WorldWideScience

Sample records for mother-child relations

  1. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  2. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes.

  3. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  6. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-04-26

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child's health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships - characterized by the prototypes - between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child's weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  7. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brødsgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  8. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  9. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  10. The Specificity of Autobiographical Memories in Early Adolescence: The Role of Mother-Child Communication and Attachment-Related Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Dujardin, Adinda; Raes, Filip; Braet, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although autobiographical memory specificity is an important developmental feature fostering adaptation throughout life, little is known about factors related to interindividual differences in autobiographical memory specificity. The current study investigated associations with early adolescents' communication with mother about their experiences…

  11. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students' Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother-Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children's cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children's affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4-6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children's affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers' work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children's positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children's negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children's affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children's negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children's affect through FMCC only for non

  12. Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

  13. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  14. Transmission of mutans streptococci in mother-child pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Damle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible disease. Maternal transfer of mutans streptococci (MS has been a subject of research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of MS from mother to children through genetic analysis. Methods: Thirty mother-child pairs were included and divided into three groups according to the age of the children. Saliva samples were collected and MS colonies from each mother-child pair were isolated. After inoculation and incubation, MS colonies were submitted to amplification technique by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification and arbitrarily primed PCRs (AP-PCRs to determine various MS genotypes. Results: From birth to six months of age, 30 per cent of children exhibited MS colonization, and by the age of 30 months, 100 per cent harboured the bacteria (P < 0.001. Factors associated with MS colonization were eruption of teeth (P < 0.001, feeding habits with mean colony count being significantly lower in breast-fed as compared to bottle-fed children (P < 0.001 and a significant association between mean MS count of child and mother′s practice of sharing spoon with child (P < 0.001. The AP-PCR fingerprinting profile analysis showed 17 MS groups (clusters containing identical or highly related isolates in mother-child pairs with a high level of similarity (77.27 %. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of matching MS genotypes suggested vertical transmission from mothers to children. Feeding habits, gum cleaning and number of erupted teeth in children had significant effect on MS colonization. There is a need to develop strategies to present MS colonization in children.

  15. Early mother-child attachment and behavior problems in middle childhood: the role of the subsequent caregiving environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin E; Scott, Marc A; McCormick, Meghan P; Weinberg, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated associations between early mother-child attachment, as well as mother-child and teacher-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in middle childhood. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Findings from a series of individual growth curve analyses revealed that attachment security was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors, while insecure/other and avoidant attachment were positively related to internalizing behaviors. In addition, longitudinal associations were found between mother-child and teacher-child relationships and internalizing and externalizing behaviors across middle childhood. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  16. Mother-child interaction and cognitive development in children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica; Melinder, Annika

    2016-10-01

    To assess the influence of mother-child interaction on children's cognitive development in a group of children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine. The study is part of a prospective longitudinal project investigating the development of children born to women in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). The sample includes 67 children born between 2005 and 2007, 35 of which prenatally exposed to either methadone or buprenorphine and 32 non-exposed comparison children. Both groups scored within the normal range of development. However, the OMT group scored significantly lower on measures of cognitive development and mother-child interaction compared to the comparison group. Cognitive development was found to be affected by both group status, F(1,54)=5.65, p=0.02, η(2)=0.10 and mother-child interaction F(1,54)=5.26, p=0.03, η(2)=0.09. Behavioral inhibition (statue), sensorimotor function (imitating hand positions), and short-term memory (sentences) was influenced by group status while narrative memory and vocabulary were found to be more influenced by mother-child interaction. Different risk factors may influence different cognitive functions in children of women in OMT. Specifically, language-related cognitive skills may be more related to mother-child interaction while performance in higher cognitive functions requiring precise control over sensorimotor responses may be more sensitive to other factors such as prenatal OMT exposure, genetics, and/or prenatal exposure to other substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mother-Child Interaction and Resilience in Children with Early Developmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal and genetic factors make strong contributions to the emergence of intellectual disability (ID), children's early environment may have the potential to alter developmental trajectories and to foster resilience in children with early risk. The present study examined mother-child interaction and the promotion of competence in 50 children with early developmental delays. Three related but distinct aspects of mother-child interaction were considered: maternal technical scaffolding, maternal positive-sensitivity, and mother-child dyadic pleasure. Children were classified as exhibiting undifferentiated delays at age three based upon performance on developmental assessments and the absence of known genetic syndromes. Mother-child interaction was assessed at age four through observational ratings of structured laboratory tasks and through naturalistic home observations. ID was identified at age five using the dual criteria of clinically significant delays in cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID, beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother-child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular sub-domains. Implications for theories of intellectual disability and for family-based early intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:22662771

  18. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    -child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according...... to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves...

  19. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  20. The emotional tunes and the role of mirror neurons: From primary relationship mother-child relation to rehabilitation and therapeutic music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania La Porta

    2016-05-01

    His research has been forming the basis of the theoretical and methodological focus of music therapy to psychodynamic. The ability to reproduce the relational process characterized by affective attunements in a rehabilitation setting - music therapy where there are dis-evolution, as in the case of patients with Alzheimer's disease, you can reactivate capacity affective and relational residual strengthening in the subject 'personal and social identity mortified by the disease. Role within that path is done by a very peculiar type of neurons, mirror neurons, the subject of study in recent years by the neurosciences, whose characteristic would be to get excited is when a person performs a certain action, both when it is another to do it before his eyes.

  1. Social and Linguistic Input in Low-Income African American Mother-Child Dyads from 1 Month through 2 Years: Relations to Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Fedewa, Alicia; Hans, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    The relation of social and linguistic input measures to early vocabulary development was examined in 30 low-income African American mother-infant pairs. Observations were conducted when the child was 0 years, 1 month (0;1), 0;4, 0;8, 1;0, 1;6, and 2;0. Maternal input was coded for word types and tokens, contingent responsiveness, and…

  2. The Association between Self-Reported Mother-Child Attachment and Social Initiative and Withdrawal in Chinese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mother-child attachment and social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese urban children. Participants were 487 school-aged children (247 boys, 240 girls) in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on mother-child attachment styles were collected from children's self-reports.…

  3. Maternal Employment, Nonparental Care, Mother-Child Interactions, and Child Outcomes during Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between maternal employment, nonparental care, mother-child interactions, and preschoolers' outcomes. Data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 1,248) show that maternal employment during the previous year, especially full-time employment, was related to care by…

  4. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  5. Mother-Child Relationship in Youths with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Despite impaired mother-child interactions noted in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no such information for their siblings. This study aimed to test whether the affected and unaffected siblings, like youth with ADHD, also encountered impaired mothering and mother-child relationships as compared to typically developing youth (TD). The sample consisted of 122 probands (107 males, 87.7 %), aged 10-16, with DSM-IV ADHD, 44 affected (26 males, 59.1 %) and 78 unaffected (28 males, 35.9 %) siblings, and 122 TD youth. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews (K-SADS-E) about the participants and reported maternal parenting style, mother-child interactions and child behavioral problems at home. Based on both reports, probands with ADHD and affected siblings (only youth report) had more impaired relationships, more behavioral problems at home, and less perceived family support than unaffected siblings and TD youth. Probands with ADHD had higher maternal authoritarian control than unaffected siblings. The findings suggest that impaired mothering, mother-child interactions, and family support are related to the presence of ADHD diagnosis in both probands and their affected siblings.

  6. Attachment behavior and mother-child conversations as predictors of attachment representations in middle childhood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    This study examines longitudinal links between mother-child conversations and attachment patterns in early childhood and later attachment representations. It also tests the role of conversations as mediators in the association between behavioral security and attachment representations. Mother-child conversations (snack-time) and attachment behaviors (Separation-Reunion procedure) were assessed for 83 5.5-year-olds while attachment representations (attachment narratives) were measured at 8.5 years of age. Results showed correspondence between attachment behaviors and representations for secure-confident, ambivalent-preoccupied, and disorganized/controlling-frightened groups. Affective quality of mother-child conversations predicted both child attachment behaviors and representations. Secure and confident children showed greater integration of affective information, ambivalent and preoccupied children more affect exaggeration, and disorganized/controlling and frightened children more chaotic conversations. Avoidant children tended to show more affect minimization in conversations. Finally, mother-child conversations centered on the sharing of emotions and thoughts mediated the relation between behavioral and representational attachment security, which underscores the importance of mother-child conversations in the development of attachment representations in childhood.

  7. Behavior problems in middle childhood: the predictive role of maternal distress, child attachment, and mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal relation between early school-age measures of maternal psychosocial distress, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment behavior, and behavior problem profiles in middle childhood using a multi-informant design. Participants were 243 French-speaking mother-child dyads (122 girls) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal project. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed when children were between 4 and 6 years of age. Mother-child interactive quality and attachment patterns were observed at age 6 during a laboratory visit. At age 8.5, externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using mother and child reports. Results show that maternal psychosocial distress predicted later social adaptation reported by the child through the mediation of mother-child interactions. Analyses also revealed that higher maternal psychosocial distress and controlling attachment patterns, either of the punitive or caregiving type, significantly predicted membership in both child internalizing and externalizing clinical problem groups. Lower mother-child interactive quality, male gender, and child ambivalent attachment were also predictors of externalizing clinical problems.

  8. Developmental Pathways from Child Maltreatment to Adolescent Substance Use: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Mother-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Yoon, Dalhee; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-01-01

    While many studies have identified a significant relation between child maltreatment and adolescent substance use, the developmental pathways linking this relation remain sparsely explored. The current study examines posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, mother-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing problems as potential longitudinal pathways through which child maltreatment influences adolescent substance use. Structural equation modeling was conducted on 883 adolescents drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The pathways of PTS symptoms linked physical and sexual abuse to substance use, and the pathways of mother-child relationships linked emotional abuse and neglect to substance use. None of the four types of maltreatment affected substance use via internalizing or externalizing problems. The findings suggest that intervention efforts aimed at addressing posttraumatic stress symptoms and improving mother-child relationship quality may be beneficial in reducing substance use among adolescents with child maltreatment histories. PMID:29503490

  9. The relationship between mother-child in marasmus type malnutrition

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    Claudia Inés Restrepo Vásquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflection aims to describe some theoretical reflections about the features that appear in the mother / son / food relational dynamic. It presents the research projects that are so far on the relationship between malnutrition and psychological aspects that accompany it. The chosen method in order to select the literature used the following search criteria: papers published between 2001 and 2011. It was used word-phrases: (Malnutrition, (marasmus, (marasmus type malnutrition and psychological and (mother / child relationship and malnutrition. As search facilities: Electronic databases (Ebsco, Medline, PubMed, SciELO, Embase. Priority was given to research work at national and local levels. Only those works which explicitly use the concept of malnutrition / stagnation / mother son bond were considerate. Also it was identified the most prominent authors in the field, and it was conducted exchanges with specialists on the field. Results show that so far there is no recent work related to this specific subject, except the work done by the doctor and psychoanalyst Rene Spitz in 1945. Conclusions: In this absence of research papers and given the particular phenomenon of marasmus type malnutrition, unacceptable as a problem that affects children’s mental health; there is the urge to create investigative actions that favor the construction of new intervention mechanisms for this complex reality. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  10. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

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    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child interactions, and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Camerota, Marie; Willoughby, Michael T; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha J

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported their level of depressive symptomatology. At 24 and 36 months of age, mother-child interactions during play were rated for warmth-sensitivity and harsh-intrusiveness, and dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were assessed from a book sharing activity. Children's EF (i.e., inhibitory control, working memory, and set shifting) were assessed at ages 36 and 48 months using a battery of six tasks. Results indicated that MDS at ages 15 and 24 months were negatively associated with children's EF at age 48 months. Additionally, harsh-intrusive mother-child interactions partially mediated this link. Although warmth-sensitivity, dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were all longitudinally related to EF, they did not serve as mediating mechanisms between MDS and EF. These results were obtained while controlling for multiple demographic factors, children's earlier cognitive abilities, maternal general distress and childcare experiences. Findings from this study identify 1 mechanism through which early exposure to MDS could be related to children's EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Spada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  13. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  14. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Health, HPV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.

  15. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  16. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  17. Effect on Performance Leadership Training and Hospital Nurse on Mother Child Hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    ibrahim, Restu; Andriani, Melan

    2014-01-01

    This study performed on mother child hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru. This study destination to determine how the variables influence and leadership training simultaneously and partially on the performance of nurses on mother child hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru. As for the population in the study was the nurses who work on mother child hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru which amounts to 69 people. Analysis of the data used is descriptive analysis, as it also uses namely Quantitative Analysis using m...

  18. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

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    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  19. Assessing quality of life: mother-child agreement in depressed and non-depressed Hungarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Eniko; Kapornai, Krisztina; Baji, Ildikó; Mayer, László; Vetró, Agnes

    2009-05-01

    An important question in child psychiatry is the agreement between parents and children. We studied mother-child concordance about the quality of life of children (QoL). We hypothesized that mothers of depressed children rate lower QoL than children for themselves while mothers of non-depressed children rate better QoL; that inter-informant agreement is higher in the non-depressed sample; and finally that agreement increases with age of the child. QoL of depressed children (N = 248, mean age 11.45 years, SD 2.02) were compared to that of non-depressed children (N = 1695, mean age 10.34 years, SD 2.19). QoL was examined by a 7 item questionnaire (ILK). Mothers of depressed children rated lower QoL than their children while mothers of nondepressed children rated higher QoL than their children. Agreement was low in both samples but higher in the controls. Inter-informant agreement was only influenced by depression. Our results show that mothers relate more serious negative effects to childhood depression than their children and rate less problems for their non-depressed children compared to self-reports. Mother-child agreement is negatively influenced by depression which further stresses the importance of obtaining reports from the child and at least one parent in order to understand the subjective experiences caused by the illness.

  20. Working and Playing Together: Prediction of Preschool Social-Emotional Competence from Mother-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined mother-child interaction in play and teaching tasks. Mother-child interaction aggregates represented task orientation, positive emotion, and allowance of autonomy. Maternal interaction aggregates predicted teachers' ratings of children's positive social behavior, assertiveness, and sadness in the preschool setting. (BC)

  1. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  2. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman's correlation, and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348.

  3. Predictive factors of mother-child communication patterns in the mothers referred to Khorramabad Shahid Madani hospital in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khatereh Anbari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : The quality of mother-child relationship play an important role in personality shaping, social functioning and mental health of children in the future . This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors of mother - child relationship patterns.   Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 110 mothers admitted to children's hospital of Khorramabad selected by consecutive sampling method. Data gathering tool was Mother - Child Relationship Evaluation (MCRE questionnaire. At first the view points of the mothers about four communication patterns including: over protection, child rejection, overneglignce and child acceptance were examined, then according to each pattern cut off, the type of communication pattern was determined. Fisher's exact test and linear regression were used for data analysis.   Results: The mean age of participants was 28.6±6.46. Communication pattern in 66.4% of the mothers was over protection and 19.1% of them had overneglence pattern. Also communication pattern in 12.8% of the participants was child acceptance and 1.8% followed from child rejectoin communication pattern. A significant statistical relation was seen between age, education level, marital status, mothers residence and pregnancy status with the pattern of their relationship (P <0.05. In linear regression analysis, most important factors in predicting the communication pattern were single parent and unplanned pregnancy.   Conclusion: Raising awareness of mothers through workshops can increase proper child skills and led to the development of social skills and reducing child behavior problems in the future.

  4. Identifying Mother-Child Interaction Styles Using a Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Grimm, Kevin J; Leerkes, Esther M

    2014-05-01

    Parent-child conflict in the context of a supportive relationship has been discussed as a potentially constructive interaction pattern; the current study is the first to test this using a holistic analytic approach. Interaction styles, defined as mother-child conflict in the context of maternal sensitivity, were identified and described with demographic and stress-related characteristics of families. Longitudinal associations were tested between interaction styles and children's later social competence. Participants included 814 partnered mothers with a first-grade child. Latent profile analysis identified agreeable , dynamic , and disconnected interaction styles. Mothers' intimacy with a partner, depressive symptoms, and authoritarian childrearing beliefs, along with children's later conflict with a best friend and externalizing problems, were associated with group membership. Notably, the dynamic style, characterized by high sensitivity and high conflict, included families who experienced psychological and relational stressors. Findings are discussed with regard to how family stressors shape parent-child interaction patterns.

  5. A relação mãe/criança com deficiência: sentimentos e experiências The relation mother/child with disabilities: feelings and experiences

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    Atos Prinz Falkenbach

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga os sentimentos e as experiências de pais e mães de crianças com deficiência. Surge das motivações em compreender o cotidiano dos pais e mães de crianças com deficiência integrante do Projeto de Psicomotricidade Relacional da UNIVATES. De corte qualitativo, trata-se de um estudo etnográfico. Os instrumentos utilizados para a coleta de informações são: entrevistas, diários de campo e análise documental. A temática aborda os seguintes aspectos teóricos: a relação primária, a relação do profissional da saúde e a relação social da criança com necessidades especiais. O processo de coleta de informações permitiu organizar as seguintes categorias: a sentimentos manifestos no nascimento de um filho com deficiência; b comportamento dos profissionais da área da saúde no ato de dar a notícia aos pais; c necessidades dos pais e mães na relação com os demais familiares e a sociedade e sentimentos e e necessidades envolvidas na perspectiva de educar uma criança com deficiência. Conclui-se que os pais e mães das crianças com necessidades especiais reavaliam seus conceitos iniciais, aprendem a valorizar as potencialidades da criança e requisitam contínuos reforços em suas estimas pessoais que os auxiliam no processo educativo de seus filhos.The present study aims at investigating the feelings and experiences of parents of children with disabilities. It was motivated by the idea of understanding the daily life of the parents of children that take part in the Relational Psychomotricity Project at UNIVATES. The protagonists of the study are the parents integrated in the project. The instruments used for data collection in this ethnographic qualitative study were interviews, field reports and analysis of documents. The study approached the following theoretical aspects: the primary relation, the medical relation and the social relation of the child with disability. The information is organized

  6. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R; Maher, Jaclyn P; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-06-01

    This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children ( N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days. EMA measured perceived stress, and past 2-hour healthy (i.e., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., pastries/sweets, soda/energy drinks) eating. Children reported more healthy and unhealthy eating on days when their mothers also engaged in more healthy and unhealthy eating, respectively. On days when mothers' perceived stress was greater than usual, they reported more healthy eating. Eating behaviors were coupled between mothers and children at the day level. Mothers' stress was related to their own eating but not to children's eating.

  7. Mother-Child Relations and the Discourse of Maternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    In the critical assessment of the rise of what Jameson has termed the modern centred subject...the lived experience of individual consciousness as a monadic and autonomous centre of activity, significant attention has been devoted to the impact of the institutions of the late eighteenth century "bourgeois cultural revolution" such as the family…

  8. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  9. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    OpenAIRE

    Laude Monica

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...

  10. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  11. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-12-01

    Blood and environmental samples, including a quarterly 6-day duplicate diet, for nine mother/child pairs from Eastern Europe have been monitored for 12 to >24 months with high precision stable lead isotope analysis to evaluate the changes that occur when the subjects moved from one environment (Eastern Europe) to another with different stable lead isotopes (Australia). The children were between 6 and 11 years of age and the mothers were between 29 and 37 years of age. These data were compared with an Australian control mother/child pair, aged 31 and 6 years, respectively. A rationale for undertaking this study of mother/child pairs was to evaluate if there were differences in the patterns and clearance rates of lead from blood in children compared with their mothers. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 3.9 microg/dl in the children and between 1.8 and 4.5 microg/dl in the mothers, but the mean of differences between each mother and her child did not differ significantly from zero. Duplicate diets contained from 2.4 to 31.8 microg Pb/kg diet; the mean+/- standard deviation was 5.5 +/- 2.1 microg Pb/kg and total daily dietary intakes ranged from 1.6 to 21.3 microg/day. Mean daily dietary intakes relative to body weight showed that the intake for children was approximately double that for the mothers (0.218 vs. 0. 113 microg Pb/kg body weight/day). The correlations between blood lead concentration and mean daily dietary intake either relative to body weight or total dietary intake did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). Estimation of the lead coming from skeletal (endogenous) sources relative to the contribution from environmental (exogenous) sources ranges from 8 to 70% for the mothers and 12 to 66% for the children. The difference between mothers and children is not statistically significant (p = 0.28). The children do not appear to achieve the Australian lead isotopic profile at a faster rate than their mothers. These data provide evidence that

  12. Post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress and mother-child relationships following childbirth and at 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen; Iles, Jane

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms at 2 years postpartum and the relationship between such symptoms and both self-reported parenting stress and perceptions of the mother-child relationship. 81 women completed measures of childbirth-related PTS symptoms at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum; these results were used in an exploration of their predictive links with mother-child relationship and parenting measures at 2 years. 17.3% of respondents reported some PTS symptoms at a clinically significant level at 2 years postpartum. However, these symptoms were only weakly linked to parenting stress and were not related to mothers' perceptions of their children. However earlier PTS symptoms within 3 months of childbirth did show limited associations with parenting stress at 2 years but no association with child relationship outcomes once current depression was taken into account. Implications for clinical practice and the concept of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  13. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. CANADA’S MOTHER-CHILD PROGRAM: EXAMINING ITS EMERGENCE, USAGE, AND CURRENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brennan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of many issues a mother must face while incarcerated is separation from her child(ren for an extended period of time. Empirical findings have consistently highlighted various negative effects for both mothers and their children as a result of this separation. To curb some of the negative effects, Correctional Service Canada’s Mother-Child Program offers full- and part-time visitation between children and their incarcerated mothers at various women’s federal correctional facilities in Canada. The current study involves an in-depth critical analysis of Canada’s MCP by asking three related questions. First, to what extent has the MCP been used since its full implementation in 2001? Second, to what extent is the MCP used today? Third, do any barriers exist currently that are inhibiting the success of the MCP and, if so, how can these be addressed? The results of the study reveal that, since the full implementation of the program in 2001, the participation rate declined from an already low starting point and has remained relatively low since. Further, three main factors were suggested as potential barriers impeding the success of the MCP: correctional overcrowding, a more punitive institutional culture, and a series of changes to the program’s eligibility criteria. Recommendations on ways to increase the usage of the program are offered and suggestions for future research are made.

  15. Risk factors in the mother-child relationship that predispose to the development of early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, S A S; Garbin, A J Í; Lima, A M C; Lolli, L F; Saliba, O; Garbin, C A S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the risk factors in mother-child relationship that predispose babies to the development of dental caries. A prospective cohort study with 80 mother-child pairs was conducted. The mothers responded at 12, 18 and 30 months after their children's birth, to questions about variables related to diet, sucking habits, and oral care. Children were clinically examined to verify caries lesions (white spot lesions or cavitation). Data were analysed using Chi squared or Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was set at 5%. Of the total, 3.75% showed cavitated lesions after 18 months; 6.25 and 45% had spot white lesions, respectively, at 18 and 30 months. The cariogenic diet was high at 12 (63.75%) and 30 (88.75%) months. Good oral hygiene was present in a minority of children at 12 months (46.25%), but increased at 30 months (65%), helping to prevent cavities and white spot lesions over this period (p = 0.0005). The variables of the blocks sucking habits and diet were not associated with caries. The lack of oral care in children was a risk factor for dental caries development.

  16. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  17. [Early Vojta- or Bobath-physiotherapy: what is the effect on mother-child relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, A; Mähler, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study is discussing the question of possible negative effects of early physiotherapy on the mother-child-relationship. Mothers and children in Vojta-physiotherapy are compared with mother-child-pairs in Bobath-therapy on the basis of the hypothesis that Vojta-treatment is more apt to stress the mother-child-relationship. Indicators here were the physical and emotional stress in mothers as well as their attitudes towards their children, expressed in a questionnaire. Results indicate the special stress of the Vojta-technique at the beginning of the therapy while with ongoing treatment no differences between Vojta- and Bobath-therapy were found. Generally it is claimed that psychological information and support should be provided for the concerned families.

  18. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of mother-child conflict and child sex predicting resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Sang, Samantha A; Wilson, Elizabeth K

    2014-04-01

    Data from 190 mothers and their 5- to 7-year-old children were used to evaluate how characteristics of mother-child conflict discussions contribute to the likelihood of reaching a compromise, a win-loss resolution, or a standoff. Dyads discussed 2 topics they reported having disagreements about that were emotionally arousing. Coders rated global measurements of mothers' emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, and negativity; children's negativity; and the frequency of mothers' and children's constructive and oppositional comments. Child sex was examined as a moderator of the relation between discussion characteristics and resolution reached. Results indicated that more constructive comments by mothers and children increased the likelihood of reaching a resolution versus a standoff, but only children's constructive comments differentiated between a compromise and a win-loss resolution favoring mothers. Dyads with more emotionally responsive mothers who made fewer oppositional comments were also more likely to reach a compromise versus a win-loss resolution. A significant interaction with child sex revealed that, for boys, the use of more child oppositional comments was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching a standoff versus a compromise. Girls' oppositional comments did not predict resolution type. These results are discussed in terms of the children's developmental level and parents' socialization goals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  1. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  2. The mother - child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food

  3. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  4. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  5. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Mother-Child Interactions, and Children's Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Camerota, Marie; Willoughby, Michael T.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported…

  6. Maintaining the Mother-Child Relationship within the Irish Prison System: The Practitioner Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Sinead; Devaney, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of motherhood within the Irish prison system. This paper considers the specific issue of facilitating contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. It is based on a study which explores the views of practitioners working directly with mothers in prison on how the mother-child relationship…

  7. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  8. Stability and Change in Mother-Child Planning over Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.; Reisz, Z.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal research examines maternal and child behaviors during joint planning over a 3-year period of middle childhood. 118 mother-child dyads were observed once a year beginning when the children were 8 years of age. Coding focused on mother and child planning behaviors, maternal instructional support, and child task engagement.…

  9. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca

    2013-01-01

    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  10. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  11. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Laude

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.

  12. Multi-method assessment of mother-child attachment: links to parenting and child depressive symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley

    2011-07-01

    This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment.

  13. Better quality of mother-child interaction at 4 years of age decreases emotional overeating in IUGR girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, R S; O'Donnell, K A; Colalillo, S; Pawlby, S; Steiner, M; Meaney, M J; Levitan, R D; Silveira, P P

    2014-10-01

    While most "fetal programming" area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal-child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother-child interactions were scored during a structured task. A GLM adjusted for BMI examined the interaction between the "Atmosphere" score (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = -2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal-child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother-infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mother-Child Conversation and Children's Social Understanding During Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, RaeAnne M; Pillow, Bradford H

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i.e., talk about beliefs, emotions, personality traits, and desires), and more advanced mental talk (i.e., talk about contrasting perspectives, recursion and relationship between mental states, and advanced emotions). Mothers of older children also produced more basic and advanced mental talk. Mothers' advanced mental talk predicted both children's social understanding and children's advanced mental talk.

  15. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    OpenAIRE

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-01-01

    Blood and environmental samples, including a quarterly 6-day duplicate diet, for nine mother/child pairs from Eastern Europe have been monitored for 12 to >24 months with high precision stable lead isotope analysis to evaluate the changes that occur when the subjects moved from one environment (Eastern Europe) to another with different stable lead isotopes (Australia). The children were between 6 and 11 years of age and the mothers were between 29 and 37 years of age. These data were compared...

  16. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  17. Assessing quality of life: mother?child agreement in depressed and non-depressed Hungarian

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose An important question in child psychiatry is the agreement between parents and children. We studied mother?child concordance about the quality of life of children (QoL). We hypothesized that mothers of depressed children rate lower QoL than children for themselves while mothers of non-depressed children rate better QoL; that inter-informant agreement is higher in the non-depressed sample; and finally that agreement incre...

