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Sample records for moth amyelois transitella

  1. Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Leal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, is the most serious insect pest of almonds and pistachios in California for which environmentally friendly alternative methods of control--like pheromone-based approaches--are highly desirable. Some constituents of the sex pheromone are unstable and could be replaced with parapheromones, which may be designed on the basis of molecular interaction of pheromones and pheromone-detecting olfactory proteins.By analyzing extracts from olfactory and non-olfactory tissues, we identified putative olfactory proteins, obtained their N-terminal amino acid sequences by Edman degradation, and used degenerate primers to clone the corresponding cDNAs by SMART RACE. Additionally, we used degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of known proteins to fish out other candidate olfactory genes. We expressed the gene encoding a newly identified pheromone-binding protein, which was analyzed by circular dichroism, fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and used in a binding assay to assess affinity to pheromone components.We have cloned nine cDNAs encoding olfactory proteins from the navel orangeworm, including two pheromone-binding proteins, two general odorant-binding proteins, one chemosensory protein, one glutathione S-transferase, one antennal binding protein X, one sensory neuron membrane protein, and one odorant receptor. Of these, AtraPBP1 is highly enriched in male antennae. Fluorescence, CD and NMR studies suggest a dramatic pH-dependent conformational change, with high affinity to pheromone constituents at neutral pH and no binding at low pH.

  2. Electrophysiological responses of male and female Amyelois transitella antennae to pistachio and almond host plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major insect pest of California tree nuts. The larvae of A. transitella feed on kernels inflicting damage and lowering nut kernel quality. Moreover, larvae vector aflatoxigenic aspergilli resulting in internationa...

  3. Impact of agricultural adjuvants on the toxicity of the diamide insecticides chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide toward different life stages of navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five adjuvants, alone and in combination with two diamide insecticides (chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide), were assessed for activity against the adults and eggs of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker). Laboratory studies utilized a spray tower for application while field studies use...

  4. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Higbee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  5. Effect of Piperonyl Butoxide on the Toxicity of Four Classes of Insecticides to Navel Orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkovich, Mark; Dana, Catherine E; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2015-12-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California. Increasing demand for these crops and their rising economic value has resulted in substantial increases of insecticide applications to reduce damage to acceptable levels. The effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a methylenedioxyphenyl compound that can act as a synergist by inhibiting cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification on insecticide metabolism by A. transitella, were examined in a series of feeding bioassays with first-instar A. transitella larvae from a laboratory strain. PBO, however, can have a variety of effects on metabolism, including inhibition of glutathione-S-transferases and esterases and induction of P450s. In our study, PBO synergized the toxicity of acetamiprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and spinosad, suggesting possible involvement of P450s in their detoxification. In contrast, PBO interacted antagonistically with the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, reducing its toxicity, an effect consistent with inhibition of P450-mediated bioactivation of this pesticide. The toxicity of the anthranilic diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole was not altered by PBO, suggestive of little or no involvement of P450-mediated metabolism in its detoxification. Because a population of navel orangeworm in Kern County, CA, has already acquired resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin through enhanced P450 activity, determining the effect of adding a synergist such as PBO on detoxification of all insecticide classes registered for use in navel orangeworm management can help to develop rotation practices that may delay resistance acquisition or to implement alternative management practices where resistance is likely to evolve. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Seasonal abundance of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, in figs and the effect of peripheral aerosol dispensers on sexual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Charles S; Brandl, David G

    2004-01-01

    We used flight traps baited with unmated female navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to examine, over two growing seasons, seasonal changes in the abundance of males in fig orchards and the impact of release of 48 mg per ha per day of the pheromone component (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal from peripherally-located timed-release dispensers on the ability of males to find unmated females within 16-ha treatment plots. Material was placed out and mating disruption was commenced at the beginning of April in the first year, and at the beginning of July the second year. This technique effectively prevented males from finding females in female-baited traps placed throughout the plot. Navel orangeworm abundance was high in figs during the first and third flight, but lower in June and July during the second flight. Since Calimyrna figs are not susceptible to attack by navel orangeworm until mid-to-late July, these findings suggest that materials cost can be reduced by beginning treatment later. Implications for insect pest management in figs and other California crops are discussed.

  7. Mechanism of Resistance Acquisition and Potential Associated Fitness Costs in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Exposed to Pyrethroid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkovich, Mark; Siegel, Joel P; Higbee, Bradley S; Berenbaum, May R

    2015-06-01

    The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive pest of nut crops, including almonds and pistachios, in California orchards. Management of this insect has typically been a combination of cultural controls and insecticide use, with the latter increasing substantially along with the value of these commodities. Possibly associated with increased insecticide use, resistance has been observed recently in navel orangeworm populations in Kern County, California. In studies characterizing a putatively pyrethroid-resistant strain (R347) of navel orangeworm, susceptibility to bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin was compared with that of an established colony of susceptible navel orangeworm. Administration of piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate in first-instar feeding bioassays with the pyrethroids bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin produced synergistic effects and demonstrated that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterases contribute to resistance in this population. Resistance is therefore primarily metabolic and likely the result of overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterase genes. Resistance was assessed by median lethal concentration (LC50) assays and maintained across nine generations in the laboratory. Life history trait comparisons between the resistant strain and susceptible strain revealed significantly lower pupal weights in resistant individuals reared on the same wheat bran-based artificial diet across six generations. Time to second instar was greater in the resistant strain than the susceptible strain, although overall development time was not significantly different between strains. Resistance was heritable and may have an associated fitness cost, which could influence the dispersal and expansion of resistant populations in nut-growing areas in California. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological

  8. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  9. Effect of storage of pheromone lures for Amyelois transitella: field performance and compound ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments during the flight of the overwintering generation of navel orangeworm revealed that Suterra NOW Biolure pheromone lures held in storage at -20°C increased significantly in field effectiveness with time in storage over a period of 0-2 years. This increase in field effectiveness coincided ...

  10. Spread of Aspergillus flavus by navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) on almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navel orangeworm (NOW) damage to almonds is correlated with increased incidence of aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus. However, no reports demonstrate a causative relationship between NOW feeding and A. flavus infection. To demonstrate the potential of NOW to act as a vector of A. ...

  11. Ex situ volatile survey of ground almond and pistachio hulls for emission of spiroketals: Analysis of hull fatty acid composition, water content, and water activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spiroketal conophthorin has recently been implicated as an important semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth (Amyelois transitella), which is a major insect pest to California tree nuts. Additionally, new evidence demonstrates conophthorin is produced by fungal spores when placed in the prese...

  12. Learning about Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  13. NMR structure of navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1): implications for pH-sensitive pheromone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianzhong; Xu, Wei; Rayo, Josep; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S; Ames, James B

    2010-02-23

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through the aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of a PBP from A. transitella (AtraPBP1) in solution at pH 4.5 determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments, multiangle light scattering, and (15)N NMR relaxation analysis indicate that AtraPBP1 forms a stable monomer in solution at pH 4.5 in contrast to forming mostly dimers at pH 7. The NMR structure of AtraPBP1 at pH 4.5 contains seven alpha-helices (alpha1, L8-L23; alpha2, D27-F36; alpha3, R46-V62; alpha4, A73-M78; alpha5, D84-S100; alpha6, R107-L125; alpha7, M131-E141) that adopt an overall main-chain fold similar to that of PBPs found in Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori. The AtraPBP1 structure is stabilized by three disulfide bonds formed by C19/C54, C50/C108, and C97/C117 and salt bridges formed by H69/E60, H70/E57, H80/E132, H95/E141, and H123/D40. All five His residues are cationic at pH 4.5, whereas H80 and H95 become neutral at pH 7.0. The C-terminal helix (alpha7) contains hydrophobic residues (M131, V133, V134, V135, V138, L139, and A140) that contact conserved residues (W37, L59, A73, F76, A77, I94, V111, and V115) suggested to interact with bound pheromone. Our NMR studies reveal that acid-induced formation of the C-terminal helix at pH 4.5 is triggered by a histidine protonation switch that promotes rapid release of bound pheromone under acidic conditions.

  14. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle

    1981-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  15. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  16. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  17. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  18. Siberian Moth: Potential New Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Michael Montgomery; Daniel Kucera

    1997-01-01

    The Siberian moth, Dendrolimus superans Butler (Family Lasiocampidae), is the most destructive defoliator of conifer forests in Northern Asia. Outbreaks defoliate millions of acres and occur at intervals of 8 to 11 years. The larvae feed on most conifers in the pine family, but outbreaks occur in fir, spruce, Siberian pine, and larch forests. The...

  19. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  20. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko

    2010-01-01

    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  1. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  2. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  3. Sex stimulant and attractant in the Indian meal moth and in the almond moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, U E; Tumlinson, J H; Brownlee, R G; Silverstein, R M

    1971-02-26

    cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadien-1-yl acetate was isolated from the female Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and the female almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker). It is the major if not the sole component of the sex stimulatory and attractant pheromone of female Plodia. It is present in the pheromone of the female Cadra along with at least one synergist.

  4. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides.

  5. Sex Pheromone of the Almond Moth and the Indian Meal Moth: cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadienyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Y; Kitamura, C; Takashi, S; Hara, H; Ishii, S; Fukami, H

    1971-02-26

    Female moths of different species but belonging to the same subfamily produce an identical compound as their sex pheromone. The sex pheromone of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker), and the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), has been isolated and identified as cis-9, trans-12-tetradecadienyl acetate.

