, but not case series, were assessed for methodological quality, in terms of risk of bias. We examined a variety of main outcomes for the surrogate mothers, children and intended mothers, including obstetric outcome, relationship between surrogate mother and intended couple, surrogate's experiences after relinquishing the child, preterm birth, low birthweight, birth defects, perinatal mortality, child psychological development, parent-child relationship, and disclosure to the child. The search returned 1795 articles of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. The medical outcome for the children was satisfactory and comparable to previous results for children conceived after fresh IVF and oocyte donation. The rate of multiple pregnancies was 2.6-75.0%. Preterm birth rate in singletons varied between 0 and 11.5% and low birthweight occurred in between 0 and 11.1% of cases. At the age of 10 years there were no major psychological differences between children born after surrogacy and children born after other types of assisted reproductive technology (ART) or after natural conception. The obstetric outcomes for the surrogate mothers were mainly reported from case series. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were reported in between 3.2 and 10% of cases and

  1. [Osteoporosis in all young daughters of a mother with multiple osteoporotic fractures. A case of familial osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, M S; Díaz, A G; Oliveri, M B; Di Gregorio, S; Mautalen, C A

    2001-01-01

    We herein describe a family whose female members are all osteoporotic: a postmenopausal mother and her three premenopausal daughters. The mother aged 60 presented axial and peripheral fractures, and very low bone mineral density (BMD). She reported that her grandmother had suffered a hip fracture. The eldest daughter aged 30 suffered multiple vertebral fractures during pregnancy and lactation associated with very low BMD. In view of these observations, the other two daughters aged 29 and 27 years respectively were evaluated. BMD was found to be severely diminished according to densitometric values for osteoporosis established by WHO, but they had no history of bone fractures. Probably the strong genetic component in bone mass is responsible for the severely diminished BMD observed in all the women in this family, as well as the occurrence of bone fractures in two of them. To our knowledge, there are no similar reports in the literature. Our results evidence the importance of evaluating bone mass in the offspring of an individual presenting severe osteoporosis, in order to detect family members with low bone mass and at high risk of developing bone fractures.

  2. Marital conflict by proxy after father kills mother: the family therapist as an expert witness in court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, T

    1998-01-01

    The father killing the mother leaves the children effectively without parents. The extended family from both sides will often intervene to offer a home for the children, or at least to have a say in what arrangements are made for the children and how they are to be brought up. Intensely competitive and hostile feelings between the opposing sets of relatives are commonly aroused, and the children may be caught up in a battle reminiscent of the conflict between their parents, which culminated in the death of their mother. I and my colleagues have, as a team, seen more than 300 children who have lost one parent at the hands of the other, and we have been involved in subsequent custody battles as expert witnesses. Based on this experience and using this context as an example, the issues for the family therapist as expert witness in adversarial Court proceedings are presented. A case is described that illustrates the theoretical exposition--including the effectiveness of family therapy from the witness box.

  3. Optimizing family emotional interaction in the dyad “mother and preschool child with intellectual disabilities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A. Rean

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the psychological research on interaction of mothers with preschool children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire of Parent- Child Emotional Interaction by E.I. Zakharova and a Scale of Child Rejection Degree by A.I. Barkan are used in the empirical study. The basic idea of the scientific research is optimization of emotional interacting of mothers with preschool children who have intellectual disabilities by means of psychological training which is aimed at developing emotional-sensual, empathy-behavioural and cognitive-reflective components of parenthood. The data mentioned above describe the emotional side of mother’s interaction with the child as a disjunction, i.e. most of the mothers manifest low sensitivity to the condition and needs of the child, lack of understanding the causes of child behaviour, inability to empathize to the child when he/she is in a predicament. In order to improve mothers’ understanding of their own children, characteristics and regularities of child development, to enhance the ability to understand the experiences, states and interests of the child, to change attitudes of parents to the child and themselves a training program has been implemented. The results of the control phase of the experiment conducted show the positive effect of group work on peculiarities of parent-child emotional interaction. The number of mothers who are able to understand the reasons for the child’s moods, sympathize with child, set him/her calm attitude increased. Mothers’ impression that they are controlling the development of their child has appeared. Mothers were more likely to seek physical contact with a child. A larger number of mothers began to provide emotional support to their children and to take into account the mood and interests of the child in leisure activities planning.

  4. Postpartum Depression: How Childbirth Educators Can Help Break the Silence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The voices of women suffering from postpartum depression are often silent. Women are reluctant to reveal to others that they are unhappy after the birth of their babies. Much has been written on possible causes, risk factors, and treatments for postpartum depression, but little has been done to investigate why women take so long to seek help. Early detection and treatment are key to a full recovery. Childbirth educators are in the position to offer anticipatory guidance on possible complications of the postpartum period, including postpartum depression. This article explores why women with postpartum depression choose to suffer in silence and suggests how childbirth educators can help new mothers find their voices. PMID:20190853

  5. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraful; Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions-infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers' occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. The results suggest a trade-off between mothers' work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes.

  6. Benefits of preparing for childbirth with mindfulness training: a randomized controlled trial with active comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Chao, Maria T; Cook, Joseph G; Riccobono, Jane; Bardacke, Nancy

    2017-05-12

    Childbirth fear is linked with lower labor pain tolerance and worse postpartum adjustment. Empirically validated childbirth preparation options are lacking for pregnant women facing this problem. Mindfulness approaches, now widely disseminated, can alleviate symptoms of both chronic and acute pain and improve psychological adjustment, suggesting potential benefit when applied to childbirth education. This study, the Prenatal Education About Reducing Labor Stress (PEARLS) study, is a randomized controlled trial (RCT; n = 30) of a short, time-intensive, 2.5-day mindfulness-based childbirth preparation course offered as a weekend workshop, the Mind in Labor (MIL): Working with Pain in Childbirth, based on Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) education. First-time mothers in the late 3rd trimester of pregnancy were randomized to attend either the MIL course or a standard childbirth preparation course with no mind-body focus. Participants completed self-report assessments pre-intervention, post-intervention, and post-birth, and medical record data were collected. In a demographically diverse sample, this small RCT demonstrated mindfulness-based childbirth education improved women's childbirth-related appraisals and psychological functioning in comparison to standard childbirth education. MIL program participants showed greater childbirth self-efficacy and mindful body awareness (but no changes in dispositional mindfulness), lower post-course depression symptoms that were maintained through postpartum follow-up, and a trend toward a lower rate of opioid analgesia use in labor. They did not, however, retrospectively report lower perceived labor pain or use epidural less frequently than controls. This study suggests mindfulness training carefully tailored to address fear and pain of childbirth may lead to important maternal mental health benefits, including improvements in childbirth-related appraisals and the prevention of postpartum

  7. Does the psychosocial quality of unpaid family work contribute to educational disparities in mental health among employed partnered mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Bonnie; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M

    2018-04-24

    The contribution of unpaid family work quality to understanding social inequalities in women's mental health has been understudied and further limited by a scarcity of psychometrically sound instruments available to measure family work. Therefore, using a multi-item scale of family work quality with evidence of validity and reliability, the overall aim of the present study was to determine whether psychosocial qualities of unpaid family work contribute to educational inequities in women's mental health. Study participants in this cross-sectional study were 512 employed partnered mothers living in a Canadian province and recruited from an online research panel. The dependent variable was psychological distress. In addition to a 28-item measure assessing five dimensions of unpaid family work quality, independent variables included material deprivation, job decision latitude, job demands and several measures of the work-family interface. Multiple linear regression was the primary analysis. Compared to women with high school or less, university educated women reported lower psychological distress [b = - 2.23 (SE = 0.50) p = 0.001]. The introduction of material deprivation into the model resulted in the largest reduction to the education disparity (51%), followed by equity in responsibility for unpaid family work (25%), family-to-work facilitation (22%), and decision latitude in paid work (21%). When entered simultaneously into the final model, the association between education and psychological distress was reduced by 70% and became statistically non-significant [b = - 0.68 (SE = 0.47) p = 0.10]. In addition to the more established mechanisms of material conditions and decision latitude to explain mental health disparities, inequity in responsibility for unpaid family work may also play a role.

  8. What are the odds of anxiety disorders running in families? A family study of anxiety disorders in mothers, fathers, and siblings of children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telman, Liesbeth G E; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Maric, Marija; Bögels, Susan M

    2018-05-01

    This family study investigated (1) the prevalence of anxiety disorders (ADs) in parents and siblings of children (n = 144) aged 8-18 years with ADs compared to control children (n = 49), and (2) the specificity of relationships between child-mother, child-father, and child-sibling ADs. Clinical interviews were used to assess current DSM-IV-TR ADs in children and siblings, and lifetime and current ADs in parents. Results showed that children with ADs were two to three times more likely to have at least one parent with current and lifetime ADs than the control children (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04 and 3.14). Children with ADs were more likely to have mothers with current ADs (OR = 2.51), fathers with lifetime ADs (OR = 2.84), but not siblings with ADs (OR = 0.75). Specific relationships between mother-child ADs were found for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, OR = 3.69) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (OR = 3.47). Interestingly, all fathers and siblings with SAD came from families of children with SAD. Fathers of children with SAD were more likely to have lifetime ADs themselves (OR = 2.86). Findings indicate that children with ADs more often have parents with ADs, and specifically SAD is more prevalent in families of children with SAD. Influence of parent's (social) ADs should be considered when treating children with ADs.

  9. Posttraumatic stress, family functioning, and social support in survivors of childhood leukemia and their mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, A E; Barakat, L P; Meeske, K; Christakis, D; Meadows, A T; Casey, R; Penati, B; Stuber, M L

    1997-02-01

    Psychological sequelae are examined in 130 former childhood leukemia patients and 155 comparison participants and their parents. The major dependent variables are symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress, family functioning, and social support. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated significantly more posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers and fathers of childhood leukemia survivors (p impact of childhood cancer treatment on parents. The lack of significant differences for survivors argues for further attention to the relevance of posttraumatic stress disorder for childhood cancer survivors. The clinical implications are that psychological interventions are needed during and after cancer treatment.

  10. Women's choice of childbirth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, M C

    1990-01-01

    As part of a larger study on women's views of the childbirth experience, this study was focused on women's choice of childbirth setting. Sixty-one Lamaze-prepared, married multigravidae between the ages of 21 and 37 and experiencing a normal pregnancy were interviewed twice: at 36-38 weeks gestation in their homes and during their postpartum stay in the hospital. Data were collected using (a) two semistructured interview guides consisting of open-ended questions about choosing a caregiver and the place of birth and about describing the actual childbirth experience, (b) a self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire, and (c) an obstetrical and infant data form. The tape-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data analysis was focused on reasons for choosing a hospital and a physician, reasons for choosing or not choosing a birthing room, and the outcomes of the decisions. An understanding of women's childbirth needs as reflected in their choices can suggest areas where flexibility might be built into maternity care programs.

  11. Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian-mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H W M; Jorgensen, T D; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, M E

    2018-01-01

    Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF? There were no differences in parental wellbeing. The only other study of parental wellbeing in gay-father families formed through surrogacy (mean age children: 4 years old) found no difference in couple relationship satisfaction between these families and lesbian-mother families formed through donor insemination and heterosexual-parent families formed without assisted reproductive technologies. This cross-sectional study is part of an international research project involving 38 gay-father families, 61 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent families with 4-month-olds. In each country (the UK, the Netherlands and France), participants were recruited through several sources, such as specialist lawyers with expertise in surrogacy (for the recruitment of gay fathers), lesbian and gay parenting support groups, fertility clinics (for the recruitment of lesbian and heterosexual parents), and/or online forums and magazines. During a home visit when their infants were between 3.5 and 4.5 months old, participants completed standardized measures of parental stress, parental psychological adjustment (anxiety and depression) and partner relationship satisfaction. All parents reported relatively low levels of parental stress, anxiety and depression, and were all relatively satisfied with their intimate relationships. After controlling for caregiver role (primary or secondary caregiver role), there were no significant family type differences in parental stress, P = 0.949, depression, P = 0.089, anxiety, P = 0.117, or relationship satisfaction, P = 0.354. The findings cannot be generalized to all first-time ART parents with infants because

  12. Early Childhood Family Structure and Mother-Child Interactions: Variation by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2010-01-01

    With data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 6,449), a nationally representative sample of births in 2001, we used hierarchical linear modeling to analyze differences in observed interactions between married, cohabiting, never-married, and divorced mothers and their children. In contrast to previous studies, we…

  13. Quality of Life of Family Caregivers of Children with Autism: The Mother's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bih-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the quality of life (QOL) and feeling of mothers of a child with autism. The QOL instrument was also used. A total of 104 participants completed all questionnaires, which included the Taiwan version of the WHOQOL-BREF. A final robust parsimonious structural model showed a positive…

  14. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  15. Book Reading Styles in Dual-Parent and Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Background: Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and …

  16. Jordanian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Competence: An Examination of Family Factors and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe

    2015-01-01

    Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…

  17. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Family Functioning and Parenting Styles: The Perceptions of Mothers of Young Grade School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupinga, Emily Evellyne; Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 151 mothers of elementary students identified relationships between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and family functioning (adaptability, cohesion). Families with balanced and moderately balanced levels of adaptability and cohesion had higher levels of authoritative parenting. Midrange balance was associated…

  19. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of family relationship quality: associations with preadolescent and adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Stewart, Lindsay M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The sample included families of 147 preadolescents and adolescents (56.6 % female; 89.8 % Caucasian), 11-18 years old (M = 13.64, SD = 1.98) assigned a principal diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder. When controlling for age and concurrent anxiety symptoms, regression analyses revealed that for boys, both father- and mother-rated family cohesion predicted depressive symptoms. For girls, mother-rated family expressiveness and conflict predicted depressive symptoms. Youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with any family relationship variables, controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that parent-rated family relationship factors may be more related to youth depressive than anxiety symptoms in this clinical sample. In addition, family cohesion, as perceived by parents, may be more related to boys' depression, whereas expressiveness and conflict (as rated by mothers) may be more related to girls' depression. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  20. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The BetterBirth Program: Pursuing Effective Adoption and Sustained Use of the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist Through Coaching-Based Implementation in Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Nabihah; Firestone, Rebecca; Kalita, Tapan; Gawande, Atul A; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kodkany, Bhala; Saurastri, Rajiv; Pratap Singh, Vinay; Maji, Pinki; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Semrau, Katherine EA

    2017-01-01

    Shifting childbirth into facilities has not improved health outcomes for mothers and newborns as significantly as hoped. Improving the quality and safety of care provided during facility-based childbirth requires helping providers to adhere to essential birth practices?evidence-based behaviors that reduce harm to and save lives of mothers and newborns. To achieve this goal, we developed the BetterBirth Program, which we tested in a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in Uttar Pr...