  18. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is mother-child transmission a possible vehicle for xylitol prophylaxis in acute otitis media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L; Kelly, Allison; Johnson, Carole E

    2011-10-01

    Xylitol can be a prophylaxis for acute otitis media (AOM), especially when administered via chewing gum, but that vehicle has limitations for children. This review sought evidence for links of mother-child transmission of bacteria and as a vehicle for xylitol as a prophylaxis for dental caries and its translation to AOM in infants and young children. Qualitative systematic review. Combining output from 43 search strings used earlier and submitting 20 new strings to PubMed resulted in 14 studies (six were excluded; eight were included). Included studies had to be published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals; involve mothers using xylitol; and assess bacteria or caries in their children. Evaluation forms were completed for search, retrieval, and quality assessment of included studies. The studies showed that mothers' chewing xylitol gum was a prophylaxis against bacteria and caries in their children. A mother-child transmission model was presented as a possible vehicle for use in comprehensive prevention programs for AOM. Potential for xylitol use to prevent AOM warrants further study. A mother-child model may apply to AOM for transmission of bacteria and as a prophylaxis, but alternative vehicles like nasal sprays should be investigated for ease of use and effectiveness.

  20. [EARLY MOTHER-CHILD BONDING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Martínez, Gabriela; Cruzat Mandich, Claudia; Díaz Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore Infante, Catalina; Ulloa Jiménez, Valentina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a group of mothers with obese children, regarding how early bond affects the relationship that both have with food and this, in turn, impacts on childhood obesity. The present study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The sample consists of five chilean women between 22 and 39 years old, with obese children between 2 and 4 years old. In-depth interviews were carried out and open coding strategy was used as method of analysis. Results show a tendency of mothers to establish insecure attachment relations, difficulties of tuning and expression of affection, and a predominance of a permissive parenting style around food. This has important implications for prevention and treatment of obesity, focusing on the attachment bond between mother and child. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Latino children on their mothers' dietary intake and dietary behaviors: The role of children's acculturation and the mother-child acculturation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Marcus, Bess; Shakya, Holly B; Roesch, Scott; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-10-01

    Research shows that acculturation is important to Latinas' dietary intake and related behaviors. Although evidence suggests children may also play a role, it remains unclear whether children's acculturation is related to mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We examined the relationship between Latino children's acculturation and mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We also examined the mother-child acculturation gap to identify dyad characteristics associated with mothers' diet. Baseline surveys were collected in 2010 from 314 Latino mother-child (7-13 years old) dyads of Mexican-origin enrolled in a family-based dietary intervention in Southern California, USA. Mother's daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages, percent of calories from fat, weekly away-from-home eating, and percent of weekly grocery dollars spent on fruits and vegetables were assessed via self-report. Mothers' and children's bidimensional acculturation were examined using acculturation groups (e.g., assimilated, bicultural) derived from Hispanic and non-Hispanic dimensions of language. We also assessed the acculturation gap between mothers and children with the a) difference in acculturation between mothers' and children's continuous acculturation scores and b) mother-child acculturation gap typologies (e.g., traditional mothers of assimilated children). Findings show that having an assimilated versus a bicultural child was negatively associated with mothers' vegetable intake and positively associated with mothers' sugary beverage intake, percent of calories from fat, and frequency of away-from-home eating, regardless of mothers' acculturation. Traditional mothers of assimilated children reported more sugary beverage intake, calories from fat, and more frequent away-from-home eating than traditional mothers of bicultural children. Results suggest that children's acculturation is associated with their mothers' dietary intake/behaviors and traditional mothers of assimilated children

  2. Early mother-child interaction and later quality of attachment in infants with an orofacial cleft compared to infants without cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie; Monnier, Maryline; Peter, Camille; Bolomey, Luce; Borghini, Ayala; Despars, Josée; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Müller-Nix, Carole; Ansermet, François; Hohlfeld, Judith

    2013-11-01

    Objective : The main objective of this study was to assess mother-child patterns of interaction in relation to later quality of attachment in a group of children with an orofacial cleft compared with children without cleft. Design : Families were contacted when the child was 2 months old for a direct assessment of mother-child interaction and then at 12 months for a direct assessment of the child's attachment. Data concerning socioeconomical information and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers were collected at the first appointment. Participants : Forty families of children with a cleft and 45 families of children without cleft were included in the study. Families were recruited at birth in the University Hospital of Lausanne. Results : Results showed that children with a cleft were more difficult and less cooperative during interaction at 2 months of age with their mother compared with children without a cleft. No significant differences were found in mothers or in dyadic interactive styles. Concerning the child's attachment at 12 months old, no differences were found in attachment security. However, secure children with a cleft were significantly more avoidant with their mother during the reunion episodes than secure children without cleft. Conclusion : Despite the facial disfigurement and the stress engendered by treatment during the first months of the infant's life, children with cleft and their mothers are doing as well as families without cleft with regard to the mothers' mental health, mother-child relationships, and later quality of attachment. A potential contribution for this absence of difference may be the pluridisciplinary support that families of children with cleft benefit from in Lausanne.

  3. Mother-child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Ginsberg, E

    1991-08-01

    30 working-class and 33 upper-middle-class mothers were videotaped in dyadic interaction with their 18-29-month-old children in 4 settings--mealtime, dressing, book reading, and toy play. Samples of the mothers' adult-directed speech also were collected. There were significant social class differences in the mothers' child-directed speech and some parallel social class differences in the mothers' adult-directed speech. These findings suggested that some social class differences in child-directed speech may be instances of more general class differences in language use. There also were main effects of communicative setting on mothers' child-directed speech and interaction effects in which setting moderated the size of the class differences in maternal speech. These findings suggested that the amount of time mothers spend interacting with their children in different contexts may be at least as important an influence on children's linguistic experience as are average characteristics of their mothers' speech.

  4. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  5. Garden of Ambivalence The Topology of the Mother-child Dyad in Grey Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Tüzün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.

  6. Efficacy of a Latino mother-child communication intervention in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother-child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication ("Comunicación Familiar"), was delivered at children's elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children's reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers' reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother-child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  9. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  10. [Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of insulin in a mother-child university-affiliated health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruyer, M; Atkinson, S; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is a high-alert drug. The main objective of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risks associated with insulin use in healthcare centers. The secondary objective was to propose corrective measures to reduce the main risks associated with the most critical failure modes in the analysis. We conducted a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in obstetrics-gynecology, neonatology and pediatrics. Five multidisciplinary meetings occurred in August 2013. A total of 44 out of 49 failure modes were analyzed. Nine out of 44 (20%) failure modes were deemed critical, with a criticality score ranging from 540 to 720. Following the multidisciplinary meetings, everybody agreed that an FMEA was a useful tool to identify failure modes and their relative importance. This approach identified many corrective measures. This shared experience increased awareness of safety issues with insulin in our mother-child center. This study identified the main failure modes and associated corrective measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. O impacto da depressão pós-parto para a interação mãe-bebê The impact of postpartum depression to mother-child interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Delias de Sousa Schwengber

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina algumas questões teóricas e estudos empíricos a respeito do impacto da depressão pós-parto para a interação mãe-bebê. Analisam-se as características da depressão pós-parto e fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Discutem-se, em particular, as repercussões do estado depressivo da mãe para a qualidade da interação com o bebê e, conseqüentemente, para o desenvolvimento posterior da criança. Os estudos revisados sugerem que a depressão pós-parto afeta a qualidade da interação mãe-bebê, especialmente no que se refere ao prejuízo na responsividade materna. Por outro lado, apontam que os efeitos da depressão da mãe na interação com o bebê dependem de uma série de fatores, o que não permite a realização de um prognóstico baseado em fatores isolados.The present article examines some theoretical aspects and empirical studies related to the impact of postpartum depression to mother-child interaction. The characteristics of postpartum depression and the risk factors related to its occurrence are also examined. Furthermore, it discusses the consequences of maternal depressed state to mother-child interaction and to child development. The revised studies suggest that postpartum depression negatively affects the mother-child interaction quality, particularly maternal responsivity. On the other hand, studies show that postpartum depression effects on mother-child interaction depend on various factors, which makes it impossible for us to make predictions based on any isolated factor.

  12. Social aspects of dental caries in the context of mother-child pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between mother and child in the context of oral health has traditionally been exposed by the scientific literature in microbiology, which lacks a broad and necessary discussion of health and illness seen as processes, both biological and social. Objective: Investigate the family social determinants associated with the caries history of children and the need for dental treatment (NDT among their mothers was the objective of this study. Material and methods: This research employed a cross-sectional study of mother-child pairs living in southern Brazil. Data collection occurred in public institutions of early childhood education. The instruments included a structured questionnaire administered to mothers and clinical oral examinations of the mothers and children. The social variables considered were marital status, maternal education, number of children, income, employment status, and frequency of visits to a dental professional. The measured outcomes were the maternal NDT and child caries history. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test (χ2 and by discriminant analysis. Results: The final sample consisted of 272 mother-child pairs and it was found that the greatest need for treatment was among mothers with low educational level and low family income who rarely or never visited a dentist. Tooth decay was less frequent in only child, and most frequent in children of mothers with low educational attainment, and in children in lower income households who rarely or never visited the dentist. The social determinants of caries in children and of the maternal NDT were similar. It follows that the maternal NDT and caries history among children were strongly associated with maternal education (p<0.0001, household income (p<0.0001, and frequency of visits to a dental professional (0.0018. Caries history among children was also associated with number of children in the household (p<0.0001. Conclusions: The results suggest that the caries

  13. Influence of older primiparity on childbirth, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Mami; Usui, Masami; Hiroi, Kayoko; Asai, Hiromi; Hiramatsu, Mayumi; Nekoda, Yasutoshi; Hirose, Taiko

    2016-04-01

    Delivery at 35 years and above has increased in Japan. While there is much research concerning obstetrical risk and delivery at advanced age, little research addresses child-rearing after birth. This study seeks to identify how older primiparas' characteristics of child-rearing, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction differ from those of younger mothers. Participants were primipara women aged 35 years and above and primiparas aged 20-29 years; all delivered in the hospital. Questionnaires were distributed during hospitalization after birth and during home visits at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years post-partum. Mother-child interactions during home visits were assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). The older group included 13 primiparas, and the control group included seven primiparas at the study's end. Some older primiparas used fertility treatment and cesarean section, but primiparas in their 20s used neither. There were no significant differences in terms of depression, psychological health, size of networks, and number of daytime or night-time feedings. Statistically significant differences were as follows. Older primiparas experienced more social isolation and overall stress, and their children exhibited greater hypersensitivity/lack of adaptability at 3 months. Older mothers were more likely to report little effort by their children to please them at 1 and 2 years after birth. Under observation, older primiparas received higher NCATS caregiver scores, but children of primiparas in their 20s received higher child scores. Mothers and child-care specialists should recognize that older primiparas interact more favorably with their children, but have more parenting stress. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  14. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  15. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy

    2017-05-15

    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent maternal depressive symptoms trajectories influence children's IQ: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method. Children's cognitive function was assessed at ages 5 to 6 by trained interviewers with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III), resulting in three composite scores: Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). Five trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression could be distinguished: no symptoms, persistent intermediate-level depressive symptoms, persistent high depressive symptoms, high symptoms in pregnancy only, and high symptoms in the child's preschool period only. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, compared to children of mothers who were never depressed, children of mothers with persistent high levels of depressive symptoms had reduced VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores. This association was moderated by the child's sex, boys appearing especially vulnerable in case of persistent maternal depression. Chronicity of maternal depression predicts children's cognitive development at school entry age, particularly in boys. As maternal mental health is an early modifiable influence on child development, addressing the treatment needs of depressed mothers may help reduce the associated burden on the next generation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  18. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  19. Emotion Talk in Mother-Child Conversations of the Shared Past: The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Event Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivush, Robyn; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    We examined how mother-child emotional reminiscing is affected by culture, gender, and the valence of the event. Thirty-one Euro-American and 30 Chinese middle-class mothers and their 3-year-old children discussed 1 highly positive and 1 highly negative experience. Mothers and children in both cultures used a greater variety of negative emotion…

  20. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  1. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  2. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  3. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  4. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  5. Looking beyond Maternal Sensitivity: Mother-Child Correlates of Attachment Security among Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Halliburton, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India. Survey and observational data were gathered from 47 children, mothers, and teachers on children's attachment security, adaptive functioning, and mother-child emotional availability. The data were analyzed to examine whether child…

  6. [Actual care and funding situation with regard to mother-child units for psychic disorders associated with pregnancy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Wolfgang; Bielau, Hendrik; Cohrs, Stefan; Hauth, Iris; Hornstein, Christiane; Marx, Alexandra; Reck, Corinna; von Einsiedel, Regina

    2012-07-01

    CONCERN: The current care and financial situation of mother-child units for psychic disorders associated with pregnancies in Germany should be documented in preparation for the development of the new reimbursement system for psychiatry and psychosomatics. In accordance with the last survey of 2005, a brief questionnaire was developed and a nationwide poll was conducted. The survey revealed severe (10 fold) service deficits for severely and gravely mentally ill mothers, who require an inpatient treatment with specific professional competence. Compared with the last poll, these service deficits have increased. This is due to continued insufficient funding and unresolved financing in the new reimbursement system. With the establishment of an additional code for mother-child treatment the precondition for ensuring the funding of this important care form in the new reimbursement system was created. It is to be hoped that the decision-makers of health policy will finally face up to their social responsibility and ensure adequate funding of the additional diagnostic and therapeutic expenditure of mother-child treatment. The health care providers have an obligation to implement a transparent record of services of the additional expenditure and to augment the national evaluation approaches to inpatient mother-child treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Child Reactivity Moderates the Over-Time Association between Mother-Child Conflict Quality and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    Constructive parent-child conflict interactions that teach children to problem-solve and negotiate can enhance children's social adjustment. This paper identifies constructive and destructive qualities of mother-child conflict and explores whether child temperament moderated associations with changes in externalizing problems over time. One…

  8. Maternal Depression and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns: Association with Toddler Problems and Continuity of Effects to Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R.; Stueve, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Method: Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of…

  9. Psychological outcomes in midadulthood associated with mother's child-rearing attitudes in early childhood--evidence from the 1970 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2004-02-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to examine the role of mother's child-rearing attitudes assessed when cohort members were aged 5 in children's psychological well-being (psychological functioning, psychological distress, life satisfaction and self-efficacy) at age 30. Although at the multivariate level mother's childrearing attitudes were not related to sons' psychological well-being in adult life, in daughters self-efficacy and life satisfaction at age 30 were related to mother's anti-child autonomy attitudes and mother's non-authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, respectively. In addition, mother's non-authoritarian childrearing attitudes had a protective effect against later psychological distress and low self-efficacy in daughters who had experienced significant material disadvantage in early childhood.

  10. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  11. Mother-child agreement on behavioral ratings in Tourette syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termine, Cristiano; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Bandera, Valentina; Balottin, Umberto; Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    In Tourette syndrome, motor and phonic tics are associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders. As proxy report instruments are commonly used to assess children with Tourette syndrome, we investigated the relationship between child and mother ratings of behavioral problems. We enrolled 28 children with Tourette syndrome (25 males; mean age, 13.9 years) and 61 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (55 males; mean age, 14.7 years). Clinicians completed measures of tic severity, and all children completed the Youth Self-Report version of the Child Behavior Checklist, while their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In the clinical group, Youth Self-Report scores were significantly lower than mothers' Child Behavior Checklist scores across the majority of subscales (especially affect and somatization). In contrast, for the control group, mother and child ratings only differed for the externalizing behavior subscales. Clinicians should be aware of these differences between self and mother ratings for specific behavioral problems in Tourette syndrome.

  12. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  13. Synchrony of physiological activity during mother-child interaction: moderation by maternal history of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua E; Hastings, Paul D; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-07-01

    Family environment plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of major depressive disorder (MDD), but less is known about how day-to-day mother-child interactions may be disrupted in families with a history of MDD. Disruptions in mother-child synchrony, the dynamic and convergent exchange of physiological and behavioral cues during interactions, may be one important risk factor. Although maternal MDD is associated with a lack of mother-child synchrony at the behavioral level, no studies have examined the impact of maternal MDD on physiological synchrony. Therefore, this study examined whether maternal history of MDD moderates mother-child physiological synchrony [measured via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)] during positive and negative discussions. Children aged 7-11 years and mothers with either a history of MDD during the child's lifetime (n = 44) or no lifetime diagnosis of any mood disorder (n = 50) completed positive and negative discussion tasks while RSA was continuously recorded for both child and mother. Results indicated significant between-dyad and within-dyad group differences in physiological synchrony during positive and negative discussions. Between-dyad analyses revealed evidence of synchrony only among never depressed dyads, among whom higher average mother RSA during both discussions was associated with higher average child RSA. Within-dyad analyses revealed that never depressed dyads displayed positive synchrony (RSA concordance), whereas dyads with a history of maternal MDD displayed negative synchrony (RSA discordance) during the negative discussion and that the degree of negative synchrony exhibited during the negative discussion was associated with mothers' and children's levels of sadness. These results provide preliminary evidence that physiological synchrony is disrupted in families with a history of maternal MDD and may be a potential risk factor for the intergenerational transmission of depression. © 2016

  14. An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, S A; West, S G; Sandler, I N; Tein, J Y; Coatsworth, D; Lengua, L; Weiss, L; Anderson, E R; Greene, S M; Griffin, W A

    2000-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 theory-based preventive interventions for divorced families: a program for mothers and a dual component mother-child program. The mother program targeted mother-child relationship quality, discipline, interparental conflict, and the father-child relationship. The child program targeted active coping, avoidant coping, appraisals of divorce stressors, and mother-child relationship quality. Families with a 9- to 12-year-old child (N = 240) were randomly assigned to the mother, dual-component, or self-study program. Postintervention comparisons showed significant positive program effects of the mother program versus self-study condition on relationship quality, discipline, attitude toward father-child contact, and adjustment problems. For several outcomes, more positive effects occurred in families with poorer initial functioning. Program effects on externalizing problems were maintained at 6-month follow-up. A few additive effects of the dual-component program occurred for the putative mediators; none occurred for adjustment problems.

  15. The role of the mother-child relationship in the route from child ADHD to adolescent symptoms of depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2017-12-01

    We attempt to explain the co-variation between ADHD and symptoms of depressed mood, focusing on the family context and testing whether the mother-child relationship mediates or moderates the link between child ADHD and youth depressed mood symptoms. In a longitudinal study, we used mother and youth reports for 596 Swedish youth, 50% boys, from a community sample at 10, 15, and 18 years of age. The results did not support the mediation hypothesis. Only one moderation effect was found. Mother-child conflicts in mid-adolescence, as rated by mothers, increased symptoms of depressed mood symptoms in late adolescent only for youth with high levels of hyperactivity symptoms. However, depressed mood symptoms at age 18 were predicted by low mother-child involvement in mid-adolescence, over and above the effects of inattention symptoms. This latter finding was consistent across mother and youth ratings of the relationship. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mother-child interactions in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E; Silk, Jennifer S; Dahl, Ronald E; Axelson, David A; Ehmann, Mary; Ryan, Neal D

    2008-05-01

    To compare mother-child interactions and parenting styles in families of children with major depressive disorder, youths at high risk for depression, and healthy controls. Currently depressed (n = 43), high-risk (n = 28), and healthy control (n = 41) youths and their mothers engaged in a standardized videotaped problem-solving interaction. Measures of affect and behavior for both mothers and children were obtained, in addition to global measures of parenting. Depressed children demonstrated more negativity and less positivity in dyadic interactions than did children at high risk and control children. Mothers of depressed children were more disengaged than control mothers. Exploratory repeated-measures analyses in a subgroup of depressed children (n = 16) suggested mother-child interactions do not significantly change when children recover from depression. Children at high risk demonstrated less positivity in dyadic interactions than did controls. Mothers with a history of major depressive disorder and mothers with higher current depressive symptoms demonstrated patterns of disengagement and low control in interactions with children. Mother-child interactions in depressed youths are marked by maternal disengagement and low child positivity that may not improve when children recover. The bidirectional effects of maternal disengagement and low levels of child positivity may precede onset of major depressive disorder in children and serve as risk factors for recurrent depression in youths.

  17. The development and implementation of a theory-informed, integrated mother-child intervention in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias

    2015-12-01

    theory were reported as facilitators to intervention delivery. Only program attendance, but not barriers, facilitators or message recall, was significantly positively related to message enactment. Monitoring of group sessions and home visits showed that the program was largely implemented as intended. This implementation assessment revealed a number of important barriers and facilitators from the perspectives of delivery agents, supervisors and program participants. The methods and results are useful to examining and informing the content, delivery, and scaling up of the current program as well as future mother-child interventions in LMIC settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of mother-child mediated learning strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shomron, Vered

    2018-06-01

    The theoretical framework of the current study is based on mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which is similar to the scaffolding concept. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). Secondary questions were to what extent the home environment, severity of boy's LD, and mother's attitude towards her child's LD affect her MLE strategies and consequently the child's psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. The main objectives of this study were the following: (a) to investigate the effects of mother-child MLE strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability among 7- to 10-year-old boys with LD, (b) to study the causal effects of distal factors (i.e., socio-economic status [SES], home environment, severity of child's LD, mother's attitude towards LD) and proximal factors (i.e., MLE strategies) on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. A sample of mother-child dyads (n = 100) were videotaped during a short teaching interaction. All children were boys diagnosed as children with LD. The interaction was analysed for MLE strategies by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. Children were administered psychological resilience tests and their cognitive modifiability was measured by dynamic assessment using the Analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery. Home environment was rated by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and mothers answered a questionnaire of attitudes towards child's LD. The findings showed that mother-child MLE strategies, HOME, and socio-economic level contributed significantly to prediction of psychological resilience (78%) and cognitive modifiability (51%). Psychological resilience was positively correlated with cognitive modifiability (Rc = 0.67). Structural equation modelling analysis supported, in general

  19. Placental concentrations of heavy metals in a mother-child cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E., E-mail: eamayag@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Gil, F. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Freire, C. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Olmedo, P. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Rodriguez, M. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, M.F.; Olea, N. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Heavy metals are environmental contaminants with properties known to be toxic for wildlife and humans. Despite strong concerns about their harmful effects, little information is available on intrauterine exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb and its association with maternal factors in a population-based mother-child cohort in Southern Spain. Between 2000 and 2002, 700 pregnant women were recruited and 137 placentas from the cohort were randomly selected and analyzed for the selected metals by atomic absorption. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaire after delivery. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression were performed. Cd and Mn concentrations were detected in all placentas, while Cr, Pb, and Hg were found in 98.5%, 35.0%, and 30.7% of samples, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for Pb (mean: 94.80 ng/g wet weight of placenta), followed by Mn (63.80 ng/g), Cr (63.70 ng/g), Cd (3.45 ng/g), and Hg (0.024 ng/g). Arsenic was not detected in any sample. Gestational age and smoking during pregnancy were associated with placental Cd concentrations, while no factor appeared to influence concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, or Pb. In comparison to results of European studies, these concentrations are in a low-intermediate position. Studies are required to investigate the factors contributing to early exposure to heavy metals and to determine how placental transfer of these toxic compounds may affect children's health.

  20. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  2. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  3. Systematic research review of observational approaches used to evaluate mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The family meal and social interactions during the meal are important events in a child's life. Specifically, mealtime interactions have been linked to child weight status, the development of children's eating patterns, and socialization. Mealtime interactions may be observed and evaluated to provide insights into this important event beyond self-reported measurements. We aimed to identify, review, and examine studies in which mother-child mealtime behaviors were measured through observation. MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES were systematically searched by using sensitive search strategies. We included observational studies of mother-child eating and mealtimes and associations between mother-child interactions and preschool child eating or weight status published to March 2014. Thirteen articles were included in our review. All studies but one were cross-sectional, and none of the studies evaluated how mutual dimensions (e.g., parent responsiveness to the child and child responsiveness to the parent) of dyadic interactions between mothers and children influence maternal feeding practices, children's eating, and weight. The parenting style was associated with maternal feeding practices but not directly with children's eating. Parental discouragements to eat and negative statements about food were associated with higher child weight status. Parental encouragement to eat was associated with higher child weight status as well as maternal body mass index. No associations were shown between maternal reports of feeding practices and observed maternal feeding practices. Parents' overarching attitudes and approaches to parenting appear to be associated with their feeding practices or styles. Future studies should implement longitudinal observational methods with the capacity to measure levels of dimensions within bidirectional parent-child interactions and the extent to which these factors influence maternal practices, children's eating, and weight status.

  4. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2017-07-01

    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of

  5. Maternal attitude and child interest in various play activities before and after mother-child play sessions

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    Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Play stimulates children’s growth and development. When mothers and their children play, a positive attitude from the mother and adequate interest from the child is required. Little is known about the play activities that effectively stimulate such positive maternal attitude and child interest. Objective To assess for associations between various play activities with maternal attitude and child interest before and after mother-child play sessions. Methods Pre-post intervention questionnaires were distributed to mothers before and after playing with their children. Children were aged 1-5 years, from two play sites (in Surabaya and Makassar, and included using purposive sampling. Eight types of toys/play activities were provided. The allocated time for answering the 17-question survey was 15 minutes. Average scores before and after the mother-child play sessions were analyzed using paired T-test. Results We collected 264 valid questionnaires, 235 in Surabaya and 29 in Makassar. Improvement of maternal attitude after the mother-child play session was found in 132 mothers [mean diff. 0.07 (SD 0.42; 95%CI -0.117 to -0.015; P=0.011]. Play activities with significant improvements in maternal attitude were jigsaw puzzle [mean diff. 0.09 (SD 0.66; 95% CI 0.007 to 0.167;P= 0.033, Lego blocks (mean diff.-0.10 (SD 0.69; 95%CI -0.186 to -0.018; P=0.017, mini-gardening (mean diff. -0.15 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.238 to -0.057; P=0.002, sandbox [mean diff.-0.24 (SD 0.83; 95%CI -0.339 to – 0.138; P < 0.001], fishing [mean diff. -0.17 (SD 0.68; 95%CI -0.253 to -0.088; P < 0.001], and animal figurines [mean diff. -0.21 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.3 to -0.117;P <0.001]. Improvement of child interest was found in 161 children [mean diff. 0.20 (SD 0.52; 95%CI -0.264 to -0.116; P<0.001]. Play activities with significant improvements in child interest were jigsaw puzzle, Lego blocks, origami, mini-gardening, fishing, and animal figurines. Conclusion Some mother-child

  6. Father-child and mother-child interaction in families with a child feeding disorder: The role of paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal; Millikovsky, Maaian; Barkai, Anat; Dunaevsky-Idan, Maayan; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    To date, research about feeding disorder (FD) has focused almost exclusively on the mother-child dyad, ignoring fathers' roles. The current study investigated father-child interactions with children having FD. The sample consisted of 67 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Thirty-four children, diagnosed with a nonorganic-based FD (FD group) and 33 children without an FD (control group) were matched for age, gender, birth order, and maternal education. Data were collected during home visits. Mothers were interviewed about their and the father's involvement in childcare. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped during play and feeding. Both mothers and fathers from the FD group experienced less positive parent-child interactions than did parents in the control group. Furthermore, mothers in the FD group reported greater maternal versus paternal childcare involvement than did control group mothers. Finally, FD group mothers exhibited more parental sensitivity than did fathers during feeing interactions; however, this difference was observed only when coupled with low paternal involvement. In families where fathers were highly involved, no difference was evident in paternal and maternal sensitivity. These findings highlight the importance of fathers' involvement, especially in families with children exhibiting an FD. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-05-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mother-child memory conversations and self-construal in Eastern Turkey, Western Turkey and the USA.