  6. Hearing diversity in moths confronting a neotropical bat assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Kössl, Manfred; Mora, Emanuel C

    2017-09-01

    The tympanal ear is an evolutionary acquisition which helps moths survive predation from bats. The greater diversity of bats and echolocation strategies in the Neotropics compared with temperate zones would be expected to impose different sensory requirements on the neotropical moths. However, even given some variability among moth assemblages, the frequencies of best hearing of moths from different climate zones studied to date have been roughly the same: between 20 and 60 kHz. We have analyzed the auditory characteristics of tympanate moths from Cuba, a neotropical island with high levels of bat diversity and a high incidence of echolocation frequencies above those commonly at the upper limit of moths' hearing sensitivity. Moths of the superfamilies Noctuoidea, Geometroidea and Pyraloidea were examined. Audiograms were determined by non-invasively measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. We also quantified the frequency spectrum of the echolocation sounds to which this moth community is exposed. The hearing ranges of moths in our study showed best frequencies between 36 and 94 kHz. High sensitivity to frequencies above 50 kHz suggests that the auditory sensitivity of moths is suited to the sounds used by sympatric echolocating bat fauna. Biodiversity characterizes predators and prey in the Neotropics, but the bat-moth acoustic interaction keeps spectrally matched.

  7. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  8. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  9. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  10. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  11. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  12. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  13. Comparison of monitoring techniques in and near almonds and pistachios under mating disruption treatment for navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    As use of mating disruption for control of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California increases, it becomes more important to find non-pheromonal attractants that perform well for monitoring both in the presence and absence of mating disruption. According...

  14. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  15. Conophthorin from almond host plant and fungal spores and its ecological relation to navel orangeworm: a natural products chemist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) is a major insect pest that brings about significant monetary damage to California tree nuts – almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. During their development, larvae of navel orangeworm feed upon the meat of these nuts causing physical damage and ultimately lo...

  16. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  17. Tip moth parasitoids and pesticides: Are they compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. McCravy; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Effects of herbicide and insecticide applications on parasitism of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) were examined in 2-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in Georgia. Total parasitism rates varied significantly among tip moth generations, but there were no differences in parasitism rates between herbicide-treated and untreated...

  18. Douglas-fir tussock moth: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Lorna C. Youngs

    1978-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes references to 338 papers. Each deals in some way with either the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), or a related species. Specifically, 210 publications and 82 unpublished documents make some reference, at least, to the Douglas-fir tussock moth; 55 are concerned with other species in...

  19. What causes the patterns of gypsy moth defoliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive G. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is typically observed to occur on xeric ridge tops before more mesic, lowland forest, in oak-dominated habitats in the Northeast. In subsequent years defoliation may also occur in mesic forests. What causes this pattern of defoliation? Differences in the degree of defoliation may be due to differences in the density of gypsy moth populations in...

  20. Analysis of spatial density dependence in gypsy moth mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is perhaps the most widely studied forest insect in the world and much of this research has focused on various aspects of population dynamics. But despite this voluminous amount of research we still lack a good understanding of which, if any, natural enemy species regulate gypsy moth populations. The classical approach to analyzing insect population...

  1. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi. Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses.

  2. The Homeowner and the Gypsy Moth: Guidelines for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; David R. Houston; William E. Wallner

    1979-01-01

    The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States (fig. 1). Since the turn of the century, millions of dollars have been spent in efforts to control or eliminate gypsy moth populations and to retard natural and artificial spread. In the early decades of this century, outbreaks occurred only in New England; today...

  3. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  4. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  5. Response of Adult Lymantriid Moths to Illumination Devices in the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Lee M. Humble; Robert E. Levin; Yuri N. Baranchikov; Ring T. Carde; Ring T. Carde

    1995-01-01

    In field studies in the Russian Far East, five types of illuminating devices were evaluated for attracting adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), pink gypsy moth, L. mathura Moore, and nun moth, L. monacha (L.). Our objective was to determine if light from commercial lamps suited to out-of-doors floodlighting could be modified to reduce their attractiveness to moths...

  6. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  7. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    ) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...... species of moths including members of the Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Geometridae and Crambidae. Males of nine species, 70%, produced broadband ultrasound close to females. Peak frequencies ranged from 38 to above 100 kHz. All sounds were of low intensity, 43-76 dB SPL at 1 cm [64+/-10 dB peSPL (mean +/- s......Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae...

  8. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  9. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  10. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  11. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  12. Proceedings, U. S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; Shirley I. Smith; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

  13. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  14. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  15. Gypsy moth role in forest ecosystems: the good, the bad, and the indifferent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    Despite a century of attempts to control populations of the gypsy moth, it remains one of the most destructive forest pests introduced to North America. Research has yielded valuable, albeit sometimes conflicting information about the effects of gypsy moth on forests. Anecdotal accounts and scientific data indicate that impacts of gypsy moth defoliation can range from...

  16. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  17. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  18. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Xu

    Full Text Available Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R, blue (B and ultraviolet (UV opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  19. Studies on population dynamic of diamondback moth in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakrong, A.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Keawchoung, P.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population dynamic of diamondback moth larva in the field was studied at Khao Khor High-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The distribution patterns of diamondback moth larva was clumped when population was low and would change to be random when population was high. The maximun and minimum number of diamondback moth in the field were 71,203 and 2,732 larva/rai during March and September. Temperature, rainfall and age of cabbage were slightly relative with number of larva (r=-0.2891, p=0.30; r=-0.2816, p=0.31 and r=0.2931, p=0.29 respectively) but relative humidity has no effect on number of larva

  20. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  1. Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between expected defoliation and the subsequent condition and mortality rate among the defoliated trees are almost always important factors in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L. )

  2. Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.

  3. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  4. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  5. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  6. Interactions between microbial agents and gypsy moth parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1985-01-01

    The parasite Cotesia melanoscelus attacks small gypsy moth larvae more successfully than large ones, and Bacillus thuringiensis retards the growth of caterpillars it does not kill. Together, both factors lead to higher parasitism by C. melanoscelus in areas sprayed with B. thuringiensis than...

  7. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...

  8. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... April 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  9. selected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    464-8601, Japan. Present address: K. D. Ninsin, Animal Health and Food Safety Division, CSIR-Animal. Research Institute, Post Office Box AH 20, Achimota. Ghana. Email: kdninsin@hotmail.com. Abstract. Effective control of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) has become critical ...

  10. Data from: Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Fijen, T.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  11. Rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Du, Qiuyang; Qin, Haiwen; Shi, Juan; Wu, Zhiyi; Shao, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The gypsy moth- Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)-is a worldwide forest defoliator and is of two types: the European gypsy moth and the Asian gypsy moth. Because of multiple invasions of the Asian gypsy moth, the North American Plant Protection Organization officially approved Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 33. Accordingly, special quarantine measures have been implemented for 30 special focused ports in the epidemic areas of the Asian gypsy moth, including China, which has imposed great inconvenience on export trade. The Asian gypsy moth and its related species (i.e., Lymantria monocha and Lymantria xylina ) intercepted at ports are usually at different life stages, making their identification difficult. Furthermore, Port quarantine requires speedy clearance. As such, it is difficult to identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species only by their morphological characteristics in a speedy measure. Therefore, this study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 pairs of specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the need for rapid identification. In addition, we determined the optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification temperature of the 10 pairs of specific primers, including three pairs of specific primers for the Asian gypsy moth ( L. dispar asiatic ), four pairs of specific primers for the nun moth ( L. monocha ), and three pairs of specific primers for the casuarina moth ( L. xylina ). In conclusion, using our designed primers, direct rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species is possible, and this advancement can help improve export trade in China.

  12. Sexual communication in day-flying Lepidoptera with special reference to castniids or 'butterfly-moths'

    OpenAIRE

    Sarto, Víctor; Quero, Carmen; Santa-Cruz, M.C.; Rosell Pellisé, Glòria; Guerrero Pérez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth f...

  13. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Buchmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  15. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallara Janardhanan Wills

    Full Text Available Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155 with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6% for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala.

  16. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  17. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  18. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  19. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  1. Hourly and seasonable variation in catch of winter moths and bruce spanworm in pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; Natalie Leva; George Boettner; Roy Hunkins; Marinko. Sremac

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which, as far as it is known, consists of a single compound that is also used by Bruce spanworm, the North American congener of winter moth, O....

  2. Fine structure of selected mouthpart sensory organs of gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnie D.C. Shields

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.), are major pest defoliators in most of the United States and destroy millions of acres of trees annually. They are highly polyphagous and display a wide host plant preference, feeding on the foliage of hundreds of plants, such as oak, maple, and sweet gum. Lepidopteran larvae, such as the gypsy moth, depend...

  3. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology and timing of insecticide spray applications in seven Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a common pest of Christmas tree and pine plantations throughout much of the Eastern United States. The moth completes two to five generations annually, and insecticide spray timing models are currently available for controlling populations where three or...

  4. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  5. Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Zeng

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40-60 kHz than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5-6%.

  6. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate.

  7. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2001-12-01

    Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  8. Interactions between nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Nosema sp. infecting gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. S. Bauer; M. McManus; J. Maddox

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is the only entomopathogen that plays an important role in the natural regulation of North American gypsy moth populations. Recent European studies suggest that populations of gypsy moth in Eurasia are regulated primarily by the interactions between NPV and several species of microsporidia. Researchers have proposed that the...

  9. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  10. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, Å.K; Liénard, M.A.; Groot, A.T.; Hedenström, E; Löfstedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major

  11. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M

    2013-01-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than ...