  2. Group psychoeducation with relaxation for severe fear of childbirth improves maternal adjustment and childbirth experience--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhe, Hanna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Toivanen, Riikka; Tokola, Maiju; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ryding, Elsa-Lena; Saisto, Terhi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the treatment of women with fear of childbirth have focused on the delivery mode. Women with fear of childbirth often suffer from anxiety and/or depression, and treatment therefore also needs to target postnatal psychological well-being and the early mother-infant relationship. Three hundred and seventy-one nulliparous women out of 4575 scored ≥100 in prospective screening (Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire, W-DEQ-A), indicating severe fear of childbirth. These women were randomised to psychoeducative group intervention with relaxation (n = 131; six sessions during pregnancy, one postnatal) or to conventional care (n = 240) by community nurses (referral if necessary). Psycho-emotional and psychosocial evaluations [Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), social support, Maternal Adjustment and Attitudes (MAMA), Traumatic Events Scale (TES) and the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ-B)] were completed twice during pregnancy and/or 3 months postpartum. Postnatal maternal adjustment (MAMA mean score 38.1 ± 4.3 versus 35.7 ± 5.0, p = 0.001) and childbirth experience (mean W-DEQ-B sum score 63.0 ± 29 versus 73.7 ± 32, p = 0.008) were better in the intervention group compared with controls. In hierarchical regression, social support, participating in intervention, and less fearful childbirth experience predicted better maternal adjustment. The level of postnatal depressive symptoms was significantly lower in the intervention group (mean sum score 6.4 ± 5.4 versus 8.0 ± 5.9 p = 0.04). There were no differences in the frequency of post-traumatic stress symptoms between the groups. In nulliparous women with severe fear of childbirth, participation in a targeted psychoeducative group resulted in better maternal adjustment, a less fearful childbirth experience and fewer postnatal depressive symptoms, compared with conventional care.

  3. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  4. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and the risk of mother death.

  5. Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Heejung; van der Horst, Mariska

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request ...

  6. Working around Childbirth: Comparative and Empirical Perspectives on Parental Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Cites research that supports a U.S. parental leave policy that includes job protection and wage replacement during childbirth. Issues dealt with in the literature include current U.S. child welfare legislation, international parental leave legislation, job continuity, reduced stress on the child welfare system, and prejudice against young mothers.…

  7. Self-concept in children and adolescents with epilepsy: The role of family functioning, mothers' emotional symptoms and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Isik, Uğur; Gunes, Serkan; Yildirim, Canan; Killi, Yunus; Guler, Gülen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the associated factors of poor self-concept in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Fifty-three patients with uncomplicated epilepsy (aged 7-18years) and 28 healthy controls were included. Study measures included the Piers-Harris 2 Self-Concept Scale, Family Assessment Device (FAD), Turgay DSM-IV based ADHD rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R), Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Neurology clinic charts were reviewed for the epilepsy-related variables. While the Piers-Harris 2 total score was not significantly different between the groups, patients with epilepsy had lower (poorer) scores on freedom from anxiety and popularity subscales. Linear regression analysis revealed that the problem solving, affective responsiveness, general functioning and communication scores of FAD; total and inattentiveness scores of T-DSM-IV-S and mothers' Beck scores were associated with the total score of Piers-Harris 2. Epilepsy-related factors were not found to be associated with self-concept scores. Poor self-concept in children with epilepsy is associated with negative family functioning, mothers' emotional symptoms and ADHD, especially the symptoms of inattentiveness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Evaluation of Raising Adolescent Families Together Program: A Medical Home for Adolescent Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P.; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Famakinwa, Olatokunbo; Harris, Sion Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study described a medical home model for adolescent mothers and their children, and their 1- and 2-year preventive care, repeat pregnancy, and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. In this prospective, single cohort demonstration project, adolescent mothers (14–18 years old) and their children received care in a medical home. Demographic, medical and social processes, and outcomes data were collected at enrollment through 24 months. Change over time and predictors of repeat pregnancy were analyzed. Results. A total of 181 adolescents enrolled, with 79.6% participating for 2 years. At 2 years, 90.2% of children were completely immunized. Children and adolescent mothers met standards for health care visits, and adolescent condom use improved. Rates of cumulative repeat pregnancy were 14.7% and 24.6%, school attendance 77.6% and 68.7%, and employment 21.2% and 32.3% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Conclusions. A medical home model with comprehensive and integrated medical care and social services can effectively address the complex needs of adolescent parents and their children. PMID:22897537

  9. When One Does Not Want to Be Like Others. The Basis of the Sense of Control among Conservative Laestadian Mothers with Large Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pesälä

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large families are the most characteristic feature of the Conservative Laestadian revivalist movement. In this research project belonging to the ? eld of psychology my aim is to describe the facts on which the sense of control of the Laestadian mothers with large families is based. My research method is a qualitative contents analysis. The results indicate that the mothers personal faith is the most important element in their sense of control. The values based on the Conservative Laestadian beliefs give a clear and safe structure for life. The most important role of the spouse is to support his wife emotionally, socially and spiritually. Behind the active parenthood of the mothers are the life management skills acquired in their families of origin as well as the experience acquired from motherhood. Family members share both mental and physical responsibilities, consequently supporting the mother. The mothers did not experience that they should not behave according to the family planning practises characteristic of our time. They do not want to be like others.

  10. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  11. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  12. Reasoning and Negotiation about Child Responsibility in Urban Chinese Families: Reports from Mothers, Fathers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Jennifer M.; San, Li Qing; Chen, May-Jane; Yuan, Li

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates everyday parental practices involved in the transmission of cultural values and extends current literature on parenting in Chinese families. Children aged 6, 8, and 10 years from 240 Beijing families, and both their parents, were asked about ways in which expectations of child responsibility are transmitted through routine…

  13. Perceptions of Family Relations when Mothers and Fathers Are Depicted with Different Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…

  14. My mother painted my father in white: affections and race denial in interracial families

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    Lia Vainer Schucman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, a piece of a bigger research about interracial families, aims to describe the ways in which black, black history and black ancestry have been denied in the discourse of interracial families. For this understanding we present the case study of two families with the intention of thinking about the place of the race in these dynamics. The results obtained in the bigger research pointed out that family is a privilegedinstitution for the development of strategiesagainst racial violence expriencied in society on a larger scale, but also the place where it is possible to legitimate racist experiences and race violence. And, within these experiences, it was possible to realize that the psychosocial mechanism of denial is one of several ways of negotiating the conflicts and racial tensions that are enunciated within these families.

  15. "Doing our best to keep a routine:" How low-income mothers manage child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M

    2018-01-01

    Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Paola; Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Pizzo, Rosalia; Pipitone, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58) were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1). In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either "Making Sense condition" (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth) or "Control-Neutral condition" (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms) and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2). A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3) to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  17. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Blasio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58 were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1. In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either “Making Sense condition” (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth or “Control-Neutral condition” (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2. A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3 to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  18. Inequalities in the psychological well-being of employed, single and partnered mothers: the role of psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhajarine Nazeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the research which has considered employment, the focus has been on employment status per se rather than on other important work-related factors which may impact psychological health, such as psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. The aim of this study was to: (1 compare employed single mothers and employed partnered mothers on measures of psychological distress, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict; and (2 explore the potential role of work-family conflict and psychosocial work quality as explanations for any observed differences in psychological distress based on partner status. Method Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey of employed parents in a mid-sized Western Canadian city. Analyses were based on 674 employed mothers (438 partnered and 236 single, who were 25-50 years old, with at least one child in the household. Results Compared to employed single mothers, employed partnered mothers were older, had more education and reported fewer hours of paid work. Single mothers reported higher levels of psychological distress, financial hardship, work-family conflict and poor psychosocial work quality. Statistical adjustment for income adequacy, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict each independently resulted in single motherhood no longer being associated with psychological distress. Conclusions While single employed mothers did experience higher levels of psychological distress than their partnered counterparts, differences between these

  19. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  20. Mosaicism of an ELANE mutation in an asymptomatic mother in a familial case of cyclic neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Osamu; Okada, Satoshi; Tsumura, Miyuki; Karakawa, Shuhei; Matsumura, Itaru; Kimura, Yujiro; Maihara, Toshiro; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Ohara, Osamu; Kobayashi, Masao

    2015-07-01

    To confirm and characterize mosaicism of the cyclic neutropenia (CyN)-related mutation in the ELANE gene identified in the asymptomatic mother of patients with CyN. We identified sibling cases with CyN due to a novel heterozygous splicing site mutation, IVS4 +5SD G>T, in the ELANE gene, resulting in an internal in-frame deletion of 30 nucleotides (corresponding to a ten amino acid deletion, V161-F170). The mutated allele was also detected in their asymptomatic mother but at low frequency. We measured the frequency of the mutant allele from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) by subcloning, and confirmed the allelic frequency of mosaicism in various cell types by massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) analysis. In the subcloning analysis, the mutant allele was identified in 21.36 % of PBLs from the asymptomatic mother, compared with 54.72 % of PBLs from the CyN patient. In the MPS analysis, the mutant allele was observed in approximately 30 % of mononuclear cells, CD3(+) T cells, CD14(+) monocytes and the buccal mucosa. Conversely, it was detected in low frequency in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PLMLs) (3-4 %) and CD16(+) granulocytes (2-3 %). Mosaicism of the ELANE mutation has only previously been identified in one confirmed and one unconfirmed case of SCN. This is the first report of mosaicism of the ELANE mutation in a case of CyN. The MPS results suggest that this de novo mutation occurred during the two-cell stage of embryogenesis. PLMLs expressing the ELANE mutation were found to be actively undergoing apoptosis.

  1. [The Meaning That Families Place on the Suicide of Pregnant Mothers in Antioquia, 2010-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes Correa, María Victoria; Ramírez Zapata, Alexandra María; Arango Arbeláez, Beatriz Elena; Anderson Gómez, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To identify the meaning that the families of two pregnant women from Antioquia placed on their suicide in 2010-2011. A qualitative research using the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach, specifically a case study analysis. The category named "family task: weaving a history that helps them to understand" emerged in both families. Two trends were found in the family of Bella: "tragedy, tensions and scenarios" and "fluctuations: between fear-guilt and relief." The family of Consentida showed three trends: "trapped with no escape", "suicide and orphanhood: the understanding of Juanita" and "death is death." For both families, the fact that the women were pregnant had an important effect on the event of voluntary death. The construction of meaning that took place in both families followed two paths: differentiation and death itself; both can be resilient ways of coping with such a tragedy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Paternal engagement during childbirth depending on the manner of their preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioma-Markowska, Urszula; Poręba, Ryszard; Machura, Mariola; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the forms of paternal activity depending on the manner of their preparation, including stages of labor. A prospective survey-based study involved 250 fathers who participated in their child's birth. The fathers included in the study were present during all stages of family-assisted natural labor. The study was conducted one day after childbirth with the use of a survey prepared by the authors. Statistical calculations were conducted using the Statistica PL software. The frequency of individual qualitative features (non-measurable) was assessed by means of a non-parametric χ² (chi-squared) test. The statistical significance level was p fathers included in the study (52.4%) participated in childbirth with no prior preparation. The dominant form of preparation involved self-education from books, magazines and the Internet (24%). 23.6% of fathers participated in ante-natal classes. The study demonstrated that fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engaged in the supportive role, provided nursing care and carried out instrumental monitoring during each stage of childbirth. The fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engage in the supportive role, provide nursing care and carry out instrumental control during each stage of childbirth. Ante-natal classes should be promoted as an optimal form of preparation for active participation in childbirth. Moreover, other forms of paternal ante-natal education as well as continued education in a delivery room should be developed.

  3. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  4. The role of coparents in African American single-mother families: the indirect effect of coparent identity on youth psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K

    2013-04-01

    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in child rearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this nonmarital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it relates to coparenting quality, maternal parenting, and youth psychosocial outcomes (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). This question, which is critical to the advancement of family focused programming for youth in these families, is addressed in this study. The participants examined in the current study were 159 African American single-mother child dyads. Adolescents' maternal grandmothers constituted the largest proportion of coparents in the sample (37.2%), followed by the mothers' female family friends (22.5%), adolescents' maternal aunts (12.7%), and adolescents' fathers/social fathers (11%). Differences emerged among groups of coparents in support and conflict with the mother. Specifically, grandmothers, aunts, and female family friends provided significantly more instrumental support than fathers. Furthermore, grandmothers and fathers had more conflict with the mother, both generally and specifically in front of the child, than aunts or female family friends. In turn, these differences were associated directly and indirectly through maternal parenting with internalizing and externalizing problems. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  6. BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP MOTHER AND OWNERSHIP OF TOILET FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eti kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis incidence in children under five in the region work of Puskesmas Olak Kemang still a health problem that needs to be addressed, with a percentage of 51.0% is higher than in other wilayh. The disease is not lethal but can undermine the health of the human body so that the resulting decline in nutritional status, decreased intelligence and brain power or immune health in children.               This research is a quantitative study using descriptive analytic method with cross sectional study design that aims to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The population in this research that all children under five in the area of Puskesmas Olak Kemang, samples in this study were 75 children under five. Data were analyzed using analysis Univariate and Bivariate analysis with Chi-Square Test.               The results showed that 78.0% of mothers of children under five who are not air personal hygiene, 60.4% of mothers of children under five unusual CTPS, 82.1% of respondents who did not state house meliliki latrine / WC. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between personal hygiene (p-value = 0.000, customs CTPS (p-value = 0.001, latrine ownership (p-value = 0.000 with the incidence of intestinal worms in Puskesmas Olak Kemang Jambi.               In connection with the results obtained, that the danger of de- worming is dependent on the cleanliness of his mother in serving as personal hygiene, CTPS and Owners toilets in every home. Thus the researchers suggested that the health center may be able to provide information to the public education about the dangers of de- worming to create a healthy society. Keyword                     :  Behavior, Children Events