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    Sahin-Acar, Basak; Leichtman, Michelle D

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven mothers and their four-year-old children from Eastern Turkey (N = 32 pairs), Western Turkey (N = 30 pairs) and the USA (N = 25 pairs) participated in a study of mother-child memory talk as a reflection of mothers' self construal, in view of differences in the function of memory talk across cultures. Mother-child pairs were audio-recorded while talking about shared past and anticipated future events. Mothers completed the Balanced Integration-Differentiation questionnaire measure of self-construal and were scored as high or low on individuation and relatedness orientations. Mothers' memory and future talk showed similar patterns of cultural differences: American mothers provided the most voluminous, descriptive and elaborative talk, while Eastern Turkish mothers showed the highest level of repetitiveness, and Western Turkish mothers' talk fell in between. Children's memory talk was similar across cultures. In all cultures, mothers who scored high on both individuation and relatedness (balanced self-construal subtype) engaged in more voluminous and contexted memory talk, and individuation was associated with more elaborative talk about future events. Results are discussed in light of literature on cultural differences in self-construal and memory function.

  9. Social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with emotional and behavioural problems at 3 and 5 years: the Eden mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Thorr, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how social withdrawal in infants aged 12 months predicted emotional and behavioural problems at ages 3 and 5 years. The sample included 1,586 infants from the French Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study who had a measure of social withdrawal with the Alarm Distress BaBy scale at age 1 year; among these children, emotional and behavioural difficulties were rated by mothers using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) at 3 years for 1,257 (79 %) children and at 5 years for 1,123 (72 %) children. Social withdrawal behaviour at age 1 year was significantly associated with the SDQ behavioural disorder scale at 3 years, independently of a host of familial and child temperament confounders. The association with the relational disorder, prosocial and total difficulty scales was close to significance at 3 years after taking into account familial and temperament confounders. Social withdrawal significantly predicted the three aforementioned scales when measured at 5 years. No significant predictivity of the emotional scale and hyperactivity scale was detected at any age. This study made with a large longitudinal sample confirms the negative effects on development of social withdrawal behaviour, shedding light on the unfolding of behavioural disorders and relational difficulties in children; this calls for early detection of sustained social withdrawal behaviour, as it seems to hamper emotional development.

  10. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  11. Alojamiento conjunto madre-hijo y lactancia humana exclusiva Joined mother-child hospital lodging and exclusive human lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL FLORES-HUERTA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la influencia del alojamiento conjunto (AC madre-hijo, en la frecuencia de lactancia humana exclusiva (LHE, desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de vida. Material y métodos. Estudio de cohortes no aleatorizado realizado en la clínica de lactancia del Hospital "Luis Castelazo Ayala", del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de enero de 1993 a octubre de 1994, en el que participaron 178 binomios madre-hijo (BMH sanos con gestación de término. El grupo con alojamiento conjunto (AC se integró con 90 BMH, y la madre recibió asesoría para lactar; 88 se atendieron en forma separada, sin asesoría para lactar. Se realizó análisis estadístico de los datos para apreciar frecuencia y asociaciones de las variables. Resultados. La alimentación se registró como LHE, fórmula o ambas. Los grupos con y sin AC se estratificaron por la forma de nacimiento, parto o cesárea. Con X² de Mantel-Haenszel y de rango logarítmico se aceptaron diferencias con pObjective. To determine the influence of joined mother-child hospital lodging (JL on the frequency of exclusive human lactation (EHL from birth to four months of age. Material and methods. Non-randomized cohort study performed at the lactation clinic of the "Luis Castelazo Ayala" Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute from January 1993 to October 1994 which included 178 healthy mother-child pairs (MCP with term pregnancy. The jointly lodged group (JL consisted of 90 MCP in which mothers received assessment for lactation; 88 MCP were lodged separately and no assessment was provided. Results were statistically analyzed to determine frequency and variable associations. Results. Feeding was recorded as either EHL, powdered milk or both. Groups with or without JL were stratified by form of birth, either labor or Cesarean section. With the Mantel-Haenszel X² and logarithmic range, differences were significant with p<0.05. During the study, global lactation was similar

  12. Memory Strategies and Retrieval Success in Preschool Children: Relations to Maternal Behavior over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, O. Evren; Larkina, Marina; Kleinknecht, Erica; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how maternal strategic behaviors during a mother-child collaborative sort-recall task of categorically similar items related to children's recall and children's strategic behavior in a sort-recall task that they completed independently. Mother-child dyads participated in the collaborative sort-recall task when children were 40 months…

  13. Effect of Emotional Closeness in Mother-Child Relationship on the Child’s Relationships with Peers at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina M.V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical study that aimed to explore the correlation between mother-child relationships and the child’s relationships with peers at preschool age. The hypothesis was that the character and degree of emotional closeness between the mother and the child affects the quality of the child’s interactions with peers. The study involved 166 subjects: 83 children aged 4—5 years from Moscow kindergartens and their mothers. As it was found, different types of emotional relationships between the mother and the child (distant, emotionally close, normal are associated with certain features of peer interactions. Interacting with peers was most problematic in the children whose mothers are emotionally distant from them. Those children who were in very close emotional relationships with their mothers had much more conflicts with peers as well. The mothers in this group were also less adequate and more permissive when evaluating their child’s proneness to conflict.

  14. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  15. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION: THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL DEPRESSION IN REMISSION AND ADDITIONAL HISTORY OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Dorothea; Boedeker, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fydrich, Thomas; Fuehrer, Daniel; Dittrich, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Winter, Sibylle; Heinz, Andreas; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The association between maternal depression and adverse outcomes in children is well established. Similar links have been found for maternal childhood abuse. One proposed pathway of risk transmission is reduced maternal emotional availability. Our aim was to investigate whether sensitive parenting is impaired in mothers with depression in remission, and whether among these mothers childhood abuse has an additional impact. The mother-child interaction of 188 dyads was assessed during a play situation using the Emotional Availability Scales, which measure the overall affective quality of the interaction: maternal sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility, and nonintrusiveness. Mothers with depression in remission were compared to healthy mothers. Children were between 5 and 12 years old. Group differences and impact of additional childhood abuse were analyzed by one-factorial analyses of covariance and planned contrasts. Mothers with depression in remission showed less emotional availability during mother-child interaction compared to healthy control mothers. Specifically, they were less sensitive and, at trend-level, less structuring and more hostile. Among these mothers, we found an additional effect of severe maternal childhood abuse on maternal sensitivity: Mothers with depression in remission and a history of severe childhood abuse were less sensitive than remitted mothers without childhood abuse. Our data suggest that depression impacts on maternal emotional availability during remission, which might represent a trait characteristic of depression. Mothers with depression in remission and additional severe childhood abuse were particularly affected. These findings may contribute to the understanding of children's vulnerability to develop a depressive disorder themselves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

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    Xian Abulizi

    Full Text Available Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression.1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011, were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001, emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001, conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001 and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01 at 5.5 years. Infants' active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02, while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04. The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics.An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.

  17. Effects of Maternal Parenting and Mother-Child Relationship Quality on Short-Term Longitudinal Change in Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the degree to which short-term longitudinal change in adolescent self-regulation was attributable to maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality. A total of 821 mother-adolescent dyads provided data in the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  18. It takes two to talk: longitudinal associations among infant-mother attachment, maternal attachment representations, and mother-child emotion dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Celia; Koren-Karie, Nina; Bailey, Heidi; Moran, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Research on the attachment-dialogue link has largely focused on infant-mother attachment. This study investigated longitudinal associations between infant-mother attachment and maternal attachment representations and subsequent mother-child emotion dialogues (N = 50). Maternal attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview when children were 3 months, infant-mother attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure at 13 months, and mother-child emotion dialogues were assessed using the Autobiographical Emotional Events Dialogue at 3.5 years. Consistent with past research, the three organized categories of infant-mother attachment relationships were associated with later mother-child emotion dialogues. Disorganized attachment relationships were associated with a lack of consistent and coherent strategy during emotion dialogues. Autonomous mothers co-constructed coherent narratives with their children; Dismissing and Preoccupied mothers created stories that were less narratively organized. Although the Unresolved category was unrelated to classifications of types of mother-child discourse, mothers' quality of contribution to the dialogues was marginally lower compared to the quality of their children's contributions to the emotion discussion. Secure children showed highest levels of child cooperation and exploration. Autonomous mothers displayed highest levels of maternal sensitive guidance during emotion dialogues. We provide preliminary evidence for role reversal in dialogues between Preoccupied and Unresolved mothers and their children.

  19. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  20. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  1. A Comparison of Equine-Assisted Intervention and Conventional Play-Based Early Intervention for Mother-Child Dyads with Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…

  2. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  3. An Exploration of Jamaican Mothers' Perceptions of Closeness and Intimacy in the Mother-Child Relationship during Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taniesha; Kuczynski, Leon; Perren, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Research on Jamaican mother-child relationships has had a limited focus on authoritarian parenting styles and selected discipline practices such as corporal punishment. This study examined Jamaican mothers' experiences of closeness and connectedness with their children to provide a holistic perspective on Jamaican-parent-child relationships. Thirty mothers (17 middle class and 13 lower class) living in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, participated in a 1-h to 1.5-h semi-structured, open-ended interview regarding their 8- to 12-year-old children. Thematic analyses indicated that mothers experienced closeness through intimate interactions (e.g., shared projects, shared physical affection, mutuality, and child self-disclosure) and parent-child nurturance. Both mothers and children were active in creating contexts for closeness. Mothers also reported experiences that temporarily damaged their connection with their children. The findings suggest that the construct of parent-child intimacy may be useful in teasing out the psychological meanings and interpersonal processes of parent-child relatedness in cultural research.

  4. Mother-child relationships, family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Siener, Shannon; Brumariu, Laura E

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the study was to examine several factors that may explain the development of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (n = 1,364 families), we examined mother-child relationships, other aspects of family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety in preadolescence. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that children who were more anxious at the beginning of middle childhood had been more behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers, and in middle childhood lived in families who experienced more negative life events and had mothers who were more anxious. Children who became more anxious across middle childhood were less behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers and in middle childhood perceived less security in their attachments to their mothers, experienced more negative life events, and had mothers who were more anxious. The findings illustrate the need to include a broad set of risk factors in etiological models of anxiety. In addition, the evidence for cumulative effects suggests several possible points of intervention with anxious children and their parents.

  5. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…

  6. [Mother-child agreement regarding the depressive symptoms and the quality of life of the child and its influencing factors in children with and without depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Eniko

    2010-01-03

    Mother-child agreement and influencing factors were studied in depressed and non-depressed children. We hypothesized that age and gender of the child and maternal depression influenced mother-child agreement; parents of depressed children underestimated the quality of life of their children; agreement was better in older and non-depressed children. We studied depressed children with Major Depressive Disorder (n = 354, mean age = 11.69 +/- 2.05 years), and non-depressed school-age children (n = 1695, mean age = 10.34 +/- 2.19 years). Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by a semi-structured interview; depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Mother-child agreement about depressive symptoms increased as children got older. Mother-son reports showed significant difference, mother-daughter reports were similar. Depressed mothers reported more serious symptoms for their children. Depressed children's parent rated lower quality of life than children for themselves. Agreement was influenced by depression of the child and only marginally by age. Age and psychiatric illness of the examined person influences agreement, which finding may well be important in practice.

  7. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  8. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to investigate these links both longitudinally and concurrently in middle childhood. Children in grades 3 and 5 (N = 74) completed measures of secure, a...

  9. Gender Differences in Early Mother-Child Interactions: Talking about an Imminent Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Examines maternal modes of organizing an imminent emotional event, a brief separation from the child. Finds that the mothers displayed two ways of structuring the future event, and these different modes were related statistically to the gender of the child. Investigates how the mother directs the child's mental processes by using augments of…

  10. Does an Unplanned Pregnancy Have Long-Term Implications for Mother-Child Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; O'Brien, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pregnancy planning on the quality of mother-adolescent relationships 15 years later was examined among 373 first-time parents and 472 experienced parents using a mediated moderation model. Among first-time mothers only, the experience of an unplanned pregnancy was related to higher maternal depressive symptoms when mothers also…

  11. Syndrome Specificity and Mother-Child Interactions: Examining Positive and Negative Parenting across Contexts and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Kaladjian, Araksia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which child syndromes and observation context related to mothers' parenting behaviors. Longitudinal observations were conducted of parenting behavior across ages 3, 4, and 5 years during structured and unstructured activities. The 183 participants included mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders,…

  12. Mother-Child Attachment From Infancy to the Preschool Years: Predicting Security and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Bureau, Jean-François; Fernyhough, Charles

    2018-05-01

    Relations between maternal mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments), children's age-2 perspective-taking abilities, and attachment security at 44 (n = 165) and 51 (n = 128) months were investigated. Nonattuned comments predicted insecure preschool attachment, via insecure 15-month attachment security (44-month attachment) and poorer age-2 perspective-taking abilities (51-month attachment). With regard to attachment stability, higher perspective-taking abilities distinguished the stable secure groups from (a) the stable insecure groups and (b) children who changed from secure to insecure (at trend level). These effects were independent of child gender, stressful life events, and socioeconomic status (SES). The contribution of these findings to our understanding of stability and change in attachment security from infancy to the preschool years is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Environmental determinants of the urinary concentrations of herbicides during pregnancy: the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Serrano, Tania; Lecerf, Rémi; Limon, Gwendolina; Petit, Claire; Monfort, Christine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-02-01

    Herbicides are generally the most extensively used of the pesticides applied to agricultural crops. However, the literature contains little evidence useful in assessing the potential sources of the general population's exposure to herbicides, including by residential proximity to crops. The objective of this study was to take advantage of data from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort to identify the main determinants of the body burden of exposure to the chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides commonly used on corn crops in Brittany, France, before 2006. Urine samples from a randomly selected subcohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy (n=579) were assayed for herbicide metabolites. The residential exposure resulting from proximity to corn crops was assessed with satellite-image-based scores combined with meteorological data. Data on diet, drinking tap water (from the public water supply), occupations, and household herbicide use were collected by questionnaires. Herbicides were quantified in 5.3% to 39.7% of urine samples. Alachlor and acetochlor were found most frequently in the urine of women living in rural areas. The presence of dealkylated triazine metabolites in urine samples was positively associated with residential proximity to corn crops (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Urinary metabolites of both atrazine and dealkylated triazine were correlated with tap water consumption (OR=2.94, 1.09-7.90, and OR=1.82, 1.10-3.03, respectively); hydroxylated triazine metabolites were correlated with fish intake (OR=1.48, 1.09-1.99). This study reinforces previous results that suggest that environmental contamination resulting from agricultural activities may contribute to the general population's exposure to herbicides. © 2013.

  14. Mother-Child Communication: The Influence of ADHD Symptomatology and Executive Functioning on Paralinguistic Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nilsen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one’s communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits, independent laboratory tasks of executive functioning (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability. Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume for both mothers and children. Mothers’ paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers’ and children’s ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles.

  15. Returning to work one year after childbirth: data from the mother-child cohort EDEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2013-10-01

    The amount of time women spend out of work postpartum has implications for both health and economic trajectories which may result in long-term social inequities or exacerbate those already existing. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the characteristics of women who return to work within the first year postpartum and to identify specific occupational and health factors associated with returning to work among women who worked during pregnancy. The EDEN cohort is comprised of pregnant women recruited in two French university hospitals before 24 weeks gestation with a singleton pregnancy. Questionnaires were administered at 4, 8, and 12 months after birth. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of returning to work within 1 year of childbirth with inclusion of sociodemographic, health, and occupational variables that were significantly related to returning to work at the level of p worked during pregnancy in our sample had resumed work before their infant's first birthday. After adjustment, occupational level, full-time work, standing position, job reward, desire to change job, education, and father's occupational level remained significantly associated with returning to work. Women's perception of their work as rewarding was the strongest predictor of resuming employment (OR comparing high reward to low reward: 2.48, 95 % CI: 1.60-3.83 for women with parity 0 or 1). Experiencing an adverse birth outcome had no relation to returning to work within 1 year postpartum. Across all indicator variables, women of higher socioeconomic status or with greater resources had greater odds of returning to work compared to those of lower status. This suggests that the crucial period of employment transition around the time of childbirth may intensify preexisting social inequalities.

  16. Social-dental and social representation aspects of dental caries in the mother-child context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Brger Fadel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate social and dental maternal characteristics related to the child’s caries experience and to verify the social representation of mothers with regard to the oral health-illness process. Methods: The sample consisted of 272 pairs of mothers and children who attending public institutions of early childhood education in Ponta Grossa city. The information of interest was collected through a structured, oral clinical examination and semi-structured interview. The test used for statistical analysis was a chi-square for independence. Results: The results confirmed the association between the mothers’ need for treatment and the children’s dental caries experience as well as their relationship with socio-economic variables. Education, income, number of children and frequency of visits to the dentist were the variables that showed statistical significance. Conclusion: Unfavorable maternal social inclusion, the number of children the mother has, their need for dental treatment and their frequency of visits to the dentist were associated with the children’s dental caries experience. Moreover, it appears that the mother’s social representations was an important tool for health information, and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  17. Pregnancy after renal transplantation: Effects on mother, child, and renal graft function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham El Houssni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to report our experience of pregnancy in renal transplant (RT patients and its medium and long-term effects on the renal graft as well as the maternal fetal complications. We studied 21 pregnancies in 12 RT patients with mean age of 29.9 ± 5.3 years. The mean duration of RT to 1 st pregnancy was 42 (21-68.5 months and the median follow-up period was 112.5 (138-165 months. The pregnancy was planned in 28.6% of the cases. At the time of the diagnosis of the pregnancy, all the patients were maintained on corticosteroids and cyclosporine, 14.3% of the patients were on mycophenolate mofetil, and 71.4% of the patients were on azathioprine. The high blood pressure was present before the pregnancy in 33.3% of the patients. During pregnancy, proteinuria appeared in 20% of the cases, urinary tract infection in 33.3%, and preeclampsia in 5%. Anemia was present in all the patients during pregnancy. The doses of cyclosporine were increased during pregnancy. The mean term of delivery was 37 ± 2 weeks. Premature delivery was observed in 19% of the cases, fetal death in utero in 10%, and abortion in 15%. The number of living children was 16, with a mean birth weight of 3014 ± 515 g; the weight was lower than 2500 g in three (15% cases. In the long-term follow-up, we noticed two cases of acute rejection related to patients′ noncompliance, and four cases of chronic allograft nephropathy, without a switch to dialysis. We conclude that pregnancy in RT patients requires multidisciplinary care because of the increased risks of maternal and fetal complications. Each pregnancy needs to be planned; all parameters have to be studied and evaluated in order to allow for optimization of outcome and minimization of complications.

  18. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  19. The mother-child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz García, Gisella Susana

    2006-09-12

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food plant use, in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India. Wild food plants in this biodiversity hotspot form an important part of local diets and are used as famine foods and medicines. In general, the collection and consumption of these foods are increasingly stigmatized as symbols of poverty and 'tribalness' (equivalent to 'backwardness'). The study, which falls within the discipline of ethnobotany, involves three socio-cultural groups--the Paniya and Kuruma tribes and non-tribals. Further, it examines the impact in the enculturation process of an unusual educational programme sponsored by the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation that is oriented towards creating awareness among children of cultural identity and local biological resources--the study compares children having participated in the programme with those who have not, with their mothers. The process of enculturation is assessed by comparing wild food plant knowledge and values between mothers and their children, and by examining events where knowledge transmission occurs, including collection and consumption. For that, quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis tools were used, and methods included semi-structured interviews, photo identification and informal interviews of key informants. Results ratify that women are the knowledge holders and are the primary means of knowledge transmission to their children. Nevertheless, fewer children are collecting wild food plants with mothers and learning about them, apparently because of children's lack of time. On the other hand, older people acknowledge that a "change in taste" is occurring among younger generations. In general, there is a simultaneous transmission from

  20. Prematuridade e interação mãe-criança: revisão sistemática da literatura Prematuridad e interacción madre-niño: revisión sistemática de la literatura Prematurity and mother-child interaction: a systematic bibliographycal review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Caroline Klein

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a produção científica do período de 1998 a 2004, relacionada à interação entre mães e crianças nascidas pré-termo e seu desenvolvimento nas fases pré-escolar e escolar. Como método, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico sistematizado de estudos empíricos indexados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO e LILACS, utilizando as seguintes palavras-chave: preterm (very low birth weight, prematurity, premature birth AND mother child interaction (mother child dyads, mother child relationship, mother child relations, maternal mediation. Foram identificados 33 artigos, dos quais foram selecionados 26 e foram localizados 22. A maioria dos estudos avaliou a interação mãe-criança nos primeiros quatro anos de idade, bem como seu impacto no desenvolvimento posterior da criança. Os estudos identificaram diferenças na interação entre díades mãe-criança ex-prematura e a termo nas fases pré-escolar, escolar e adolescente. Comportamentos interativos maternos exerceram efeito moderador diferencial no desenvolvimento de crianças vulneráveis com antecedentes de risco biológico.El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción científica desde 1998 hasta 2004 sobre la interacción entre las madres y sus niños nacidos prematuramente y su desarrollo en las fases parvulario y escolar. Como método se hizo una revisión de la bibliografía sistemática sobre estudios empíricos puestos en un índice en las bases de datos MEDLINE, PsycINFO y LILACS, utilizando las palabras-clave: pre-término (peso de nacimiento muy bajo, precocidad, nacimiento prematuro e interacción madre-niño (dualidad madre-niño, relaciones madre-niño, mediación maternal. Fueron identificados 33 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 26 y localizaron 22. La mayoría de los estudios evaluó la interacción madre-niño en los primeros cuatro años de vida, así como su impacto en el desarrollo posterior del

  1. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. [The role of playful interactions in the development of the early mother-child relationship--factors of risk and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigner, Bernadett

    2015-01-01

    The early mother-child relationship is taking shape and evolving during the series of their everyday interactions. The main aim of the research that focus on the risks at the beginning, and the future mother infant interactions are factors that have influence on the quality of the early mother-child relationship, and the exploration of the jeopardy and vulnerability of the early relationship disorders. I examined fifty mothers who have their first child. I researched the motherly, child- and interactional factors in the days right after the birth and then when the kids were one month old, and again at the age of four and a half month. I assessed the parental stress by the longer version of the PSI (Parenting Stress Index), and the mother anxiety with the help of the STAI-Y (State and feature anxiety value Index), and the features of the depression were tested by the EPDS scale, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. PBQ, the Postpartum Bonding Questionnare--reveals the quality of the motherly emotions and behaviour focusing on the kid. The observation of interactions when the child was four and a half month old happened while a 'face-to-face' free play, and the analyses of that were assessed by an own code system. We found correlations between input risk factors and features of motherly interactional styles. The indexes of the after birth depression (depression right after the birth), and the anxiety also showed correlation to the indexes of the attachment of the mother to her child and the parental stress. The correlations among the playfulness, the risk kotodefactors and the quality of the interactions are obvious, that we found. The interactional style of the mother and the interactional strategies of the baby showed correlated patterns too as we examined those. We found that pre-history of pregnancy and perinatal events have predictive value on the relationship of the four and a half month old baby and his/her mother. These can add important facts to the

  3. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Henrich Crestani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  4. Patterns of change in early childhood aggressive-disruptive behavior: gender differences in predictions from early coercive and affectionate mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, S A; Bates, J E; Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S

    1996-10-01

    The present study focused on mother-child interaction predictors of initial levels and change in child aggressive and disruptive behavior at school from kindergarten to third grade. Aggression-disruption was measured via annual reports from teachers and peers. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify 8 separate child aggression trajectories, 4 for each gender: high initial levels with increases in aggression, high initial levels with decrease in aggression, low initial levels with increases in aggression, and low initial levels with decreases in aggression. Mother-child interaction measures of coercion and nonaffection collected prior to kindergarten were predictive of initial levels of aggression-disruption in kindergarten in both boys and girls. However, boys and girls differed in how coercion and nonaffection predicted change in aggression-disruption across elementary school years. For boys, high coercion and nonaffection were particularly associated with the high-increasing-aggression trajectory, but for girls, high levels of coercion and nonaffection were associated with the high-decreasing-aggression trajectory. This difference is discussed in the context of Patterson et al.'s coercion training theory, and the need for gender-specific theories of aggressive development is noted.

  5. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a movement-to-music video program for decreasing sedentary time among mother-child pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2015-10-05

    Measured objectively, under a quarter of adults and fewer than half of preschool children meet the criteria set in the aerobic physical activity recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Moreover, adults reportedly are sedentary (seated or lying down) for most of their waking hours. Importantly, greater amounts of sedentary time on parents' part are associated with an increased risk of more sedentary time among their children. A randomized controlled trial targeting mother-child pairs has been designed, to examine whether a movement-to-music video program may be effective in reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity in the home environment. Mother-child pairs (child age of 4-7 years) will be recruited from among NELLI lifestyle-modification study five-year follow-up cohort participants, encompassing 14 municipalities in Pirkanmaa region, Finland. Accelerometer and exercise diary data are to be collected for intervention and control groups at the first, second and eighth week after the baseline measurements. Background factors, physical activity, screen time, motivation to exercise, and self-reported height and weight, along with quality of life, will be assessed via questionnaires. After the baseline and first week measurements, the participants of the intervention group will receive a movement-to-music video program designed to reduce sedentary time and increase physical activity. Intervention group mother-child pairs will be instructed to exercise every other day while watching the video program over the next seven weeks. Information on experiences of the use of the movement-to-music video program will be collected 8 weeks after baseline. Effects of the intervention will be analyzed in line with the intention-to-treat principle through comparison of the changes in the main outcomes between intervention and control group participants. The study has received ethics approval from the Pirkanmaa Ethics Committee in Human

  7. The health education of folk midwives: the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública and mother-child assistance (1940-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Maria de Almeida; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

    2011-12-01

    The article addresses an endeavor by Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Sesp) to train folk midwives who worked in rural communities and to exercise control over these women's activities. The task was entrusted to the agency's prenatal and child hygiene programs, established between the 1940s and 1960s. The agency believed this training and control initiative would be of major importance in helping ensure the success of its project to establish local sanitary services offering mother-child assistance. The goal of working directly with the folk midwives was not only to force them to employ strict hygiene standards when delivering and caring for newborns but especially to use their influence and prestige within these communities to convince the general population to adopt good health practices.

  8. Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Schoket, Bernadette; Godschalk, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    , Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires.Results: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar...... versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared......, Kleinjans JC, Segerbäck D, Kogevinas M. 2013. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood, maternal fruit-and-vegetable consumption, and birth weight in a European mother-child study (NewGeneris). Environ Health Perspect 121:1200-1206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206333....