  12. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth

  13. Spread ability of diamondblack moth (Plutella xylotella L) steriled by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Fang Julian; Xia Darong; Chu Jiming; Feng Chunsheng

    1990-01-01

    The spread ability of the radiation steriled diamondblack moth (DBM) is reported. It shows that the 94.2% of DBM is spread in 40 m duration of 10 days and a few of moths are 120 m. It indicates that the spread of steriled DBM is definitely time limit, the spread area is withinca. 700 m 2 in the first three days

  14. The effects of the pine processionary moth on the increment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... sycophanta L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) used against the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in biological control. T. J. Zool. 30:181-185. Kanat M, Sivrikaya F (2005). Effect of the pine processionary moth on diameter increment of Calabrian ...

  15. Cost analysis and biological ramifications for implementing the gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin

    2008-01-01

    The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program aims to reduce the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), spread into new areas in the United States. The annual budget for this program has ranged from $10-13 million. Changes in funding levels can have important ramifications to the implementation of this program, and consequently affect the rate of gypsy...

  16. Persistent effects of aerial applications of disparlure on gypsy moth: trap catch and mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin W. Thorpe; Ksenia S. Tcheslavskaia; Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; E. Anderson Roberts

    2007-01-01

    In forest plots treated aerially with a plastic laminated flake formulation (Disrupt® II) of the gypsy moth sex pheromone disparlure to disrupt gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating was monitored the year of treatment and 1-2 years after treatment to determine the effects of the treatment on suppression of...

  17. Preparing for the gypsy moth - design and analysis for stand management Dorr Run, Wayne National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. Colbert; Phil Perry; Bradley Onken

    1997-01-01

    As the advancing front of the gypsy moth continues its spread throughout Ohio, silviculturists on the Wayne National Forest are preparing themselves for potential gypsy moth outbreaks in the coming decade. Through a cooperative effort between the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area, Forest Health Protection, the Wayne National Forest, Ohio, is...

  18. Gypsy moth in the southeastern U.S.: Biology, ecology, and forest management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce W. ​Kauffman; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Andrew M. Liebhold; David R. Coyle

    2017-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is a non-native insect that was accidentally introduced to North America in 1869 when it escaped cultivation by a French amateur entomologist living near Boston, MA. Despite early efforts to eradicate the species, it became established throughout eastern Massachusetts. Since then, the gypsy moth has...

  19. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  20. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  1. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  2. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: Conserved karyotypes with diverged features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e64520 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) GAJU 059/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) GAJU137/2010/P; IAEA, Viennna(AT) 15838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tortricid moths Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064520

  3. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proverbs, M.D.; Newton, J.R.; Logan, D.M.; Brinton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  5. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  6. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  7. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis for control of Indian meal moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schesser, J H

    1976-10-01

    Doses of four commercial formulations and one experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were mixed with the diet used to rear colonies of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Indian meal moth eggs were introduced to the treated diet, and the resultant adult emergence was tabulated. The experimental formulations ranked as follows in efficacy in controlling the Indian meal moth: Dipel (50% lethal concentration [LC50], 25 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine WP (LC50, 100 mg/kg) greater than Thuricide (LC50, 150 mg/kg) greater than IMC 90007 (LC30, 180 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine Flowable (LC50, 440 mg/kg).

  9. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  10. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  12. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  13. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  14. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  15. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  16. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Andreas; Theißen, Bernhard; Dolek, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM) crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were develope...

  17. Studies on population fluctuation of diamondback moth, plutella xylostella L. at the Khao khor high-land agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawchoung, P.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Malakrong, A.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population Fluctuation of diamondback moth were studied by using the yellow sticky trap at Khao Khor high-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The maximum and minimum number of diamondback moth were 24.89 and 0.1 adult/trap/6 days. When number of diamondback moth was low, they distributed in clump pattern. But the distribution would change to be clump or random pattern when number of diamondback moth was high. Temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and age of cabbage had no effects on number of caugh moth. The number of moth was highly relative with number of larva 7th day later

  18. Comparative life tables of leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, W H; Kuhlmann, U; Mason, P G; Cappuccino, N

    2010-02-01

    Leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), is an invasive alien species in eastern Canada, the larvae of which mine the green tissues of Allium spp. This study was designed to construct and analyse life tables for leek moth within its native range. Stage-specific mortality rates were estimated for the third leek moth generation at three sites in Switzerland from 2004 to 2006 to identify some of the principle factors that inhibit leek moth population growth in areas of low pest density. The contribution of natural enemies to leek moth mortality was measured by comparing mortality on caged and uncaged leeks. Total pre-imaginal mortality on uncaged plants was 99.6%, 99.1% and 96.4% in 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Variation in mortality was greater among years than among sites. Total larval mortality was greater than that in the eggs and pupae. This was due largely to the high mortality (up to 83.3%) of neonates during the brief period between egg hatch and establishment of the feeding mine. Leek moth pupal mortality was significantly greater on uncaged than on caged leeks, indicating an impact by natural enemies, and this pattern was consistent over all three years of study. In contrast, the other life stages did not show consistently higher mortality rates on uncaged plants. This observation suggests that the pupal stage may be particularly vulnerable to natural enemies and, therefore, may be the best target for classical biological control in Canada.

  19. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  20. Atmospheric pollution and melanic moths in Manchester and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askew, R R; Cook, L M; Bishop, J A

    1971-01-01

    Samples of moths have been taken in the Manchester area at sites in localities with moderate to extreme atmospheric pollution. The majority of species collected are dark in color, many typically pale species being represented by dark variants. Four species polymorphic for melanic and non-melanic morphs have been examined in more detail. In Biston betularia the melanic frequency is over 93% at all stations, but the frequency of typicals appears to have increased over the past 15 years. This coincides with a period of extensive smoke control zonation. Gondontis bidentata has a higher frequency of melanics than has been recorded elsewhere in the country. There is significant variation between sites, the higher frequencies occurring in the more polluted localities. Non-melanics segregate into a pale and a dark category. In reared samples males exhibit a greater frequency of melanics than females.

  1. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  2. A study on the spreading ability of radiation-sterilized male moth of bombyx mandarin in field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Xia Darong; Gu Weiping; Zhang Yanjun

    1998-01-01

    The mulberry wild silkworm (MWS), belong to the Bombycidae of Lepidoptera, is serious pest of sericulture. The female moth of MWS is sterile and the male moth is sub-sterile when they were treated with 250 Gy 60 Co γ-ray (dose rate: 1.05 Gy/min), and their filial generations was sterile. The spreading ability of male moth of MWS in field and retrieving the marked MWS male moth with the trapping method was studied. The trapping solution was composed of sugar, vinegar, wine and alive female moth. The retrieving rate of MWS male moth amounted to 12.6%∼13.5% of released moth in field. The spreading range in 24 hours for sterile MWS male moth reached to 700 m, and 90.8% of MWS male moth was in an area of 5 m radius from the releasing centre. It is concluded that thirty releasing centres per hectare are needed to make the irradiated sterilized insects spread for controlling the MWS in field

  3. Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo Choo

    Full Text Available Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes--the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs. Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW, Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13-16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13-16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons.

  4. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  5. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  6. Antibacterial effects of the artificial surface of nanoimprinted moth-eye film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Minoura

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of a nanostructured film, known as "moth-eye film," was investigated. The moth-eye film has artificially formed nano-pillars, consisting of hydrophilic resin with urethane acrylate and polyethylene glycol (PEG derivatives, all over its surface that replicates a moth's eye. Experiments were performed to compare the moth-eye film with a flat-surfaced film produced from the same materials. The JIS Z2801 film-covering method revealed that the two films produced a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coli titers of over 5 and 3 logs, respectively. There was no marked difference in the antibacterial effects of the two surfaces. However, the antibacterial effects were reduced by immersion of the films in water. These results indicated that a soluble component(s of the resin possessed the antibacterial activity, and this component was identified as PEG derivatives by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. When a small volume of bacterial suspension was dropped on the films as an airborne droplet model, both films showed antibacterial effects, but that of the moth-eye film was more potent. It was considered that the moth-eye structure allowed the bacteria-loaded droplet to spread and allow greater contact between the bacteria and the film surface, resulting in strong adherence of the bacteria to the film and synergistically enhanced bactericidal activity with chemical components. The antibacterial effect of the moth-eye film has been thus confirmed under a bacterial droplet model, and it appears attractive due to its antibacterial ability, which is considered to result not only from its chemical make-up but also from physical adherence.

  7. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae among Three Neotropical Ecoregions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mario Beccacece

    Full Text Available Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano. Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor.

  8. The Nantucket pine tip moth: old problems, new research. Proceedings of an informal conference, the Entomological Society of America, annual meeting. 1999 December 12-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford; Donald M. Grosman; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) has become a more prevalent pest in the South as pine plantation management has intensified. The Pine Tip Moth Research Consortium was formed in 1995 to increase basic knowledge about the moth and to explore ways to reduce damage. A conference was held in 1999 at the Entomological Society...

  9. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Åsa K; Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-12-13

    Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different

  10. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  11. The Influence of Herbivory on the net rate of Increase of Gypsy Moth Abundance: A Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

     Harry T.  Valentine

    1983-01-01

    A differential equation model of gypsy moth abundance, average larval dry weight, and food abundance was used to analyze the effects of changes in foliar chemistry on the net per capita rate of increase in a gypsy moth population. If relative consumption rate per larva is unaffected by herbivory, a reduction in the nutritional value of foliage reduces the net rate of...

  12. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  13. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  14. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of geographic variants of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, reveals a previously undescribed genotypic entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., is one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. While the subspecies established in North America is the European gypsy moth (L. dispar dispar), whose females are flightless, the two Asian subspecies, L. dispar asiatica and L. dispar japonica, have flig...