  7. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  8. Revisiting the Classics in Childbirth Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Teri; Bingham, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    In celebration of Lamaze International's 50th anniversary, reviewers share their thoughts on some classic Lamaze resource materials and how their content relates to today's viewpoints on birth and childbirth education. Although some of the material may be outdated, all of the resources offer timeless insights as well as a unique view on the history of childbirth education. The following topics are addressed: past cultural views of birth; advocacy for change in birth practices; Lamaze method; pioneers in childbirth; importance of childbirth education; and birth advocacy. PMID:21629386

  9. Mother-daughter communication and college women's confidence to communicate with family members and doctors about the human papillomavirus and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Laura F; Cruz, Maria Elena; Neilands, Torsten B

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we examined whether mother-daughter sexuality communication in midadolescence contributes to young women's self-efficacy to consult with family members about sexual health problems, and to talk with physicians about the human papillomavirus (HPV). Young European American, Latina, and Asian Pacific Islander college women reported on how confident they felt talking to their family members and doctors about HPV and sexual health issues. We gathered retrospective data regarding the nature of mother-daughter communication, including sexuality communication, in midadolescence. Other variables included physician trust, knowledge about HPV, and reports of current sexual activity. More openness in past general communication with their mothers, more perceived comfort in past sexuality communication, and a greater number of reproductive health topics discussed was linked to greater confidence in communicating with family members about sexual health problems. In addition, higher levels of sexual activity, more knowledge about HPV, and the number of reproductive health topics discussed with mothers in midadolescence, were associated with increased confidence talking to doctors about HPV and sexual health. Positive communication experiences with mothers in the early years may reduce the shame, embarrassment, and anxiety associated with talking to physicians about sensitive sexuality issues. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Family: A Qualitative Study of Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Christopher E.; O'Hare, Lindsey; Powers, Joelle D.; Swick, Danielle C.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 730,000 Americans younger than age 21 in the United States have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and current trends predict 36,500 new diagnoses each year. Due to this rapid increase in ASD diagnoses, it is critical to understand the impact having a child with ASD has on a family's daily functioning to better coordinate services and…

  11. Family Worlds: Couple Satisfaction, Parenting Style, and Mothers' and Fathers' Speech to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)

  12. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing…

  13. Intervention in Lower-class Surinam-Dutch Families : Effects on Mothers and Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Meij, Johannes Th; Hubbard, Frans O.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-seven Surinam-Dutch lower-class families with a one-year-old child participated in "Instapje", a parent-focused home-based intervention programme. The intervention was devised to improve quality of parental support to the child on four behavioural dimensions: supportive presence, respect for

  14. EDUCATIONAL-ATTAINMENT OF CHILDREN IN MOTHER-HEADED FAMILIES - THE IMPACT OF SOCIALIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSMAN, R

    1994-01-01

    The main question in this article is: Do differences in socialization conditions offer an explanation for the negative effect of one-parent families on children's educational attainment? The research design was an ex post facto experiment based on matched pairs, in which the experimental group

  15. Tiny Dramas: Vocal Communication Between Mother and Infant in Japanese and American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, William

    Why do American infants have a greater amount of vocalization, and particularly of happy vocalization, than do Japanese infants? To answer this question, 30 Japanese and 30 American first-born, 3- to 4-month old infants equally divided by sex, and living in intact middle class urban families were observed in their homes on two consecutive days…

  16. Association of criminal convictions between family members : effects of siblings, fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, M. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Apel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the

  17. Resolution of pain after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, James C; Pan, Peter; Smiley, Richard M; Lavand'homme, Patricia; Landau, Ruth; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain after surgery occurs in 10-40% of individuals, including 5-20% of women after cesarean delivery in previous reports. Pain and depression 2 months after childbirth are independently associated with more severe acute post-delivery pain. Here we examine other predictors of pain at 2 months and determine the incidence of pain at 6 and 12 months after childbirth. Following Institutional Review Board approval, 1228 women were interviewed within 36 h of delivery. Of these, 937 (76%) were successfully contacted by telephone at 2 months, and, if they had pain, at 6 and 12 months after delivery. The primary outcome measure was presence of pain which began at the time of delivery. We also generated a model of severity of acute post-delivery pain and 2 month pain and depression. Pain which began at the time of delivery was remarkably rare 6 and 12 months later (1.8% and 0.3% [upper 95% confidence limit, 1.2%], respectively). Past history of pain and degree of tissue damage at delivery accounted for 7.0% and 16.7%, respectively, of one aspect in the variability in acute post-delivery pain. Neither of these factors was associated with incidence of pain 2 months later. Using a definition of new onset pain from delivery, we show a remarkably low incidence of pain 1 yr after childbirth, including those with surgical delivery. Additionally, degree of tissue trauma and history of chronic pain, risk factors for pain 2 months after other surgery, were unimportant to pain 2 months after cesarean or vaginal delivery.

  18. Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in mother-headed single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2007-02-01

    Much of the documented work on families headed by single mothers is based on empirical evidence from North America and a few Anglo-Saxon countries. Many researchers consider single-mother families to be at a disadvantage because of nonsupportive family policies. This paper uses data from a social context that differed hugely in this respect-the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR provided extensive state support to single-mother families and, thus, was vastly different from other countries. Based on a literature review and using Hill's family stress theory, this paper is based on the hypothesis that adolescents living in mother-headed single-parent families and those living with their biological parents would have near-similar social outcomes (display of psychosomatic symptoms, perception of stress, display of delinquent behaviour, life satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and academic grades) and family-related outcomes (relationship with parents and perception of family environment). Further, it was hypothesized that adolescents from stepfather families would display more negative social and family-related outcomes when compared with respondents from the other two family types. The sample comprised 1302 adolescents (M  =  13.82 years, SD  =  1.88) who were recruited from the city of Leipzig in the year immediately following German unification, 1991. Respondents reported on measures of psychosomatic symptoms, stress, delinquency, life satisfaction, academic achievement, and family-related variables. ANCOVAs, with a control for income adjusted for household size, indicated adolescents from single-mother families to have very similar experiences to respondents living with their biological parents on all measures except for their assessment of family environment. Adolescents living in stepfather families reported the least favourable experiences. Results are indicative of a social context in Germany that, despite unification and the early hardships for

  19. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  20. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Helen; Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-08-23

    Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women's prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother's incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee. © Article author(s) (or their

  1. Bonding and Bridging Social and Cultural Capitals: Perceived Factors Associated With Family Eating Practices Among Hmong, Latino, and White Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Abigail; Goto, Keiko; Zhao, Yanling; Wolff, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    To examine perceived social and cultural capitals associated with family eating practices among Hmong, Latino, and white mothers and fathers. Six focus groups composed of 52 Hmong, Latino, and white mothers and fathers of young children were conducted to examine parental perceptions of social and cultural capitals associated with eating practices. Whereas Hmong participants unanimously emphasized the healthfulness of their traditional food, Latino groups had divergent views on their traditional foods' healthfulness. Hmong parents highly valued their traditional foods whereas white and Latino mothers were more accepting of new foods from other cultures. Participants noted divergent views on gender roles in family eating practices and food culture preservation efforts. Identifying and promoting bonding and bridging of cultural assets for healthy dietary practices among different cultural groups may be important for developing successful nutrition education programs across ethnicities in the community. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Qualitative evidence of monitoring by doulas during labor and childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Barros, Nelson Filice de; Jorge, Herla Maria Furtado; Melo, Laura Pinto Torres de; Ferreira Junior, Antonio Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a metasynthesis of evidence of the work of doulas assisting women in labor and during childbirth. Articles between 2000 and 2009 were located in the Medline, PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs databases using the key search words: doulas, gestation, labor, and alternative therapy. Seven articles were selected for the study and four categories were created: the support provided by doulas; the birth mother's experiences; professional relationship: and opinions and experiences of professionals. The doulas offered physical, emotional, spiritual and social support. Experiments showed that the professionals stimulated the mother/child relationship, oriented towards successful breastfeeding, and contributed to the prevention of post-partum depression. Controversy was observed among professionals regarding acceptance of the role of the doula as a member of the obstetrics team. The doula's care was considered innovative, calming, encouraging, and attended all the needs of the pregnant woman. The conclusion is that qualitative studies on the work of doulas are recent, incipient, but revealing as to the important possibility of humanizing labor and childbirth.

  3. Familial recurrence of SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome: phenotypically normal mother with two affected daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya M; Zhou, Jie; Hughes, Nkecha; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Kherani, Femida; Katowitz, James; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Hummel, Marybeth; Fitzpatrick, David R; Young, Terri L

    2008-11-01

    The SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is emerging as a clinically recognizable disorder that has been identified in 10-15% of individuals with bilateral anophthalmia. Extra-ocular anomalies are common. The majority of SOX2 mutations identified appear to arise de novo in probands ascertained through the presence of anophthalmia or microphthalmia. In this report, we describe two sisters with bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia, brain anomalies and a novel heterozygous SOX2 gene single-base pair nucleotide deletion, c.551delC, which predicts p.Pro184ArgfsX19. The hypothetical protein product is predicted to lead to haploinsufficient SOX2 function. Mosaicism for this mutation in the SOX2 gene was also identified in their clinically unaffected mother in peripheral blood DNA. Thus it cannot be assumed that all SOX2 mutations in individuals with anophthalmia/microphthalmia are de novo. Testing of parents is indicated when a SOX2 mutation is identified in a proband. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič; Anja Podlesek; Tina Kavčič

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ), and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Facto...

  5. Primary caregiving fathers and breadwinning mothers: social psychological mechanisms underlying the division of family roles

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Mariana Lobo

    2017-01-01

    Over recent decades there has been significant progress towards gender equality in the workplace and at home. Transformations in work and childcare domains have occurred for families in Western societies, including de-gendered parenting, in which childcare responsibilities are shared equally or assumed primarily by the father. Although these arrangements constitute a recent and rare phenomenon, this increase in proportion has been matched by an academic interest. Using quantitative data fr...

  6. Maternal Employment and Perceived Stress: Their Impact on Children's Adjustment and Mother-Child Interaction in Young Divorced and Married Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of maternal employment, marital status, and perceived maternal stress on children's adjustment and mother-preschool child interaction in 104 married and 99 divorced families. Results indicated that maternal employment had little impact on these variables. Maternal stress, in form of divorce and daily maternal hassles, demonstrated…

  7. Mother, father and child traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury: Within-family co-occurrence and parent-child discrepancies in appraisals of child stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, M.R.; van de Schoot, R.; Geenen, R.; Van Loey, N.E.E.

    Aim The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents’ own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. Methods One-hundred children (8–18 years old), and their mothers (n

  8. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  9. The Effects of Neighborhood Proportion of Single-Parent Families and Mother-Adolescent Relationships on Adolescents' Number of Sexual Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Gilson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Using both individual-level and census-level data, this study predicts the number of sexual partners reported by male and female adolescents from the quality of their mother relationship and neighborhood proportion of single-parent families. Both predictors were associated with number of sexual partners for both males and females in OLS analyses.…

  10. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  11. The effects of a home-visiting discharge education on maternal self-esteem, maternal attachment, postpartum depression and family function in the mothers of NICU infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Mee; Kim, Mi-Ran

    2004-12-01

    A quasi-experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of a home visiting discharge education program on the maternal self-esteem, attachment, postpartum depression and family function in 35 mothers of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants. Twenty-three mothers in the intervention group received the home visiting discharge education while 12 mothers in the control group received the routine, hospital discharge education. Baseline data was collected in both groups one day after delivery. The intervention group received the home visiting discharge education while the control group did the routine hospital-based discharge education. The questionnaire including the data on maternal self-esteem, attachment, postpartum depression and family function were collected within 1 week after the discharge by mail. The scores of maternal self-esteem, and attachment were significantly increased, and the postpartum depression and the family function score were decreased after the home visiting discharge education in intervention group. There were no changes in these variables before and after the routine hospital-based discharge education in control group. These results support the beneficial effects of home visiting discharge education on the maternal role adaptation and family function of the mothers of NICU infants.

  12. Experiences of childbirth in Natal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Brookes

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocultural aspects have been identified. These include continuing family support and culturally prescribed behaviour pertaining most importantly to the early puerperium and affecting the maternal-neonatal dyad. In the early adaptation to motherhood informants continued their role as daughter or daughter-in-law and would only actively continue their role as wife later or at the end of the puerperium. These traditional patterns of behaviour persist despite marked changes in educational level, language spoken and employment status. In the light of this research and founded on scientific evidence, a number of recommendations are made and areas for further research are identified

  13. Relational factors in psychopathological responses to childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigoli, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Saita, Emanuela

    2006-06-01

    Childbirth can represent for women the time of greatest vulnerability experience, often associated with being out of control, loneliness or sadness. One hundred and sixty women who had 'normal' births were assessed within 48 hours on potential predictive measures and at 3-6 months post-partum for PTSD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived and desired support by family members, friends, medical personnel were also assessed. t-Test and chi-square were used to analyze, differences between 'risk group' and 'non-risk group'. Few women (1.25%) showed questionnaire responses suggesting clinically significant levels on PTSD; other women (28.75%) reported clinically significant symptoms for at least one subscale. Being at the first delivery experience, together with perceptions of low levels of support from family members and medical personnel, were found to be related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Anxiety for the child and previous depression are also related to such symptoms. Moreover, anxiety and depression are related to a difficult recognition of the support received, as well as to the desire for more support, in the care of the newborn, from medical professionals.

  14. Bioethics, Human Rights, and Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna

    2015-06-11

    The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care. Copyright 2015 Erdman. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  15. Measuring nursing support during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, F; Chamberlain, M

    2001-01-01

    To examine the amount of support being provided by nurses to women during childbirth and factors that influence the provision of support. Exploratory, descriptive. Work sampling method was used to determine the percentage of time nurses spend in supportive care activities. Twelve nurses were observed over six nonconsecutive day shifts on a birthing unit of a Canadian teaching hospital in Quebec. A total of 404 observations were made. Nurses were also interviewed to determine their perceptions of what constitutes supportive nursing care and the factors that facilitate or inhibit the provision of this care. Nurses spent only 12.4% of their total time providing supportive care to laboring women. Interviews with nurses suggested that perceptions of the components of supportive care were comparable to this study's operational definition of support, namely: physical, emotional, and instructional/informational support and advocacy. Barriers to providing support identified by nurses included lack of time and insufficient staff. However, further content analysis of the interview data revealed that healthcare providers had a pervasive sense of control over laboring women and their partners. Although nursing support has been identified as an important aspect of nursing care in childbirth, this study demonstrated an incongruity between what nurses perceived as being supportive care and the amount of support that was actually provided. Barriers to the provision of supportive care in the practice setting as well as suggestions for its enhancement are discussed.