  9. Interaction between the Opioid Receptor OPRM1 Gene and Mother-Child Language Style Matching Prospectively Predicts Children's Separation Anxiety Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boparai, Sameen; Borelli, Jessica L; Partington, Lindsey; Smiley, Patricia; Jarvik, Ella; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Seaman, Lauren C; Nurmi, Erika L

    2018-03-22

    Recent research suggests that lower mother-child language style matching (LSM) is associated with greater physiological reactivity and insecure attachment in school-aged children, but to date no studies have explored this measure of parent-child behavioral matching for its association with children's anxiety symptoms, a well-known correlate of attachment insecurity and heightened physiological reactivity. There is also considerable evidence of genetic risk for anxiety, including possession of the OPRM1 minor allele, 118G. In the current study (N = 44), we expand upon what is known about children's genetic and environmental risk for anxiety by examining the unique and interactive effects of mother-child LSM and the OPRM1 polymorphism A118G on school-aged children's separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. SAD symptoms were measured both concurrently with LSM and OPRM1 genotype and two years later through self-report. No significant associations emerged between LSM or OPRM1 and concurrent Time 1 SAD symptoms. However, lower LSM and 118G minor allele possession were both associated with greater SAD symptoms at Time 2; further, the interaction between LSM and OPRM1 genotype significantly predicted SAD symptoms beyond the main effects of the two variables. Possession of the minor allele was only associated with greater SAD symptoms among children in low LSM dyads, whereas children with the minor allele in high LSM dyads showed non-significantly lower SAD symptoms. These findings and a proportion affected analysis provide support for a differential susceptibility model of gene by environment interactions for the OPRM1 gene. We discuss the implications for predicting children's separation anxiety across development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  11. Breastfeeding duration and cognitive, language and motor development at 18 months of age: Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Koutra, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Mantzouranis, Evangelia; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding duration has been associated with improved cognitive development in children. However, few population-based prospective studies have evaluated dose-response relationships of breastfeeding duration with language and motor development at early ages, and results are discrepant. The study uses data from the prospective mother-child cohort ('Rhea' study) in Crete, Greece. 540 mother-child pairs were included in the present analysis. Information about parental and child characteristics and breastfeeding practices was obtained by interview-administered questionnaires. Trained psychologists assessed cognitive, language and motor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Toddler Development (3rd edition) at the age of 18 months. Duration of breast feeding was linearly positively associated with all the Bayley scales, except of gross motor. The association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders with an increase of 0.28 points in the scale of cognitive development (β=0.28; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.55), 0.29 points in the scale of receptive communication (β=0.29; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54), 0.30 points in the scale of expressive communication (β=0.30; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.57) and 0.29 points in the scale of fine motor development (β=0.29; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.56) per accumulated month of breast feeding. Children who were breast fed longer than 6 months had a 4.44-point increase in the scale of fine motor development (β=4.44; 95% CI 0.06 to 8.82) compared with those never breast fed. Longer duration of breast feeding was associated with increased scores in cognitive, language and motor development at 18 months of age, independently from a wide range of parental and infant characteristics. Additional longitudinal studies and trials are needed to confirm these results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Maternal weight prior and during pregnancy and offspring's BMI and adiposity at 5-6 years in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacota, M; Forhan, A; Saldanha-Gomes, C; Charles, M A; Heude, B

    2017-08-01

    Beyond pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal weight change before and during pregnancy may also affect offspring adiposity. To investigate the relationship between maternal weight history before and during pregnancy with children's adiposity at 5-6 years. In 1069 mother-child dyads from the EDEN Cohort, we examined by linear regression the associations of children's BMI, fat mass and abdominal adiposity at 5-6 years with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, pre-pregnancy average yearly weight change from age 20 and gestational weight gain. The shapes of relationships were investigated using splines and polynomial functions were tested. Children's BMI and adiposity parameters were positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, but these relationships were mainly seen in thin mothers, with no substantial variation for maternal BMI ranging from 22 to 35 kg/m 2 . Gestational weight gain was positively associated with children's BMI Z-score, but again more so in thin mothers. We found no association with pre-pregnancy weight change. Before the adiposity rebound, maternal pre-pregnancy thinness explains most of the relationship with children's BMI. The relationship may emerge at older ages in children of overweight and obese mothers, and this latency may be an obstacle to early prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  14. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother-child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-10

    HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The

  15. Curling up with a good e-book: Mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Yuill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared changes in cognitive, affective and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 minutes in each of 4 conditions: mother or child as reader, paper or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analysed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviours that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading.

  16. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-10-02

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were "Modern" and "High-animal products". After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the "High-animal products" dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the "High-animal products" dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  17. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children's shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers' commentaries and quality of children's recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children's transition to independent reading.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R

    2018-03-01

    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.

  19. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading. PMID:28018283

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors for Dual Form of Malnutrition in Mother-Child Pairs at the Same Household in the Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kishawi, Rima Rafiq; Soo, Kah Leng; Abed, Yehia Awad; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries nutritional, and epidemiological transitions are emerging into continuing undernutrition and escalating overnutrition, giving rise to the double burden of the malnutrition phenomenon. This study aims to determine the prevalence of the dual form of malnutrition (overweight mother/underweight child) in the same household and its associated factors in the Gaza Strip. A total of 357 mother-child pairs from the same households were surveyed from three different geographical locations in the Gaza Strip, namely, El Remal urban area, Jabalia refugee camp, and Al Qarara rural area. The height and weight of mothers aged 18-50 years were measured, and their body mass index (BMI) was computed. The mothers were categorized according to the criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO) for BMI as overweight if they have a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric indices were measured for children aged two to five years to classify the underweight children Z-score child's birth order (ORadj, 1.50, 95% CL, 1.22, 1.82; p = <0.001), father's educational (low or medium) levels (ORadj, 3.19, 95% CL, 1.07, 9.5; p = 0. 036), or (ORadj, 3.4, 95% CL, 1.12, 10.37; p = 0. 031), high scores of mothers' nutrition knowledge (ORadj, 1.23, 95% CL, 1.01, 1.52; p = 0. 048), and low monthly income (ORadj, 0.28, 95% CL, 0.09, 0.88; p = 0. 030). The results from this study showed the dual form of malnutrition in the same household was prevalent in the Gaza Strip. This is a public health issue that must be understood and addressed and policy makers must implement an appropriate nutrition action plan to control dual form of malnutrition based on the underlying specific risk factors in the study population. In addition, interventions are needed to help individuals to translate their nutrition knowledge into healthy dietary behaviors.

  1. Maternal depression and personality traits in association with child neuropsychological and behavioral development in preschool years: Mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidimensionality of the relationship between social status and dietary patterns in early childhood: longitudinal results from the French EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Soumaïla; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline; Botton, Jérémie; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Forhan, Anne; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Lioret, Sandrine

    2015-09-24

    The association between socioeconomic position and diet in early childhood has mainly been addressed based on maternal education and household income. We aimed to assess the influence of a variety of social factors from different socio-ecological levels (parents, household and child-care) on multi-time point dietary patterns identified from 2 to 5 y. This study included 974 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Two multi-time point dietary patterns were derived in a previous study: they correspond to consistent exposures to either core- or non-core foods across 2, 3 and 5 y and were labelled "Guidelines" and "Processed, fast-foods". The associations of various social factors collected during pregnancy (age, education level) or at 2-y follow-up (mother's single status, occupation, work commitments, household financial disadvantage, presence of older siblings and child-care arrangements) with each of the two dietary patterns, were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. The adherence to a diet close to "Guidelines" was positively and independently associated with both maternal and paternal education levels. The adherence to a diet consistently composed of processed and fast-foods was essentially linked with maternal variables (younger age and lower education level), household financial disadvantage, the presence of older sibling (s) and being cared for at home by someone other than the mother. Multiple social factors operating at different levels (parents, household, and child-care) were found to be associated with the diet of young children. Different independent predictors were found for each of the two longitudinal dietary patterns, suggesting distinct pathways of influence. Our findings further suggest that interventions promoting healthier dietary choices for young children should involve both parents and take into account not only household financial disadvantage but also maternal age, family size and options for child-care.

  3. Prenatal diet and children's trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems from 3 to 8 years: the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera, Cédric; Heude, Barbara; Forhan, Anne; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Peyre, Hugo; Van der Waerden, Judith; Pryor, Laura; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Melchior, Maria; Lioret, Sandrine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2018-03-24

    Evidence shows that diet contributes substantially to lifelong physical and mental health. Although dietary exposure during gestation and early postnatal life is critical, human epidemiological data are limited regarding its link with children's subsequent externalizing issues. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal diet during pregnancy in offspring's symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems from ages 3 to 8 years. We used data of 1,242 mother-child pairs from a French cohort followed up from pregnancy until the children were 8 years of age. Dietary patterns (DP) of the mother during pregnancy were assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Children's externalizing behavior was assessed with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 3, 5, and 8 years, from which trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and conduct problems were derived. We conducted multivariable logistic models to study associations adjusted for a range of potential confounders. Results showed significant relationships between maternal 'low Healthy diet' (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.61; IC 95%: 1.09-2.37) and 'high Western diet' (aOR = 1.67; IC 95%: 1.13-2.47) during pregnancy and children's trajectories of high symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention. The associations took into account relevant confounders such as DP of the children at age 2 years, maternal stress and depression, gestational diabetes, and socioeconomic variables. Maternal diet during pregnancy was independently associated with children's hyperactivity-inattention symptoms but not with conduct problems. Early prevention addressing lifestyle should specifically target diet in pregnant women. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Drinking Water Disinfection By-products, Genetic Polymorphisms, and Birth Outcomes in a European Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Bustamante, Mariona; Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ballester, Ferran; Cordier, Sylvaine; Costet, Nathalie; Espinosa, Ana; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Danileviciute, Asta; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Karadanelli, Maria; Krasner, Stuart; Patelarou, Evridiki; Stephanou, Euripides; Tardón, Adonina; Toledano, Mireille B; Wright, John; Villanueva, Cristina M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes, the most common water disinfection by-products, and birth outcomes in a European cohort study (Health Impacts of Long-Term Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water). We took into account exposure through different water uses, measures of water toxicity, and genetic susceptibility. We enrolled 14,005 mothers (2002-2010) and their children from France, Greece, Lithuania, Spain, and the UK. Information on lifestyle- and water-related activities was recorded. We ascertained residential concentrations of trihalomethanes through regulatory records and ad hoc sampling campaigns and estimated route-specific trihalomethane uptake by trimester and for whole pregnancy. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants in disinfection by-product metabolizing genes in nested case-control studies. Average levels of trihalomethanes ranged from around 10 μg/L to above the regulatory limits in the EU of 100 μg/L between centers. There was no association between birth weight and total trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy (β = 2.2 g in birth weight per 10 μg/L of trihalomethane, 95% confidence interval = 3.3, 7.6). Birth weight was not associated with exposure through different routes or with specific trihalomethane species. Exposure to trihalomethanes was not associated with low birth weight (odds ratio [OR] per 10 μg/L = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.95, 1.10), small-for-gestational age (OR = 0.99, 0.94, 1.03) and preterm births (OR = 0.98, 0.9, 1.05). We found no gene-environment interactions for mother or child polymorphisms in relation to preterm birth or small-for-gestational age. In this large European study, we found no association between birth outcomes and trihalomethane exposures during pregnancy in the total population or in potentially genetically susceptible subgroups. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B104.).

  5. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  6. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jonathan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors for Dual Form of Malnutrition in Mother-Child Pairs at the Same Household in the Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Rafiq El Kishawi

    Full Text Available In many developing countries nutritional, and epidemiological transitions are emerging into continuing undernutrition and escalating overnutrition, giving rise to the double burden of the malnutrition phenomenon.This study aims to determine the prevalence of the dual form of malnutrition (overweight mother/underweight child in the same household and its associated factors in the Gaza Strip.A total of 357 mother-child pairs from the same households were surveyed from three different geographical locations in the Gaza Strip, namely, El Remal urban area, Jabalia refugee camp, and Al Qarara rural area. The height and weight of mothers aged 18-50 years were measured, and their body mass index (BMI was computed. The mothers were categorized according to the criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO for BMI as overweight if they have a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric indices were measured for children aged two to five years to classify the underweight children Z-score <-1.The results showed the prevalence of the dual form of malnutrition in the Gaza Strip was 15.7%, and its associated factors were child's birth order (ORadj, 1.50, 95% CL, 1.22, 1.82; p = <0.001, father's educational (low or medium levels (ORadj, 3.19, 95% CL, 1.07, 9.5; p = 0. 036, or (ORadj, 3.4, 95% CL, 1.12, 10.37; p = 0. 031, high scores of mothers' nutrition knowledge (ORadj, 1.23, 95% CL, 1.01, 1.52; p = 0. 048, and low monthly income (ORadj, 0.28, 95% CL, 0.09, 0.88; p = 0. 030.The results from this study showed the dual form of malnutrition in the same household was prevalent in the Gaza Strip. This is a public health issue that must be understood and addressed and policy makers must implement an appropriate nutrition action plan to control dual form of malnutrition based on the underlying specific risk factors in the study population. In addition, interventions are needed to help individuals to translate their nutrition knowledge into healthy dietary behaviors.

  8. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Sekiyama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1 household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2 risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3 associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242, their mothers (n = 242, and their fathers (n = 225 in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF% was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI and by converting skinfold thickness (ST data using Durnin and Womersley’s (1974 formula (BF%-ST. Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI ≥ 23 and child stunting (height-for-age z-score <−2 within households. Maternal-child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were “Modern” and “High-animal products”. After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the “High-animal products” dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–1.04 than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the “High-animal products” dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  9. Children's attachment-related self-worth: a multi-method investigation of postdivorce preschoolers' relationships with their mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge; Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L; Page, Timothy F; Oettel, Barbara J; Corey, Janet M; Golby, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Three related hypotheses derived from attachment theory were examined in this multi-informant and multi-method study of 71 postdivorce mothers and their preschool children (40 boys, 31 girls): (1) mother-child interactions observed at home will be related to attachment-related representations by children (Attachment Story Completion Task or ASCT) and mothers (Parent Attachment Interview or PAI); and (2) these variables will be inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms and positively with social support (from mother's parents and the child's father); and (3) mother-child observations and representations will predict teacher-rated peer behavior. Where appropriate, child gender, maternal income, and child receptive language were statistically controlled. More harmonious observed mother-child interactions were associated with children's sense of self-worth in family relationships (ASCT) and maternal accounts of sensitive-effective guidance (PAI). Observational and representational variables were inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms. Mothers' satisfaction with social support from their parents was indirectly linked to the family variables while social support from the child's father had no measurable effect on the mother-child variables. Mother-child variables and teacher ratings were uncorrelated but explained independent variance in ASCT self-worth scores.

  10. Intersubjetividade mãe-filho na experiência com comunicação ampliada e alternativa Mother-child intersubjectivity in alternative and augmentative communication experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ciceri Cesa

    2010-02-01

    types of resource usage in the mother-child dyad, which are related to the quality of the maternal role and to the form of presenting the resource to users and their family. When the conception of language with which the resource is implemented does not include the family or consider the exercise of maternal role, the results in its generalization and maintenance are precarious. In cases where there was a debate on family use of the communication board, favoring the process of intersubjectivity between subjects without orality and their family, use and generalization were increased. CONCLUSIONS: it may be concluded that Bakhtin conception on dialogic language crossed by psychoanalysis allows for a more efficacious approach as for the probed communicative device.

  11. Children's Emotional Security and Sleep: Longitudinal Relations and Directions of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Background: We examined longitudinal relations between children's sleep and their emotional security in the mother-child, father-child, and parental marital relationships, with the goal of explicating the direction of association over time. Gender-related effects were also examined. Method: Sleep duration was examined through actigraphy, and sleep…

  12. Cultural Influences on Toddlers' Prosocial Behavior: How Maternal Task Assignment Relates to Helping Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Moritz; Cavalcante, Lilia; Vera Cruz de Carvalho, Rafael; Dôgo Resende, Briseida; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigates how maternal task assignment relates to toddlers' requested behavior and helping between 18 and 30 months. One hundred seven mother-child dyads were assessed in three different cultural contexts (rural Brazil, urban Germany, and urban Brazil). Brazilian mothers showed assertive scaffolding (serious and…

  13. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major…

  14. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  15. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  16. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  17. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment Comunicación no verbal madre/hijo em la existencia del HIV materna en ambiente experimental Comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV materno em ambiente experimental

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    Simone de Sousa Paiva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mother’s infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers’ strong attachment to their children after birth.La comunicación no verbal es predominante en la relación entre madre/hijo. Se tuvo por objetivo verificar la comunicación no verbal madre/hijo en la existencia del HIV materno. En ambiente experimental, fueron evaluadas cinco madres HIV+, que cuidaban de sus hijos de hasta seis meses de vida. Las filmaciones de los cuidados fueron analizadas por peritos, siendo observados los aspectos de la comunicación no verbal, como: paralenguaje, cinestésica, proximidad, contacto visual, tono de voz y comportamiento táctil materno e infantil. Se obtuvo 344 escenas que, después de un análisis estadístico, posibilitó inferir que la comunicación no verbal es utilizada por la madre para demonstrar su apego íntimo a los hijos y para percibir posibles anormalidades. Se sugiere que la infección materna puede ser un factor determinante para la formación del fuerte apego de la madre por su bebé después el nacimiento.A comunicação não-verbal é predominante na relação entre mãe/filho. Objetivou-se verificar a comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV

  18. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Stimulant Therapy (Ritalin Neurofeedback, and Parental Management Training and Interaction of the Three Approaches on Improving ADHD and Quality of Mother -Child Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Basteh Hoseini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This research was designed to investigate and compare the effective-ness of stimulant therapy (Ritalin, neurofeedback, parental management training and interac-tion of the treatments on the improvement of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, and quality of mother-child communication. Materials & Methods: This is a pseudo-experimental research with pretest-posttest de-sign including ADHD children living in Tehran; 40 subjects were randomly selected from clients of child psychiatric/psychological clinic, and then placed in 4 intervention groups based on objectives of the research. The subjects were measured by Conner's Parenting Scale-48 and Parental Stress Index before and after the interventions. Recruited data were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings of the research reveals that there is a significant difference among the treatments on improving conduct and attention/concentrationproblems; in other words, interaction of the treatments caused more therapeutic effect than other treatments. Also, there was no significant difference among the treatments on improving psychosomatic problems, impulsivity, anxiety, parent reinforcement, parental attachment, and parental competency. Conclusion: Finally, interaction of treatments and then ritalin had the most therapeutic effect compared to other treatments. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:133-143

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, S.L.M. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  20. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.M. van der Toorn; A.C. Huizink (Anja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMaternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  2. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children : a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, S.L.M.; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child’s problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child’s internalizing problems. The study sample

  4. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…

  5. A new mother-child play activity program to decrease parenting stress and improve child cognitive abilities: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tachibana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4-6 years old from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI (for mothers, the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM, and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT (for children were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre-post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress, Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress, and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities. The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265.

  6. A new mother-child play activity program to decrease parenting stress and improve child cognitive abilities: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Fukushima, Ai; Saito, Hitomi; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Ushida, Kazuo; Yoneyama, Susumu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4-6 years old) from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (for mothers), the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM), and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT) (for children) were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre-post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities). The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265.

  7. To which extent social withdrawal at the age of 1 year is associated with IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Doukhan, Sarah; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Peyre, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year. After adjusting for environmental factors, children with social withdrawal at 1 years (ADBB ≥5; N = 195) had significantly lower IQ scores at 5-6 years (-2.81 IQ points; p value 0.007) compared to children without social withdrawal (ADBB social withdrawal and IQ at 5-6 years was found. Being socially withdrawn at 1 year is associated with lower IQ scores at 5-6 years. The potential influence of these developmental aspects on each other (withdrawal behaviour and language/motor skills) may occur early in development. Our results improve our understanding of the outcomes of early social withdrawal behaviour and call for early detection of delay in acquisition of language/motor skills among socially withdrawn young children.

  8. Could we use parent report as a valid proxy of child report on anxiety, depression, and distress? A systematic investigation of father-mother-child triads in children successfully treated for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Cybelle; Lippé, Sarah; Bertout, Laurence; Drouin, Simon; Krajinovic, Maja; Rondeau, Émélie; Sinnett, Daniel; Laverdière, Caroline; Sultan, Serge

    2018-02-01

    Systematic assessment of emotional distress is recommended in after care. Yet, it is unclear if parent report may be used as a proxy of child report. The aim of this study was to assess agreements and differences and explore possible moderators of disagreement between child and parent ratings. Sixty-two young survivors treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (9-18 years) and both parents responded to the Beck Youth Inventory (anxiety and depression) and the distress rating scale on the child's status. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 on their own psychological status. Systematic analyses of agreement and differences were performed. Mother-child and father-child agreements were fair on anxiety, depression, and distress (median intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.37). Differences between parents and children were medium sized (median d = 0.55) with parents giving higher scores than their children on anxiety, depression, and distress. Mothers reported distress more frequently than fathers (39 vs. 17%) when children reported none. The child being female and lower parental income were associated with lower agreement in fathers when rating child distress. Higher levels of parental psychological symptoms were consistently associated with lower agreement. Parent-child differences when rating adolescent survivors' difficulties may be more important than previously thought. Parent report probably cannot be considered as a valid proxy of older child report on such internalized domains as anxiety, depression, or distress in the after-care clinic. Parents' report is also likely to be influenced by their own mood, a factor that should be corrected for when using their report. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of boys' ADHD symptoms from early to middle childhood: the role of father-child and mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise J

    2012-05-01

    This prospective 3 year longitudinal study investigated preschool paternal and maternal parenting predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) in a community sample of 93 school-age boys. Participants were recruited on the basis of inattention-hyperactivity at age 4 and fathers and mothers were observed interacting with their sons. Teachers, fathers, and mothers reported children's ADHD symptoms and impairment. Results from dimensional analysis showed that less observed paternal sensitivity and maternal positive regard predicted higher levels of inattentiveness in middle childhood, and that intrusive paternal behavior was predictive of hyperactive-impulsive behavior at school. In categorical analysis, less maternal warmth and sensitivity were predictive of later ADHD. These predictions held after statistical adjustment for the effects of preschool ADHD behaviors and conduct problems. At follow-up, parents of boys with ADHD reported more negative child-parent relationship perceptions than comparison parents. Findings highlight the importance of examining responsive parenting behaviors of both fathers and mothers in relation to multi-informant ratings of ADHD symptoms.

  11. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother-child study (NewGeneris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria; Pedersen, Marie; Besselink, Harrie; Mendez, Michelle A; Fleming, Sarah; Hardie, Laura J; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Wright, John; Agramunt, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Brunborg, Gunnar; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Sarri, Katerina; Chatzi, Leda; Merlo, Domenico F; Kleinjans, Jos C; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-15

    Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin A and mother child health Review

    OpenAIRE

    Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health

  13. Expanding beyond "mother-child" services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, S

    1998-01-01

    Several reproductive health programs in Bolivia have attempted to reduce institutionalized gender inequalities through efforts ranging from consciousness-raising courses to national legislation against domestic violence. It has been found that a maternal-child health-oriented approach to reproductive health eliminates many of those who require services, including childless women, women who have completed childbearing, and men. Moreover, the traditional exclusion of men from family planning decision-making often exacerbates women's vulnerability to abuse. La Casa de la Mujer in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, conducts family planning workshops for couples, works with young men and women, and seeks to involve male partners of its clients in center activities. Gender awareness not only helps couples to improve their relationships, but also improves the quality of interactions between family planning clients and providers. The widespread tendency of clinic doctors and staff to dismiss women's questions and concerns about contraceptive methods undermines providers' ability to counter misinformation and urge user compliance. The Center for Research and Development of Women in El Alto, Bolivia, has developed an approach to communication in which providers and clients discuss options in a collaborative manner. This approach has led to improved provider-client cooperation, more accurate diagnoses, and improved client health.

  14. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  15. A investigação da cegueira noturna no grupo materno-infantil: uma revisão histórica The investigation of night blindness in the mother-child group: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Saunders

    2007-02-01

    of the functional indicator of vitamin A deficiency has been consecrated in 1996 by the World Health Organization through the recommendation of a standardized interview to investigate cases of night blindness. The method is characterized by methodological easiness, low cost and it allows the monitoring of the nutritional status of people and communities, and evaluation of the efficacy of interventions. Recent studies suggest that this indicator is also useful for diagnosing subclinical vitamin A deficiency among pregnant women and postpartum women, since the agreement with biochemical indicators is expressive. Along the years, this indicator has also been recognized as an important instrument to predict the risk of morbidity and mortality in the mother-child dyad.

  16. Insegurança alimentar, vínculo mãe-filho e desnutrição infantil em área de alta vulnerabilidade social Food insecurity, mother-child bonding and child malnutrition in a high social vulnerability area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Laudelino Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a insegurança alimentar e o vínculo inadequado mãe-filho como dois potenciais determinantes da desnutrição em crianças de quatro a seis anos de idade. MÉTODOS: estudo de caso-controle desenvolvido em Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil (EMEIs no Jardim Jaqueline, área de alta vulnerabilidade social do município de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram aplicados a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar e o Protocolo de Avaliação do Vínculo Mãe-filho, além de coletadas informações biológicas e socio-econômicas. Para verificação dos efeitos de cada variável independente e controle dos efeitos das demais variáveis incluídas no modelo, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: verificou-se que tanto a insegurança alimentar familiar (OR=3,6 como o vínculo inadequado mãe-filho (OR=9,4 estiveram associados com a desnutrição infantil (pOBJECTIVES: to investigate food insecurity and inadequate bonding between mother and child as two potential factors determining malnutrition among children aged between four and six years. METHODS: a case-control study was conducted in Municipal Primary Schools in Jardim Jaqueline, a highly underprivileged neighborhood of the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the Mother-Child Bonding Evaluation Protocol were applied and biological and socio-economic data collected. The multiple logistic regression model was used to confirm the effect of each independent variable and to control for other variables included in the model. RESULTS: both family food insecurity (OR=3.6 and inadequate mother-child bonding (OR=9.4 were confirmed to be associated with child malnutrition (p<0.05, even when controlled for weight at birth, age, and marital and employment status of mother. CONCLUSIONS: both family food insecurity (OR=3.6 and inadequate mother-child bonding (OR=9.4 were shown to be factors determining the occurrence of

  17. Consulta de enfermagem - um diálogo entre os saberes técnicos e populares em saúde Consulta de enfermería - un diálogo cultural entre los saberes técnicos y populares en salud Dialogue between nurses and mothers during the mother-child binomial consultantion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Rodrigues da Silva Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato de experiência evidenciamos algumas estratégias que fizeram da consulta de enfermagem ao binômio mãe-filho um espaço privilegiado para o diálogo com a cultura e os saberes da população assistida. A técnica da coleta de dados foi o registro, durante seis meses, em diários de campo, das impressões verbalizadas pelas mulheres sobre o atendimento recebido. Demos o mesmo tratamento às nossas percepções e impressões. Escolhemos 30 registros de mulheres que freqüentaram o serviço regularmente e, a partir desses depoimentos, fomos introduzindo alterações no modelo de consulta. Pudemos compreender, a partir da experiência, que é fundamental o estabelecimento de uma relação dialógica entre os saberes populares e acadêmicos para o cuidado humanizado e eficiente em saúde.En este relato de experiencia evidenciamos algunas estrategias que hicieron de la Consulta de Enfermería, con el binomio madre-niño, un espacio privilegiado para el diálogo con la cultura y los saberes de la población asistida. La técnica de recolección de datos fue el registro, durante seis meses, en diarios de campo, de las impresiones verbalizadas por las mujeres sobre la atención recibida. Dimos el mismo trato a nuestras percepciones e impresiones. Escogimos 30 registros de mujeres que frecuentaron el servicio regularmente y, a partir de esos testimonios, fuimos introduciendo alteraciones en el modelo de consulta. Pudimos comprender, a partir de esa experiencia, que es fundamental el establecimiento de una relación dialógica entre los saberes populares y académicos para el cuidado humanizado y eficiente en salud.To describe strategies that might promote technical and cultural and common knowledge dialogue between nurses and mothers during the mother-child binomial nursing consultation. A purposive sample of 30 women who had regular nursing consultation appointment was used. Data were collected throughout a period of 6 months and consisted

  18. A higienização das parteiras curiosas: o Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública e a assistência materno-infantil (1940-1960 The health education of folk midwives: the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública and mother-child assistance (1940-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Almeida Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute as ações de treinamento e controle das parteiras curiosas promovidas pelo Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública, confiadas aos programas de higiene pré-natal e da criança, implantados entre as décadas de 1940 e 1960. Para os sanitaristas, o treinamento e controle das parteiras curiosas atuantes nas comunidades rurais brasileiras eram importantes para o sucesso do projeto de implantação de serviços sanitários locais de assistência materno-infantil. Ao atuar diretamente junto às parteiras curiosas, pretendia-se não somente lhes impor rigorosos padrões higiênicos na realização de partos e nos cuidados com os recém-nascidos, mas, sobretudo, recorrer a sua influência e seu prestígio naquelas comunidades para popularizar ações de saneamento.The article addresses an endeavor by Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Sesp to train folk midwives who worked in rural communities and to exercise control over these women's activities. The task was entrusted to the agency's prenatal and child hygiene programs, established between the 1940s and 1960s. The agency believed this training and control initiative would be of major importance in helping ensure the success of its project to establish local sanitary services offering mother-child assistance. The goal of working directly with the folk midwives was not only to force them to employ strict hygiene standards when delivering and caring for newborns but especially to use their influence and prestige within these communities to convince the general population to adopt good health practices.