  15. Multiple mating of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and recovering fertility of its progeny after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jiming; Yang Rongxin; Xian Darong; Feng Chunsheng

    1986-01-01

    The maximum multiple mating of the male diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) was 30 times in its life, and the average was 16 times. The maximum multiple mating of the male moth irradiated with a substerilizing dose (35 kR) was 14 times, and the average was 7.2 times. The maximum multiple mating of the female moth was 8 times, and the average was 4 times. The rates of egg sterility in F 1 and F 2 were 57.3% and 99.1% respectively, when the normal female diamondback moths were mated with male moths irradiated with 35 kR dose. However, the fertility was recovered in F 3 as the rate of egg sterility was 0.7%

  16. Assessing Pine Processionary Moth Defoliation Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine processionary moth (PPM is one of the most destructive insect defoliators in the Mediterranean for many conifers, causing losses of growth, vitality and eventually the death of trees during outbreaks. There is a growing need for cost-effective monitoring of the temporal and spatial impacts of PPM in forest ecology to better assess outbreak spread patterns and provide guidance on the development of measures targeting the negative impacts of the species on forests, industry and human health. Remote sensing technology mounted on unmanned aerial systems (UASs with high-resolution image processing has been proposed to assess insect outbreak impacts at local and forest stand levels. Here, we used UAS-acquired RGB imagery in two pine sites to quantify defoliation at the tree-level and to verify the accuracy of the estimates. Our results allowed the identification of healthy, infested and completely defoliated trees and suggested that pine defoliation estimates using UASs are robust and allow high-accuracy (79% field-based infestation indexes to be derived that are comparable to those used by forest technicians. When compared to current field-based methods, our approach provides PPM impact assessments with an efficient data acquisition method in terms of time and staff, allowing the quantitative estimation of defoliation at tree-level scale. Furthermore, our method could be expanded to a number of situations and scaled up in combination with satellite remote sensing imagery or citizen science approaches.

  17. Radiopacity of household deodorizers, air fresheners, and moth repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, A D; Saperstein, A; Zawin, J; Cappock, R; Sue, Y J

    1993-01-01

    Household deodorizers and moth repellents are common agents implicated in many childhood poisonings. Their ingredients usually include either paradichlorobenzene or naphthalene compressed into a solid ball or another shape, sometimes with added essential oils and fragrances. Because medically naphthalene is a more important toxin than paradichlorobenzene, with hematologic and nervous system effects, clinicians often seek to discern which product has been ingested. We discovered fortuitously that a mothball swallowed by a retarded adult was radiopaque, and so designed an in vitro experiment to study the radiopacity of a variety of household deodorizers and products. Of 10 products screened for radiopacity by two radiologists, those containing paradichlorobenzene were consistently strongly radiopaque; those containing naphthalene were radiolucent. A third alternative ingredient which is used in some toilet bowl deodorizers, cetrimonium bromide, was also radiopaque. Radiopacity of paradichlorobenzene or cetrimonium bromide-containing products did not dissipate with time. We speculate that the halogen within the chemical structure of these compounds accounts for their radiopacity. We conclude that paradichlorobenzene-containing commercial products can be distinguished clinically from those containing naphthalene by the performance of an abdominal radiograph.

  18. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)(3). The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)(9), (AT)(8) elements.

  20. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. To females of a noctuid moth, male courtship songs are nothing more than bat echolocation calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Skals, Niels

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that intraspecific ultrasonic communication observed in some moths evolved, through sexual selection, subsequent to the development of ears sensitive to echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Given this scenario, the receiver bias model of signal evolution argues that acou......It has been proposed that intraspecific ultrasonic communication observed in some moths evolved, through sexual selection, subsequent to the development of ears sensitive to echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Given this scenario, the receiver bias model of signal evolution argues...... production in the male moth, and subsequently the role of the sound with reference to the female's ability to discriminate male courtship songs from bat calls. We found that males have sex-specific tymbals for ultrasound emission, and that the broadcast of either male songs or simulated bat calls equally...

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the egg stage of the meal moth, Pyralis Farinalis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.H.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Two days-old eggs of the meal moth, Pyralis Farinalis L. Were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ranged from 10 to 150 gray. Reduction in egg hatch was highly correlated with the given dose. At control, 83.2% of the eggs hatched and 75.6% of the eggs reached adult stage, whereas egg hatch was reduced to 21.8 , 16.1 and 5.8% after exposures to 100,120 and 150 gray, respectively. No adults emerged after egg irradiation to 150 gray. Gamma irradiation had almost slight effect on larval pupal duration without significant differences. Irradiation of eggs could alter the reproductive ability of the emerged moths. The doses 10, 20 and 40 gray delivered to the egg stage reduced egg production and fertility of the emerging moths. The greatest reduction was obtained when both sexes had been irradiated at 40 gray and paired together. Females were more radiosensitive than males. 2 tab

  3. Radiobiological studies on the angoumois moth sitotroga cerealella (oliv.) (lepidoptera - Celechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshra, S A

    1983-12-31

    Grain in bins or ear corn in storage has small buff moths flying about the bins or cramling rapidly over the surface of the grain when it is disturbed. One or two small round holes are eaten in the kernels of infested corn or in other grain. This insect is the most destructive grain moth occurring in our country casing great damage to corn in cribs and also destroying ripening grain, especially wheat, in the field. The present study deals with the effects of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of the angoumois grain moth sitotroga cerealella (olivier) with special reference to the effects of sterilizing dosage on sexual competition. 15 tabs., 9 figs., 116 refs.

  4. Biomimetic Moth-eye Nanofabrication: Enhanced Antireflection with Superior Self-cleaning Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyao; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chong; Shen, Jingjing; Cooper, Merideth A; Zheng, Xiuting; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhaogang; Wu, Daming

    2018-04-03

    Sub-wavelength antireflection moth-eye structures were fabricated with Nickel mold using Roll-to-Plate (R2P) ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) on transparent polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Samples with well replicated patterns established an average reflection of 1.21% in the visible light range, 380 to 760 nm, at normal incidence. An excellent antireflection property of a wide range of incidence angles was shown with the average reflection below 4% at 50°. Compared with the unpatterned ultraviolet-curable resin coating, the resulting sub-wavelength moth-eye structure also exhibited increased hydrophobicity in addition to antireflection. This R2P method is especially suitable for large-area product preparation and the biomimetic moth-eye structure with multiple performances can be applied to optical devices such as display screens, solar cells, or light emitting diodes.

  5. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  6. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the melanization process in larvae of stored product moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupa, D.

    1998-01-01

    Non-irradiated larvae of the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella Hbn.), the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia (Anagasta) kuehniella Zell.), and the almond moth (Cadra cautella Wlk.) showed strong melanization after killing by freezing. However, there were some insects which showed lack of melanization or melanized only partly, sometimes like those that have been irradiated. A part of the larval body was dark black while the rest body was of natural color or only slightly gray. Also, black and gray patches were observed in the larvae. After the irradiation treatment, the number of non-melanized larvae and larvae exhibiting a slight melanization usually increased. The degree of melanization in the treated larvae was significantly different from the untreated insects. Generally, it decreased with increasing dose and time elapsed after the treatment. The melanization test for detecting irradiated moth larvae may produce inconsistent results because (a) irradiation does not completely prevent melanization in mature moth larvae, and (b) the untreated larvae, killed by freezing and examined at room temperature, often show incomplete melanization. An ideal method for detection of irradiated insects should be: (1 ) specific for irradiation and not influenced by other processes, (2) accurate and reproducible, (3) have a detection limit below the minimum dose likely to be applied to agricultural commodity as a quarantine treatment, (4) applicable to a range of pests, (5) quick and easy to perform, and (6) capable of providing an estimate of irradiation dose. The melanization test to detect irradiated larvae of the stored product moths fulfills only some of these requirements. Therefore, additional studies were performed to improve this test before it is recommended for quarantine inspection. Because visual assessment of the effects of irradiation on melanization of the moth larvae is very subjective and difficult to perform, a trial to determine the activity of

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  9. The anti-bat strategy of ultrasound absorption: the wings of nocturnal moths (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) absorb more ultrasound than the wings of diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntelezos, Athanasios; Guarato, Francesco; Windmill, James F C

    2017-01-15

    The selection pressure from echolocating bats has driven the development of a diverse range of anti-bat strategies in insects. For instance, several studies have proposed that the wings of some moths absorb a large portion of the sound energy contained in a bat's ultrasonic cry; as a result, the bat receives a dampened echo, and the moth becomes invisible to the bat. To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to bat predation drives the development of higher ultrasound absorbance, we used a small reverberation chamber to measure the ultrasound absorbance of the wings of nocturnal (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) and diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae). The absorption factor of the nocturnal saturniids peaks significantly higher than the absorption factor of the diurnal chalcosiines. However, the wings of the chalcosiines absorb more ultrasound than the wings of some diurnal butterflies. Following a phylogenetic analysis on the character state of diurnality/ nocturnality in the Zygaenidae, we propose that diurnality in the Chalcosiinae is plesiomorphic (retained); hence, the absorbance of their wings is probably not a vestigial trait from an ancestral, nocturnal form but an adaptation to bat activity that overlaps their own. On a within-species level, females of the saturniids Argema mittrei and Samia cynthia ricini have significantly higher absorption factors than the males. In the female S. c. ricini, the higher absorption factor corresponds to a detection distance by bats that is at best 20-30% shorter than that of the male. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  11. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  12. Within-population variation in response of red oak seedlings to herbivory by gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Scott Byington; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James B. McGraw

    1994-01-01

    The potential for an evolutionary response to gypsy moth (Lymantna dispar L.) herbivory was investigated in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a preferred host. Seedlings of nine open-pollinated families were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally defoliated by fourth instar larvae in the summer of 1991 to assay for intraspecific...