  16. Mothers' Reports of Parenting in Families of Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charlotte; Scoular, Douglas J.; Ohan, Jeneva L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relations between a tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner and mothers' reports of their parenting behaviors, and the influence of social desirability on the associations among parenting practices and mothers' and children's symptoms. Forty-two mothers of 7 to 12 year old boys with symptoms of…

  17. Mothers' and Fathers' Questions to Their Child in Mexican-Descent Families: Moderators of Cognitive Demand during Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Leaper, Campbell

    1997-01-01

    The cognitive demand in questions directed to Mexican-descent children by their mothers and fathers were analyzed for videotaped play situations involving gender-neutral, masculine-, or feminine-stereotyped toys. Mothers asked proportionately more conceptual questions than did fathers. Mothers' question asking was influenced by child gender,…

  18. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants are decreased at 4 months corrected age with Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  20. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author's attention is attracted by one of the features of modern Russian family: the tendency to increase the frequency of childbirth by women of older reproductive age. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the mothers’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late. The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood. Mothers of adolescents who participated in the study were divided into two groups: "young" mothers who gave birth to the first child before the age of 30 years, and "late" mothers who gave birth to their first child after being 30 years old. It turned out that the strategies of education and interaction between the "young" and "late" mothers, reflecting the value orientation of personality, are significantly different. Focusing on the emotional closeness with the child and creativity, education strategy of "late" mothers has a high emotional involvement, soft and inconsistent parenting. The features of maternal parenting strategies are adequately reflected by the teenagers who follow their mothers in priority of the values of family and work, or material well-being and the pursuit of hedonistic values.

  1. Predicting family health and well-being after separation from an abusive partner: role of coercive control, mother's depression and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sharon; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on the Strengthening Capacity to Limit Intrusion theory, we tested whether intrusion (i.e. unwanted interference from coercive control, custody and access difficulties and mother's depressive symptoms) predicted family health and well-being after separation from an abusive partner/father, and whether social support moderated intrusion effects on family health and well-being. Experiences of coercive control and the negative consequences related to those experiences have been documented among women who have separated from an abusive partner. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 154 adult, Canadian mothers of dependent children who had separated from an abusive partner and who participated in Wave 2 of the Women's Health Effects Study. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test whether intrusion predicts family health and well-being as well as whether social support moderated this relationship. Families were found to experience considerable intrusion, yet their health and well-being was similar to population norms. Intrusion predicted 11·4% of the variance in family health and well-being, with mother's depressive symptoms as the only unique predictor. Social support accounted for an additional 9% of explained variance, but did not buffer intrusion effects on family health and well-being. Although women had been separated from their abusive partners for an average of 2·5 years, the majority continued to experience coercive control. On average, levels of social support and family functioning were relatively high, contrary to public and academic discourse. In working with these families postseparation, nurses should approach care from a strength-based perspective, and integrate tailored assessment and intervention options for women and families that address both depression and social support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  3. THE NATURE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY WELL-BEING IN ADULTHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Samoshkina; G. S. Alexeeva

    2015-01-01

    Background. Attachment to mother is viewed as the primary sample of bonding with a close person, thus its quality has an impact on the relationships with a partner. Objectives. A research of the nature of connection between child’s attachment to mother and the experience of the family well-being in adulthood is presented. Method. The empirical research was carried out by internet survey with the help of the following methods: “Satisfaction with marriage” by Stolin V., Butenko G., Roma...

  4. Contraception, pregnancy, childbirth--when things go wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, A

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of contraception, pregnancy, and childbirth covers the following: accepting and discharging patients; legal duty of care; contract law; consent; records; time limit; criminal law; sanctions; children under 16; contraception; failed sterilization, vasectomy, and abortion; abortions; pregnancy; delivery; postnatal care; birth at home; and unqualified persons. The relationship of the doctor to the private patient is governed by the law of contract and in a particular case may impose a greater duty on the doctor than that imposed by tort. The doctor must obtain the consent of the patient and must adhere to the proper standards of competent professional practice, either the generally accepted practice or, if there are 2 or more alternative procedures, one which can be professional supported. Where sterilization (tubal occlusion) is proposed, advice and counseling should be offered. On the birth of a child, drugs may not be administered without the mother's consent. The records of the National Health Service patient appear to belong to the Secretary of State for Social Services and the records of the private patient to the patient. The patient may sue within 3 years from the date of the alleged negligence or the discovery of the negligence. The doctor is most unlikely to be prosecuted for a criminal offense but failure to attend the patient, or gross carelessness, could possibly lead to a manslaughter charge. The Family Practitioner Committee may give a warning, a reprimand, and may stop the payment of fees. The doctor may give contraceptive advice and treatment to an adolescent female under age 16, but the doctor must first conform to 5 guidelines, known as the Fraser Guidelines. These guidelines are listed. The doctor must be aware of the possible risks and side effects of the various contraceptive methods and must evaluate each method and each patient accordingly. A doctor may be liable under the law of contract for a failed sterilization, vasectomy

  5. Reliability tests and validation tests of the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8) as an index of satisfaction with childbirth-related care among Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Chieko; Green, Joseph; Astorga, Linda Teresa; Daya, Edgardo L; Jervoso, Honorato C; Gonzaga, Edgardo M; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-12-17

    Satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality of care during childbirth. Previous research found that a good environment at a health facility can increase the number of deliveries at that facility. In contrast, an unsatisfying childbirth experience could cause postpartum mental disorder. Therefore it is important to measure mothers' satisfaction with their childbirth experiences. We tested whether the eight-item Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) provided useful information about satisfaction with childbirth-related care. The government of the Philippines promotes childbirth at health facilities, so we tested the CSQ-8 in the Philippine cities of Ormoc and Palo. This was a cross-sectional study. We targeted multigravid mothers whose last baby had been delivered at a hospital (without complications) and whose 2nd-to-last baby had been delivered at a hospital or at home (without complications). We developed versions of the CSQ-8 in Cebuano and Waray, which are two of the six major Filipino languages. Reliability tests and validation tests were done with data from 100 Cebuano-speaking mothers and 106 Waray-speaking mothers. Both the Cebuano and Waray versions of the CSQ-8 had high coefficients of internal-consistency reliability (greater than 0.80). Both versions were also unidimensional, which is generally consistent with the English CSQ-8 in a mental-health setting. As hypothesized, the scores for data regarding the second-to-last delivery were higher for mothers who had both their second-to-last and their last delivery in a hospital, than for mothers who had their second-to-last delivery at home and their last delivery in a hospital (Cebuano: p one language. These versions of the CSQ-8 can now be used to assess mothers' satisfaction, so that mothers' opinions can be taken into account in efforts to improve childbirth-related services, which could increase the proportion of deliveries in medical facilities and thus reduce maternal mortality.

  6. The long-term mortality impact of combined job strain and family circumstances: A life course analysis of working American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Noelke, Clemens; Berkman, Lisa F

    2015-12-01

    Work stress and family composition have been separately linked with later-life mortality among working women, but it is not known how combinations of these exposures impact mortality, particularly when exposure is assessed cumulatively over the life course. We tested whether, among US women, lifelong work stress and lifelong family circumstances would jointly predict mortality risk. We studied formerly working mothers in the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) born 1924-1957 (n = 7352). We used sequence analysis to determine five prototypical trajectories of marriage and parenthood in our sample. Using detailed information on occupation and industry of each woman's longest-held job, we assigned each respondent a score for job control and job demands. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates by combined job demands, job control, and family status, then modeled hazard ratios for death based on family constellation, job control tertiles, and their combination. Married women who had children later in life had the lowest mortality risks (93/1000). The highest-risk family clusters were characterized by spells of single motherhood (132/1000). Generally, we observed linear relationships between job control and mortality hazard within each family trajectory. But while mortality risk was high for all long-term single mothers, we did not observe a job control-mortality gradient in this group. The highest-mortality subgroup was previously married women who became single mothers later in life and had low job control (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.38,2.63). Studies of associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health might consider heterogeneity of effects by family circumstances. Worksite interventions simultaneously considering both work and family characteristics may be most effective in reducing health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, P/Bag 1, Lilongwe. Corresponding ... educators meet clients' needs better while teaching topics they know are .... relief16 coping with the stress of labor17,18 labor and delivery, breathing and ...

  8. Improving Tanzanian childbirth service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaribu, Jennie; Penfold, Suzanne; Green, Cathy; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2018-04-16

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a quality improvement (QI) intervention in primary health facilities providing childbirth care in rural Southern Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach A QI collaborative model involving district managers and health facility staff was piloted for 6 months in 4 health facilities in Mtwara Rural district and implemented for 18 months in 23 primary health facilities in Ruangwa district. The model brings together healthcare providers from different health facilities in interactive workshops by: applying QI methods to generate and test change ideas in their own facilities; using local data to monitor improvement and decision making; and health facility supervision visits by project and district mentors. The topics for improving childbirth were deliveries and partographs. Findings Median monthly deliveries increased in 4 months from 38 (IQR 37-40) to 65 (IQR 53-71) in Mtwara Rural district, and in 17 months in Ruangwa district from 110 (IQR 103-125) to 161 (IQR 148-174). In Ruangwa health facilities, the women for whom partographs were used to monitor labour progress increased from 10 to 57 per cent in 17 months. Research limitations/implications The time for QI innovation, testing and implementation phases was limited, and the study only looked at trends. The outcomes were limited to process rather than health outcome measures. Originality/value Healthcare providers became confident in the QI method through engagement, generating and testing their own change ideas, and observing improvements. The findings suggest that implementing a QI initiative is feasible in rural, low-income settings.

  9. "Nearly Everybody Gets Twitterpated": The Disney Version of Mothering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraustino, Lisa Rowe

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes the case that during the American cold-war era, Disney's animated film classics worked in tandem with their True-Life Adventure series of nature documentaries to reproduce traditional mothering ideology under patriarchy. The animated films do this not by animating the realities of marriage, childbirth, and mothering work for girls…

  10. Perceived Needs for Support Program for Family With Child Sexual Abuse Victim in South Korea: Focus Group Interview With Therapists and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed perceived needs for psychological support program for family with victim of child sexual abuse in South Korea. We conducted two separate focus group interviews with five therapists who served child sexual abuse victims and families as well as four mothers of a child sexual abuse victim. Consensual qualitative research analysis revealed four domains: Emotional support for parents, psychoeducation, family therapy, and tailored and flexible service delivery. Core ideas of the four domains were identified. The results were consistent with the family support program contents developed in Western countries and suggested culture-specific contents and culturally sensitive service delivery. Clinical implications for developing family support program in South Korea were discussed.

  11. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Kremers, Stef P J; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  12. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Y N Niermann

    Full Text Available The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA and nutrition (FHC-NU. The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  13. Familial transmission of a body-related attentional bias - An eye-tracking study in a nonclinical sample of female adolescents and their mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Bauer

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that body image disturbance is transmitted from mother to daughter via modeling of maternal body-related behaviors and attitudes (indirect transmission and via maternal body-related feedback (direct transmission. So far, the transmission of body-related attentional biases, which according to cognitive-behavioral theories play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders, has not been analyzed. The current eye-tracking study applied the concepts of direct and indirect transmission to body-related attentional biases by examining body-related viewing patterns on self- and other-pictures within mother-daughter dyads.Eye movements of N = 82 participants (n = 41 healthy female adolescents, mean age 15.82 years, SD = 1.80, and their mothers, mean age 47.78 years, SD = 4.52 were recorded while looking at whole-body pictures of themselves and a control peer. Based on fixations on self-defined attractive and unattractive body areas, visual attention bias scores were calculated for mothers and daughters, representing the pattern of body-related attention allocation. Based on mothers' fixations on their own daughter's and the adolescent peer's body, a second visual attention bias score was calculated, reflecting the mothers' viewing pattern on their own daughter.Analysis of variance revealed an attentional bias for self-defined unattractive body areas in adolescents. The girls' visual attention bias score correlated significantly with their mothers' bias score, indicating indirect transmission, and with their mothers' second bias score, indicating direct transmission. Moreover, the girls' bias score correlated significantly with negative body-related feedback from their mothers.Female adolescents show a deficit-oriented attentional bias for one's own and a peer's body. The correlated body-related attention patterns imply that attentional biases might be transmitted directly and indirectly from mothers

  14. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women.

  15. Smoking in the home after childbirth: prevalence, determinants and the relationship to smoking in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Orton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes substantial ill health and mortality, and poses a significant economic and social burden. This thesis aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of smoking in the home after childbirth, and to understand the experience and attitudes of mothers who stop smoking during pregnancy but relapse soon after delivery.\\ud \\ud \\ud In study one, the factors associated with child SHS exposure in the home were systematically reviewed. Parental smoking,...