  19. Verbal Modeling Behavior in Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses an alternate method of examining the verbal interaction of mothers and their children in dyadic communication. The behavior of both mothers and children differed significantly according to the ages of the children involved. Acta Symbolica, 807 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38105. Subscription Rates: annually, $12.00 individuals,…

  20. Observing Iranian Mother-Child Interaction in a Playing Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیده زارع

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in the fields of culture and parenting in recent years have shown that parent’s goals and values of parenting lead to differences in their parental behaviors. This study was designed to observe Iranian mothers’ interaction with their children in a playing situation. This study was a qualitative study in which 30 pairs of mothers and children (15 girls and 15 boys were selected purposely. To observe the parent-child interaction, a playing situation was designed and recorded by video camera. Observational data were analyzed based on qualitative analysis methods. Through coding and categorizing the observed data of the parent-child interaction, verbal (positive, negative and facilitator and nonverbal (positive, negative and communicative behavioral patterns were extracted and named by the investigator. Based on scoring the determined codes, facilitator verbal behaviors and negative nonverbal behaviors were the most frequent. The mothers’ behavior that facilitated child’s playing process and diminished child’s practical and mental activities were named facilitator behaviors, and were the most frequent among Iranian mothers. Based on the same previous research, Iranian mothers’ parenting behaviors are similar to those of Japanese, Chinese and Latin mothers rather than American, British and Australian mothers.

  1. Sexuality, mother-child health and infectious diseases.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Welcome to this September 2017 issue of African Health. Sciences. We have three main ... cigarette smoke condensate attenuates phobol ester-me- diated neutrophil extracellular trap ... E, Ongolo-Zogo P, et al. Assessment of ...

  2. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  3. Evidence of mother-child transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar,Mario Luis; Kawakami,Elisabete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomical status is a major risk factor for natural acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in developing countries. Its transmission route is unknown but studies suggest person-to-person transmission. AIM: To evaluate seropositivity of anti-H. pylori antibodies in family members of infected symptomatic index patients as compared to family members of symptomatic uninfected index patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve family members of 38 ...

  4. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Chisholm

    Full Text Available Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation and dyadic (joint attention and warmth behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical

  5. Interpersonal Engagement Mediates the Relation between Maternal Affect and Externalising Behaviour in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  6. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scott Schechter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal Violence-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis, characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother-child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12-42 months participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother-child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother-child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress

  8. The relation of mothers' controlling vocalizations to children's intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Driver, R E; Hotchkiss, L; Robbins, R J; Wilson, I M

    1993-04-01

    Twenty-six mother-child dyads played together in a laboratory setting. Play sessions were surreptitiously videotaped (with mothers' permission), and each maternal vocalization was transcribed and coded, first into 1 of 24 categories and then ipso facto into one of three supercategories--namely, controlling, autonomy supportive, and neutral. The degree of mothers' controllingness was calculated as the percentage of vocalizations coded as controlling. This index was correlated with the intrinsic motivation of their 6- or 7-year-old children, as assessed primarily by the free-choice behavioral measure and secondarily by a child self-report measure of interest and liking for the task. Both correlations were significantly negative, thereby suggesting that the robust laboratory findings of a negative relation between controlling contexts and individuals' intrinsic motivation are directly generalizable to the domain of parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the processes that undermine intrinsic motivation and the means through which parental controllingness is communicated.

  9. Aggression by Children Exposed to IPV: Exploring the Role of Child Depressive Symptoms, Trauma-Related Symptoms, & Warmth in Family Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Cameranesi, Margherita

    2018-06-01

    Multi-informant reports of aggression by siblings in families with and without a history of IPV were compared. Associations between aggressive behavior and child depressive and trauma-related symptoms, as well as maternal and sibling warmth were also explored. Mothers, observers and the siblings themselves reported on aggressive behaviour. Mothers reported on child trauma-related symptoms while children provided self-report on depressive symptoms and mother-child and sibling warmth. The frequency of observed aggression did not differ across groups on average, although more sibling dyads exposed to IPV engaged in aggression than those not exposed. Child reports of sibling aggression did not differ across groups but mothers reported significantly less aggressive behavior by children exposed to IPV than those not exposed. Regression results indicated that depressive and trauma-related symptoms were significant risk factors for aggression, while the role of mother-child and sibling warmth was more complex. Results were discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.

  10. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  11. Operacionalização de escala para análise de padrão de mediação materna: um estudo com díades mãe-criança com deficiência visual Scale operationalization for analysis of maternal mediation patterns: a study with mother - child with visual impairment dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Barros da Cunha

    2006-12-01

    inadequate maternal mediation patterns, due to the mother's low expectations of her child's cognitive performance, which are affected by her inadequate comprehension of her child's actual learning limitations and possibilities. Thus, it is essential to asses the mother's mediation patterns using instruments that will result in indicators enabling the analysis of mediation occurring during mother child interaction. Toward this aim, the Mediated Learning Experience (MLE Rate Scale, elaborated by Carol Lidz in 1991, based on the Mediated Learning Experience Theory was adapted and applied. This instrument assesses adult-child interaction, focusing on the adult's mediation behaviors. These behaviors can promote the building of higher expectations as well as a more appropriate mediation pattern of interaction. After translating the MLE Scale into Portuguese, 36 behavioral categories were created to analyze the mother mediation pattern in 4 levels for each of the 12 components of the MLE Scale: intentionality, meaning, transcendence, joint regard, sharing of experiences, task regulation, encouragement, challenge, psychological differentiation, contingent responsiveness, affective involvement. This adapted version was applied to 12 mother-visually impairment children (5-9 years of age dyads; 3 domino games sessions with increasing levels of difficulty were videotaped. The results showed that the adaptation of MLE Scale was useful in the quantitative and qualitative analysis the adult-child interactions in semi-structured learning situations, corroborated by an acceptable agreement rate (77.2%.

  12. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder and were treated initially with citalopram; 33% of mothers experienced remission of depressive symptoms. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 17. Remission of maternal depression was associated with changes in children's reports of their mothers' warmth/acceptance, which in turn partially mediated the relation between maternal depression remission and youth internalizing symptoms, accounting for 22.9% of the variance. PMID:18991123

  14. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did......Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data...

  15. Maternal talk in cognitive development: relations between psychological lexicon, semantic development, empathy and temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores eRollo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between mothers’ psychological lexicon and children’s cognitive and socio-emotive development as assessed through conceptual and semantic understanding tasks, in addition to the traditional tasks of theory of mind. Currently, there is considerable evidence to suggest that the frequency of mothers’ mental state words used in mother-child picture-book reading is linked with children’s theory of mind skills. Furthermore, mothers’ use of cognitive terms is more strongly related to children’s theory of mind performances than the mothers’ references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Rollo, Buttiglieri, 2009. Current literature has established that early maternal input is related to later child mental state understanding; however it has not yet clarified which maternal terms are most useful for the socio-emotional and cognitive development of the child, and which aspect of the cognitive development benefits from the mother-child interaction.The present study addresses this issue and focuses on the relationship between mothers’ mental state talk and children’s behavior in conceptual and semantic tasks, and in a theory of mind task.In this study fifty pairs consisting of mothers and their 3 to 6-year-old children participated in two sessions: (1 The mothers read a picture book to their children. To assess the maternal psychological lexicon, their narrative was codified according to the categories of mental state references used in literature: perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative. (2 After a few days, the conceptual and semantic skills of the children (tasks of contextualization and classification, memory and definition of words and their psychological lexicon were assessed.The results suggest close links between the frequency and variety of mothers’ mental state words and some semantic and conceptual skills of children.

  16. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  17. Maternal discussions of mental states and behaviors: relations to emotion situation knowledge in European American and immigrant Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the United States. Mothers and children read a storybook together at home, and children's ESK was assessed. Results showed that European American mothers made more references to thoughts and emotions during storytelling than did Chinese mothers, who commented more frequently on behaviors. Regardless of culture, mothers' use of mental states language predicted children's ESK, whereas their references to behaviors were negatively related to children's ESK. Finally, mothers' emphasis on mental states over behaviors partially mediated cultural effects on children's ESK. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Deep-Coverage MPS Analysis of Heteroplasmic Variants within the mtGenome Allows for Frequent Differentiation of Maternal Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell M. Holland

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between maternal relatives through mitochondrial (mt DNA sequence analysis has been a longstanding desire of the forensic community. Using a deep-coverage, massively parallel sequencing (DCMPS approach, we studied the pattern of mtDNA heteroplasmy across the mtgenomes of 39 mother-child pairs of European decent; haplogroups H, J, K, R, T, U, and X. Both shared and differentiating heteroplasmy were observed on a frequent basis in these closely related maternal relatives, with the minor variant often presented as 2–10% of the sequencing reads. A total of 17 pairs exhibited differentiating heteroplasmy (44%, with the majority of sites (76%, 16 of 21 occurring in the coding region, further illustrating the value of conducting sequence analysis on the entire mtgenome. A number of the sites of differentiating heteroplasmy resulted in non-synonymous changes in protein sequence (5 of 21, and to changes in transfer or ribosomal RNA sequences (5 of 21, highlighting the potentially deleterious nature of these heteroplasmic states. Shared heteroplasmy was observed in 12 of the 39 mother-child pairs (31%, with no duplicate sites of either differentiating or shared heteroplasmy observed; a single nucleotide position (16093 was duplicated between the data sets. Finally, rates of heteroplasmy in blood and buccal cells were compared, as it is known that rates can vary across tissue types, with similar observations in the current study. Our data support the view that differentiating heteroplasmy across the mtgenome can be used to frequently distinguish maternal relatives, and could be of interest to both the medical genetics and forensic communities.

  19. Infant attachment and toddlers' sleep assessed by maternal reports and actigraphy: different measurement methods yield different relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Carrier, Julie

    2013-06-01

    To investigate relations between children's attachment and sleep, using objective and subjective sleep measures. Secondarily, to identify the most accurate actigraphy algorithm for toddlers. 55 mother-child dyads took part in the Strange Situation Procedure (18 months) to assess attachment. At 2 years, children wore an Actiwatch for a 72-hr period, and their mothers completed a sleep diary. The high sensitivity (80) and smoothed actigraphy algorithms provided the most plausible sleep data. Maternal diaries yielded longer estimated sleep duration and shorter wake duration at night and showed poor agreement with actigraphy. More resistant attachment behavior was not associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep, but was associated with longer nocturnal wake duration as estimated by mothers, and with a reduced actigraphy-diary discrepancy. Mothers of children with resistant attachment are more aware of their child's nocturnal awakenings. Researchers and clinicians should select the best sleep measurement method for their specific needs.

  20. Seven- to nine-year-old children's own assessment of health-related quality of life is important in preventing overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    . We assessed HRQOL by the children's self-report and parent proxy report module of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. We found that non-overweight children scored HRQOL slightly higher than overweight ones but significantly higher than did obese children. The same pattern was seen for the mothers......The aim was to study how, and to what degree, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as assessed by children and their mothers, was related to overweight and obesity among children aged seven to nine years. Mother-child pairs of 149 non-overweight, 95 overweight and 16 obese children participated......, there is a need for information of mothers/parents about the impact of overweight and obesity on children's HRQOL. Such intervention by health professionals may among other interventions help to prevent and reduce overweight and obesity among children and thus help to increase the children's HRQOL throughout...

  1. Biases in Quality Attribution to Mother-Child and Caregiver-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpancer, Noam; Britner, Preston A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the possible existence, direction, and nature of subconscious, cognitive biases in participants' quality attributions to maternal and nonmaternal child-care interactions, the relationship of such biases to subject's background, and their attitudes toward child care and maternal employment. Potential explanations for the biases and the…

  2. Maternal Beliefs as Long-Term Predictors of Mother-Child Interaction and Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    1990-01-01

    Two kinds of parental beliefs, endorsed rearing philosophy (authoritative-authoritarian dimension) and affective attitude toward child (positive-negative affect dimension), were examined in 20 normal and 36 depressed mothers as long-term predictors of child rearing behaviors and interaction patterns with their children. (BC)

  3. Early Childhood Family Structure and Mother-Child Interactions: Variation by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2010-01-01

    With data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 6,449), a nationally representative sample of births in 2001, we used hierarchical linear modeling to analyze differences in observed interactions between married, cohabiting, never-married, and divorced mothers and their children. In contrast to previous studies, we…

  4. Dental and periodontal health and treatment needs in a mother/child rural Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Del Valle, Lydia M

    2010-03-01

    Oral research directed toward the maternal and child dyads is important because mothers are a source of dental caries pathogens and are the health behavior managers and trainers of children. The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the oral health status of the mothers in a sample of 100 children aged 12 to 60 months from a rural community in Puerto Rico, and 2) to compare the children with their mothers' oral health status. A sample of 71 women and 100 of their children, (Mean Age = 28.8 years +/- 9.0, and 36.41 mos +/- 18.2, respectively) were evaluated for DMFT/S and periodontal health or deft/s. A NIDCR calibrated dentist performed all dental evaluations of children and mothers utilizing NIDCR criteria. Descriptive statistics were produced. Mothers' bleeding point prevalence in at least one site was 63%; prevalence of at least one site with pocket depth of 4 to 6 mm was 37 %. Calculus prevalence was, no calculus 25%, supragingival calculus 56.7%, subgingival calculus 2.2%, supra and sub gingival calculus 16.3%. Mean Dental Indices for mothers were DMFS (16.51 -/+ 0.02), DMFT (12.20 +/- 6.76), Caries (2.93 +/- 2.86), Filling (7.07 +/- 8.76), Missing (2.93 +/- 4.53). Children's Mean Dental Indices were defs (4.32 +/- 9.7), deft (2.30 +/- 4.0), decalcifications lesions (1.36 +/-1.9), caries (1.96 +/- 3.2) and surfaces caries (3.81 +/- 8.68), fillings (0.22 +/- 0.83) and extracted teeth (0.043 +/- 0.45). Significant levels of treated and untreated caries and gingival disease were observed in this sample. The importance for primary and secondary prevention, as well as treatment for periodontal and dental disease, in rural Puerto Rican communities is evident from this investigation.

  5. Emotional Disclosure through Journal Writing: Telehealth Intervention for Maternal Stress and Mother-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rondalyn V.; Smith, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines emotional disclosure through the activity of journaling as a means of coping with maternal stress associated with parenting a child with disruptive behaviors. Through a randomized control and pre-test post-test study design of an online journal writing intervention, change to maternal stress and quality of mother-child…

  6. Mother-child health in Lacor-South Sudan (IMCHA) | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The researchers will explore strategies for improved maternal care and child nutrition services, cervical cancer screening, and support for women's empowerment through outreach efforts from the two hospitals. Research findings will be validated through ministries of health at the local, district, and national levels to optimize ...

  7. The study of the mother-child binomium: description and general results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the characteristics of women during pregnancy/immediate postpartum cycles and the product of their pregnancy.METHOD: Data collection was conducted for a period of three months in 2011, in six maternity hospitals in the State of São Paulo. The data were obtained in an interview with the women after the end of the pregnancy and collected from hospital records. The sample included 7,058 women hospitalized for abortion or childbirth in five hospitals from SUS (Unified Health System and from only one hospital for private health insurance patients and their 6,602 conceptuses (live births and stillborns. Statistical analysis was based on χ2 tests, with a significance level of α = 5%.RESULTS: It was observed that 6,530 women gave birth and 528 showed interruption of pregnancy. Regarding age, 1,448 were teenagers (20.5%. There were no deaths during hospitalization and 99.8% of women received a medical discharge. Maternal morbidity in the current pregnancy was analyzed, showing urinary tract infection, anemia and excessive vomiting as the main problems. The rate of cesarean sections accounted for 31.1% and complications in childbirth and postpartum were shown, respectively, by 834 (12.8% and 265 (4.1% women. The characteristics of the conceptuses were also studied: gestation length (9.3% of preterm among live births, and 68% among the stillborn; birth weight (underweight in 8.2% among live births, and 66% among the stillborn and morbidity, measured by congenital anomalies and other diseases; these diseases were responsible for ICU stay, transfers to better-equipped hospitals (10 cases and 37 deaths. Thirteen live births were still hospitalized at the end of the investigation.

  8. Mother-Child Reminiscing and Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E.; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the…

  9. Gestural Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…

  10. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Dynamics, and Mother-Child Interactions During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C

    2018-03-01

    The rising number of parents who work nonstandard schedules has led to a growing body of research concerned with what this trend means for children. The negative outcomes for children of parents who work nonstandard schedules are thought to arise from the disruptions these schedules place on family life, and thus, the types of parenting that support their children's development, particularly when children are young. Using a nationally representative sample of two-parent families (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort, n = 3,650), this study examined whether mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' parenting when children were 2 and 4 years old. Structural equation models revealed that mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' lower scores on measures of positive and involved parenting. These associations were mediated by fathers' lower levels of participation in cognitively supportive parenting and greater imbalance in cognitively supportive tasks conducted by mothers versus fathers.

  11. Transactional Patterns of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Mother-Child Mutual Negativity in an Adoption Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roben, Caroline K. P.; Moore, Ginger A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Molenaar, Peter; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models of analysis can examine both moment-to-moment interactions within a dyad and dyadic patterns of influence across time. This study used data from a prospective adoption study to test a transactional model of parental depressive symptoms and mutual negativity between mother and child over time, utilizing contingency analysis of…

  12. Mother-child conversations about safety: implications for socializing safety values in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth E; Plumert, Jodie M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how mothers socialize their children about safety through conversations about potentially unsafe activities. Mothers and their 8- and 10-year-old children discussed and rated the safety of 12 photographs depicting another same-gender child engaged in potentially dangerous activities. Conversations usually unfolded with children giving the first rating or rationale, followed by additional discussion between the mother and child. Mothers and children relied on 2 main types of rationales to justify their ratings: potential outcomes of the activity and specific features of the situation (dangerous and nondangerous). Mothers (but not children) used dangerous feature rationales more often than dangerous outcome rationales. When disagreements arose, mothers typically guided children to adopt their own rating rather than the child's rating. Additionally, children who used more nondangerous feature and outcome rationales had experienced more injuries requiring medical attention. Mothers' focus on dangerous features appears to reflect their efforts to help children make causal connections between dangerous elements of the situation and adverse outcomes that might result.

  13. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  14. Efficacy of a Latino Mother-Child Communication Intervention in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  16. Cultivating American- and Japanese-Style Relatedness through Mother-Child Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether European American and Japanese mothers' speech to preschoolers contained exchange- and alignment-oriented structures that reflect and possibly support culture-specific models of self-other relatedness. In each country 12 mothers were observed in free play with their 3-year-olds. Maternal speech was coded for…

  17. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  18. Bullying, Victimization, School Performance, and Mother-Child Relationship Quality: Direct and Transactional Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas A. Fanti; Stelios N. Georgiou

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation examines longitudinal differences between bullies, victims, and bully victims in terms of the quality of their relationship with their parents and school performance. We also investigate the transactional association between the quality of the parent-child relationship and bullying behavior, after taking into account the longitudinal association among bullying, victimization, and school performance. The sample consisted of 895 mothers and their children who participa...

  19. Mothering from Prison: Using Narratives in a Mother-Child Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Betty Chamness

    2009-01-01

    Incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women who participated in the Storybook Project of Iowa told passionate stories of how their understanding of mothering had changed. They spoke of how the Storybook Project strengthened their mothering practices and relationships with their children and families. This study was an opportunity for reflection…

  20. Mother-child emotion dialogues in families exposed to interparental violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Margreet; Overbeek, Mathilde M.; De Schipper, J. Clasien; Schoemaker, Kim; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the hypothesis that parent–child emotion dialogues among interparental violence (IPV) exposed dyads (n = 30; 4–12 years) show less quality than dialogues among nonexposed dyads (n = 30; 4–12 years). Second, we examined whether parental posttraumatic stress

  1. The Influence of Race/Ethnicity on Disadvantaged Mothers' Child Care Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radey, Melissa; Brewster, Karin L.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study [Reichman, N., Teitler, J., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. (2001). The fragile families and child wellbeing study: Sample and design. "Children and Youth Services Review, 23", 303-326] to describe primary child care arrangements of employed, predominantly low-income mothers…

  2. Mother-Child Emotional Availability in Ecological Perspective: Three Countries, Two Regions, Two Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Heslington, Marianne; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Giusti, Zeno; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2008-01-01

    This study used a cross-national framework to examine country, region, and gender differences in emotional availability (EA), a prominent index of mutual socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Altogether 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. mothers and their daughters and sons from both rural and metropolitan areas took part in home…

  3. Attachment and amae: a comparative study of mother-child close relationships in Japan and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory addresses the young child’s biological and psychological need to elicit their mother’s protection and care, and seeks to explain the emotional bond that forms between them in the early years of life. Several researchers have pointed out that the Western concept of attachment might be less relevant for Japanese parent-child dyads because Japanese child-rearing ideals are based on the concept of ‘amae’ (emotional one-ness between mother and child), whereas attac...

  4. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r = 0.42, P children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Prenatal and newborn immunoglobulin levels from mother-child pairs and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Croen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. An etiological role for immune factors operating during early brain development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD has not yet been established. A major obstacle has been the lack of early biologic specimens that can be linked to later diagnosis. In a prior study, we found lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of maternally-derived total IgG and Toxoplasmosis gondii (Toxo IgG in newborn blood spot specimens from children later diagnosed with ASD compared to population controls.Methods. We obtained maternal mid-gestational serum specimens and newborn screening blood spots from the California Genetics Disease Screening Program (GDSP for linked mother-baby pairs for 84 children with ASD and 49 children with developmental delay but not ASD (DD identified from California Department of Developmental Services records and for 159 population controls sampled from birth certificates. Immunoglobulin levels in maternal and newborn specimens were measured by solid phase immunoassays and analyzed in logistic regression models for total IgG, total IgM, and Toxo IgG, and, for maternal specimens only, Toxo IgM. Correlations between maternal and newborn ranked values were evaluated.Results. In both maternal and newborn specimens, we found significantly lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of Toxo IgG. In addition, point estimates for all comparisons were <1.0 suggesting an overall pattern of lower immunoglobulin levels associated with higher ASD risk but most did not reach statistical significance. We did not find differences in maternal or newborn specimens comparing children with DD to controls. Discussion. These results are consistent with evidence from our prior study and other published reports indicating that immune factors during early neurodevelopment may be etiologically relevant to ASD. Lowered immunoglobulin levels may represent suboptimal function of the maternal immune system or reduced maternal exposure to common infectious agents. Conclusion. Patterns seen in these selected immunoglobulins may provide clues to mechanisms of early abnormalities in neurodevelopment contributing to ASD. We recommend further study of immunoglobulin profiles in larger samples of linked mother-baby pairs to evaluate possible etiologic relevance.

  6. Mother-child health in Lacor-South Sudan (IMCHA) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the District of Gulu, the burden of disease has largely been managed through St. ... a seven year, $CA36 million multi-donor partnership funded by Global Affairs ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows! ... There is no doubt that Canada is tying its future growth prospects to Asia.

  7. The ontogeny of an idea: John Bowlby and contemporaries on mother-child separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, Renée

    2010-02-01

    In this contribution, the authors situate the development of Bowlby's attachment theory against the background of the social, cultural, and scientific developments in interbellum Britain. It is shown that fairly early in his life Bowlby adopted one fundamental idea-that an infant primarily needs a warm and loving mother, and that separations from the mother are potentially damaging-and never substantially changed that basic notion in later years. Bowlby's first and foremost goal-and his lifelong undertaking-was to convince certain others (e.g., orthodox psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, clinicians, and medical doctors) of the importance of this idea by theorizing and gathering empirical evidence. Bowlby's view of mother love deprivation as the main source of maladjusted behavior was at variance with the views of many practitioners and theorists, but it was by no means fully novel and original. The authors show that Bowlby took inspiration from various persons and groups in British society with whom he shared basically similar views.

  8. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  9. Incentivando o vínculo mãe-filho em situação de prematuridade: as intervenções de enfermagem no Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto Incentivando el vínculo madre-hijo en situación de prematuridad: las intervenciones de enfermería en el Hospital de las Clínicas de la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto Encouraging mother-child attachment in prematurity situations: nursing interventions at the Ribeirão Preto Clinical Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2003-08-01

    hospitalizados. Consideramos que nuestra experiencia favoreció el establecimiento del vinculo y apego madre-hijo y familia, resultando en una mayor interacción de la familia con el bebe, en especial, de la madre, y mayor interés en el aprendizaje de sus cuidados, además de la satisfacción manifestada por la atención recibida.This study aims at describing nursing actions performed in the high-risk neonatal units at a university hospital of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto so as to favor mother-child attachment in prematurity situations. The nurse accompanies parents in their first visit, giving them support as well as information concerning the equipment surrounding the newborn and encouraging skin-to-skin contact, touching and talking. Parents' access to and staying with high-risk newborns is permanently allowed. A visiting program by grandparents and siblings of pre-term newborns was implemented, even when under intensive care, which encourages family contact. Parents participate in a support group with other parents who experienced the situation of having their pre-term children in serious conditions and hospitalized. We consider that our experience has favored the establishment of mother-child and family attachment, observing greater interaction between the family and the newborn, particular involving the mother. Greater interest in learning about care as well as satisfaction concerning the assistance received have also been expressed by families.

  10. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, Taufiq; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Hemat, Shafiqullah; Watanabe, Masafumi; Seino, Kaoruko

    2008-08-29

    The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1) family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2) war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5%) and acute respiratory infection (41.0%) were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4%) and linear growth retardation (39.9%) were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1%) was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40), and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90); a lack of education of the mother (71.7%) and child marriage of the mothers (18.3%) were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.40, 2.41; odds

  11. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1 family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2 war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. Methods The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. Results A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5% and acute respiratory infection (41.0% were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4% and linear growth retardation (39.9% were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1% was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40, and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90; a lack of education of the mother (71.7% and child marriage of the mothers (18.3% were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1

  12. The Medium is the Message: Pictures and Objects Evoke Distinct Conceptual Relations in Parent-Child Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kleinberg, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    An important developmental task is learning to organize experience by forming conceptual relations among entities (e.g., a lion and a snake can be linked because both are animals; a lion and a cage can be linked because the lion lives in the cage). We propose that representational medium (i.e., pictures vs. objects) plays an important role in influencing which relations children consider. Prior work has demonstrated that pictures more readily evoke broader categories, whereas objects more readily call attention to specific individuals. We therefore predicted that pictures would encourage taxonomic and shared-property relations, whereas objects would encourage thematic and slot-filler relations. We observed 32 mother-child dyads (M child ages = 2.9 and 4.3) playing with pictures and objects, and identified utterances in which they made taxonomic, thematic, shared-property, or slot-filler links between items. The results confirmed our predictions and thus support representational medium as an important factor that influences the conceptual relations expressed during dyadic conversations. PMID:24273367

  13. The testing effect for mediator final test cues and related final test cues in online and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Leonora C; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Rikers, Remy M J P

    2016-05-31

    The testing effect is the finding that information that is retrieved during learning is more often correctly retrieved on a final test than information that is restudied. According to the semantic mediator hypothesis the testing effect arises because retrieval practice of cue-target pairs (mother-child) activates semantically related mediators (father) more than restudying. Hence, the mediator-target (father-child) association should be stronger for retrieved than restudied pairs. Indeed, Carpenter (2011) found a larger testing effect when participants received mediators (father) than when they received target-related words (birth) as final test cues. The present study started as an attempt to test an alternative account of Carpenter's results. However, it turned into a series of conceptual (Experiment 1) and direct (Experiment 2 and 3) replications conducted with online samples. The results of these online replications were compared with those of similar existing laboratory experiments through small-scale meta-analyses. The results showed that (1) the magnitude of the raw mediator testing effect advantage is comparable for online and laboratory experiments, (2) in both online and laboratory experiments the magnitude of the raw mediator testing effect advantage is smaller than in Carpenter's original experiment, and (3) the testing effect for related cues varies considerably between online experiments. The variability in the testing effect for related cues in online experiments could point toward moderators of the related cue short-term testing effect. The raw mediator testing effect advantage is smaller than in Carpenter's original experiment.