  13. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  14. Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia Frustrana, lures and traps: What is the optimum combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. DeBarr; J. wayne Brewer; R. Scott Cameron; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Pheromone traps are used to monitor flight activity of male Nantucket pine tip moths, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), to initialize spray timing models, determine activity periods, or detect population trends. However, a standardized trapping procedure has not been developed. The relative efficacies of six types of lures and eight commercial pheromone traps were...

  15. Identification of a non-LTR retrotransposon from the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1999-01-01

    A family of highly repetitive elements, named LDT1, has been identified in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The complete element is 5.4 kb in length and lacks long-terminal repeats, The element contains two open reading frames with a significant amino acid sequence similarity to several non-LTR retrotransposons. The first open reading frame contains...

  16. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like

  17. Effects of Nantucket pine tip moth insecticide spray schedules on loblolly pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Kenneth W. McCravy; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Frequent and prolonged insecticide applications to control the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera:Torticidae) (NPTM), although effective, may be impractical and uneconomica1, for commercial timber production. Timed insecticide sprays of permethrin (Polmce 3.2® EC) were applied to all possible combinations of spray...

  18. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  19. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  20. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  1. Genetic patterns in European Geometrid Moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, A.; Godfray, H.C.J.; Huemer, J.; Mutane, M.; Rougerie, R.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species

  2. Impact of enhancin genes on potency of LdNPV in gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Jim McNeil; Alyssa Gendron; James. Slavicek

    2011-01-01

    Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) contains two enhancin genes (E1 and E2) encoding proteases that degrade key peritrophic matrix (PM) proteins, thereby promoting infection and mortality by the virus. In a previous study, gypsy moth larvae inoculated with LdNPV in which both E1 and E2 were deleted (double deletion virus) resulted in a non-...

  3. Field Attraction of Carob Moth to Host Plants and Conspecific Females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Menken, S.B.J.; van Wijk, M.; Roessingh, P.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract

  4. Codling moth cytogenetics: karyotype, chromosomal location of rDNA, and molecular differentiation of sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuková, Iva; Nguyen, Petr; Marec, František

    Roč. 48, - ( 2005 ), s. 1083-1092 ISSN 0831-2796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Grant - others:IAEA(AT) 12055/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : CGH * codling moth * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2005

  5. Survival of diverse bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pest insects, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. By attempting to repeatedly pass lepidopteran-active B. thuringiensis strains through gypsy moth larvae, we found that only those str...

  6. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  7. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  8. Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, P.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on different stages of Indian meal moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner is one of the most important stored products pests in the world. In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation was studied on different developmental stages of this pest and the doses required to prevent each of these developmental stages was investigated. From the results ...

  10. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth

  11. A technique for sexing fully developed embryos and early-instar larvae of the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert Levesque

    1963-01-01

    Because variation in sex ratio is an important factor in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), it is necessary to have some means of determining the ratio of males to females in a population at the beginning of the larval period as well as in the later stages. For determining the sex of fully developed embryos and early-...

  12. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  13. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J

    2012-08-23

    Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.

  14. "Slow the spread" a national program to contain the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; E. Anderson Roberts; Willard Dickerson; Willard Dickerson

    2002-01-01

    Invasions by alien species can cause substantial damage to our forest resources. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) represents one example of this problem, and we present here a new strategy for its management that concentrates on containment rather than suppression of outbreaks. The "Slow the Spread" project is a combined federal and state...

  15. Development of two related endoparasitoids in larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malčická, Mima; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the growth and development of two related solitary endoparasitoids (Braconidae, Microgastinae) in different instars (second and third) of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Cotesia vestalis is a well-studied parasitoid whose larvae feed primarily on host hemolymph and fat body

  16. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  17. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in Argentina and Chile during 2010-11 evaluated a new trap (Ajar) for monitoring the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Ajar trap was delta-shaped with a jar filled with a terpinyl acetate plus brown sugar bait attached to the bottom center of the trap. The screened lid of ...

  18. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  19. The disease complex of the gypsy moth. II. Aerobic bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; R.W. Campbell

    1972-01-01

    Eighty-six pathogenic aerobic bacterial isolates from diseased gypsy moth larvae collected in both sparse and dense populations were characterized and identified as members of the families Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Achromobacteraceae. The commonest pathogens were Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus...

  20. Arabidopsis genotypes resistant and susceptible to diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Putellidea): No net effects on insect growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutella xylostella (L.), diamondback moth (DBM) is a destructive pest of the Brassicaceae including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis vary in the amounts of leaf area consumed when fed on by DBM, which has been used as a measure of resistance to DBM. Recombinant inbred lin...

  1. Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.T.; Classen, A.; Inglis, O.; Blanco, C.A.; López Jr., J.; Vargas, A.T.; Schal, C.; Heckel, D.G.; Schöfl, G.

    2011-01-01

    The two moth species Heliothis virescens (Hv) and H. subflexa (Hs) are closely related, but have vastly different feeding habits. Hv is a generalist and an important pest in many crops in the USA, while Hs is a specialist feeding only on plants in the genus Physalis. In this study, we conducted a

  2. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    particularly forest, fruit , shade and ornamental trees [12,13]. The chemosensilla of gypsy moth L. dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae are located on...placed in water and were removed just prior to testing. This was to prevent dehydration of the leaves. Six leaf disks were arranged equidistant

  3. Major outbreaks of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in Oregon and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; C.G. Thompson

    1973-01-01

    Case histories of five tussock moth outbreaks that occurred in California and Oregon between 1935 and 1965 are discussed. Information is given on the size and duration of the outbreaks, the presence of natural control agents and the damage caused. Most of the outbreaks were eventually treated with DDT. However, enough information was available from untreated portions...

  4. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  5. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-09-30

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia. 

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  7. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  8. Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): Field studies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leellen F. Solter; Daniela K. Pilarska; Michael L. McManus; Milan Zubrik; Jan Patocka; Wei-Fone Huang; Julius. Novotny

    2010-01-01

    Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we...

  9. Effects of 60Co irradiation on the genetics of indian meal moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Changju; Liu Ganming; Deng Wangxi; Yang Zhihui; Hu Jianfang

    1993-01-01

    4 ∼ 5 days old male pupae of Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hubner were irradiated with 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 krad of 60 Co γ-ray. The male moths developed from treated pupae and their F 1 generation were put together with normal female moths for copulation separately. The genetic effects of irradiation was studied and the results showed that the effects of irradiation were significant, which related to the irradiation dosage, on both parental and filial generations. Only 40% of the pupae was emerged, when they were irradiated at 10 krad. The effects on deformation rates, survival rates, copulation abilities, fecundities, hatching rates and genetic sterilities varied with different irradiation dosage treatment. With consideration of the total irradiation effect, the dosage lower than 5 krad is desirable for inducing the sterility of adults and sex chain recessive lethal gene. With 1, 5 and 7 krad of irradiation, a mutant of P. interpunctella with transparent wings was induced, which provides a marking feature in control of Indian meal moth by sex chain recessive lethal gene

  10. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Ettema, J.A.; Donners, M.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Groenendijk, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of

  11. Flavonoids from cabbage are feeding stimulants for diamondback moth larvae additional to glucosinolates : chemoreception and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.; Nielsen, J.K.; Gols, R.; Qiu, Y.T.

    2002-01-01

    In caterpillars two styloconic contact chemoreceptors on the maxillary galea are assumed to contain the main taste receptors involved in host plant selection. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. is a specialist feeder of plants in the Brassicaceae, a plant family characterized by the

  12. Response of gypsy moth larvae to homologous and heterologous nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Edward M. Dougherty

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is not particularly susceptible to baculoviruses other than the nuclear polyhedrosis virus originally isolated from the species (LdMNPV). The multiple enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV), a very virulent baculovirus that replicates in a large number of...

  13. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  14. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1 has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  15. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  16. Chlorantraniliprole as a candidate pesticide used in combination with the attracticides for lepidopteran moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Gao, Yu; Liang, Gemei; Lu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Methomyl is currently used as a toxicant for the attracticide BioAttract in cotton and vegetables in China. However, methomyl is highly toxic to non-target organisms and a more environmental friendly acceptable alternative is required. Larvae of three lepidopteran insects Helicoverpa armigera, Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera litura are important pests of these crops in China. In the present study, the toxicity of 23 commonly used insecticides were tested on H. armigera, then tested the susceptibility of A. ipsilon and S. litura moths to the insecticides which were the most toxic to H. armigera, and the acute toxicity of the most efficacious insecticides were further investigated under laboratory conditions. Chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, spinosad and methomyl exhibited high levels of toxicity to H. armigera moths with a mortality of 86.67%, 91.11%, 73.33%, 57.78% and 80.00%, respectively, during 24 h period at the concentration of 1 mg a.i. L-1. Among these five insecticides, A. ipsilon and S. litura moths were more sensitive to chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate and methomyl. The lethal time (LT50) values of chlorantraniliprole and methomyl were shorter than emamectin benzoate for all three lepidopteran moth species at 1000 mg a.i. L-1 compared to concentrations of 500, 100 and 1 mg a.i L-1. Chlorantraniliprole was found to have similar levels of toxicity and lethal time on the three lepidopteran moths tested to the standard methomyl, and therefore, can be used as an alternative insecticide to methomyl in the attracticide for controlling these pest species.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  18. Rapid assessment on macro-moth fauna at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve: a low diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Sutrisno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assessment on moth faunas with focus on macro-moths was conducted at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve. The aims of the study were to acquire information of macro-moth diversity and to access the composition of the species at this area by comparing data from Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest. The results showed that the number of species at Nusa Barong, Meru Betiri, Sebangau and Busang were 47, 75, 97 and 297, respectively. The diversity of macro-moth fauna based on William’s α index at Nusa Barong was the lowest as compared to Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest, which were 34.58, 65.01, 50.91 and 102.08, respectively. The results also show that the similarity based on Jaccard’s index of the binary comparison varies from 0.029 to 0.089. The highest value was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Meru Betiri while the lowest was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Sebangau. In addition, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Noctuidae were dominant across all sites. At Nusa Barong, only 10 species that have been known their host plants; three of them caused damage to some crops, namely, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydalima laticostalis and Achaea janata. There might be more species that have not been found during this study as indicated by the species numbers across all sites have not reach a plateau. This study clearly showed us that floral diversity and size of area determined the diversity of macro-moths at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve.