  16. Mother, father and child traumatic stress reactions after paediatric burn: Within-family co-occurrence and parent-child discrepancies in appraisals of child stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; van de Schoot, Rens; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents' own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. One-hundred children (8-18 years old), and their mothers (n=90) and fathers (n=74) were assessed within the first month (T1) and three months (T2) after burn. Parents and children rated child traumatic stress reactions on the Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory (CRTI) and parents rated their own reactions on the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Cross-sectional associations at the two occasions were examined using a structural equation model. Occurrence of traumatic stress symptoms in the clinical range was higher in parents (T1: 24-50%; T2: 14-31%) than children (T1: 0-11%; T2: 3-5%, depending on whether children, mothers or fathers reported on symptoms). Traumatic stress symptoms of mothers at T1 and of both parents at T2 were significantly related to child self-reported symptoms. Moreover, mothers who experienced higher stress symptoms themselves gave higher ratings of their child's symptoms at both time points, while for fathers, this was only found at T2. The current study demonstrates the impact of pediatric burn injury on the family level, and shows simultaneous existence of within-family interrelatedness of traumatic stress and an influence of parents' own symptoms on their perception of child symptoms. Findings highlight the need for trauma symptom screening in all family members and for considering informants' symptoms to understand the child's functioning in particular. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  18. Women and Work-Life Balance: A Narrative Inquiry of Working Single Mothers Balancing Family and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Casheena A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore working single mothers' work-life balance in order to better understand how employers can assist them. Role theory, role conflict theory, and spillover theory were utilized to examine how working single mothers experience work-life balance and how they perceive it. In this study, the researcher sought to…

  19. Syrian Mothers Producing Counterstories in Co-Constructed School Spaces: Rethinking the Role of Schools in Engaging Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli-Calamak, Elif

    2018-01-01

    This ethnographically informed field study, drawing on a blend of feminist theories and cultural learning pathways framework, reveals that Syrian mothers show strong presence and readiness to take active roles when opportunities present themselves in alternative spaces in the public schools of Turkey. As mothers produce counterstories in relation…

  20. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  1. Childbearing and Work-Family Balance among Contemporary Russian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Temkina

    2010-01-01

    In depth interview data gathered during the last decade is used to analyze how the two main gender contracts of the professional women and the working mother relate to family planning, child birth, pregnancies, and mothering. Results indicate that while Russian women experience increasing pressure of the double burden and few signs of increasing gender equality in domestic life, the stable identity of Russian mothering contributes to the birth of at least one child. Childbearing does not depend directly on gender roles and division of labor in households. The decision to have a child and care for small children continues to be womens responsibility even as fertility patterns have modernized and gender equality in couple relations is slightly increasing. However, the type of gender contract influences the process of negotiation concerning reproductive matters and the timing of childbirth.

  2. Chinese family adaptation during the postpartum period and its influencing factors: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Zhu, Xiu; Hou, Rui; Wang, De-hui; Zhang, Hai-juan; While, Alison

    2012-04-01

    this study aimed to explore new parents' views and experiences during their transition to parenthood. in China the one-child birth policy may bring more stress and challenges for the new parents due to the lack of experience and greater expectations of their new role. China is also at a stage of rapid economic and social development which creates new conditions for parenthood. a cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to September 2009 among 232 mothers and fathers, yielding a 83.6% response rate (n=194 couples). The questionnaire included: the Family Assessment Device-General Function Scale, the Family Resources Scale, the Family Adaptation Scale, and the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale. there were no significant differences between mothers' adaptation and fathers' adaptation during the postpartum period, as well as their perceived stress, family function and family resources (p>0.05). Method of childbirth was not related to adaptation. About 29% of variance in mothers' adaptation could be explained by satisfaction with the infant's gender (B=0.295, padaptation (B=0.236, padaptation could be explained by mothers' adaptation (B=0.268, pimportance of family resources to family adaptation and antenatal and postnatal education programmes as part of family-centred care. The possible influences of culture and policies need to be considered by health-care professionals developing strategies to facilitate family adaptation to the early parenthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The effect of children and career interruptions on the family gap is analysed based on longitudinal data covering the years 1980-1995. The estimated model controls for unobserved time-constant heterogeneity. The results show that when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, the negative...... effect of children on mothers' wages disappear, but there are large differences between educational groups and the public and private sector. The main effect of children seems to be a loss of human capital accumulation during child-birth periods. Beside this, there is no indication that children have...

  4. What makes or mars the facility-based childbirth experience: thematic analysis of women's childbirth experiences in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Kirumbi, Leah; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-12-29

    Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for approximately 66% of global maternal deaths. Poor person-centered maternity care, which emphasizes the quality of patient experience, contributes both directly and indirectly to these poor outcomes. Yet, few studies in low resource settings have examined what is important to women during childbirth from their perspective. The aim of this study is to examine women's facility-based childbirth experiences in a rural county in Kenya, to identify aspects of care that contribute to a positive or negative birth experience. Data are from eight focus group discussions conducted in a rural county in western Kenya in October and November 2016, with 58 mothers aged 15 to 49 years who gave birth in the preceding nine weeks. We recorded and transcribed the discussions and used a thematic approach for data analysis. The findings suggest four factors influence women's perceptions of quality of care: responsiveness, supportive care, dignified care, and effective communication. Women had a positive experience when they were received well at the health facility, treated with kindness and respect, and given sufficient information about their care. The reverse led to a negative experience. These experiences were influenced by the behavior of both clinical and support staff and the facility environment. This study extends the literature on person-centered maternity care in low resource settings. To improve person-centered maternity care, interventions need to address the responsiveness of health facilities, ensure women receive supportive and dignified care, and promote effective patient-provider communication.

  5. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  6. First childbirth experience of international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min Sun; Park, Minna; Kim, Jung A

    2017-08-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a large number of foreign women have migrated from developing countries to South Korea by means of international marriages. These nulliparous foreign women may experience more difficulties in pregnancy and childbirth than native Koreans. This study aimed to describe the meaning of the first childbirth experiences of international marriage migrant women marrying Korean men in South Korea. This is a descriptive phenomenological study that included 10 participants using the purposive and snowball sampling in one multicultural support center in Seoul, South Korea. Colaizzi's data analysis method was used to inductively determine themes and formulate meanings. The meanings of first childbirth were categorized into four themes-'coming to a crisis,' 'depending on others,' 'searching for solutions,' and 'strengthening family unity.' Inadequate antenatal care is associated with obstacles such as language barriers, social isolation, lack of knowledge, different midwifery practice and dependent lifestyle. Meanwhile, their children were a source of energy for the women to fulfill their emotional needs and improve family relationships. Childbirth is a life-changing event for these women, in which they face challenges as well as opportunities to develop new coping skills and a new role identity in their family. It is important for healthcare providers and policy makers to identify obstacles and unmet needs to improve maternity care in light of the distinctive challenges of immigrant living in multicultural families. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth: A correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weilin Lynn; He, Hong-Gu; Chua, Ying Jie; Wang, Wenru; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-03-20

    To examine factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth in Singapore. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was conducted in a public tertiary hospital in Singapore. A total of 182 first-time fathers whose wives were hospitalized at four obstetric wards were recruited from November 2015 to January 2016. Data were collected by three newly developed and validated instruments, namely Father's Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, Father's Informational and Sources of Support, and Father's Attitude Towards Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, as well as the 16-item Couple Satisfaction Index and Family of Origin Questionnaire. The participants were generally involved in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth, with 35.2% being highly involved. There was no significant difference in fathers' levels of involvement between or among any sociodemographic subgroups. Significant Spearman's correlations were found between fathers' levels of involvement and levels of informational support as well as fathers' attitudes towards involvement. However, the logistic regression showed the level of informational support was the only significant factor that influenced first-time fathers' high levels of involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth. The study revealed the importance of providing sufficient informational support to first-time fathers so that they can be highly involved in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Future studies can develop technology-based intervention programmes to improve fathers' involvement in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Healthcare professionals should examine and improve the existing informational support for first-time fathers and ensure its relevance and convenient access. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived Social Support and Maternal Competence in Primipara Women during Pregnancy and After Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelzadeh Saeieh, Sara; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Yazdkhasti, Mansooreh; Torkashvand, Shoukofeh

    2017-10-01

    Developing maternal competence in first time mothers has a significant impact on neonate's growth psychosocial development and neonates growth and psychological development. Social support can be an important element for becoming a new mother. We aimed to investigate how social support and maternal competence change during pregnancy and 4 months after it and examine the relationships among social support and maternal competence. This longitudinal study was conducted on 100 first time mothers attending health centers in Alborz city, Alborz Province, between February 2015 and January 2016. Data were collected through perceived social support questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale consisting of 17 items scored based on Likert's scale. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Repeated-measure test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. Psocial support did not show any significant reduction (P=0.286). A direct relationship was found between social support and maternal competent six weeks after childbirth (r=0.19, P=0.049), and also social support and maternal competence sixteen weeks after childbirth (r=0.23, P=0.01). Considering the reduction of maternal competency during the study, social support by healthcare providers may be helpful for the mothers' transition to motherhood, and midwives must design specific interventions to promote the sense of maternal competence and perceived social support in first time mothers.

  9. 'It is hard for mums to put themselves first': how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer manage the sociological boundaries between paid work, family and caring for the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an

  10. Drawing on resilience: piloting the utility of the Kinetic Family Drawing to measure resilience in children of HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ebersöhn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe how using a visual, child-friendly measure of resilience in a randomised control trial (RCT, the Kgolo Mmogo (KM project, resulted in representative insights on resilience in a mother-child relationship where the mother is HIV-positive. We used the existing psychological method Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD to measure resilience of young children in the qualitative phase of the concurrent mixed method RCT as the children represent cultural groups for whom standardized measures have not been developed. We use the case example of baseline KM assessment data of 6 year olds (n = 11; 3 female, 8 male. The results of the study demonstrate that the visual and qualitative data from children (KFD added to quantitative information obtained from mothers (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, VABS. Additional information from the KFD had interpretation value for VABS scores and provided a child's perspective regarding resilience. Contrasting information from the KFD problematized mothers' perspectives as indicated in the VABS. The absence of significant information in KFD results regarding VABS sub-domains indicates differences in the cultural/contextual conceptualization of resilience. This exploratory study indicates initial support for the cross-cultural utility of the KFD to measure resilience in young children faced with adversity.

  11. Length of stay for childbirth in Trentino (North-East of Italy): the impact of maternal characteristics and organizational features of the maternity unit on the probability of early discharge of healthy, term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertile, Riccardo; Pavanello, Lucia; Soffiati, Massimo; Manica, Laura; Piffer, Silvano

    2018-01-01

    Early discharge (ED) of healthy term infants has become a common practice due to current social and economic needs. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate trends in early discharge of healthy term neonates (≥ 37 gestational weeks) by delivery method (cesarean and vaginal) in maternity units in the Province of Trento. The secondary objective was to identify the socio-demographic characteristics (including the area of residence and distance from the designated hospital) and clinical characteristics of mothers whose infants were discharged early. This retrospective study reviewed records of live births from 2006 to 2016, for a total of 45, 314 healthy term infants. The trend for ED grew significantly during the period 2006-2016, for both cesarean and vaginal deliveries. The multiple logistic regression analysis shows how the determinants of ED are maternal age, birth order, citizenship of mother, maternal smoking, maternal employment status, and the number of births at the hospital on the day of birth. The post-partum length of stay should be adjusted based on the characteristics and needs of the mother-infant dyad, identifying the criteria for safe discharge. In Trento, various procedures and programs are becoming more uniform today with the intention to provide family assistance service. What is Known: • Admission for childbirth is one of the primary causes of hospitalization in industrialized countries. • The length of stay for childbirth has been steadily declining in recent decades, with the aim of reducing costs while also demedicalizing pregnancy. What is New: • A higher rate of early discharge (ED) was recorded for neonates of women having foreign citizenship, entrepreneurs, self-employed professionals or managers. • ED was more common when the new mother gave birth on a day in which there was a higher number of births at the hospital, indicating overcrowding in the maternity unit.

  12. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyesaw, Nana Yaa Konadu; Ankomah, Augustine

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various responsible departments to address ignorance on sexual matters, and the challenges and risks associated with pregnancy and parenting by adolescents. Parenting techniques should be taught in sex education programs.

  13. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  14. New mothers' views of weight and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; David, Tamala

    2008-01-01

    To describe the attitudes and preferences of ethnically diverse new mothers on weight and exercise. Exploratory, qualitative study. Forty-nine ethnically diverse women were interviewed during the first year following childbirth regarding beliefs about weight, choices of exercise, walking for exercise, perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of exercise. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Weight was a significant concern for women, although the importance varied by race. New mothers reported that they would like to weigh less, and they endorsed walking for exercise. Common barriers to exercise were children and time constraints; health problems were also seen as a barrier to walking as a form of exercise. Scheduling the walk and having a walking partner were factors that women said would facilitate walking for physical activity during the first year after childbirth. Because new mothers perceive walking as a good form of exercise, nurses can use this information to help them plan a daily walking schedule to aid in weight loss and control postpartum. Nurses should also encourage new mothers to look for a walking partner, especially another new mother or a friend, to help them continue their physical activity during the first year after childbirth.

  15. The effects of a childbirth psychoeducation program on learned resourcefulness, maternal role competence and perinatal depression: a quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Ip, Wan-Yim

    2009-10-01

    Learned resourcefulness plays a significant role in facilitating maternal coping during the transition to motherhood. Given the growing evidence of perinatal depression and the frequent feeling of incompetence in the maternal role, the implementation of an effective intervention to promote maternal role competence and emotional well-being is essential. To determine the impact of a childbirth psychoeducation program based on the concept of learned resourcefulness on maternal role competence and depressive symptoms in Chinese childbearing women. A pretest-posttest, control group quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in two regional public hospitals in Hong Kong that provide routine childbirth education programs with similar content and structure. One hospital was being randomly selected as the experimental hospital. A convenience sample of 184 Chinese pregnant women attending the childbirth education was recruited between October 2005 and April 2007. Inclusion criteria were primiparous with singleton and uneventful pregnancy, at gestation between 12 and 35 weeks, and did not have a past or familial psychiatric illness. The intervention was a childbirth psychoeducation program that was incorporated into the routine childbirth education in the experimental hospital. The experimental group (n=92) received the childbirth psychoeducation program and the routine childbirth education. The comparison group (n=92) received the routine childbirth education alone in the comparison hospital. Outcomes were measured by the Self-Control Schedule, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale-Efficacy subscale and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at baseline, immediately post-intervention, at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Analysis was by intention to treat. Women receiving the childbirth psychoeducation program had significant improvement in learned resourcefulness at 6 weeks postpartum (p=0.004) and an overall reduction in depressive

  16. Antenatal Care Seeking Behaviour among Slum Mothers: A Study of Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Islam, Rafiqul; Rahman, Mosfequr

    2010-04-01

    The study aimed to identify the important effects of some selected variables in antenatal care (ANC) seeking behaviour among slum mothers. The data for the study were collected in 2006 from 700 mothers in the slum areas of Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC), Bangladesh. The results indicate that tetanus toxoid (TT) is relatively widespread in slum areas of RCC. Serious health implications were observed for the mothers and their children who lived in the study areas because more than half of the respondents (56.1%) were not assisted at their last childbirth by any health professional. The respondents were too poor to buy iron tablets/syrup and vitamin tablets/syrup during their last pregnancy. The application of a logistic regression model suggested that demographic and socio-economic factors were associated with ANC seeking behaviour among slum mothers. Respondents' education, place of treatment, husband's occupation, family's income, and exposure to mass media had highly significant effects on mothers seeking medical checkups during their last pregnancy.