  14. Relations Among Maternal Life Satisfaction, Shared Activities, and Child Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Richter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal well-being is assumed to be associated with well-being of individual family members, optimal parenting practices, and positive developmental outcomes for children. The objective of this study was to examine the interplay between maternal well-being, parent-child activities, and the well-being of 5- to 7-year-old children. In a sample of N = 291 mother-child dyads, maternal life satisfaction, the frequency of shared parent-child activities, as well as children’s self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary were assessed using several methods. Data were collected in a special study of the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, a representative longitudinal survey of private households in Germany. Using structural equation modeling, significant positive direct and indirect relations between maternal life satisfaction, frequency of shared parent-child activities, children’s self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary were found. The more satisfied the mother was, the more she shared activities with her child and the more the child acted prosocially. Furthermore, the higher the frequency of shared parent-child activities, the higher the child scored in all three analyzed indicators of children’s well-being: self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary. The current study supports the assumption of maternal well-being as the basis of positive parenting practices and child well-being.

  15. Mother-Toddler Affect Exchanges and Children's Mastery Behaviours during Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Morgan, George A.; Biringen, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relations of mother-child affect exchanges at 18?months with children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Observation and questionnaire data were collected from mother-child dyads when children were 18?months; 43 mothers again rated their children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Results suggested…

  16. The Influence of Parental Control and Parent-Child Relational Qualities on Adolescent Internet Addiction: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated how parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities predicted the initial level and rate of change in adolescent internet addiction (IA) across the junior high school years. The study also investigated the concurrent and longitudinal effects of different parenting factors on adolescent IA. Starting from the 2009/2010 academic year, 3,328 Grade 7 students ( M age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years) from 28 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong responded on a yearly basis to a questionnaire measuring multiple constructs including socio-demographic characteristics, perceived parenting characteristics, and IA. Individual growth curve (IGC) analyses showed that adolescent IA slightly decreased during junior high school years. While behavioral control of both parents was negatively related to the initial level of adolescent IA, only paternal behavioral control showed a significant positive relationship with the rate of linear change in IA, suggesting that higher paternal behavioral control predicted a slower decrease in IA. In addition, fathers' and mothers' psychological control was positively associated with the initial level of adolescent IA, but increase in maternal psychological control predicted a faster drop in IA. Finally, parent-child relational qualities negatively and positively predicted the initial level and the rate of change in IA, respectively. When all parenting factors were considered simultaneously, multiple regression analyses revealed that paternal behavioral control and psychological control as well as maternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality were significant concurrent predictors of adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. Regarding the longitudinal predicting effects, paternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality at Wave 1 were the two most robust predictors of later adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. The above findings underscore

  17. The Influence of Parental Control and Parent-Child Relational Qualities on Adolescent Internet Addiction: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities predicted the initial level and rate of change in adolescent internet addiction (IA across the junior high school years. The study also investigated the concurrent and longitudinal effects of different parenting factors on adolescent IA. Starting from the 2009/2010 academic year, 3,328 Grade 7 students (Mage = 12.59 ± 0.74 years from 28 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong responded on a yearly basis to a questionnaire measuring multiple constructs including socio-demographic characteristics, perceived parenting characteristics, and IA. Individual growth curve (IGC analyses showed that adolescent IA slightly decreased during junior high school years. While behavioral control of both parents was negatively related to the initial level of adolescent IA, only paternal behavioral control showed a significant positive relationship with the rate of linear change in IA, suggesting that higher paternal behavioral control predicted a slower decrease in IA. In addition, fathers' and mothers' psychological control was positively associated with the initial level of adolescent IA, but increase in maternal psychological control predicted a faster drop in IA. Finally, parent-child relational qualities negatively and positively predicted the initial level and the rate of change in IA, respectively. When all parenting factors were considered simultaneously, multiple regression analyses revealed that paternal behavioral control and psychological control as well as maternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality were significant concurrent predictors of adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. Regarding the longitudinal predicting effects, paternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality at Wave 1 were the two most robust predictors of later adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. The above

  18. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495

  20. [Impact of maternal HIV status on family constructions and the infant's relational environment during the perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, N; Courcoux, M-F; Tabone, M-D; Leverger, G; Dollfus, C

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether maternal HIV-positive status negatively affects family construction and the child's psychological environment. Could this be responsible for behavioral problems observed in children infected with or affected by HIV? Interviews were conducted with 60 HIV+ mothers and their infants during the perinatal period, within 3 months of delivery, collected at the time of a pediatric outpatient visit within a PMTCT program. Half of the 60 mothers did not live with the infant's father, 56% of multiparous mothers were separated from their previous children. Sixty-five percent of the fathers were informed of the mother's HIV-positive status, although 90% of fathers who lived with the mothers were informed. During pregnancy, 80% of mothers reported psychological stress; after delivery, 72% of mothers suffered from not being allowed to breastfeed their infants, 43.5% expressed a fear of transmitting the infection to the child, and 40% avoided contacts with the infant. The impact of the mother's psychological stress and anxiety related to the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding and casual contacts were already noticeable in the first mother-child interrelations. Although the risk of MTC transmission in now very small, psychological troubles related to maternal HIV status may negatively affect the children's well-being and behavior, psychological support should be provided for mothers and children as part of comprehensive services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. General and food-selection specific parenting style in relation to the healthfulness of parent-child choices while grocery shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Graham, Dan J; Ullrich, Emily; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen. Participants were 153 parent (88 mothers) - child (6-9 years old) dyads. Dyads were brought to a laboratory set up like a grocery store aisle and asked to choose two items from each of three categories (cookies/crackers, cereals, chips/snacks). Parents were observed in terms of warmth, responsiveness, autonomy granting, and limit setting; children were observed in terms of resistance and negotiation. Parents reported behaviors related to general parenting. Regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Observed parental limit setting was related to general parenting style; observed warmth was not. Observed limit setting (but not observed warmth or self-reported parenting style) was related to the healthfulness of food choices. Limit setting appears to be the dimension of parenting style that is expressed during grocery shopping, and that promotes healthier food choices. Implications are discussed regarding consistencies in parenting style across situations as well as contributions of parenting style to the development of children's healthy eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Accidents and Incidents Related to Intravenous Drug Administration: A Pre-Post Study Following Implementation of Smart Pumps in a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Aurélie; Tourel, Julien; Delage, Emmanuelle; Duval, Stéphanie; David, Marie-Johanne; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Smart pumps are expected to prevent and reduce medication errors. The implementation of smart pumps requires a significant effort and collaboration of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other stakeholders. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of new smart pumps on reported drug-related accidents and incidents (AIs). This is a descriptive retrospective pre-post study conducted at a women's and pediatric hospital with 500 beds. A strong multidisciplinary team (nurse, pharmacist, pharmacy resident, physician, biomedical technician, information technology technician, patient safety officer, manager) was involved in the planning, implementation, and monitoring technology implementation. A total of 1045 smart pumps were implemented in 2011 in our hospital. The reported number of AIs related to intravenous drug administration (AIIV) before and after the implementation of 1045 smart pumps were collected. A total of 2911 AI events related to medications, devices, and equipment were self-reported by clinical staff in the pre-phase (Y0), 3523 in the post-phase (Y1), and 2788 in the post-phase (Y2). The total AIIV increased from 1432 in Y0 to 1834 in Y1 and decreased to 1389 in Y2. We observed no risk reduction associated with the implementation of smart pumps in a 500 bed mother-child hospital. Further studies are required to explore the details of the potential risk reduction associated with the use of smart pumps.

  3. The relations among child negative interactive behavior, child temperament, and maternal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior

  4. Development and validation of the Computerized Family Relation Test (CFRT for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eSkoczeń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child’s perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice, and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgement, and Trust within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT developed by Oud and Welzen (1989. The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child’s parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17, took part in this study. The CFRT’s reliability was assessed by McDonald’s omega coefficients, and ranged from .71 to .86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability.57 for mothers’ ratings and .56 for fathers’ ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of .71 compared to mother-child relationships of .67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children’s assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child’s ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child’s gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.

  5. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H L; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child's parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT's reliability was assessed by McDonald's omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers' ratings and 0.56 for fathers' ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children's assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child's ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child's gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.

  6. Developmental inter-relations between early maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress, and their effect on later child cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Dumontheil, Iroise; Barker, Edward D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study. Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents were the study participants. Mothers reported on depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress between pregnancy and 33 months child age. At age 8, the children underwent cognitive assessments and the mothers reported on the children's social cognitive skills. Maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress showed strong continuity and developmental inter-relatedness. Maternal depression and contextual risks directly predicted a range of child outcomes, including executive functions and social cognitive skills. Interpersonal stress worked indirectly via maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect child outcomes. Maternal depression and contextual risks each increased interpersonal stress in the household, which, in turn, contributed to reduced child cognitive and social functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  8. FROM THE MOUTHS OF BABES. . . AND MOMS - An Analysis of Mother-Child Interaction: Focus on the Mothers’ Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corazon Aspeli-Castro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed the important role of adult input in the development of children’s communicative competence. The results of the investigation showed that mothers asked more questions that were meant to gauge the children’s linguistic and cognitive development. The mothers also used a variety of verbal and nonverbal communication strategies and techniques (i.e.,repetition, extension, expansion, preformulation, reformulation, gestural support, use of deixis, and contingent queries that help the children develop their pragmatic skills such as turn-taking, initiating, maintaining and closing conversations, noticing and responding to nonverbal features of the interaction, observing conversational principles and knowing how to respond to questions. In addition, this study also showed that the mothers’ discourse styles strongly influenced the quality of responses from children. Variation in speech style often signaled to the children important aspects of the context which needed to be considered before formulating a response.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  10. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Jeanette Kolstrup Søgaard; Mørck, Thit Aarøe

    2013-01-01

    products such as parabens (MeP, EtP and n-PrP), benzophenone-3, triclosan and diethyl phthalate. However, a very high correlation between mothers and their children was observed for all chemicals. A high individual exposure to one chemical was often associated with a high exposure to other of the chemicals...

  11. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and anogenital distance at 3 months of age in a Danish mother-child cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Priskorn, Lærke; Lassen, Tina Harmer

    2017-01-01

    circumferences and gestational age were determined. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the anus to the genital organs, and penile width were measured 3 months after expected date of birth in 511 children. PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA were associated with a decreased AGD in girls (p-trend

  12. Mother-Child Interaction and Prosocial Development in Toddlers: A Multivariate Study Using the Living Systems Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Christi A. C.

    The Living Systems Framework was used to generate four categories of parent behaviors that might affect processes responsible for eliciting prosocial behavior in children: (1) teaching values, rules, and standards; (2) providing opportunities for rehearsal and mastery; (3) providing opportunities for self-regulation and self-control; and (4)…

  13. Randomized Controlled Comparison of Two Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for Obese Children: Mother versus Mother-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Munsch, Simone; Roth, Binia; Michael, Tanja; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Biedert, Esther; Roth, Sandra; Speck, Vanessa; Zumsteg, Urs; Isler, Emanuel; Margraf, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parent-child treatments have been shown to be superior to child-focused treatments of childhood obesity. Yet until now, the comparative effectiveness of parent-only and parent-child approaches has been little studied. METHOD: Fifty-six obese children and their families were randomly assigned to a 16-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the parents only or for a combined treatment of parents and children. Children's percent overweight, the body mass index of their mothers...

  14. Difference in mother-child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Schuengel, Carlo; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Kok, Joke H.; Houtzager, Bregje A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate differences in the quality of motherchild interaction between preterm- and term-born children at age 5, and to study the association of motherchild interaction with sociodemographic characteristics and child disability. Methods: Preterm children (n = 94), born at <30 weeks

  15. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  16. "Este Libro Es Mi Historia": Mother-Child Interactions during Storybook Reading in a Mexican-American Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick

    A study explored the storybook reading experiences between Ms. Garza and her children. A broad conception of the zone of proximal development, involving use, adaptation, and transformation of culturally shaped tools in the process of shared activity, provides the framework for examining this particular Mexican-American family's reading behavior.…

  17. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal conceptions of the parenting role and mother-child collaborative behaviours in at-risk context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, G.; Rodrigo Lopez, M.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Triana, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent mothers' conceptions of the parenting role drive mother–child collaborative behaviour as well as expert ratings on maternal practices. It also investigated whether there is any direct link between mother and child behaviours and expert ratings. Self-report

  19. Mothers' Beliefs about Children's Learning in Hong Kong and the United States: Implications for Mothers' Child-Based Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Lam, Shui-fong

    2013-01-01

    Chinese and American mothers' beliefs about children's learning and parents' role in it were examined using notions salient in Chinese culture. Mothers from Hong Kong ("n" = 66) and the United States ("n" = 69) indicated their endorsement of the ideas that children's learning reflects children's morality, and parents' support…

  20. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  1. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety: Associations with Friendship Skills and Peer Competence of Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Rousseau, Sofie; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the joint and distinct contribution of attachment security and social anxiety to Arab children's peer competence in middle childhood. We focused on Arab children as very little research has examined close relationships for this group. A sample of 404 third-, fourth- and fifth-grade Arabic students (203 boys and…

  2. Folie à Deux – A Clinical Case of Folie Imposée in a Mother/Child Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though the origin of the concept of shared delusion is not consensual, the term folie a deux was introduced in 1877 by two french researchers – Lasègue and Falret. According to the original concept, a person (inductor, cognitively dominant, develops a delusional idea that progressively imposes to a second person (induced, with whom he keeps a close relationship. The four psychopathologic subtypes known – folie imposée, folie simultanée, folie communiquée and folie induite, were described in the final of the XIX century, but its classification and conceptualization was assigned to the american researcher Gralnick (1942. Aim, materials and methods: It is intended to highlight some clinical aspects of the shared delusion disorder, its epidemiological and psycopathogenic characterization and therapeutical approach. In order to achieve it, the authors presented a clinical case report and respective non systematic literature review. Results: It is a case of shared delusion of the type folie imposée in a pair mother/son. The inductor (son suffers from bipolar disorder and asperger syndrome and shared with his mother (induced and carer a persecutory delusion. Conclusions: It is highlighted the importance of a social isolation context and close contact between both members in the genesis of the disease; it is discussed the subject of the cognitive dominance between the inductor and the induced and the implications of the separation of the pair mother/son, as primary therapeutic action.

  3. Folie à Deux – A Clinical Case of Folie Imposée in a Mother/Child Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though the origin of the concept of shared delusion is not consensual, the term folie a deux was introduced in 1877 by two french researchers – Lasègue and Falret. According to the original concept, a person (inductor, cognitively dominant, develops a delusional idea that progressively imposes to a second person (induced, with whom he keeps a close relationship. The four psychopathologic subtypes known – folie imposée, folie simultanée, folie communiquée and folie induite, were described in the final of the XIX century, but its classification and conceptualization was assigned to the american researcher Gralnick (1942. Aim, materials and methods: It is intended to highlight some clinical aspects of the shared delusion disorder, its epidemiological and psycopathogenic characterization and therapeutical approach. In order to achieve it, the authors presented a clinical case report and respective non systematic literature review. Results: It is a case of shared delusion of the type folie imposée in a pair mother/son. The inductor (son suffers from bipolar disorder and asperger syndrome and shared with his mother (induced and carer a persecutory delusion. Conclusions: It is highlighted the importance of a social isolation context and close contact between both members in the genesis of the disease; it is discussed the subject of the cognitive dominance between the inductor and the induced and the implications of the separation of the pair mother/son, as primary therapeutic action.

  4. Factors influencing mother-child reports of depressive symptoms and agreement among clinically referred depressed youngsters in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Eniko; Gentzler, Amy M; George, Charles; Kapornai, Krisztina; Tamás, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Maria; Vetró, Agnes

    2007-06-01

    Psychiatric assessments of children typically involve two informants, the child and the parent. Understanding discordance in their reports has been of interest to clinicians and researchers. We examine differences between mothers' and children's report of children's depressive symptom severity, and factors that may influence their reports and level of agreement. We hypothesized that agreement between mother and child would improve if (1) the mother is depressed, due to improved recall of mood congruent symptoms, (2) the child is older, due to better social-cognitive and communication skills, and (3) the child is a female. Subjects were 354 children (158 girls; mean age 11.69 years, SD: 2.05 years) with Major Depressive Disorder. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by a semi-structured interview separately with the mother and the child. Agreement on symptom severity was based on concordance of the presence and extent of symptoms. Maternal reports were significantly higher than their son's but not daughters'. Girls, particularly with increasing age, reported higher levels of symptoms; however mothers' reports were not affected by child sex or age. Maternal depression predicted more severe symptom reports for both children and mothers. Agreement between the mother and the child increased as children got older. The same clinician interviewed the mother and the child, which might inflate rates of agreement. However, this method mirrors clinical evaluation. During a clinical interview one must consider the age and sex of the child and the depressive state of the mother in assimilating information about the child.

  5. Mother-Child Interactions and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschoolers over Time : Inhibitory Control as a Mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Rianne; Dekovic, Maja; Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; Espy, Kimberly A; Matthys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown links between parenting and externalizing behavior problems in young children over time. Associations between inhibitory control, one of the executive functions, and externalizing behavior problems are widely established as well. Yet, the role of inhibitory control in the

  6. Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Christian; Herzog, Sereina Annik; Jakse, Heidelinde; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-08-18

    In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45-0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67-0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  7. Predicting the Quality of Mother-Child Reminiscing Surrounding Negative Emotional Events at 42 and 48 Months Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that a number of factors likely predict the quality of reminiscing between preschool children and their mothers. This study was designed to investigate three such factors, including child temperament, maternal personality, and maternal caregiving representations. Seventy mothers and their preschool children were…

  8. Early Full-Time Day Care, Mother-Child Attachment, and Quality of the Home Environment in Chile: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van der Veer, René; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and…

  9. Prenatal exposure to PCB-153, p,p'-DDE and birth outcomes in 9000 mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Martínez, David

    2014-01-01

    Low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) can impair fetal growth; however, the exposure-response relationship and effect modifiers of such association are not well established. This study is an extension of an earlier European me...

  10. Marital Conflict and Adolescents' Peer Aggression: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Mother-Child Emotional Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…

  11. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Jonathan Y.; Armand Martine; Forhan Anne; De Agostini Maria; Charles Marie-Aline; Heude Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor...

  12. Beyond an Assumed Mother-Child Symbiosis in Nutritional Guidelines: The Everyday Reasoning behind Complementary Feeding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Researchers question the implications of the way in which "motherhood" is constructed in public health discourse. Current nutritional guidelines for Danish parents of young children are part of this discourse. They are shaped by an assumed symbiotic relationship between the nutritional needs of the child and the interest and focus of the…

  13. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  14. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: women's education, child immunization, and the importance of context in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Sangeeta

    2005-09-01

    The argument that maternal education is critical for child health is commonplace in academic and policy discourse, although significant facets of the relationship remain empirically and theoretically challenged. While individual-level analyses consistently suggest that maternal education enhances child health outcomes, another body of literature argues that the observed causality at the individual-level may, in fact, be spurious. This study contributes to the debate by examining the contextual effects of women's education on children's immunization in rural districts of India. Multilevel analyses of data from the 1994 Human Development Profile Index and the 1991 district-level Indian Census demonstrate that a positive and significant relationship exists between the proportion of literate females in a district and a child's complete immunization status within that district, above and beyond the child's own mother's education as well as district-level socioeconomic development and healthcare amenities. However, results also indicate that the effect of maternal education cannot be downplayed. Thus, increasing women's literacy at the community level, in addition to mother's access to higher education-such as matriculation and beyond-at the individual-level, emerge as effective developmental tools.

  15. Maternal Scaffolding of Preschoolers' Writing Using Tablet and Paper-Pencil Tasks: Relations with Emergent Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.

    2018-01-01

    Mothers play a key role in scaffolding children's writing using traditional tools, such as paper and pencil. However, little is known about how mothers scaffold young children's writing using touch-screen tablets (e.g., iPads) and the associations between maternal scaffolding and emergent literacy. Mother-child dyads (N = 47; M child…

  16. Maternal Control and Sensitivity, Child Gender, and Maternal Education in Relation to Children's Behavioral Outcomes in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…

  17. Different Fear-Regulation Behaviors in Toddlerhood: Relations to Preceding Infant Negative Emotionality, Maternal Depression, and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloggler, Bettina; Pauli-Pott, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In the study presented, the development of different fear regulation behaviors and their associations with preceding maternal sensitivity and depression is addressed. A sample of 64 mother-child pairs was examined at the children's ages of 4, 12, and 30 months. Four-month negative reactivity and 12- and 30- month behavioral inhibition and fear…

  18. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related behaviours among German children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke; Chen, Susan E; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2012-07-01

    To examine associations between maternal employment and time spent engaging in nutrition-related behaviours among mothers and children using a nationally representative sample of households in West and East Germany. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using time-use data for a sample of mother-child dyads. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related activities such as eating at home, eating away from home and food preparation were estimated using a double-hurdle model. German Time Budget Survey 2001/02. The overall sample included 1071 households with a child between 10 and 17 years of age. The time-use data were collected for a 3 d period of observation (two weekdays and one weekend day). Maternal employment was associated with the time children spent on nutrition-related behaviours. In households with employed mothers, children spent more time eating alone at home and less time eating meals with their mothers. Moreover, employed mothers spent less time on meal preparation compared with non-employed mothers. There were regional differences in time spent on nutrition-related behaviours, such that East German children were more likely to eat at home alone than West German children. Maternal employment was associated with less time spent eating with children and preparing food, which may be related to the increasing childhood obesity rates in Germany. Future national surveys that collect both time-use data and health outcomes could yield further insight into mechanisms by which maternal time use might be associated with health outcomes among children.

  19. Discrepancies in Autonomy and Relatedness Promoting Behaviors of Substance Using Mothers and Their Children: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.

  20. Slipping and holding minds: A psychosocial analysis of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Saville Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Method: Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’ of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’ in which the mother, child and researcher are located. Findings: The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. Conclusion: This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic, while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.

  1. A longitudinal examination of the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: predicting child and adolescent adjustment over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain.

  2. Interview and recollection-based research with child disaster survivors: Participation-related changes in emotion and perceptions of participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P.; O’Connor, Bridget M.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that some types of trauma research can be conducted safely with children ages 10 and older. The aim of this project was to learn more about potential risks or benefits of conducting research with younger children or with child disaster survivors, specifically about research that includes children providing trauma recollections. Method Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children who experienced a devastating tornado participated in an in-person interview that included both individual and joint (mother-child) recollections of their tornado experiences one year following exposure. These 50 children also rated three emotions at three timepoints and rated their perceptions (e.g., benefit and regret) of research post-participation. Children (N = 28) also participated in phone surveys three months later to assess persistent participation-related emotions and perceptions. Results Child reported emotions worsened from pre- to during participation; however, reports of emotions returned to pre-participation levels post-participation and remained so at the 3-month follow-up. Sixty-four percent of children reported at least some participation benefit and no participation regret immediately post-participation, as did 89.3% at the 3-month follow-up. Four percent of children reported some participation regret (no benefit) post-participation, and 0% three months later. No children requested to stop participating, and none required post-research connection with crisis services. Posttraumatic stress symptom severity, tornado exposure, and age were largely unrelated to child-reported emotions and perceptions of research. Conclusions Results indicate that carefully planned and executed disaster-related research that includes children providing recollections research can be conducted with preadolescents with little risk and some benefit. PMID:26390107

  3. Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: longitudinal relations with mother-infant disrupted interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-12-01

    : The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early hostile or disrupted mother-infant interactions, and hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child. In a prospective longitudinal study of 76 low-income mothers and their infants, it was predicted that maternal PAS scores, assessed at child age 20, would be related to difficulties in early observed mother-infant interaction and to hostile-aggressive behavioral difficulties in the child. Results indicated that maternal difficulties in interacting with the infant in the laboratory were associated with maternal PAS scores assessed 20 years later. Hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child at age five were also predictive of PAS scores of mothers. However, contrary to prediction, these behavior problems did not mediate the association between mother-infant interaction difficulties and maternal PAS scores, indicating that the child's hostile-aggressive behavior problems did not produce the link between quality of early interaction and later maternal attitudinal inflexibility. The current results validate the PAS against observable mother-child interactions and child hostile-aggressive behavior problems and indicate the importance of future work investigating the maternal attitudes that are associated with, and may potentially precede, parent-infant interactive difficulties. These findings regarding the inflexible attitudes of mothers whose interactions with their infants are also disrupted have important clinical implications. First, once the stability of the PAS has been established, this measure may offer a valuable screening tool for the prenatal identification of parents at risk for difficult interactions with their children

  4. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Manifestations of Children's Theory of Mind: The Roles of Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Infant Security of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Jessica; Bernier, Annie; Meins, Elizabeth; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two aspects of mother-child relationships--mothers' mind-mindedness and infant attachment security--in relation to two early aspects of children's theory of mind development (ToM). Sixty-one mother-child dyads (36 girls) participated in testing phases at 12 (T1), 15 (T2), and 26 months of age (T3), allowing for assessment…

  6. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  7. The impact of maternal depressive symptoms on health-related quality of life in children with epilepsy: a prospective study of family environment as mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Avison, William R; Campbell, M Karen; Speechley, Kathy N

    2011-02-01

    To examine the impact of maternal depressive symptoms (DS) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children with new-onset epilepsy and to identify family factors that moderate and mediate this relationship during the first 24 months after epilepsy diagnosis. A sample of 339 mother-child dyads recruited from pediatric neurologists across Canada in the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study. Mothers' and neurologists' reports were collected at four times during the 24-month follow-up. Mothers' DS were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and children's HRQL using the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE). Data were modeled using individual growth curve modeling. Maternal DS were observed to have a negative impact on QOLCE scores at 24 months (β = -0.47, p QOLCE scores during follow-up (β = -0.04, p = 0.0250). This relationship was moderated by family resources (β = 0.25, p = 0.0243), and the magnitude of moderation varied over time (β = 0.09, p = 0.0212). Family functioning and demands partially mediated the impact of maternal DS on child HRQL (β = -0.07, p = 0.0007; β = -0.12, p = 0.0006). Maternal DS negatively impact child HRQL in new-onset epilepsy during the first 24 months after diagnosis. This relationship is moderated by family resources and mediated by family functioning and demands. By adopting family centered approaches, health care professionals may be able to intervene at the maternal or family level to promote more positive outcomes in children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. An investigation of factors related to the use of respite care services for children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) living at home in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Kaori; Yoneyama, Akira; Ishii, Mitsuko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2017-03-01

    Limited time away from the child is cited as the main factor that increases the burden for the primary caregiver of severely disabled children. The aim of this study was to quantitatively elucidate the factors related to the desire to use social services and the actual use of respite care services by the primary caregivers of severely disabled children in Japan. In this study, we investigated the use of respite care services in accordance with the primary caregivers' wishes by examining inhibiting or promoting factors associated with respite care service use only among those who wished to use social services. A total of 169 Japanese mothers participated and answered the questionnaires. We conducted a logistic regression analysis and a multiple regression analysis to investigate the factors related to respite care service use. The most important factors affecting a primary caregiver's desire to use social services were the belief that the child would enjoy using social services and the family's approval of the social service use. The most important factors affecting respite care service use were the family's approval of the use and a large care burden on the primary caregiver. Respite care services should be sought out before the care burden becomes too great to enable the primary caregiver to more easily contribute to the continuation of home care. A background of mother-child separation anxiety disrupted the use of respite care. However, believing that the child enjoys using social services may reduce primary caregivers' psychological resistance to being separated from their child, which is supported by tradition. Thus, it is also important for respite care service providers to provide information about the children to their primary caregivers and families while they are using respite care services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prenatal Stress, Methylation in Inflammation-Related Genes, and Adiposity Measures in Early Childhood: the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J; Wilson, Ander; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Braun, Joseph M; Svensson, Katherine; Zhong, Jia; Brennan, Kasey J M; Dereix, Alexandra; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.