  19. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  20. Chemical ecology of moths: Role of semiochemicals in host location by Ectomyelois ceratoniae and mate guarding by Heliothis virescens

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Semiochemical-based behavioral manipulation has been increasingly implemented in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as an environmentally friendly strategy. For many pest species, however, efficient methods have yet to be developed. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is missing in management of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a devastating fruit pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. To explore the use of host-plant volatiles to attract carob moths, the pomegranate-...

  1. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic...

  2. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  3. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  4. Fabrication of moth-eye structure on p-GaN layer of GaN-based LEDs for improvement of light extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Eun-Ju; Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Park, Hyoungwon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Jung, Gun Young

    2009-01-01

    Moth-eye structures were produced on a p-GaN top cladding layer by UV imprint and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch processes in order to improve the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The height and shape of moth-eye structures were adjusted by controlling the thickness of Cr mask layer and ICP etching time. The transmittance of LED device stacks with moth-eye structure was increased up to 1.5-2.5 times, compared to identical LED sample without moth-eye structure and the intensity of photoluminescence from the InGaN multi-quantum well layer of LED sample with moth-eye structure was 5-7 times higher than that of the LED sample without the moth-eye structure.

  5. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesi...

  6. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. R. Judd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE, with either acetic acid (AA or sex pheromone, (E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone, might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT and mating disruption (MD. Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild, AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA, and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg and MD (10 mg programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  7. Lethality of gamma radiation and malathion to the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eesa, N.M.; Moursy, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The lethality of gamma radiation and the organo phosphorous insecticide, malathion, as well as the combined action of both was determined for the five larval instars of the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella (Hubner). The younger instars were more susceptible to both gamma radiation and malathion. The L D 50 values of gamma radiation increased gradually with the instar. Malathion was highly toxic to the first four instars, but the fifth instar required a much larger dose. Gamma radiation combined with malathion at the L D 25 values was antagonistic when evaluated against each of the five larval instars of the indian meal moth. Thus, the use of gamma radiation with malathion does not seem to be a promising control strategy. However, further research investigations are needed to confirm this finding.3 tab

  8. Effect of substerilization doses of radiation on the biology of diamondback moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, D.; Mansor, M.

    1993-01-01

    The pupae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were exposed to four substerilizing doses (100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy) of gamma radiation. The fecundity, sterility and progeny development of parental crosses and certain F 1 backcrosses (progeny of irradiated males) were studied in the laboratory. All doses caused sterility in the parental crosses and F 1 backcrosses. Doses above 20 Gy greatly affected the development of larvae in parental crosses of irradiated females with normal males and of irradiated males with irradiated females, as no pupation was observed. The study indicated that a dose between 150 and 200 Gy would be suitable for inherited sterility of the diamondback moth. However, the backcross of progeny from irradiated males showed no significant increase in inheritance of deleterious effects. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  9. Phenology of the adult angel lichen moth (Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the phenology of adult angel lichen moths (Cisthene angelus) along a 364-km long segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, using a unique data set of 2,437 light-trap samples collected by citizen scientists. We found that adults of C. angelus were bivoltine from 2012 to 2014. We quantified plasticity in wing lengths and sex ratios among the two generations and across a 545-m elevation gradient. We found that abundance, but not wing length, increased at lower elevations and that the two generations differed in size and sex distributions. Our results shed light on the life history and morphology of a common, but poorly known, species of moth endemic to the southwestern United States and Mexico.

  10. Fluorescent SiC with pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Aijaz, Imran; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of a nitride-based blue LED chip and phosphor are very promising candidates for the general lighting applications as energy-saving sources. Recently, donor-acceptor doped fluorescent SiC has been proven as a highly efficient wavelength converter...... to enhance the extraction efficiency, we present a simple method to fabricate the pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures on the surface of the fluorescent SiC. A thin gold layer is deposited on the fluorescent SiC first. Then the thin gold layer is treated by rapid thermal processing. After annealing, the thin...... gold layer turns into discontinuous nano-islands. The average size of the islands is dependent on the annealing condition which could be well controlled. By using the reactive-ion etching, pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures would be obtained using the gold nano-islands as a mask layer. Reactive...

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly and its annotation for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Galarza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the public availability of transcriptome resources for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis. A comprehensive assembly methods, quality statistics, and annotation are provided. This reference transcriptome may serve as a useful resource for investigating functional gene activity in aposematic Lepidopteran species. All data is freely available at the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena under study accession number: PRJEB14172.

  12. Synthesis of the Sex Pheromone of the Tea Tussock Moth Based on a Resource Chemistry Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the sex pheromone of the tea tussock moth in 33% overall yield over 10 steps was achieved. Moreover, the chiral pool concept was applied in the asymmetric synthesis. The synthesis used a chemical available on a large-scale from recycling of wastewater from the steroid industry. The carbon skeleton was constructed using the C4+C5+C8 strategy. Based on this strategy, the original chiral center was totally retained.

  13. Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2014-10-01

    Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. The LDPE-PP laminate film developed using microencapsulated cinnamon oil was effective to protect the model foods from the invasion of Indian meal moth larvae. The microencapsulated ink coating did not significantly change the tensile and barrier properties of the LDPE-PP laminate film, implying that replacement of the uncoated with coated laminate would not be an issue with current packaging equipment. The films showed the potential to be produced in commercial film production lines that usually involve high temperatures because of the improved thermal stability of cinnamon oil due to microencapsulation. The microencapsulated system may be extended to other food-packaging films for which the same ink-printing platform is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Moth and carabid beetle species associated with two ecological phases in northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work; Deborah G. McCullough; William J. Mattson

    1998-01-01

    More than 12,300 moths and 2,500 carabid beetles were trapped during 3 years (1993 through 1995) in two different ecological land type phases (ELTP's) in the Huron-Manistee National Forest in Michigan. One ELTP (no. 20) was dominated by oaks, and the other (no. 45) was dominated by sugar maple; each had distinctive kinds of insects, in spite of the fact that many...

  15. Postglacial recolonization shaped the genetic diversity of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jeremy C; Havill, Nathan P; Caccone, Adalgisa; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2017-05-01

    Changes in climate conditions, particularly during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, have long been recognized to be important for shaping patterns of species diversity. For species residing in the western Palearctic, two commonly observed genetic patterns resulting from these cycles are as follows: (1) that the numbers and distributions of genetic lineages correspond with the use of geographically distinct glacial refugia and (2) that southern populations are generally more diverse than northern populations (the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm). To determine whether these patterns hold true for the widespread pest species the winter moth ( Operophtera brumata ), we genotyped 699 individual winter moths collected from 15 Eurasian countries with 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We find strong evidence for the presence of two major genetic clusters that diverged ~18 to ~22 ka, with evidence that secondary contact (i.e., hybridization) resumed ~ 5 ka along a well-established hybrid zone in Central Europe. This pattern supports the hypothesis that contemporary populations descend from populations that resided in distinct glacial refugia. However, unlike many previous studies of postglacial recolonization, we found no evidence for the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm. We also find evidence for ongoing gene flow between populations in adjacent Eurasian countries, suggesting that long-distance dispersal plays an important part in shaping winter moth genetic diversity. In addition, we find that this gene flow is predominantly in a west-to-east direction, suggesting that recently debated reports of cyclical outbreaks of winter moth spreading from east to west across Europe are not the result of dispersal.

  16. Phase-dependent outbreak dynamics of geometrid moth linked to host plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jane U; Hagen, Snorre B; Karlsen, Stein-Rune; Ims, Rolf A

    2009-12-07

    Climatically driven Moran effects have often been invoked as the most likely cause of regionally synchronized outbreaks of insect herbivores without identifying the exact mechanism. However, the degree of match between host plant and larval phenology is crucial for the growth and survival of many spring-feeding pest insects, suggesting that a phenological match/mismatch-driven Moran effect may act as a synchronizing agent. We analyse the phase-dependent spatial dynamics of defoliation caused by cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in northern boreal birch forest in Fennoscandia through the most recent massive outbreak (2000-2008). We use satellite-derived time series of the prevalence of moth defoliation and the onset of the growing season for the entire region to investigate the link between the patterns of defoliation and outbreak spread. In addition, we examine whether a phase-dependent coherence in the pattern of spatial synchrony exists between defoliation and onset of the growing season, in order to evaluate if the degree of matching phenology between the moth and their host plant could be the mechanism behind a Moran effect. The strength of regional spatial synchrony in defoliation and the pattern of defoliation spread were both highly phase-dependent. The incipient phase of the outbreak was characterized by high regional synchrony in defoliation and long spread distances, compared with the epidemic and crash phase. Defoliation spread was best described using a two-scale stratified spread model, suggesting that defoliation spread is governed by two processes operating at different spatial scale. The pattern of phase-dependent spatial synchrony was coherent in both defoliation and onset of the growing season. This suggests that the timing of spring phenology plays a role in the large-scale synchronization of birch forest moth outbreaks.