  17. Predictors and outcomes of postpartum mothers' perceptions of readiness for discharge after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marianne E; Lokken, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To identify predictors and outcomes of postpartum mothers' perceptions of their readiness for hospital discharge. A correlational design with path analyses was used to explore predictive relationships among transition theory-related variables. Midwestern tertiary perinatal center. One hundred and forty-one mixed-parity postpartum mothers who had experienced vaginal birth or Cesarean delivery of normal healthy infants. Before hospital discharge, patients completed questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics, hospitalization factors, quality of discharge teaching, and readiness for discharge. Three weeks postdischarge, mothers were contacted by telephone to collect coping difficulty and health care utilization data. Readiness for Hospital Discharge Scale, Post-Discharge Coping Difficulty Scale, Utilization of postdischarge services. Quality of discharge teaching, specifically the relative difference in the amount of informational content needed and received and the skills of nurses in delivering discharge teaching, explained 38% of the variance in postpartum mothers' perceptions of discharge readiness. Readiness for discharge scores explained 22% of the variance in postdischarge coping difficulty scores. Nurses' skills in delivery of discharge teaching, coping difficulty, patient characteristics, and birth hospitalization factors were predictive of utilization of family support and postdischarge health care services. A trajectory of influence was evident in the sequential relationships of quality of discharge teaching, readiness for discharge, postdischarge coping, and utilization of family support and health care services. Transitions theory provided a useful framework for conceptualizing and investigating the transition home after childbirth.

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after childbirth and the influence of maternity team care during labour and birth: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Sarah; Vercauteren, Tinne; Tersago, Jolein; Jacquemyn, Yves; Raes, Filip; Franck, Erik

    2016-01-01

    we examined the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the role of personal and obstetric risk factors, as well as the role of midwifery team care factors in a cohort of Flemish women. prospective cohort study. Data collection was performed at two times post partum: During the first week, socio-demographic and obstetric data as well as information related to midwifery team care factors were assessed using self-report measures. To asses PTSD symptomatology, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) were used. At six weeks post partum, PTSD symptoms were reassessed either by telephone interviews or e-mail. Results were calculated in frequencies, means and standard deviations. Differences between week one and six were analysed using parametrical and non-parametrical statistics. Multiple and logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for PTSD symptomatology. P-value was set at 0.05. maternity wards in Flanders, Belgium. the first (week 1) and follow-up (week 6) sample of the data collection consisted of 340 and 229 women respectively. the prevalence of PTSD symptoms after childbirth ranged from 22% to 24% in the first week and from 13% to 20% at six weeks follow-up. Multiple regression analysis showed that Islamic belief, a traumatic childbirth experience, family income <€2500, a history of psychological or psychiatric consults and labour/birth with complications significantly predicted PTSD symptomatology at six weeks post-birth. Midwifery team care and the opportunity to ask questions, as well as experiencing a normal physiological birth were significantly associated with less postnatal PTSD symptoms. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTISE: the results of this study suggest that contextual factors such as religion, socio-economic status, and childbirth experience might be important factors to address by the midwifery team. Midwifery team care factors such as 'providing the opportunity to

  19. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Gajananda P; Subedi, Narayan; Thapa, Janak; Choulagai, Bishnu; Maskey, Mahesh K; Onta, Sharad R

    2014-03-19

    Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled

  20. Economic crisis and women's labor force return after childbirth: Evidence from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most research on women's labor force return after childbirth concentrates on industrialized countries in the West; the link between economic swings and mothers' work-return behavior is rarely addressed. This study closes these gaps by focusing on South Korea, a developed society in East Asia that has in recent decades witnessed increases in female labor force participation and dramatic economic ups and downs. This is the first relevant study on South Korea. Objective: This study examines how women's labor force return after childbirth (with and without career interruption and their career prospects upon work return varied before, during, and after the Asian financial crisis in South Korea. Methods: Logistic and hazard regression models were applied to the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS waves 1-10. Results: The study reveals an increase in women's immediate work return after childbirth without career interruption since the 1980s. The Asian financial crisis boosted this immediate return pattern. The implementation of job-protected maternity leave further contributed to this pattern. Women who underwent career interruption at first birth were also more likely to re-enter the labor market during and after the crisis than before. Downward occupational moves were especially common during the period of financial crisis. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Asian financial crisis triggered a noticeable change in women's post-birth work-return behavior. The economic volatility pushed mothers to hold onto their role in the labor force more strongly than before.

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children’s subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent’s child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers’ psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents’ potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents’ punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers’ psychological control on children’s externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers’ psychological control on adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children’s behavior. PMID:26521948

  2. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  3. Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereji, Ezinne E; Enwereji, Kelechi O

    2010-04-01

    Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC). This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages. There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82%) PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64%) PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85%) of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization. Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother

  4. Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezinne E. Enwereji

    2010-04-01

    childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother-to-child transmission, infection to others and obstetric complications.

  5. The Impact of Premature Childbirth on Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N. Hoffenkamp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200 and fathers (n = 193 of full-term (n = 69, moderately premature (n = 68, and very premature infants (n = 63. During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ. Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.

  6. Sources, responses and moderators of childbirth fear in Australian women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, J; Toohill, J; Creedy, D K; Smith, J; Gamble, J

    2015-01-01

    around 20% of women suffer childbirth fear causing them significant distress and often leading to requests for caesarean section. In Sweden, fearful pregnant women are offered counselling; however, in Australia, no dedicated service caters for the specific needs of these women. Indeed scant research has been conducted in Australia and little is known about women's concerns and if these align to those reported in the international literature. to describe the sources, responses and moderators of childbirth fear in a group of pregnant women assessed as having high levels of childbirth fear. comparative analysis was used to identify common concepts and generate themes that represented women's perspectives of childbirth fear. Data consisted of 43 tape recorded telephone conversations with highly fearful pregnant women who were participating in a large randomised controlled trial known as BELIEF (Birth Emotions, Looking to Improve Expectant Fear). women's fears were conceptualised into three themes: fear stimuli; fear responses; and fear moderators. Lack of confidence to birth, fear of the unknown, internalising other women's negative stories, perineal tearing and labour pain were common concerns for first time mothers. For multiparous women, not having had personal feelings resolved following their previous birth and negative experiences of last birth influenced current expectations for their upcoming birth. Themes common to both groups were: unmet information and support needs, feelings of loss of control and lack of input in to decision-making. Some women however, chose to avoid birth planning in order to cope during pregnancy. Australian women had similar childbirth concerns to those reported in the international literature. However unique to this study was finding two opposing discourses; one of preoccupation with negative events and the other; avoidance of planning for labour and birth. Provision of woman centred maternity models that minimise obstetric

  7. Parenting Efficacy and Health-promoting Behaviors for Children of Mothers from Native and Multicultural Families in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Jihey Chung, MSN, RN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Since maternal health-promoting behaviors were different depending on the native country of the mothers, maternal country of origin should be considered in designing programs for improving maternal health-promoting behaviors for their children. In addition, increasing the level of parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors.

  8. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  9. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  10. Portuguese mothers and fathers share similar levels of work-family guilt according to a newly validated measure

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gabriela; Sousa, Cátia; Santos, Joana; Silva, Tânia; Korabik, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Transformations in family and work life have led to profound changes in the articulation of both spheres. The massive entry of women into the labor market, the decline of a family model based on the male provider, increasing job demands, and persistent gender inequality are factors that can generate work-family conflict and lead to feelings of guilt. Work-family guilt is a topic still rarely studied, particularly in Portugal. Given the importance of understanding the complexity of the relatio...

  11. Preferences, constraints or schemas of devotion? Exploring Norwegian mothers' withdrawals from high-commitment careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halrynjo, Sigtona; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2009-06-01

    Despite decades of focus on gender equality and work-family balance, parenthood still affects mothers' and fathers' careers differently. Drawing on in-depth interviews with Norwegian mothers who are relinquishing high-commitment careers of law and consultancy, this paper questions the adequacy of established explanations emphasizing constraints vs. individual preferences. Our sample of female professionals living in a well-developed welfare state is particularly apt to explore the processes and mechanisms upholding the statistically gendered pattern of women reducing their work commitment after childbirth. These doubly privileged mothers might be considered to have the best odds for combining career and work commitment with motherhood. Thus, we argue that the approach emphasizing practical constraints does not sufficiently account for the withdrawal from high-commitment careers among these female professionals. Nevertheless, we are not content with the claim of Preference Theory that this shift in commitment is merely a matter of 'not-so-dedicated' women discovering their 'genuine' preferences. Rather, in order to understand why and how this shift occurs, we explore the culturally constructed rationalities and schemas of both work and family devotions. We specifically examine the circumstances, mechanisms and steps in a seemingly individual process of making the shift in commitment from a promising career to a family-friendly job. Moreover, the analysis demonstrates how generous parental leave arrangements designed to enhance gender equality and work-family balance by simply reducing practical constraints may have limited--or even counterproductive--impact within high-commitment occupations where the 'irreplaceability' of workers is taken for granted. Our findings indicate that unless the culturally (re)produced discourses, demands and expectations of both work and family are exposed and challenged, even intentionally gender neutral work-family policies will

  12. Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties of Thai language versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary Observations On Husband\\'s Attitude. ... An open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors was used to elicit information on relevant aspects of husbands' reproductive behaviour. We found that husbands' preferred time of resumption of sexual ...

  14. Disrespect and abuse of women during the process of childbirth in the 2015 Pelotas birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Victora, Cesar Gomes; Jacob Serruya, Suzzane; Ponce de León, Rodolfo; Damaso, Andrea Homsi; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; da Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    2018-03-27

    The disrespect and abuse of women during the process of childbirth is an emergent and global problem and only few studies have investigated this worrying issue. The objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence of disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth in Pelotas City, Brazil, and to investigate the factors involved. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of women delivering members of the 2015 Pelotas birth cohort. Information relating to disrespect and abuse during childbirth was obtained by household interview 3 months after delivery. The information related to verbal and physical abuse, denial of care and invasive and/or inappropriate procedures. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with one or more, and two or more, types of disrespectful treatment or abuse. A total of 4275 women took part in a perinatal study. During the three-month follow-up, we interviewed 4087 biological mothers with regards to disrespect and abuse. Approximately 10% of women reported having experienced verbal abuse, 6% denial of care, 6% undesirable or inappropriate procedures and 5% physical abuse. At least one type of disrespect or abuse was reported by 18.3% of mothers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.2-19.5); and at least two types by 5.1% (95% CI: 4.4-5.8). Women relying on the public health sector, and those whose childbirths were via cesarean section with previous labor, had the highest risk, with approximately a three- and two-fold increase in risk, respectively. Our study showed that the occurrence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth was high and mostly associated with payment by the public sector and labor before delivery. The efforts made by civil society, governments and international organizations are not sufficient to restrain institutional violence against women during childbirth. To eradicate this problem, it is essential to 1) implement policies and actions specific for this type of violence and 2

  15. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Борисович Зуев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical studies of single-parent families.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-6

  16. The Effect of Debriefing and Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Postpartum Depression in Traumatic Childbirth: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Abdollahpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Childbirth is a stressful event in women’s lives, and if a mother perceives it as an unpleasant event, it can influence her postpartum mental health. Depression is a common mental disorder, which can has serious consequences depending on its severity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of debriefing and brief cognitive-behavioral therapy on postpartum depression in traumatic childbirth. Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 179 mothers who experienced a traumatic childbirth and were admitted in postnatal ward of Nohom Dey Hospital in Torbat-e Heydarieh, North East of Iran in 2016. The subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, including two intervention groups of debriefing and brief cognitive-behavioral counseling and a control group. The intervention groups received appropriate counseling for 40-60 minutes in the first 48 postpartum hours and the control group received the routine postpartum care. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to evaluate postpartum depression 4-6 weeks and also three months after the intervention. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in were compared in three groups using t-test, chi-square test, and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: No significant differences were observed between the mean depression scores of the two intervention groups and that of the control group 4-6 weeks after childbirth. However, three months after delivery, the mean depression scores of the two intervention groups was lower than the control group (P

  17. The Role of HIV-Related Stigma in Utilization of Skilled Childbirth Services in Rural Kenya : A Prospective Mixed-Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turan, Janet M.; Hatcher, Abigail H.; Wijnveen, José; Onono, Maricianah; Miller, Suellen; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Bulent; Cohen, Craig R.

    Background: Childbirth with a skilled attendant is crucial for preventing maternal mortality and is an important opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The Maternity in Migori and AIDS Stigma Study (MAMAS Study) is a prospective mixed-methods investigation conducted in a

  18. Fears related to pregnancy and childbirth among primigravidae who requested caesarean versus vaginal delivery in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinnia, Nasrin; Faisal, Ibrahim; Hanafiah Juni, Muhamad; Herjar, Abdul Rahman; Moeini, Babak; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2015-05-01

    Pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears are common psychological concerns and the primary reasons for requesting caesarean section (CS). We aimed to examine the content of maternal fear and the associated demographic factors in a sample of Iranian primigravidae. A randomly selected sample of primigravidae (n = 342) was recruited in four health care centres in Iran. Data were collected using a 30-item questionnaire. Principal components factor analysis was applied to identify the main factors of pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears. All primigravidae reported some degree of fear, 48.2 % presented severe fear, and 62.6 % requested a CS because of childbirth-related fear. Most of the employed primigravidae with higher education level, higher family income, and unplanned pregnancy requested CS. The items constructed to measure maternal fear were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Six categories were identified, including 'process of labour and childbirth', 'life and well-being of the baby', 'competence and behaviour of maternity ward personnel', 'own capabilities and reactions', 'becoming a parent and family life after delivery' and 'general fear in pregnancy' that cumulatively explained 55.3 % of the variance. The most common factor was 'life and well-being of the baby'. Severe fear was found in 70.6 % of those who chose CS, while 10.9 % of those who chose vaginal delivery reported severe fear. The between-group differences for mean scores and levels of fear were statistically significant. Pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears were frequently experienced by all low-risk primigravidae. Better strategies to address women's psychological needs during pregnancy are necessary.