  10. Agreement between children aged 5-6 years and their mothers in rating child oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Tsakos, Georgios; Paiva, Saul Martins; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Celiberti, Paula; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Studies have assessed parent-child agreement on ratings of school-aged children's OHRQoL. There are, however, no studies on children younger than 7 years of age. The aim was to assess the agreement between children aged 5-6 years and their mothers regarding child's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 298 mother-child pairs (MCP), seeking the pediatric dental screening at the Dental School, University of São Paulo, completed the Brazilian version of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5), validated for children aged 5-6 years in Brazil. Agreement between total and items' scores was assessed using comparison and correlation analyses, by comparing the mean directional differences and by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values, respectively. The mean directional difference in the total scores was 0.13 (CI 95% -0.076; 0.338) and therefore not significant for MCP. The mean absolute difference for MCP was 1.26, representing 11% of the maximum possible score. The ICC for total score was 0.84 (CI 95% 0.798; 0.867) for MCP. Mothers do rate their young children's OHRQoL similarly to children's self-reports. When assessing OHRQoL of children aged 5-6 years, mothers may be reliable proxies for their young children. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61…

  12. Relativity without relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan Z; Murchadha, Niall O

    2002-01-01

    We give a derivation of general relativity (GR) and the gauge principle that is novel in presupposing neither spacetime nor the relativity principle. We consider a class of actions defined on superspace (the space of Riemannian 3-geometries on a given bare manifold). It has two key properties. The first is symmetry under 3-diffeomorphisms. This is the only postulated symmetry, and it leads to a constraint linear in the canonical momenta. The second property is that the Lagrangian is constructed from a 'local' square root of an expression quadratic in the velocities. The square root is 'local' because it is taken before integration over 3-space. It gives rise to quadratic constraints that do not correspond to any symmetry and are not, in general, propagated by the Euler-Lagrange equations. Therefore these actions are internally inconsistent. However, one action of this form is well behaved: the Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler (Baierlein R F, Sharp D and Wheeler J A 1962 Phys. Rev. 126 1864) reparametrization-invariant action for GR. From this viewpoint, spacetime symmetry is emergent. It appears as a 'hidden' symmetry in the (underdetermined) solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations, without being manifestly coded into the action itself. In addition, propagation of the linear diffeomorphism constraint together with the quadratic square-root constraint acts as a striking selection mechanism beyond pure gravity. If a scalar field is included in the configuration space, it must have the same characteristic speed as gravity. Thus Einstein causality emerges. Finally, self-consistency requires that any 3-vector field must satisfy Einstein causality, the equivalence principle and, in addition, the Gauss constraint. Therefore we recover the standard (massless) Maxwell equations

  13. Levels of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in blood and effects on the neuropsychological development of early childhood in INMA (childhood and environment mother-child cohorts Compuestos orgánicos persistentes y metales pesados en sangre y efectos en el desarrollo neuropsicológico de la primera infancia en las cohortes de madres-niños INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente Níveis de poluentes orgânicos persistentes e de metais pesados no sangue e os efeitos no desenvolvimento neuro-psicológico na primeira infância e em coortes mães-filhos INMA (INfância e Meio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ibarluzea Maurolagoitia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The INMA project is a multicenter study based on prospective monitoring of mother-child cohorts in different Spanish geographical areas. Objective: To study the relationship between major environmental pollutants and child development in the pre-and postnatal phases. Material and Methods: The cohort groups share data collection methodology and tools (environmental exposure, biological samples, physical and neuropsychological examinations, diet questionnaires etc. during intrauterine growth and monitored childhood development. Results: The levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs in serum during the first trimester of pregnancy are reported, together with those for lead (Pb and total mercury (Hg-T in the umbilical cord, which are associated with the neuropsychological development analyzed to date. The POPs most frequently found were p, p’-DDE (99% and PCB 153 (95% with geometric mean in serum (ng / g-lipid of 110.0 (p, p’-DDE and 38.9 (PCB 153. The geometric mean and the maximum Pb level were 1.06 mg/dL and 19 mg/dL, respectively. The geometric mean Hg-T was 8.2 mg/L, with fish consumption being the main predictor. The Hg-T reference levels set by USEPA (6.4 mg/L were exceeded in 64% of the samples. Conclusion: T The levels of POPs and Pb observed in the study areas were within the range of values previously described in earlier studies. The Hg levels require more in-depth assessment, as well as study of the possible associations with neuropsychological development.Introducción: El proyecto INMA es un estudio multicéntrico basado en el seguimiento prospectivo de cohortes de madres-hijos en distintas áreas de la geografía española. Objetivo: Estudiar la relación entre los principales contaminantes ambientales y el desarrollo de los niños y niñas en las fases pre y postnatales. Material y Métodos: El conjunto de las cohortes comparten metodología e instrumentos de recogida de información (exposición ambiental

  14. What happens after the cutting of the umbilical cord? Breastfeeding as a central symbol of the early mother-child relationship and its social implications in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Kneuper

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les nouvelles techniques biomédicales ont un impact profond, voire révolutionnaire, sur nos conceptions de la parenté, de la famille ou de nos rapports sociaux de sexe, constat qui a reçu une attention croissante de la part des sciences sociales au cours de la dernière décennie. Les progrès technologiques dans le domaine de la technique et de l’analyse médicales, par exemple, ont une influence directe sur ce qu’on peut globalement appeler le « discours sur l’allaitement », et indirecte sur la représentation du rôle de la femme dans une société particulière. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à montrer que ce discours traduit plutôt des effets conservateurs de la pratique et de la théorie actuelles dans le domaine biomédical et que la nourriture, la science et la technologie contribuent ensemble à restaurer ou renforcer les conceptions traditionnellement perçues au sein de la société allemande.The fact that new biomedical technologies have a profound and sometimes revolutionary impact on our concepts of kinship, family or gender roles has attracted increasing attention from social scientists over the past decade. Technological advances in medical techniques and analysis, for instance, have had a direct influence on what could broadly be called the “breastfeeding discourse” and an indirect effect on the notion of the woman’s role in a given society. The present article will show that what this discourse actually reflects are the conservative effects of today’s biomedical practice and theory and that food, science and technology combine together to restore or reinforce traditionally held representations in German society.

  15. Maternal Employment and Perceived Stress: Their Impact on Children's Adjustment and Mother-Child Interaction in Young Divorced and Married Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of maternal employment, marital status, and perceived maternal stress on children's adjustment and mother-preschool child interaction in 104 married and 99 divorced families. Results indicated that maternal employment had little impact on these variables. Maternal stress, in form of divorce and daily maternal hassles, demonstrated…

  16. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  17. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Forhan, Anne; Larroque, Beatrice; de Agostini, Maria; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Heude, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones. One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study) were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents. Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  18. Discrepancies Between Youth and Mothers' Perceptions of Their Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Self-Disclosure: Implications for Youth- and Mother-Reported Youth Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidler, Esther B.; Swenson, Lance P.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have devoted greater attention to understanding how disagreement between mothers and their children regarding parent-child relationship quality and functioning impacts youth adjustment. While some view discrepancies as indices of developmentally appropriate individuation, discrepancies regarding family functioning also have…

  19. Assessment of human hair as an indicator of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. Case study on a Norwegian mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine; Becher, Georg; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    A major challenge of non-invasive human biomonitoring using hair is to assess whether it can be used as an indicator of exposure to Flame Retardants, such as Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs), since the contribution of atmospheric deposition (air and/or dust) cannot be neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using human hair more thoroughly by comparison of (i) levels of PFRs in human hair (from 48 mothers and 54 children), with levels measured in dust and air in their respective households; and (ii) levels of selected PFRs in hair with the levels of corresponding PFR metabolites in matching urine samples collected simultaneously. Most PFRs (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethyl-hexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) were detected in all human hair samples, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in 93%, tri-cresyl-phosphate (TCP) in 69% and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in 21% of the samples. Levels of individual PFRs ranged between human hair and PFR levels in house dust and/or air were found, e.g. Spearman correlation (rS = 0.561, p exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with such design and our findings might help to understand human exposure to and body burdens of PFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in newborns and early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals - analysis of three European mother-child cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel R; Govarts, Eva; Iszatt, Nina; Palkovicova, Lubica; Lamoree, Marja H; Schoeters, Greet; Eggesbø, Merete; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various studies report interactions between thyroid hormones and early life chemical exposure. Our objective was to analyse associations between markers of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure and thyroid function in newborns, determined in heel prick blood spots. METHODS: Three

  1. Maternal use of mild analgesics during pregnancy associated with reduced anogenital distance in sons: a cohort study of 1027 mother-child pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Main, Katharina M; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Toppari, Jorma; Andersen, Helle Raun; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2017-01-01

    Is maternal use of mild analgesics in pregnancy associated with anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-in the offspring? Maternal use of mild analgesics [especially simultaneous use of paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] during pregnancy was associated with a shorter AGD in boys whereas no effect was found in girls. Mild analgesics including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofen and acetyl salicylic acid) have endocrine disrupting properties and in utero exposure reduces AGD in male rats. In humans, maternal exposure has been associated with cryptorchidism and hypospadias in male offspring but no studies have examined AGD. A prospective birth cohort study. Between 2010 and 2012, 2500 pregnant women were recruited from the Odense Child Cohort. Children were examined 3 months after the expected date of birth. Pregnant women were asked about use of medication including mild analgesics (paracetamol and NSAID) during pregnancy at recruitment (gestational age (GA) week 10-27) and at GA week 28. AGD and penile width were measured 3 months after expected date of birth by trained personnel. A total of 1027 women answered both questionnaires and their children were examined. Associations between prenatal exposure to mild analgesics and AGD and penile width were estimated using multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and weight-for-age SD score. A total of 40% of the women reported use of paracetamol and/or NSAIDs (4.4%) during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. Exposure to analgesics during pregnancy was associated with a reduced AGD in boys, although statistically significant only for NSAIDs. The association was significant among 20 boys exposed to both paracetamol and NSAIDs (AGD -4.1 mm; CI 95%: -6.4; -1.7). Maternal intake of analgesics did not show any clear association with AGD in female offspring. No effect on penile width was found. Only 27 boys and 18 girls were exposed to NSAIDs and most of them were also exposed to paracetamol. This makes it impossible to distinguish between exposures to NSAIDs alone and a potential mixture effect. Moreover, use of mild analgesics was self-reported up to 2 months after intake, which could have caused misclassification of exposure but is probably not associated with AGD as this was unknown to the women at time of reply to the questionnaire thereby underestimating the association. Confounding by indication may also explain our findings, as the condition for which the analgesic was taken may be associated with a reduction in AGD, rather than the use of the analgesic medication. This is the first study to report such an association in humans and further studies are needed to confirm our findings. A negative association was observed between exposure to analgesics during pregnancy and AGD in boys, suggesting disruption of androgen action. The health implications of a shorter AGD are still uncertain, but in cross-sectional studies among adult men a shorter AGD is associated with poorer semen quality and lower testosterone. As 41% of the women used these painkillers the finding are of public health importance and pregnant women should be advised about the potentially harmful effects of painkiller use. The study was funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency by way of the Center on Endocrine Disruptors Danish Center for Hormone Disrupting Chemicals, the Danish Foundation for Scientific Innovation and Technology (09-067180), the Danish Research Council (4004-00352B_FSS), Novo Nordic Foundation (NNF15OC0017734), Ronald McDonald Children Foundation, K.A. Rohde's and wife's Foundation, Odense University Hospital and Region of Southern Denmark, Municipality of Odense, the Danish Council for Strategic Research, Program Commission on Health, Food and Welfare (2101-08-0058), Odense University Hospital Research Foundation and Odense Patient data Exploratory Network (OPEN). The authors declare they have no competing interests. Not applicable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Marital Intimacy at 4.5 Years: Joint Contributions to Mother-Child and Father-Child Interaction at 6.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a subset of 606 families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we assessed emotional intimacy in the marriage as a buffer of the negative effects of parental depression on the quality of parent-child interaction. Maternal and paternal…

  3. Predictors of Boys' ADHD Symptoms from Early to Middle Childhood: The Role of Father-Child and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise J.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective 3-year longitudinal study investigated preschool paternal and maternal parenting predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) in a community sample of 93 school-age boys. Participants were recruited on the basis of inattention-hyperactivity at age 4 and fathers and mothers were observed interacting with their sons.…

  4. Costo de la atención materno infantil en el Estado de Morelos, México Cost of mother-child care in Morelos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el costo actual de servicios de salud materno infantiles (modelo actual con el costo hipotético de su provisión bajo estándares definidos por el Paquete Madre Bebé, de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio piloto de caso, de corte transversal, en septiembre de 2001, en establecimientos de salud de la Jurisdicción Sanitaria III de los Servicios de Salud del Estado de Morelos, México. Se eligieron para el estudio dos centros de salud rurales, un centro de salud urbano y un hospital general de la Secretaría de Salud. Se calculó el costo total y por intervención del modelo actual y del modelo Paquete Madre Bebé, usando el Modelo de estimación de costos de este Paquete. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que el costo total del Paquete Madre Bebé es dos veces mayor que el costo del modelo actual. De las 18 intervenciones evaluadas, la atención prenatal y el parto normal consumen la mayor proporción de los costos totales. Los costos de personal representan más de la mitad de los costos totales. CONCLUSIONES: El Modelo de estimación de costos es una herramienta práctica para la estimación y comparación de costos, y es útil para guiar la distribución de recursos financieros destinados a la atención materno infantil. Sin embargo, su aplicación es de limitada utilidad si su adaptación no responde a las características de cada sistema de atención.OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost of maternal and child health care (current model to that of the WHO Mother-Baby Package if it were implemented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pilot cross-sectional case study was conducted in September 2001 in Sanitary District No. III, Morelos State, Mexico. Two rural health centers, an urban health center, and a general hospital, all managed by the Ministry of Health, were selected for the study. The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet was used to estimate the total cost and cost per intervention for the current model and for the Mother-Baby Package model. RESULTS: The total cost of the Mother-Baby Package was twice the cost of the current model. Of the 18 interventions evaluated, the highest proportion of total costs corresponded to antenatal care and normal delivery. Personnel costs represented more than half of the total costs. CONCLUSIONS: The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet is a practical tool to estimate and compare costs and is useful to guide the distribution of financial resources allocated to maternal and child healthcare. However, this model has limited application unless it is adapted to the structure of each healthcare system.

  5. Love and load--the lived experience of the mother-child relationship among young adult traumatic brain-injured survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; Stuifbergen, Alexa K

    2004-04-01

    This study aims to describe the meaning of the experience of the relationship between young adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors and their mothers using a phenomenological approach. Informants included 9 males and 3 females who were at least 2 years post-TBI, and their mothers, who were their primary caregivers after the injury. TBI informants were 18 to 25 years of age, had motor vehicle accident-induced injury, experienced post-traumatic amnesia longer than 24 hours, and were able to participate in a verbal interview. In addition, all informants currently were living with their mothers, who also participated in this study. Survivors acquired the sense of being abnormal from various sources, including social pressures, dynamics within the family, and intrapersonal changes. Mothers adopted both positive and negative actions during the period of uncertainty and often struggled to balance protecting their children and letting them become independent. They also struggled to maintain harmonious relationships with people both inside and outside of the family. Sometimes, survivors' parents marital relationships were at risk. Health professionals should design more appropriate long-term community interventions to help TBI survivors and their families decrease the burden of injury and the resulting stress, increase survivors' self-esteem, and improve quality of life of both survivors and their families, serving as a foundation for further TBI care.

  6. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children’s affect through

  7. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC and Maternal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC and the moderating role of maternal education.Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education.Results: (1 Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2 non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3 the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4 the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5 there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6 the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers.Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children

  8. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  9. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  10. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  11. Taking stock of two decades of attachment transmission gap: broadening the assessment of maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Whipple, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    This report aimed to investigate the capacity of maternal behaviors tailored to children's attachment and exploration systems to jointly explain the well-known mother-child transmission of attachment. Four home visits were conducted between ages 7 months and 2 years with 130 mother-child dyads to assess maternal attachment state of mind, sensitivity, autonomy support, and mother-child attachment security. Results showed that together, maternal sensitivity and autonomy support fully accounted for the relation between maternal and child attachment, that they each accounted for a unique portion of this relation, and that the magnitude of these mediated pathways was equivalent. These results suggest that the attachment transmission gap can be narrowed by the use of a theory-driven multidimensional approach to maternal behavior. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  13. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  14. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  15. Fatores protetores e de risco envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 Protective and risk factors related to vertical transmission of the HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela P. Gianvecchio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia os fatores maternos e fetais envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 em 47 pares de mãe e filho. As variáveis comportamentais, demográficas e obstétricas foram obtidas mediante entrevista; os dados referentes ao parto e ao recém-nascido, dos prontuários das maternidades. Durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação foi realizada a contagem da carga viral materna e dos linfócitos T CD4+. A média de idade foi de 25 anos e 23,4% das gestantes eram primigestas, e o fator comportamental mais prevalente foi não usar preservativos. Dentre as gestantes, 48,9% tinham células CD4+ superior a 500 células/mm³ e 93,6% se enquadravam na categoria clínica A; 95,7% submeteram-se à profilaxia com zidovudina durante a gestação ou no parto, a qual foi ministrada a todos os recém-nascidos; 50,0% delas foram submetidas à cesárea eletiva. Apesar de expostas a vários fatores de risco e protetores, nenhuma criança tornou-se infectada. A transmissão vertical resulta de um desequilíbrio entre os fatores, com predomínio dos de risco sobre os protetores.This study aimed to evaluate maternal and fetal factors related to vertical transmission of HIV-1. Participants included 47 mother-child pairs. Behavioral, demographic, and obstetric data were obtained through interviews. Data related to delivery and newborns were collected from registries in the maternity hospitals. During the third trimester of pregnancy, CD4+ T lymphocytes and maternal viral load were measured. Mean age of the mothers was 25 years and 23.4% of the pregnant women were primigravidae. The most prevalent behavioral factor was lack of condom use. 48.9% of the women presented a CD4+ count greater than 500 cells/ mm³, and 93.6% belonged to clinical category A. 95.7% of the women received zidovudine prophylaxis during pregnancy or childbirth, and the medication was also administered to all the neonates. 50.0% of patients were submitted to elective cesareans. Despite

  16. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Public relations activities continued in a well-proved form of organizing plant visits and Information Centre off - site activities. Bohunice NPPs were visited by the number of 7294 visitors in 1997. A brief account of activities in public relations carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented

  17. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  18. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  19. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  20. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  1. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  3. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  4. Readable relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, Clement V

    1962-01-01

    Concise and practical, this text by a renowned teacher sketches the mathematical background essential to understanding the fundamentals of relativity theory. Subjects include the velocity of light, measurement of time and distance, and properties of mass and momentum, with numerous diagrams, formulas, and examples, plus exercises and solutions. 1960 edition.

  5. Relative Utilitarianism

    OpenAIRE

    DHILLON, Amrita; MERTENS, Jean-François

    1993-01-01

    In a framework of preferences over lotteries, we show that an axiom system consisting of weakned versions of Arrow’s axioms has a unique solution. “Relative Utilitarianism” consists of first normalizing individual von Neumann-Morgenstern utilities between 0 and 1 and then summing them.

  6. Relative Hypovolaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    the vascular space and the remainder of the extracellular fluid. (ECF) and intracellular ... diuretic therapy are likely to have a relative volume deficiency. Normovolaemia and .... and it is likely that alternative forms of assessment of this crucial measure will be ... necrosis factor and Interleukins1–6, histamine and serotonin.

  7. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  8. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  9. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  10. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  11. Relational topology

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Gunther

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and develops new algebraic methods to work with relations, often conceived as Boolean matrices, and applies them to topology. Although these objects mirror the matrices that appear throughout mathematics, numerics, statistics, engineering, and elsewhere, the methods used to work with them are much less well known. In addition to their purely topological applications, the volume also details how the techniques may be successfully applied to spatial reasoning and to logics of computer science. Topologists will find several familiar concepts presented in a concise and algebraically manipulable form which is far more condensed than usual, but visualized via represented relations and thus readily graspable. This approach also offers the possibility of handling topological problems using proof assistants.

  12. Numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1982-01-01

    There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)

  13. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  14. The quality of children's home environment and attachment security in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevalkink, D.J.; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Bradley, Robert H

    The authors examined the relation of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory (B. M. Caldwell & R. H. Bradley, 1984) for 0- to 6-year-old Sundanese Indonesian children with the quality of the mother-child attachment relationship (n=44) and attachment-related behaviors

  15. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR), the public relations belongs to the secretariat of the Chairman, and are a part of the policy of carefully planned and purposeful efforts to establish mutual relations between the authority and the public. A spokesmen of NRA SR is in charge of the public relations. The spokesman is ready, without a useless filibuster and based on a particular requirement, to inform governmental bodies, other national bodies and organizations, embassies and international organizations, the public and news media in case of an event at a nuclear installation. To provide for communications activities, NRA SR constructed and opened the Information centre with a particular equipment in autumn 1995, that has already started communications with some dailies, broadcasting, television and Press Agency SR. It has been envisaged that there will be press conferences held in the Information centre a few times a year, or NRA SR senior staff may be interviewed here on extraordinary events at NPPs, or on some other important occasions in NRA SR. In 1995, NRA Sr issued the Annual report in a few variants - each suitable for different use - on NRA SR activities and nuclear safety of Slovak nuclear power plants as of 1994. The NRA SR's Bulletin has started to be published with periodicity of 3 times a year, focusing on NRA SR activities both in Slovakia and abroad. NRA SR Information centre provides foreign visitors with independent propagation and information materials about the issue of nuclear safety enhancement at operational Slovak NPPs. Furthermore, the Information centre provides both the NRA SR's residences in Bratislava and Trnava with daily press monitoring of topical news

  16. Training Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Aja

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of horse-assisted leadership training and the manners, in which the training relations between horses, managers and facilitators were entangled with perceptions of, what “proper sociality” entailed and felt like in contemporary Danish society. The study...... is positioned at the intersection of anthropology and consumer culture research and is based upon 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork in fields, offices and conference rooms throughout Denmark in 2012 and 2013 as well as reading of emic literature and marketing material. The main argument of the thesis is...

  17. Basic relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, Richard A

    1994-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook develops in a logical and coherent way both the formalism and the physical ideas of special and general relativity. Part one focuses on the special theory and begins with the study of relativistic kinematics from three points of view. Part two begins with a chapter introducing differential geometry. Subsequent chapters cover: rotation, the electromagnetic field, and material media. A second chapter on differential geometry provides the background for Einstein's gravitational-field equation and Schwarzschild's solution. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or astrophysics.

  18. Relatives and Relations in Paluai’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schokkin, Dineke; Otto, Ton

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the expression of kinship in Paluai (Baluan-Pam, ISO 639-3: blq), an Oceanic language spoken on Baluan Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. Based on data gathered during extensive fieldwork, the authors first consider the formal characteristics of nominal possessive cons...... of birth order terms, which are a relatively rare phenomenon, and the partial replacement of the system by terms from the creole language Tok Pisin....

  19. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  20. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  1. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  2. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  3. Positive Parenting and Children’s Prosocial Behavior in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Research supports the beneficial role of prosocial behaviors on children’s adjustment and successful youth development. Empirical studies point to reciprocal relations between negative parenting and children’s maladjustment, but reciprocal relations between positive parenting and children’s prosocial behavior are understudied. In the present study reciprocal relations between two different dimensions of positive parenting (quality of the mother-child relationship and the use of balanced positive discipline) and children’s prosocial behavior were examined in Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Method Mother-child dyads (N = 1105) provided data over 2 years in 2 waves (Mage of child in wave 1 = 9.31 years, SD = .73; 50% female). Results A model of reciprocal relations between parenting dimensions, but not among parenting and children’s prosocial behavior, emerged. In particular, children with higher levels of prosocial behavior at age 9 elicited higher levels of mother-child relationship quality in the following year. Conclusions Findings yielded similar relations across countries, evidencing that being prosocial in late childhood contributes to some degree to the enhancement of a nurturing and involved mother-child relationship in countries that vary widely on sociodemographic profiles and psychological characteristics. Policy and intervention implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26511201

  4. Evaluating Parental Autism Disclosure Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jillian E.; Galijot, Ratka; Davies, W. Hobart

    2018-01-01

    The relative effects of different autism disclosure methods on the perceptions of a mother-child dyad were investigated. Using three conditions, disclosure card, disclosure bracelet, and no disclosure, U.S. community parents (N = 383) were asked 18 questions about their perceptions of the dyad. An ANOVA revealed significant protection from stigma…

  5. Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Petraviciene, Inga; Balseviciene, Birute

    2017-10-24

    Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children's mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4-6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4-6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51-3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children's emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  6. Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic, household and child-related factors on the nutritional status of children (0-5yrs) in farming households of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted using a multistage sampling technique to select 201 mother-child pairs from 18 farming ...

  7. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  8. Shedding Further Light on the Effects of Various Types and Quality of Early Child Care on Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship: The Haifa Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa

    2002-01-01

    The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…

  9. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  10. A Transactional Model of Temperamental Development: Evidence of a Relationship between Child Temperament and Maternal Stress over Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Komsi, Niina; Jarvenpaa, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Although there is growing consensus that parental stress is a risk factor in child development, longitudinal studies of its effects are few. This study tested a sample of 231 mother-child dyads in terms of whether the relations between the global experience of stress in mothers (perceived stress scale) and child temperamental characteristics…

  11. Socialization of Children's Recall and Use of Strategies for Coping with Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul A.; Kliewer, Wendy; Partch, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Using experimental, observational and interview-assessment methods, we examined relations among mother-child discussion skills and suggested strategies for coping with postdivorce interparental conflict in a conflict task, children's memory for those strategies in a later recall interview, and children's self-reported use of coping strategies in…

  12. Adolescent Filial Piety as a Moderator between Perceived Maternal Control and Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sin Man; Leung, Angel Nga-Man; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parental styles of maternal warmth and control, as well as adolescent filial piety, in relation to parent-child relationship quality, in 308 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The three mother-child relationship qualities measured were perceived maternal support, conflicts, and relationship depth. Adolescents'…

  13. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  14. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  15. What can child silhouette data tell us? Exploring links to parenting, food and activity behaviors, and maternal concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...