  17. Studies on F1 radiation sterilization of diamondback moth and mulberry wild silkworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxing; Xia Darong; Cu Weiping; Chu Jiming; Zhang Yanjun

    1993-01-01

    The study began in 1988 under the aegis of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control. During the following four years the control of the mulberry wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina Moore) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) by means of radiation induced sterility was studied. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Five functional adipokinetic peptides expressed in the corpus cardiacum of the moth genus Hippotion (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Marco, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 184, JUN 10 (2013), s. 85-95 ISSN 0167-0115 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) FA2008071500048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphingidae * common striped hawk moth * Hippotion eson Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167011513000670

  19. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis D(delta)-endotoxins against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncheva, R.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.; Naimov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Solubilized protoxins of nine Cry1 and one hybrid Cry1 ¿-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against larvae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L). Cry1Da was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Ab, Cry1Ba, and Cry1Ac, while Cry1Aa, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ia, and SN19 were still

  20. Risk assessment of the jasmine moth Palpita vitrealis (Rossi) amplified by a contaminant ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Helena; Pereira, Cândido; Cardoso, Miguel; Manteigas, Ana; Sequeira, Manuel; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Luz, João Pedro; Mexia, António

    2012-01-01

    Jasmine moth population was monitored in olive groves in Cova da Beira, using traps baited with three commercial formulations of pheromone: Russell (in tricoloured funnel traps), SEDQ and Suterra (both in delta traps). Counts were carried out weekly from March to November 2010 for SEDQ’s pheromone and from September to November for Russell’s and Suterra´s pheromones. The scouts ranged among 0 and 4 insects/trap/ week. A contaminant Lepidoptera species, not yet...

  1. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baker

    Full Text Available The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L. (Malpighiales: Salicaceae. Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005 with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas.

  2. KONAGAbase: a genomic and transcriptomic database for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Jouraku, Akiya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Urio, Masahiro; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Kurita, Kanako; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Noda, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests for crucifer crops worldwide. DBM has rapidly evolved high resistance to most conventional insecticides such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, fipronil, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diamides. Therefore, it is important to develop genomic and transcriptomic DBM resources for analysis of genes related to insecticide resistance, both to clarify the mechanism of resistance of DBM and to fa...

  3. Do saproxylic beetles respond numerically to rapid changes in dead wood availability following moth outbreaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of defoliating insects periodically cause mass mortality of trees, thereby generating pulses of dead wood resources for saproxylic (i.e. dead-wood dependent) organisms. This study investigated the responses of saproxylic beetles to a dead wood resource pulse caused by recent (2001-2009) outbreaks of geometrid moths in the subarctic mountain birch forest of the Varanger region in northern Norway. A large scale (20 km) transect design, implementing window (flight interception) traps a...

  4. Flight Synchrony among the Major Moth Pests of Cranberries in the Upper Midwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn A. Steffan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The cranberry fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii Riley, sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens, and blackheaded fireworm (Rhopobota naevana Hübner are historically significant pests of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton in the Upper Midwest (Wisconsin, USA. Their respective natural histories are well documented but correlations between developmental benchmarks (e.g., larval eclosion and degree-day accruals are not yet known. Treatment timings are critical to the optimization of any given control tactic, and degree-day accrual facilitates optimization by quantifying the developmental status of pest populations. When key developmental benchmarks in the pest life cycle are linked to degree-days, real-time weather data can be used to predict precise treatment timings. Here, we provide the degree-day accumulations associated with discrete biological events (i.e., initiation of flight and peak flight for the three most consistent moth pests of cranberries in Wisconsin. Moths were trapped each spring and summer from 2003 to 2011. To characterize flight dynamics and average timing of flight initiation, pheromone-baited trap-catch data were tallied for all three pest species within each of seven growing seasons. These flight dynamics were then associated with the corresponding degree-day accumulations generated using the cranberry plant’s developmental thresholds. Finally, models were fit to the data in order to determine the peak flight of each species. The initiation of the spring flight among all three moth species was highly synchronous, aiding in the timing of control tactics; however, there were substantial differences in the timing of peak flight among the moth species. Characterization of the relationship between temperature and pest development allows pest management professionals to target specific life stages, improving the efficacy of any given pest control tactic.

  5. Short-chain alkanes synergise responses of moth pests to their sex pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurba, Alexandre; Guerin, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    The use of sex pheromones for mating disruption of moth pests of crops is increasing worldwide. Efforts are under way to augment the efficiency and reliability of this control method by adding molecules derived from host plants to the sex attractants in dispensers. We show how attraction of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff., and the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., males to underdosed levels of their sex pheromones is increased by adding heptane or octane over a range of release rates. Pheromone-alkane mixtures enhance male recruitment by up to 30%, reaching levels induced by calling females, and shorten the flight time to the sex attractant by a factor of 2. The findings show the promise of using short-chain alkanes as pheromone synergists for mating disruption of insect pests of food crops. Alkane-pheromone combinations are expected to increase the competitiveness of dispensers with females, and to reduce the amount of pheromone needed for the control of these pests. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sex-specific consequences of an induced immune response on reproduction in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Andrea; Staudacher, Heike; Schmaltz, Antje; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

    2015-12-16

    Immune response induction benefits insects in combatting infection by pathogens. However, organisms have a limited amount of resources available and face the dilemma of partitioning resources between immunity and other life-history traits. Since males and females differ in their life histories, sex-specific resource investment strategies to achieve an optimal immune response following an infection can be expected. We investigated immune response induction of females and males of Heliothis virescens in response to the entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia entomophila, and its effects on mating success and the female sexual signal. We found that females had higher expression levels of immune-related genes after bacterial challenge than males. However, males maintained a higher baseline expression of immune-related genes than females. The increased investment in immunity of female moths was negatively correlated with mating success and the female sexual signal. Male mating success was unaffected by bacterial challenge. Our results show that the sexes differed in their investment strategies: females invested in immune defense after a bacterial challenge, indicating facultative immune deployment, whereas males had higher baseline immunity than females, indicating immune maintenance. Interestingly, these differences in investment were reflected in the mate choice assays. As female moths are the sexual signallers, females need to invest resources in their attractiveness. However, female moths appeared to invest in immunity at the cost of reproductive effort.

  7. Power distribution in the hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Deng Xinyan

    2009-01-01

    We investigated inertial and aerodynamic power consumption during hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The aerodynamic power was estimated based on the aerodynamic forces and torques measured on model hawk-moth wings and hovering kinematics. The inertial power was estimated based on the measured wing mass distribution and hovering kinematics. The results suggest that wing inertial power (without consideration of muscle efficiency and elastic energy storage) consumes about half of the total power expenditure. Wing areal mass density was measured to decrease sharply from the leading edge toward the trailing edge and from the wing base to the wing tip. Such a structural property helps to minimize the wing moment of inertia given a fixed amount of mass. We measured the aerodynamic forces on the rigid and flexible wings, which were made to approximate the flexural stiffness (EI) distribution and deformation of moth wings. It has been found that wings with the characteristic spanwise and chordwise decreasing EI (and mass density) are beneficial for power efficiency while generating aerodynamic forces comparative to rigid wings. Furthermore, negative work to aid pitching in stroke reversals from aerodynamic forces was found, and it showed that the aerodynamic force contributes partially to passive pitching of the wing

  8. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  9. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Biao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  10. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-12-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  11. Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dolati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae, is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI. A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.

  12. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-02

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  13. A major gene controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J.; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan; Saenko, Suzanne V.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Wu, Grace C.; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J.; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard; Dowling, Andrea; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection1,2. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and if there is any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we identify a gene, cortex, through fine-scale mapping using population genomics and gene expression analyses, which regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell cycle regulators3, suggesting that it most likely regulates pigmentation patterning through regulation of scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia)4, our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  14. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  15. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  16. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

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    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  17. Synergistic Effect of Combining Plutella xylostella Granulovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis at Sublethal Dosages on Controlling of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Li, Chuanming; Liu, Qin; Xu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are both entomo-pathogens to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The purpose of the present study was to measure the effect of the combination of PxGV and Bt at sublethal dosages on the development and mortality of diamondback moth in a laboratory setting. Bt and PxGV exhibited synergistic effect on diamondback moth larval mortality and effectively controlled diamondback moth populations with low dose combination treatment. The combination of three parts per million Bt and 1.3 × 10(3) occlusion bodies per milliliter of PxGV revealed a higher larval mortality compared with the treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. Combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal concentrations also increased larval duration, reduced oviposition and decreased adult longevity remarkably, resulting in the lowest population trend index among the treatments. The results suggested that the combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal dosages might provide a valuable way to improve the control efficacy of diamondback moth compared with treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  19. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes. (paper)

  20. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  1. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  2. An insect out of control? The potential for spread and establishment of the gypsy moth in new forest areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max W. McFadden; Michael E. McManus

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was introduced from Europe into North America near Boston, Massachusetts, in 1869, and is now well established as a serious defoliator of forest, shade, and fruit trees over much of the eastern United States. Despite substantial efforts to eradicate, contain, or control this pest, the gypsy moth has persisted and...