  19. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuev Konstantin Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values ​​of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical

  20. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation and cessation among employed mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Schold, Jesse D; Randall, Xian J

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the industrialized world. Studies have shown that full-time employment and early return to work decreased breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the relationship between leave policies and breastfeeding initiation and cessation. This study aimed to identify workplace-related barriers and facilitators associated with breastfeeding initiation and cessation in the first 6 months postpartum. A prospective cohort study design was utilized to recruit 817 Minnesota women aged 18 and older while hospitalized for childbirth. Selection criteria included English-speaking, employed mothers with a healthy, singleton birth. These women were followed up using telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after childbirth. The main study outcomes were breastfeeding initiation, measured during hospital enrollment, and breastfeeding cessation by 6 months postpartum. Women were 30 years old; 86 % were White, and 73 % were married. Breastfeeding rates were 81 % at childbirth, 67 % at 6 weeks, 49 % at 12 weeks, and 33 % at 6 months postpartum. Logistic regression revealed the odds of breastfeeding initiation were higher for women who: held professional jobs, were primiparae, had graduate degree, did not smoke prenatally, had no breastfeeding problems, and had family or friends who breastfeed. Survival analyses showed the hazard for breastfeeding cessation by 6 months was: higher for women who returned to work at any time during the 6 months postpartum versus those who did not return, lower for professional workers, higher among single than married women, higher for every educational category compared to graduate school, and higher for those with no family or friends who breastfeed. While employer paid leave policy did not affect breastfeeding initiation or cessation, women who took shorter leaves were more likely to stop breastfeeding in the first 6 months postpartum. Future research should examine

  1. [Relationships of the stages of behavior change in dietary habits of the mothers of school-age children with the breakfast intake of the children and the health-associated behavior of the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kayoko; Senoue, Aya; Wada, Miyuki; Sakoda, Makiko; Seto, Kozue; Haraguchi, Miho; Matsukida, Emi; Maruyama, Chizuko

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the relationships of the different stages of behavior change in dietary habits followed by the mothers of school-age children with the actual breakfast intake of these children and the health-associated behavior of the family. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey of 1949 children at 18 elementary schools and of 881 families with children attending seven elementary schools in Kagoshima prefecture. We were supplied with information about children's breakfast intake and content on the day they took the survey and information about mothers' breakfast intake and the stage of behavior change in dietary habits to which they belonged, for which five stages were defined using the stage-of-change model. The collection rates were 83.3% and 83.1% among children and mothers respectively. Of the children, 83.1% ate breakfast every day, while 15.1% were not in the habit of having breakfast. Furthermore, 98.6% children had eaten breakfast on the day of the survey, but 15.1% had eaten only staple foods such as rice or bread; only 34.0% children combined staple foods, a main dish, and vegetables/fruits in their breakfast. Regarding dietary stage, 28.1% of the mothers belonged to the "maintenance" stage; 24.0%, the "action" stage; 6.9%, the "preparation" stage; 9.8%, the "contemplation" stage; and 5.7%, the "precontemplation" stage. Mothers belonging to the first two stages constituted the "action group," because they were already taking care of their dietary habits, and mothers belonging to the latter three stages constituted the "no-action group", because they were not taking care of their dietary habits. The mothers who could provide no answers to the question constituted the "no-answer group" (25.5%). A comparison of the three groups revealed that mothers belonging to the no-answer group had more children who went without breakfast than the action group (P = 0.000). The children of mothers belonging to the no-action group (P = 0.003) and the no

  2. THE NATURE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY WELL-BEING IN ADULTHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Samoshkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attachment to mother is viewed as the primary sample of bonding with a close person, thus its quality has an impact on the relationships with a partner. Objectives. A research of the nature of connection between child’s attachment to mother and the experience of the family well-being in adulthood is presented. Method. The empirical research was carried out by internet survey with the help of the following methods: “Satisfaction with marriage” by Stolin V., Butenko G., Romanova T.; “Experience of close relationship” by Brennan K. and Freiley P. adapted by Kazantseva T.; “Role expectations and claims in marriage” by Volkova A.; “Communication in the family” by Alyoshina Yu., Gozman L., Dubovski M.; and the author’s survey revealing the type of child’s attachment to mother in adulthood. Fisher criterion F was used for the comparison of different samples; Pearson’s correlation coef?cient was used for the determination of correlation between the type of attachment to mother and components of psychological well-being. Sample. In the course of the research 39 couples living in registered marriage were surveyed, which constitutes 78 respondents aged 23-42. Results. The type of attachment to mother in person’s childhood determines the possibility of displaying avoidance of closeness to the partner, anxiety caused by the loss of closeness as well as peculiarities of communication, role expectations and claims in a couple. Conclusions. People with an indifferent type of attachment often avoid intimacy with a partner, perform well in the sphere of emotional and psychological support of a partner and even exhibit a higher degree of mutual understanding with the partner. People with neurotic type of attachment may experience anxiety about the loss of intimacy with a partner, but this anxiety can make them constantly work on themselves, both in physical terms – with an external attachment or on a psychological level

  3. The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers' Work Commitment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany. Using unique survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and difference-in-differences, triple-differenced, and instrumental variables estimators for panel data, they obtain consistent empirical evidence that increasing generosity of leave entitlements led to a decline in mothers' work commitment in both East and West Germany. They also probe potential mediating mechanisms and find strong evidence for role exposure and norm setting effects. Finally, they demonstrate that policy-induced shifts in mothers' preferences have contributed to. retarding women's labor force participation after childbirth in Germany, especially as far as mothers' return to full-time employment is concerned.

  4. A WOMAN-CENTRED CHILDBIRTH MODEL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-27

    Oct 27, 2009 ... Enhance self-esteem, self-determination and self-reliance when the mother .... was conducted in order to identify the characteristics of the concept .... medical definitions surrounding birth and on preparing mothers for hospital ...

  5. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, Mara A.; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    Mothers’ return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It

  6. Antenatal education for childbirth-epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutajar, Lisa; Cyna, Allan M

    2018-05-07

    The language structures used by antenatal educators have not been previously researched in the context of antenatal childbirth classes. Epidural analgesia for labour is a common, and a frequently asked about, component of antenatal education for parents in hospitals providing maternity care. We aimed to identify the way information is described and presented by childbirth educators to assess content and determine which language structures such as metaphor, suggestion, information and storytelling are utilized. This observational study of antenatal education was conducted at a single tertiary referral center for maternity care in Western Sydney, Australia. All three childbirth educators agreed to be video recorded whilst providing information to parents during antenatal classes. Audio data was subsequently transcribed and then analysed by two researchers, independently categorising the various language structures and types of information provided. For the purposes of the current study, data concerning a single topic was used for the analysis-'epidural analgesia for labour'. Language structures used were highly variable between educators, as was the content and time taken for the information being provided. Our findings represent a first attempt to identify baseline information used in the clinical setting of antenatal education in order to categories communication structures used. This study has identified areas for further improvements and consistency in the way educators provide information to parents and has important implications for future midwifery practice, education and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childbirth and Trauma, 1940s-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Paula A

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes trauma in mid-twentieth century hospital births, focusing on the United States, but with additional evidence drawn from Great Britain and France. As many as half of women today experience childbirth as traumatic and no evidence suggests that the figure was lower a half-century ago. Drawing on women's birth narratives and psychiatric literature, this article highlights the striking consistency over time in how women describe their experiences of traumatic birth. By the 1970s, however, women proved less ready to accept their trauma as the product of their own psychological shortcomings. Under the sway of second-wave feminism, they pushed back against care they defined as inhumane in both conventional maternity care and in natural childbirth. Psychiatry too demonstrates change over time. Hegemonic at midcentury, Freudian thinking began to yield to critiques that questioned gender norms and the preeminence of the subconscious. Based on private letters to maternity caregivers and between physicians, as well as a wide array of medical journal articles, popular magazines, and newsletters from childbirth education and birth advocacy organizations, this article argues that, despite different approaches to trauma in birth and clarity about how best to minimize it, contemporary maternity care has to date proven unable to heed the lessons of history. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Adopting a healthy lifestyle when pregnant and obese - an interview study three years after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Anna; Premberg, Åsa; Olander, Ellinor K; McCourt, Christine; Haby, Karin; Dencker, Sofie; Glantz, Anna; Berg, Marie

    2016-07-30

    monitoring to maintain healthy eating and regular physical activity habits after childbirth involving also the partner and family.

  9. Mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

    2009-07-01

    To study mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth, namely factors (socio-demographics, previous life events, type of delivery, pain at childbirth, support from partner, infant characteristics, early experiences with the newborn, and mother's mood) that interfere with the mother's positive, negative and not clear emotions toward the newborn. The Bonding Scale (an extended Portuguese version of the 'New Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale') and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administrated during the first after delivery days to 315 mothers recruited at Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital (MJD, Porto, Portugal). A worse emotional involvement with the newborn was observed when the mother was unemployed, unmarried, had less than grade 9, previous obstetrical/psychological problems or was depressed, as well as when the infant was female, had neonatal problems or was admitted in the intensive care unit. Lower total bonding results were significantly predicted when the mother was depressed and had a lower educational level; being depressed, unemployed and single predicted more negative emotions toward the infant as well. No significant differences in the mother-to-infant emotional involvement were obtained for events related to childbirth, such as type of delivery, pain and partner support, or early experiences with the newborn; these events do not predict mother's bonding results either. The study results support the need for screening and supporting depressed, unemployed and single mothers, in order to prevent bonding difficulties with the newborn at birth.

  10. Mothers and work-life balance: Exploring the contradictions and complexities involved in work-family negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wattis, Louise; Standing, Joseph; Yerkes, Mara

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents data from a project exploring women's experiences of work and care. It focuses primarily on work-life balance as a problematic concept. Social and economic transformations across advanced post-industrial economies have resulted in concerns about how individuals manage their lives across the two spheres of work and family and achieve a work-life balance. Governments across the European Union have introduced various measures to address how families effectively ...

  11. Who Delivers without Water? A Multi Country Analysis of Water and Sanitation in the Childbirth Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Gon

    Full Text Available Hygiene during childbirth is essential to the health of mothers and newborns, irrespective of where birth takes place. This paper investigates the status of water and sanitation in both the home and facility childbirth environments, and for whom and where this is a more significant problem.We used three datasets: a global dataset, with information on the home environment from 58 countries, and two datasets for each of four countries in Eastern Africa: a healthcare facility dataset, and a dataset that incorporated information on facilities and the home environment to create a comprehensive description of birth environments in those countries. We constructed indices of improved water, and improved water and sanitation combined (WATSAN, for the home and healthcare facilities. The Joint Monitoring Program was used to construct indices for household; we tailored them to the facility context-household and facility indices include different components. We described what proportion of women delivered in an environment with improved WATSAN. For those women who delivered at home, we calculated what proportion had improved WATSAN by socio-economic status, education and rural-urban status.Among women delivering at home (58 countries, coverage of improved WATSAN by region varied from 9% to 53%. Fewer than 15% of women who delivered at home in Sub-Saharan Africa, had access to water and sanitation infrastructure (range 0.1% to 37%. This was worse among the poorest, the less educated and those living in rural areas. In Eastern Africa, where we looked at both the home and facility childbirth environment, a third of women delivered in an environment with improved water in Uganda and Rwanda; whereas, 18% of women in Kenya and 7% in Tanzania delivered with improved water and sanitation. Across the four countries, less than half of the facility deliveries had improved water, or improved water and sanitation in the childbirth environment.Access to water and

  12. The Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers’ Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  13. Maternal morbidity in the first year after childbirth in Mombasa Kenya; a needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchters Stanley MF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, few services specifically address the needs of women in the first year after childbirth. By assessing the health status of women in this period, key interventions to improve maternal health could be identified. There is an underutilised opportunity to include these interventions within the package of services provided for woman-child pairs attending child-health clinics. Methods This needs assessment entailed a cross-sectional survey with 500 women attending a child-health clinic at the provincial hospital in Mombasa, Kenya. A structured questionnaire, clinical examination, and collection of blood, urine, cervical swabs and Pap smear were done. Women's health care needs were compared between the early (four weeks to two months after childbirth, middle (two to six months and late periods (six to twelve months since childbirth. Results More than one third of women had an unmet need for contraception (39%, 187/475. Compared with other time intervals, women in the late period had more general health symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever and depression, but fewer urinary or breast problems. Over 50% of women in each period had anaemia (Hb Trichomonas vaginalis and 11% (54/496 HIV infection. Conclusion Throughout the first year after childbirth, women had high levels of morbidity. Interface with health workers at child health clinics should be used for treatment of anaemia, screening and treatment of reproductive tract infections, and provision of family planning counselling and contraception. Providing these services during visits to child health clinics, which have high coverage both early and late in the year after childbirth, could make an important contribution towards improving women's health.

  14. Comparison of childbirth care models in public hospitals, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sibylle Emilie; Silva, Kátia Silveira da; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos

    2014-04-01

    To compare collaborative and traditional childbirth care models. Cross-sectional study with 655 primiparous women in four public health system hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011 (333 women for the collaborative model and 322 for the traditional model, including those with induced or premature labor). Data were collected using interviews and medical records. The Chi-square test was used to compare the outcomes and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association between the model and the interventions used. Paid work and schooling showed significant differences in distribution between the models. Oxytocin (50.2% collaborative model and 65.5% traditional model; p relief (85.0% collaborative model and 78.9% traditional model; p = 0.042). The association between the collaborative model and the reduction in the use of oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and episiotomy remained after adjustment for confounding. The care model was not associated with complications in newborns or mothers neither with the use of spinal or epidural analgesia. The results suggest that collaborative model may reduce interventions performed in labor care with similar perinatal outcomes.

  15. [Hospital length-of-stay after childbirth in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulm, B; Blondel, B

    2013-02-01

    To study hospital length-of-stay (LOS) after childbirth and its determinants and to describe home care offered after discharge. We studied 10,302 women with vaginal delivery from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey. Maternal, newborn, maternity unit characteristics and the region of birth were considered. Simple and polytomial regression analyses were used to study determinants of postpartum LOS. Maternity units that offered routinely home visits by midwives after discharge were described. Around 29,0% of women had a LOS ≤ 3 days, with significant variations between regions. LOS ≤ 3 days was more common among multiparas and women who bottle-fed their newborn. In the Greater Parisian Region, LOS ≤ 3 days ranged from 16,6% in private units women who had a LOS ≤ 3 days, only 19,7% were in a unit, which offered home visits routinely. LOS varies mainly according to the place of delivery. The trends towards short LOS are likely to continue due to economic pressures and home care services should be developed to ensure continuity of care for all mothers after discharge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Disrespect and abuse during pregnancy, labour and childbirth: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disrespect and abuse during pregnancy, labour and childbirth: a qualitative study from four primary healthcare centres of Amhara and Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Regional States, Ethiopia.