  16. Does It Matter if Preschool Children and Mothers Discuss Positive vs. Negative Events during Reminiscing? Links with Mother-Reported Attachment, Family Emotional Climate, and Socioemotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differential relations between mother-child reminiscing about a positive emotional event vs. a negative emotional event and attachment security, family climate, and young children's socioemotional development. Fifty preschool children (M age = 50.69 months, SD = 4.64) and their mothers completed two…

  17. Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children’s mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4–6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children’s mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4–6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51–3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  18. A Study on Turkish Motherese in the Context of Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Hamide; Cengiz, Özge

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child interactions and characteristics of mothers' child-directed language have been related to children's linguistic development. Studies on parent-child interactions in Turkey have generally focused on children. There have not been many researches on Turkish motherese. This study addresses this gap by exploring the properties of Turkish…

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  20. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  1. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p health outcome (r = -.33, p health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  2. A methodological pilot: parenting among women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda; Farkas, Kathleen; Niazi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Mothers who abuse substances are likely to have insecure emotional attachment with their children, placing their children at risk for social-emotional and psychiatric conditions. Sobriety does not inevitably improve parenting. We tested recruitment methods, audiovisual (AV) recording procedures, the protocol for identifying child abuse risk, the coding of mother-child interactions, and retention of the sample for repeated measures as the first phase in examining mother-child relational quality of women in substance abuse treatment. This innovative study involved AV recordings to capture the in-vivo mother-child interactional behaviors that were later coded and analyzed for mean scores on the 64-item Parent-Child Relational Quality Assessment. Repeated measurement was planned during treatment and two months after discharge from treatment. The pilot involved a small sample (n = 11) of mother-child (interaction behaviors were identified. Mothers showed less enthusiasm and creativity but matched their child's emotional state. The children showed appropriate motor skill items and attachment behaviors. The dyad coding showed less mutual enjoyment between the mother and child. Eight of the participants could not be located for the second measurement despite multiple contact methods. AV recordings capture rich, descriptive information that can be coded for interactional quality analysis. Repeated measurement with this cohort was not feasible, thus needing to assess for additional/more frequent contacts to maintain the sample.

  3. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...... or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95...

  4. Children’s Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men’s Severe Violence Toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children’s adjustment problems in families characterized by men’s severe violence toward women. Methods Participants were 258 children and their mothers recruited from domestic violence shelters. Mothers and children completed measures of men’s IPV, women’s IPV, partner-child aggression, and mother-child aggression. Mothers provided reports of children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems; children provided reports of their appraisals of threat in relation to interparent conflict. Results After controlling for sociodemographics and men’s IPV: 1) each of the additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s IPV) was associated with children’s externalizing problems; 2) partner-child aggression was associated with internalizing problems; and 3) partner-child aggression was associated with children’s threat appraisals. The relation of mother-child aggression to externalizing problems was stronger for boys than for girls; gender differences were not observed for internalizing problems or threat appraisals. Conclusions Men’s severe IPV seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence, and these other forms appear to contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Parent-child aggression, and partner-child aggression in particular, are especially important. Systematic efforts to identify shelter children who are victims of parental violence seem warranted. Practice implications Men’s severe intimate partner violence seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women’s intimate partner violence), and these different forms of family violence all contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Treatment programs for

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for child mental disorders in a population-based cohort of HIV-exposed and unexposed African children aged 7-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Pearson, Rebecca M; Bland, Ruth M

    2018-04-21

    Despite being home to a large population of vulnerable children there is a dearth of population-based evidence on childhood mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Parent and child mental health are rarely measured concurrently, despite potential for confounding with other risk factors, including parental HIV. Using the parent-report Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) we assessed children's mental health in a population-based cohort of 1536 HIV-negative children (31% HIV-exposed, 18% HIV-affected, 51% HIV-unexposed) aged 7-11 years. CBCL was scored using CBCL Rating-to-Score software. A binary indicator was determined using the clinical threshold ≥ 65. We modelled mental disorders using logistic regression, including covariates associated with the mother, child, household, and parenting. Structural equation modelling techniques also derived continuous latent variables representing the underlying mental health and parent-relationship constructs. Prevalence of conduct disorders (11.8%) was high, regardless of HIV exposure, while HIV-affected children had increased odds of affective disorders. Maternal depression increased odds of externalising disorders; maternal anxiety was associated with affective and anxiety disorders. Mother-child relationship dysfunction increased odds of all disorders, including: affective [aOR = 5.1 (2.6-9.9)]; oppositional [aOR = 7.9 (4.0-15.5)]; conduct [aOR = 4.3 (2.6-7.2)] disorders. Food insecurity and male gender increased odds of somatic disorders; breastfeeding halved odds of conduct disorders. In the latent model, associations were substantially stronger for the mother-child relationship and externalising disorders (Oppositional 0.464 p Conduct 0.474 p = Conduct disorders were high for all children regardless of HIV exposure. The mother-child relationship was strongly related to all child disorders, suggesting potential for concurrent interventions targeting child behaviours and the parent-child or mother-child

  6. Establishing integrated rural-urban cohorts to assess air pollution-related health effects in pregnant women, children and adults in Southern India: an overview of objectives, design and methods in the Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Sambandam, Sankar; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Ghosh, Santu; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Johnson, Priscilla; Paul, Solomon; Puttaswamy, Naveen; Dhaliwal, Rupinder S; Shukla, D K

    2015-06-10

    In rapidly developing countries such as India, the ubiquity of air pollution sources in urban and rural communities often results in ambient and household exposures significantly in excess of health-based air quality guidelines. Few efforts, however, have been directed at establishing quantitative exposure-response relationships in such settings. We describe study protocols for The Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study, which aims to examine the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and select maternal, child and adult health outcomes in integrated rural-urban cohorts. The TAPHE study is organised into five component studies with participants drawn from a pregnant mother-child cohort and an adult cohort (n=1200 participants in each cohort). Exposures are assessed through serial measurements of 24-48 h PM2.5 area concentrations in household microenvironments together with ambient measurements and time-activity recalls, allowing exposure reconstructions. Generalised additive models will be developed to examine the association between PM2.5 exposures, maternal (birth weight), child (acute respiratory infections) and adult (chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function) health outcomes while adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition, exposure models are being developed to predict PM2.5 exposures in relation to household and community level variables as well as to explore inter-relationships between household concentrations of PM2.5 and air toxics. Finally, a bio-repository of peripheral and cord blood samples is being created to explore the role of gene-environment interactions in follow-up studies. The study protocols have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Sri Ramachandra University, the host institution for the investigators in this study. Study results will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. In addition, policy-relevant recommendations are also

  7. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  8. Incorporating Relation Paths in Neural Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wenyuan; Lin, Yankai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate...

  9. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  10. The Relation of Maternal Emotional and Cognitive Support During Problem Solving to Pre-Academic Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336

  11. What Are Related Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ...

  12. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of HLA-G extended haplotypes and one HLA-E polymorphism in a large-scale study of mother-child dyads with and without severe preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L L; Djurisic, S; Andersen, A-M N; Melbye, M; Bjerre, D; Ferrero-Miliani, L; Hackmon, R; Geraghty, D E; Hviid, T V F

    2016-10-01

    The etiological pathways and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have rendered difficult to disentangle. Accumulating evidence points toward a maladapted maternal immune system, which may involve aberrant placental expression of immunomodulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules during pregnancy. Several studies have shown aberrant or reduced expression of HLA-G in the placenta and in maternal blood in cases of preeclampsia compared with controls. Unlike classical HLA class Ia loci, the nonclassical HLA-G has limited polymorphic variants. Most nucleotide variations are clustered in the 5'-upstream regulatory region (5'URR) and 3'-untranslated regulatory region (3'UTR) of HLA-G and reflect a stringent expressional control. Based on genotyping and full gene sequencing of HLA-G in a large number of cases and controls (n > 900), the present study, which to our knowledge is the largest and most comprehensive performed, investigated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del (rs66554220) and HLA-E polymorphisms in mother and newborn dyads from pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia/eclampsia and from uncomplicated pregnancies. Furthermore, results from extended HLA-G haplotyping in the newborns are presented in order to assess whether a combined contribution of nucleotide variations spanning the 5'URR, coding region, and 3'UTR of HLA-G describes the genetic association with severe preeclampsia more closely. In contrast to earlier findings, the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism was not associated with severe preeclampsia. Furthermore, the polymorphism (rs1264457) defining the two nonsynonymous HLA-E alleles, HLA-E*01:01:xx:xx and HLA-E*01:03:xx:xx, were not associated with severe preeclampsia. Finally, no specific HLA-G haplotypes were significantly associated with increased risk of developing severe preeclampsia/eclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Distribution of HLA-G extended haplotypes and one HLA-E polymorphism in a large-scale study of mother-child dyads with and without severe preeclampsia and eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L. L.; Djurisic, S; Andersen, A.-M. N.

    2016-01-01

    was not associated with severe preeclampsia. Furthermore, the polymorphism (rs1264457) defining the two nonsynonymous HLA-E alleles, HLA-E*01:01:xx:xx and HLA-E*01:03:xx:xx, were not associated with severe preeclampsia. Finally, no specific HLA-G haplotypes were significantly associated with increased risk...

  15. Evidence of mother-child transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection Evidência da transmissão mãe-filho da infecção por Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luis Escobar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomical status is a major risk factor for natural acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in developing countries. Its transmission route is unknown but studies suggest person-to-person transmission. AIM: To evaluate seropositivity of anti-H. pylori antibodies in family members of infected symptomatic index patients as compared to family members of symptomatic uninfected index patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve family members of 38 patients who underwent endoscopy to exclude peptic disease were studied. Patients were deemed H. pylori infected or not infected when rapid urease test and histology were both positive or both negative. The family members underwent ELISA serology using the Cobas Core II Kit (Roche and were classified into three groups: I - 29 family members of 10 H. pylori (+ duodenal ulcer index patients; II - 57 family members of 17 H. pylori (+ index patients without duodenal ulcer; III - 26 family members of 11 H. pylori (- index patients. RESULTS: Seropositivity of group I and II (infected patients was higher than the control group, 83% vs 38%, specially in mothers, 81% vs 18%, and in siblings 76% vs 20%. Differences between fathers' seropositivity was not statistically significant in the three groups: 100% vs 86% vs 70%. Seropositivity of all family members (mother, father and siblings between infected group (I vs II was similar. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in family members of infected patients, but was similar among family members of infected patients with and without duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection is more frequent in mothers and siblings of infected index children. A common source of infection cannot be excluded, but facts suggest that person-to-person transmission occurs, specially from mother to child.O estrato socioeconômico baixo é o maior fator de risco para a aquisição natural da infecção por Helicobacter pylori em países em desenvolvimento. As vias de transmissão são desconhecidas embora estudos sugerem transmissão pessoa-pessoa. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a soropositividade de anticorpos anti H. pylori em familiares de pacientes sintomáticos infectados comparados a de pacientes não infectados. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 112 familiares de 38 pacientes encaminhados para afastar doença péptica. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame endoscópico, sendo realizadas quatro biopsias gástricas para pesquisa de H. pylori: duas para teste rápido da urease e duas para histologia (HE/Giemsa. Foi considerado infectado por H. pylori quando ambos os exames resultaram positivos. Nos familiares foi realizada sorologia com método ELISA, utilizando-se o Kit Cobas Core II (Roche, sendo considerado resultado positivo a titulação 7U/mL. Os familiares foram divididos em três grupos: grupo I: 29 familiares de 10 pacientes com úlcera duodenal H. pylori+; grupo II: 57 familiares de 17 pacientes sem úlcera duodenal H. pylori+; grupo III: 26 familiares de 11 pacientes H. pylori-. Foi testada a associação entre grupos e positividade através de uma extensão do teste exato de Fisher (método de Montecarlo SPSS, sendo analisada a soropositividade em cada um dos membros da família: pai, mãe, irmãos e o binômio mãe/pai e para a avaliação de múltiplas variáveis utilizou-se ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Os familiares de pacientes H. pylori+ apresentaram maior soropositividade comparado com o grupo controle, 83% vs 38%, sendo maior nas mães 81% vs 18% e irmãos 76% vs 20%. A soropositividade do pai não foi estatiscamente significante, quando comparados os três grupos de pacientes: 100% vs 86% vs 70%. A soropositividade de todos os membros da família, mãe, pai e irmãos nos grupos de úlcera duodenal H. pylori+ e sem úlcera duodenal H. pylori+ foram semelhantes. CONCLUSÃO: Familiares de pacientes infectados apresentam mais infecção por H. pylori. A soropositividade foi semelhante entre os familiares dos pacientes infectados com e sem úlcera duodenal. Infecção por H. pylori é mais freqüente em mães e irmãos de pacientes infectados; ao contrário, nos pais não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos três grupos. As crianças apresentam mais infecção quando ambos os pais são H. pylori+ e existe uma concordância do resultado da sorologia entre os cônjuges. Não podemos afastar uma fonte comum de infecção, mas os fatos nos sugerem que a transmissão acontece de pessoa a pessoa e especialmente da mãe para filho e entre os irmãos.

  16. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the total DEMOCOPHES population with mercury in hair above the European median. • Supplementary sample collection and measurements in Denmark gave valuable exposure information on a variety of other chemicals of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest, such as persistent organic pollutants. • It is highly valuable to obtain as much exposure information as possible once you have established the study cohort.

  17. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  18. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Feldman, Amy S; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D; Hartert, Tina V

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  19. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma.We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS, mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated.Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  20. Pioneers as Relational Subjects? Probing Relationality as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relational engagement roles in driving the energy transition, as described on their website. ... He comments, 'In Japan, they call it Viking leadership,' .... island, such as the mayor, representatives of different business, leading employees at the.

  1. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  2. Functional Programming With Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Graham

    1991-01-01

    While programming in a relational framework has much to offer over the functional style in terms of expressiveness, computing with relations is less efficient, and more semantically troublesome. In this paper we propose a novel blend of the functional and relational styles. We identify a class of "causal relations", which inherit some of the bi-directionality properties of relations, but retain the efficiency and semantic foundations of the functional style.

  3. Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Its Association to Adolescents’ Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Yaacob, Mohd Jamil bin

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different sociali...

  4. Introduction to relation algebras relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The first volume of a pair that charts relation algebras from novice to expert level, this text offers a comprehensive grounding for readers new to the topic. Upon completing this introduction, mathematics students may delve into areas of active research by progressing to the second volume, Advanced Topics in Relation Algebras; computer scientists, philosophers, and beyond will be equipped to apply these tools in their own field. The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly ...

  5. Theoretical general relativity: 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, O.

    1979-01-01

    The metric and field equations of Einstein's general relativity theory are written down. Solutions to the equations are discussed. Connection is made between relativity theory and elementary particle theory. Possibilities for a unified field theory are considered

  6. Relativity simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, the discovery of such astronomical phenomena as quasars, pulsars, and black holes - all intimately connected to relativity - has provoked a tremendous upsurge of interest in the subject. This volume, a revised version of Martin Gardner's earlier Relativity for the Million, brings this fascinating topic up to date. Witty, perceptive, and easily accessible to the general reader, it is one of the clearest and most entertaining introductions to relativity ever written.

  7. Discrepancies in mother and child perceptions of spina bifida medical responsibilities during the transition to adolescence: associations with family conflict and medical adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihogios, Alexandra M; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated mother-child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother-child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time.

  8. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nothing but relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Palash B

    2003-01-01

    We deduce the most general space-time transformation laws consistent with the principle of relativity. Thus, our result contains the results of both Galilean and Einsteinian relativity. The velocity addition law comes as a by-product of this analysis. We also argue why Galilean and Einsteinian versions are the only possible embodiments of the principle of relativity

  10. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  11. Relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, William J

    1973-01-01

    The foundations of gravitational theory ; the birth of relativity theory ; the foundations of general relativity ; experimental tests of relativity ; the meaning of the redshift ; the black hole ; wormholes and white holes ; galaxies and quasars ; gravitational waves ; the shape of the Universe ; the creation of the Universe.

  12. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  13. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  14. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Relativity theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)

  16. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  17. In search of the causes of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garreau, B.; Zilbovicius, M.

    1996-01-01

    After having been considered as a trouble of the mother-child relation, the infant autism is nowadays for a lot of specialists the consequence of a mental disorder. The functional cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, single photon computed tomography, positron computed tomography) can prove it. Particularly, it reveals a delay of the frontal lobes at autistic young children and in some cases an abnormal reaction of the cerebral cortex at sensorial stimulations. (O.M.)

  18. In search of the causes of autism; A la recherche des causes de l`autisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garreau, B; Zilbovicius, M [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-07-01

    After having been considered as a trouble of the mother-child relation, the infant autism is nowadays for a lot of specialists the consequence of a mental disorder. The functional cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, single photon computed tomography, positron computed tomography) can prove it. Particularly, it reveals a delay of the frontal lobes at autistic young children and in some cases an abnormal reaction of the cerebral cortex at sensorial stimulations. (O.M.). 8 refs.

  19. Ethics of Surrogacy: A Comparative Study of Western Secular and Islamic Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994

  20. Soudobé trendy v oblasti zrcadlových neuronů

    OpenAIRE

    ŠLAJSOVÁ, Kristýna

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis will discuss the extensive area of mirror neurons. Conception of the thesis is rather theoretical; the thesis is led like a survey study and also contains a research from a variety of foreign languages sources. The thesis provides an insight into the solid subject of mirror neurons and their psychological aspects. These aspects deal with the theory of the mirror neurons in a context of a mother child relations, language and speech, cultural differences, emotions and imita...

  1. The development of children's inhibition: Does parenting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, I.; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, J.-C.; Noël, M.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8. years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition ...

  2. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  3. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Strategi Komunikasi Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Artis, Artis

    2011-01-01

    Living man in interrelates society. Relationship among human being done by gets communication so man one by another one mutually understand and influence regard for the benefit, it that always been practiced by Public Relations( liaison) in a governance and also firm institute to reach to the effect which ices. The institute of Public Relations declares for,”Public Relations is overall effort which be passed off by design and berkesenambungan in order to creates and pet keenness and mutual un...

  5. Relative Thinking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ofer H. Azar

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...

  6. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  7. Public relations and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of different forms of PR implementation and research its relation with ethics in practice. 'Public relations' is the every-day term that represents the job that is widely used in all aspects of life and work in today's society. Public relations represent a specific form of communication that has a particular application in society. Public relations involve focusing on a public aspect of organization with the aim of building a positive attitude and image. Image of public relations as a profession is often unfairly negative, and the reason for this is unprofessional and unethical relation of individuals towards their profession. In practice ethics in public relations is often considered to be an oxymoron. Ethical thinking of experts in public relations goes from Biblical attitude 'all you want people to do to you, do even so to them' (Matthew 7:12to professional loyalty to organization they work for. Because of unethical appearance it is important to set the rules, in the form of codex by which the public relations professionals will set their behaviors. .

  8. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  9. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  10. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  11. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  12. EU-Mashreq Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -related foreign policy considerations: the ENP Action Plans (APs) ‘will draw on a common set of principles but will be differentiated, reflecting the existing state of relations with each country, its needs and capacities, as well as common interests’ (Commission of the European Communities 2004). In the Mashreq...

  13. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with S...... with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs....

  14. Destination: Alumni Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly today, with the growing and sophisticated skill set alumni professionals need to get the job done, alumni relations has become a destination career rather than a stop along the way. Modern alumni relations is "so much more than homecoming and punch-and-cookie receptions." It's marketing, volunteer management, and social networking. To…

  15. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  17. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  18. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  19. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  20. Methods of numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)

  1. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  2. The Redshifts in Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal; Singh, Apoorva; Hareet, Prabhav

    2011-01-01

    The progress of modern cosmology took off in 1917 when A. Einstein published his paper on general theory of relativity extending his work of special theory of relativity (1905). In 1922 Alexander Friedmann constructed a mathematical model for expanding Universe that had a big bang in remote past. The experimental evidences could come in 1929 by…

  3. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  4. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....

  5. Journalism of Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    of cosmopolitanism from universal reproductions of sameness into creative productions of singular self-other relations based on the practiced and productive journalism. This is substantiated through case study analyses. The aim is to challenge the modern, rational journalistic subject referring back to the unified...... of the self-other relation which is simultaneously personal and political. Secondly, the dissertation relates the phenomenological ‘race’ and gender debates to the societal and productive context of contemporary European and ‘western’ globalised and mediated culture and politics. Journalism is re...... accountability and relation from journalistic training and practices whereby a ‘white’ and homogeneous social imaginary is reproduced. I make a call for thinking about journalism as relation – in terms of technological mediations, but also in terms of subjectivities. In order to allow for this, a shift is needed...

  6. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  7. Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzelius, Kyra Marie

    2003-03-01

    In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions.

  8. Toddlers' bias to look at average versus obese figures relates to maternal anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  10. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  11. The relational universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnon, A.

    1998-01-01

    A relational approach to be observable universe is proposed, which precludes the concept of absolute background. Space-time events emerge as dynamical entities which owe their existence to a memorization process, itself inter wind with the availability of cosmological horizons (screening from totality) sourcing long-range correlations. The resulting (and relational) mode of description sheds light on various paradoxes (EPR, Foucault pendolum, light beam effect, etc.), on the problem of instantaneous and global influences (quark deconfinement) as related to the interconnectedness of our cosmos. This scenario leads to comment on living systems vs. robots, and on non-recursive and global aspects of the mathematical intuition

  12. Special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  13. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  14. NgsRelate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2015-01-01

    . Using both simulated and real data, we show that NgsRelate provides markedly better estimates for low-depth NGS data than two state-of-the-art genotype-based methods. AVAILABILITY: NgsRelate is implemented in C++ and is available under the GNU license at www.pop gen.dk/software. CONTACT: ida...... be called with high certainty. RESULTS: We present a software tool, NgsRelate, for estimating pairwise relatedness from NGS data. It provides maximum likelihood estimates that are based on genotype likelihoods instead of genotypes and thereby takes the inherent uncertainty of the genotypes into account...

  15. Clocks and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRoberts, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A kinematic theory without precise definitions of the 'space' and 'time' used is an uninterpreted calculus. The definition of 'time' in special relativity is based on light propagation and the 'constant velocity of light' is a tautological consequence of the definition. When this definition is reified in a 'clock' the phenomenon of 'time dilation' occurs, in terms of the defined time, but is not reciprocal between moving systems; the postulate of relativity is not observed. The new definition of time is compatible with an ether theory without the relativity principle. The derivation of the Lorentz transformations, which requires both postulates, is purely formalistic and is not ontologically sound. (Auth.)

  16. Public Relations vs. Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BASTIAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the characteristics, methods and aplications of two related activities – Public Relations and propaganda. Although different from the piont of wiev of purpose and results (the practice of Public Relations aims at establishing and maintaining mutual lines of communications, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics, through transparency and honesty, while propaganda insists on a message that is intended primarily to serve the interests of the messenger. in order to influence public opinion and to manipulate other people’s beliefs by any means necessary, the two activities also present quite a lot of similarities.

  17. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  18. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  19. General relativity and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Damour, T.

    1994-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  20. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  1. Relativity of Visual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is connected to the compositionality of the (pictorial languages. In the paper Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of signs will be used in characterizing visual languages. This allows us to relate visual languages to natural languages. The foundation of information presentation methods for visual languages is the logic of perception, but only if perception is understood as propositional perception. This allows us to understand better the relativity of information presentation methods, and hence to evaluate the cultural relativity of visual communication.

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Wishes Visiting The ER Who Takes Care Of You In An Emergency? Checking Into ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  4. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  5. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  6. Relativity in modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deruelle, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook on relativity integrates Newtonian physics, special relativity and general relativity into a single book that emphasizes the deep underlying principles common to them all, yet explains how they are applied in different ways in these three contexts. Newton's ideas about how to represent space and time, his laws of dynamics, and his theory of gravitation established the conceptual foundation from which modern physics developed. Book I in this volume offers undergraduates a modern view of Newtonian theory, emphasizing those aspects needed for understanding quantum and relativistic contemporary physics. In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed a novel representation of space and time, special relativity. Book II presents relativistic dynamics in inertial and accelerated frames, as well as a detailed overview of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. This provides undergraduate and graduate students with the background necessary for studying particle and accelerator physics, astrophysics and ...

  7. Relating BIP and Reo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.C. Dokter (Kasper); S.-S.T.Q. Jongmans (Sung-Shik); F. Arbab (Farhad); S. Bliudze (Simon)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCoordination languages simplify design and development of concurrent systems. Particularly, exogenous coordination languages, like BIP and Reo, enable system designers to express the interactions among components in a system explicitly. In this paper we establish a formal relation

  8. Relating BIP and Reo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.C. Dokter (Kasper); S.-S.T.Q. Jongmans (Sung-Shik); F. Arbab (Farhad); S. Bliudze (Simon); S. Knight; I. Lanese; A. Lluch Lafuente; H.T. Vieira

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractCoordination languages simplify design and development of concurrent systems. Particularly, exogenous coordination languages, like BIP and Reo, enable system designers to express the interactions among components in a system explicitly. In this paper we establish a formal relation

  9. de Sitter special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  10. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  11. Managing or Relating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Buur, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a case of user-driven innovation. We draw on social capital theory and the concept of complex responsive processes to examine the role of relations for the exchange and generation of knowledge across different knowledge traditions. We argue that innovation as a social phenome...... phenomenon with a high degree of uncertainty and complexity requires more relating and less managing to use conflict as a resource by turning the friction between different knowledge traditions into creative friction....

  12. Relativity theory - topical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians

  13. Mass relation for neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu; Barr

    2000-08-07

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m(&mgr;)/m(tau)) = 3(m(s)/m(b)) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10). This new relation is (m(nu(&mgr;))/m(nu(tau))) = 16(m(c)/m(t)), which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  14. Mass Relation for Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m μ /m τ ) =3(m s /m b ) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10) . This new relation is (m ν μ /m ν τ )=16(m c /m t ) , which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  16. The metamorphoses of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Richard

    This talk will explore the ways that problems shifted and disciplinary boundaries changed around physicists' engagement with relational physics and relativistic thought, first in research dealing with physiology, psychology and geometry in the late nineteenth century and then (a better-known story) moving between physics, mathematics and geometry in the twentieth century. I hope to develop a richer approach for understanding the disciplinary and political significance of relativity, especially by considering in one framework the work of Engels, Mach, Einstein and Planck.

  17. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...

  18. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Opić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.

  19. The theories of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, N.; Uzan, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quite complete route towards general relativity via special relativity with a start point at Newton's mechanics. The mathematical formulation is based on tensors. All the relativistic aspects of only classical physics - it means no quantum mechanics - are exposed. This book is divided into 3 books and each book represents a consistent knowledge of physics at a certain time in the past: in Newton's time, in the second half of the 19. century and today. The advantage of this presentation is to make the reader feels the changes over time in the concepts of time, space, gravity, cosmology. Each book is divided into 3, 4 and 5 parts which are sub-divided into numerous chapters. Book 1: Space, time and gravity in Newton's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics and part 3: gravity. Book 2: Special relativity and Maxwell's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics, part 3: electromagnetism and part 4: electrodynamics. And Book 3: General relativity and gravity, with part 1: curved space-time and gravity, part 2: Schwarzschild solution and black holes, part 3: general relativity and experiments, part 4: Friedman-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and part 5: elements or Riemann geometry. The 3. book dedicated to general relativity, tackles topics like the relationships between space-time curvature and gravity, Schwarzschild solutions and black holes, gravitational waves, Friedmann-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and Riemann geometry. (A.C.)

  20. STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI PUBLIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artis Artis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Living man in interrelates society. Relationship among human being done by gets communication so man one by another one mutually understand and influence regard for the benefit, it that always been practiced by Public Relations( liaison in a governance and also firm institute to reach to the effect which ices. The institute of Public Relations declares for,”Public Relations is overall effort which be passed off by design and berkesenambungan in order to creates and pet keenness and mutual understanding among an organization with whole its member “. In this case, Public Relations in give distribution on manajement's strategy there is two: First, Doing task as part of Public Relations's strategy and involvement in comprehensive process and gives benefit for management an organization. Both of, Public Relations gets role in management strategy in bring off activity to reach to the effect good one gets internal character and also external one correspond to that desirable by good institute on level governance and firm.