  17. Determinants of use of health facility for childbirth in rural Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseffa, Netsanet Abera; Bukola, Fawole; Ayodele, Arowojolu

    2016-11-16

    Maternal mortality remains a major global public health concern despite many international efforts. Facility-based childbirth increases access to appropriate skilled attendance and emergency obstetric care services as the vast majority of obstetric complications occur during delivery. The purpose of the study was to determine the proportion of facility delivery and assess factors influencing utilization of health facility for childbirth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural districts of Hadiya zone, southern Ethiopia. Participants who delivered within three years of the survey were selected by stratified random sampling. Trained interviewers administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. We employed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify determinants of facility-based delivery. Data from 751 participants showed that 26.9% of deliveries were attended in health facilities. In bivariate analysis, maternal age, education, husband's level of education, possession of radio, antenatal care, place of recent ANC attended, planned pregnancy, wealth quintile, parity, birth preparedness and complication readiness, being a model family and distance from the nearest health facility were associated with facility delivery. On multiple logistic regression, age, educational status, antenatal care, distance from the nearest health facility, wealth quintile, being a model family, planned pregnancy and place of recent ANC attended were the determinants of facility-based childbirth. Efforts to improve institutional deliveries in the region must strengthen initiatives that promote female education, opportunities for wealth creation, female empowerment and increased uptake of family planning among others. Service related barriers and cultural influences on the use of health facility for childbirth require further evaluation.

  18. Benefits of Mother Goose: Influence of a Community-Based Program on Parent-Child Attachment Relationships in Typical Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfe, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 50 to 60% of children from typical families develop secure attachment relationships with their parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988); however, intervention research has focused primarily on interventions for high-risk clinical samples (Berlin, Zeanah, & Lieberman, 2008). In this project,…

  19. Emotional Interactions in European American Mother-Infant Firstborn and Secondborn Dyads: A Within-Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2016-01-01

    The developmental science literature is riven with respect to (a) parental similar versus different treatment of siblings and (b) sibling similarities and differences. Most methodologies in the field are flawed or confounded. To address these issues, this study employed a within-family longitudinal design to examine developmental processes of…

  20. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  1. Sexual Understanding and Development of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Mothers' Perspectives of Within-Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Jaycee D.; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard; Kerr, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The sexual development of young people with intellectual disabilities is a marker of their transition to adulthood and affects their sense of well being and identity. Cognitive impairments and a socially marginalized position increase dependence on their families to assist with sexual matters. In this study, the authors adopted a novel…

  2. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Latino Siblings: Changes in Family Dynamics and Feelings toward the Teen Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Slonim, Ashley; Horn, Emily J.; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Latinos have had the highest teenage birthrate of any racial or ethnic group in the United States for the past 15 years, yet little is known about how Latino families are affected by a teenage daughter's childbearing. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Mexican American younger siblings of parenting teens to discern how their sister's…

  3. The Effects of Mother Education Programs on the Functionality, Anger Management and Conflict Solution Levels of Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Zekavet

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Studies carried out in recent years both in Turkey and abroad indicate that child and teenage violence has increased and become widespread. Annually, 91.1% of deaths due to violence in the world occur in low and middle-income countries. Family life is an important element in understanding violent behavior as it relates to family…

  4. Mother and Child Reports of Hurricane Related Stressors: Data from a Sample of Families Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Beaulieu, Brooke; Ogokeh, Constance E.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families exposed to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina are at risk for numerous adverse outcomes. While previous literature suggests that the degree of disaster exposure corresponds with experiencing negative outcomes, it is unclear if parents and children report similar levels of disaster exposure. Objective: The purpose of this…

  5. POSTPARTUM BONDING DIFFICULTIES AND ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLES: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AND CHILDBIRTH-RELATED PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Hairston, Ilana; E Handelzalts, Jonathan; Assis, Chen; Kovo, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Despite decades of research demonstrating the role of adult attachment styles and early mother-infant bonding in parenting behaviors and maternal mental health, these constructs have seldom been studied together. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment styles and specific bonding difficulties of mothers. In addition, as postpartum depression and childbirth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms have been associated with both constructs, we explored their possible mediation effect. One hundred fourteen mothers, 4 to 12 weeks' postpartum, completed a demographic questionnaire, the Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (M. Mikulincer, V. Florian, & A. Tolmacz, 1990), the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (L.F. Brockington, C. Fraser, & D. Wilson, 2006), the Modified Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (J.L. Callahan, S.E. Borja, & M.T. Hynan, 2006), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J.L. Cox, G. Chapman, D. Murray, & P. Jones, 1996), using an online survey system. As predicted, insecure attachment styles were associated with bonding difficulties wherein anxious/ambivalent attachment was associated with greater infant-focused anxiety, mediated by postpartum depression but not childbirth-related PTSD symptoms. In contrast, greater avoidant attachment style was associated with greater rejection and anger, mediated by childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not depression symptoms. The current study confirmed the association of different attachment styles with bonding as well as the mediating roles of childbirth-related PTSD and postpartum depression symptoms. Future psychological interventions may utilize such evidence to target interventions for bonding disorders in accordance with individual differences. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Barefoot and in a German kitchen: federal parental leave and benefit policy and the return to work after childbirth in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrich, J; Spiess, C K; Yang, Q

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1979 German federal maternity leave and benefit policy has given women incentives to stay at home and take care of their newborn and youngest children. In 1986 this leave and benefit policy was changed in several ways, turning it into a powerful instrument for delaying mothers' return to work after childbirth.... We estimate post childbirth return to work hazards for women during the federally protected leave protection period and immediately upon completion of this leave period. During the leave mothers are less likely to return to work the longer is the time left in the leave protection period; however, this result cannot be attributed generally to high levels of maternity benefits. When the leave protection period ends, mothers with strong labor force attachment who are still on leave return to their jobs." excerpt

  7. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  8. The effect of counseling on anxiety after traumatic childbirth in nulliparous women; a single blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Azizi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic birthing mothers may expose more susceptible to experiences posttraumatic mental disorder such as anxiety. This study aimed to determine the effect of midwifery counseling intervention on the anxiety level after traumatic childbirth of primiparous women.Methods: In a randomized control trial 180 woman who had experienced traumatic childbirth based on DSM-IV criteria have been selected. The subjects were randomly divided into an intervention (n=90 and control (n=90 groups. The intervention group received midwifery counseling during two sessions and control group just received routin health care after childbirth. Both groups were followed up with partial – blind technique and compared 4-6 weeks and 3 months post partum. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by SPSS software. Results: Demographic characteristics, pregnancy complications and social support level were the same in both groups. In addition, there was no significant difference between two groups according to stress, depression and anxiety level before intervention (P>0.05. There was significant difference between two groups in anxiety level after 4-6 weeks and 3 months followup (P<0.001.Conclusion: Findings of this research shows that performing midwifery-counseling program may have significant effect on decreasing of anxiety level after traumatic childbirth.

  9. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Hvidt, Niels C

    2016-07-01

    When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study with selected survey participants. The response rate was 59% (1237/2098), of which 85% stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. We formed five categories during the comparative mixed methods analysis: the patient, clinical peers, official complaints, guilt, and existential considerations. Although blame from patients, peers or official authorities was feared (and sometimes experienced), the inner struggles with guilt and existential considerations were dominant. Feelings of guilt were reported by 36-49%, and 50% agreed that the traumatic childbirth had made them think more about the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath of a traumatic childbirth. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. The effect of exercise and childbirth classes on fear of childbirth and locus of labor pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to track changes in intensity of fear of childbirth and locus of labor pain control in women attending an exercise program for pregnant women or traditional childbirth classes and to identify the predictors of these changes. The study was longitudinal/non-experimental in nature and run on 109 healthy primigravidae aged from 22 to 37, including 62 women participating in an exercise program for pregnant women and 47 women attending traditional childbirth classes. The following assessment tools were used: two scales developed by the present authors - the Fear of Childbirth Scale and the Control of Birth Pain Scale, three standardized psychological inventories for the big five personality traits (NEO Five Factors Inventory), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and dispositional optimism (Life Oriented Test-Revised) and a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, health status, activities during pregnancy, relations with partners and expectations about childbirth. Fear of childbirth significantly decreased in women participating in the exercise program for pregnant women but not in women attending traditional childbirth classes. Several significant predictors of post-intervention fear of childbirth emerged: dispositional optimism and self-rated health (negative) and strength of the belief that childbirth pain depends on chance (positive).

  11. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P =0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P =0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P =0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. The Effect of Childbirth Self-Efficacy on Perinatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Ellen L.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Lee, Christopher S.; Emeis, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesize and critique the quantitative literature on measuring childbirth self-efficacy and the effect of childbirth self-efficacy on perinatal outcomes. Data Sources Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Study Selection Published research using a tool explicitly intended to measure childbirth self-efficacy and also examining outcomes within the perinatal period were included. All manuscripts were in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction First author, country, year of publication, reference and definition of childbirth self-efficacy, measurement of childbirth self-efficacy, sample recruitment and retention, sample characteristics, study design, interventions (with experimental and quasi-experimental studies), and perinatal outcomes were extracted and summarized. Data Synthesis Of 619 publications, 23 studies published between 1983 and 2015 met inclusion criteria and were critiqued and synthesized in this review. Conclusions There is overall consistency in how childbirth self-efficacy is defined and measured among studies, facilitating comparison and synthesis. Our findings suggest that increased childbirth self-efficacy is associated with a wide variety of improved perinatal outcomes. Moreover, there is evidence that childbirth self-efficacy is a psychosocial factor that can be modified through various efficacy-enhancing interventions. Future researchers will be able to build knowledge in this area through: (a) utilization of experimental and quasi-experimental design; (b) recruitment and retention of more diverse samples; (c) explicit reporting of definitions of terms (e.g. ‘high risk’); (d) investigation of interventions that increase childbirth self-efficacy during pregnancy; and, (e) investigation regarding how childbirth self-efficacy enhancing interventions might lead to decreased active labor pain and suffering. Exploratory research should

  13. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  14. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Tobey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2 and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082 were conducted in intervention counties (IC and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100% with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators. Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12% and interpretation of intended messages (60% vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively. Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  15. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  16. Evaluation of the Factors Concerning the Unexpected Pregnancy of Women who Applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of unexpected pregnancy and the related factors of the women who have applied to our center. Material and Method: The study was planned as a descriptive study which enrolled women in the age range of 15-49 on the basis of volunteerism who have applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province. The participants were administered a survey in which certain situations were questioned, such as age, educational background, age at first labor, income status, number of living children, miscarriage status, unexpected pregnancy status, the presence of trying to undergo an abortion with alternative methods, and the state of receiving consultancy service on pre- and post-pregnancy family planning. Results: The more increased the educational level of 399 women enrolled in the study, the more significant reduction in unexpected pregnancies was detected (P=0.001. When the educational background and the use of alternative methods to have an abortion were compared, the illiterate women were found to use alternative methods (37.6% at a significantly high ratio (p=0.0001. The average of children number of women with at least one unexpected pregnancy was significantly high (p=0.0001. While the ratio of receiving consultancy on post-pregnancy family planning from health care personnel of the women with unexpected pregnancy was 79.5%, a ratio of 97.9% was detected for the women with planned pregnancy which was significantly different (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The health care personnel may reduce the unexpected pregnancies by training women on family planning in a simple, understandable way and by trying to increase health literacy by taking the dominant social rules in our region into consideration. We consider that the primary healthcare will be more effective and result oriented through newly applied Family Practice in our region. Key Words: Unexpected pregnancy

  17. Women's experiences of recovery from childbirth: focus on pelvis problems that extend beyond the puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Rebecca; Peters, Kath; Beale, Barbara; Jackson, Debra

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to build understandings of women's recovery experiences in the presence of continued pelvic problems extending beyond the puerperium to provide nurses and other health care professionals with information to enhance current practice. Trauma to the pelvic floor during childbirth is a relatively common occurrence and can include damage to structures and nerves. A significant number of women will experience ongoing physical pelvic problems resulting from childbirth that extend past the puerperium; however, little is known about the experiential aspects of recovery for these women. A qualitative, phenomenological study. Narrative data were collected during conversational interviews with 10 mothers who had sustained pelvic injury during the birth process that persisted past the puerperium. Recruitment was via media releases and brochures distributed through childcare facilities. The data was analysed using Van Manen's thematic analysis. The themes that arose from the analysis were: 'fearing intimacy', 'managing an unpredictable body', 'being resigned' and 'feeling devalued and dismissed'. Pelvic injuries that extend beyond the postpartum period are distressing for women. They negatively affect women's views of themselves and have an impact on various aspects of life including intimate relationships and social activities. Currently, postpartum care may have a focus on baby rather than mother and this focus may impede women making full disclosures of ongoing health needs arising from their delivery. Findings of this study suggest that women may have specific needs that extend beyond the puerperium, indicating a need for continued holistic assessments and extending practice to identify and support women experiencing persistent pelvic postpartum complications.

  18. Perceived Social Support and Maternal Competence in Primipara Women during Pregnancy and After Childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esmaelzadeh Saeieh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing maternal competence in first time mothers has a significant impact on neonate’s growth psychosocial development and neonates growth and psychological development. Social support can be an important element for becoming a new mother. We aimed to investigate how social support and maternal competence change during pregnancy and 4 months after it and examine the relationships among social support and maternal competence. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted on 100 first time mothers attending health centers in Alborz city, Alborz Province, between February 2015 and January 2016. Data were collected through perceived social support questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale consisting of 17 items scored based on Likert’s scale. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Repeated-measure test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Maternal competence significantly reduced during the study (P=0.008, while perceived social support did not show any significant reduction (P=0.286. A direct relationship was found between social support and maternal competent six weeks after childbirth (r=0.19, P=0.049, and also social support and maternal competence sixteen weeks after childbirth (r=0.23, P=0.01. Conclusion: Considering the reduction of maternal competency during the study, social support by healthcare providers may be helpful for the mothers’ transition to motherhood, and midwives must design specific interventions to promote the sense of maternal competence and perceived social support in first time mothers.

  19. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)