  3. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  4. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

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    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  5. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O 2 ) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O 2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  6. Diet-mediated effects of heavy metal pollution on growth and immune response in the geometrid moth Epirrita autumnata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooik, Tapio van; Rantala, Markus J.; Saloniemi, Irma

    2007-01-01

    The potential capacity of larval growth and immune response traits of the autumnal moth to adapt to heavy metal polluted environment was tested experimentally. Both the relative growth rate (RGR) and pupal weight were significantly higher in control trees than on polluted trees, indicating that metal pollution prevented the insect from achieving maximal growth on birch leaves. Larval growth rates of different broods differed significantly between metal contaminated and control birches. However, pupal weight of broods, which is considered more important for fitness than growth rate, in response to pollution did not differ. Immune response was significantly higher in moths exposed to pollution than in moths that were exposed to control environment suggesting that pollution enhances the immune defense of defoliators. Encapsulation rate tended to differ between broods indicating that the immune function has potential to respond to selection. - Immune function of an insect herbivore increased in heavy metal polluted environment and some insect traits showed potential to adapt to polluted environment

  7. Full-spectrum light management by pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures for thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-08-07

    In this paper, the role of pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures on the optical features for application to thin-film solar cells is investigated to realize the superior light management for the full-spectrum solar energy utilization, compared with some ordered structures. Without loss of generality, the c-Si thin film solar cell is taken as the example. The results demonstrate that the fluctuations introduced into the geometry parameters of moth-eye elements can lead to the remarkable absorption enhancement in the wavelength region of 0.3-1.1 μm and high transmission in the wavelength range of 1.1-2.5 μm. Two mechanisms including the increasing spectral density of modes and the intensive forescattering intensity are identified to be responsible for the absorption enhancement. In addition, the optical characteristics of the moth-eye surface with both disordered height and disordered diameter are insensitive to the incident angle.

  8. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  9. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  10. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  11. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

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    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  12. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  13. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  14. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

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    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  15. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

  16. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60 Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  17. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  18. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  19. Phylogeny and evolution of pharmacophagy in tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Zaspel

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region, one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA, and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI. Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC. Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition.

  20. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  1. r and K strategies in some larval and pupal parasitoids of the gypsy moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Pedro

    1977-12-01

    The investigations of the bionomics and parasitoid-host interactions of some gypsy moth parasitoids provide an opportunity to consider the role of r and K strategies in the life history of some tachinid and hymenopterous parasitoid species. Available historic data as well as results of recent studies are utilized in an attempt to evaluate the degree to which the data conform to this paradigm. Few studies have provided the information required to evaluate this concept particularly in a parasitoid complex. The concept of r and K also is discussed in relation to biological control strategies, and the implications of this analysis for those arguments are discussed.

  2. Proboscis Morphology and Its Relationship to Feeding Habits in Noctuid Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenker, Maurício Moraes; Penz, Carla; de Paris, Michele; Specht, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study describes proboscis morphology and identifies morphometric differences among five species of noctuid moths with different feeding habits (fruit versus nectar-feeding). Morphological and morphometric parameters were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Measurements included: galea height in ten sites from base to tip, total proboscis length, and length of the distal region that contains large sensilla styloconica and / or tearing hooks and erectible barbs. Both morphometric and morphological differences were identified among species within and between feeding guilds, and these results are discussed in light of the feeding habits of each species. PMID:21539419

  3. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  4. Toxicity of parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis to the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schesser, J H; Bulla, L A

    1979-05-01

    Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystals to the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, is described. The numbers of insects killed were in relation to crystal dry weight. Mortality was determined by comparing adult emergence in diets treated with crystals to emergence in untreated diets. There was only a 30% survival at an application of 0.414 microgram/cm2, and the mean 50% lethal concentration value was found to be 0.299 microgram/cm2. The use of emergence data has provided a reliable and reproducible bioassay for comparing relative toxicities of crystals, spores, and other cellular components to this economically important insect.

  5. Moths produce extremely quiet ultrasonic courtship songs by rubbing specialized scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    level at 1 cm) adapted for private sexual communication in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis. During courtship, the male rubs specialized scales on the wing against those on the thorax to produce the songs, with the wing membrane underlying the scales possibly acting as a sound resonator....... The male's song suppresses the escape behavior of the female, thereby increasing his mating success. Our discovery of extremely low-intensity ultrasonic communication may point to a whole undiscovered world of private communication, using "quiet" ultrasound....

  6. Red Dog, Horses and Bogong Moths: The Memorialisation of Animals in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Searby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine ways in which animals are memorialised in Australia. By examining the narratives surrounding horses in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales, ceremonies for Bogong moths, and touching upon the stories of Red Dog, I show how the intangible can be considered a memorial and a memorial landscape conceived as one that is co-constructed by humans and animals. Understanding memorialisation as intangible facilitates a repositioning of animals in relation to humans and the creation of a new framework of reference for memorialising animals.

  7. Lethal dose of gamma radiation for eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), rice moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.D.; Arthur, V.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to observe the effects of gamma radiation on rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (STAINTON, 1865) eggs. The doses utilized in this experiment were 0; 25; 50; 75; 100; 125; 150; 175; 200 Gy. The experiment was carried out in a climatic room at 25 ± 2 0 C and 70 ± 10% R.H. It was observed that lethal dose LD50 and LD100 for eggs from adults reared by artificial diet were 16 and 75 Gy, respectively. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  8. Are adult life history traits in oriental fruit moth affected by a mild pupal heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jincheng; Cheng, Xiongbin; Hoffmann, Ary A; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2017-10-01

    Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity. Fitness effects were mostly consistent across populations but there were also some population differences. In the Shenyang population from northern China, there was a hormetic effect of heat on female longevity not evident in the other populations. Adults from all populations had higher LT 50 s due to heat stress after pupal exposure to the sublethal stress. These results highlight that the pupal stage is a particularly sensitive window for development and they have implications for seasonal adaptation in uncertain environments as well as changes in pest dynamics under climate warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Biology and Control of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwadha, Charles A; Ong'amo, George O; Ndegwa, Paul N; Raina, Suresh K; Fombong, Ayuka T

    2017-06-09

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus , is a ubiquitous pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, and Apis cerana Fabricius . The greater wax moth larvae burrow into the edge of unsealed cells with pollen, bee brood, and honey through to the midrib of honeybee comb. Burrowing larvae leave behind masses of webs which causes galleriasis and later absconding of colonies. The damage caused by G. mellonella larvae is severe in tropical and sub-tropical regions, and is believed to be one of the contributing factors to the decline in both feral and wild honeybee populations. Previously, the pest was considered a nuisance in honeybee colonies, therefore, most studies have focused on the pest as a model for in vivo studies of toxicology and pathogenicity. It is currently widespread, especially in Africa, and the potential of transmitting honeybee viruses has raised legitimate concern, thus, there is need for more studies to find sustainable integrated management strategies. However, our knowledge of this pest is limited. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the biology, distribution, economic damage, and management options. In addition, we provide prospects that need consideration for better understanding and management of the pest.

  10. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Martinez

    Full Text Available Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  11. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Chaffiol, Antoine; Voges, Nicole; Gu, Yuqiao; Anton, Sylvia; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  12. Delineating species with DNA barcodes: a case of taxon dependent method performance in moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kekkonen

    Full Text Available The accelerating loss of biodiversity has created a need for more effective ways to discover species. Novel algorithmic approaches for analyzing sequence data combined with rapidly expanding DNA barcode libraries provide a potential solution. While several analytical methods are available for the delineation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, few studies have compared their performance. This study compares the performance of one morphology-based and four DNA-based (BIN, parsimony networks, ABGD, GMYC methods on two groups of gelechioid moths. It examines 92 species of Finnish Gelechiinae and 103 species of Australian Elachistinae which were delineated by traditional taxonomy. The results reveal a striking difference in performance between the two taxa with all four DNA-based methods. OTU counts in the Elachistinae showed a wider range and a relatively low (ca. 65% OTU match with reference species while OTU counts were more congruent and performance was higher (ca. 90% in the Gelechiinae. Performance rose when only monophyletic species were compared, but the taxon-dependence remained. None of the DNA-based methods produced a correct match with non-monophyletic species, but singletons were handled well. A simulated test of morphospecies-grouping performed very poorly in revealing taxon diversity in these small, dull-colored moths. Despite the strong performance of analyses based on DNA barcodes, species delineated using single-locus mtDNA data are best viewed as OTUs that require validation by subsequent integrative taxonomic work.

  13. W-enriched satellite sequence in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalíková, Martina; Zrzavá, Magda; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František

    2017-10-01

    The W chromosome of most lepidopteran species represents the largest heterochromatin entity in the female genome. Although satellite DNA is a typical component of constitutive heterochromatin, there are only a few known satellite DNAs (satDNAs) located on the W chromosome in moths and butterflies. In this study, we isolated and characterized new satDNA (PiSAT1) from microdissected W chromosomes of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Even though the PiSAT1 is mainly localized near the female-specific segment of the W chromosome, short arrays of this satDNA also occur on autosomes and/or the Z chromosome. Probably due to the predominant location in the non-recombining part of the genome, PiSAT1 exhibits a relatively large nucleotide variability in its monomers. However, at least a part of all predicted functional motifs is located in conserved regions. Moreover, we detected polyadenylated transcripts of PiSAT1 in all developmental stages and in both sexes (female and male larvae, pupae and adults). Our results suggest a potential structural and functional role of PiSAT1 in the P. interpunctella genome, which is consistent with accumulating evidence for the important role of satDNAs in eukaryotic genomes.

  14. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  15. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, K.A.; Bloem, S.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  16. Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J Z; Collins, H L; Li, Y X; Mau, R F L; Thompson, G D; Hertlein, M; Andaloro, J T; Boykin, R; Shelton, A M

    2006-02-01

    Six to nine populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were collected annually from fields of crucifer vegetables in the United States and Mexico from 2001 to 2004 for baseline susceptibility tests and resistance monitoring to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate. A discriminating concentration for resistance monitoring to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was determined based on baseline data in 2001 and was used in the diagnostic assay for each population in 2002-2004 together with a discriminating concentration for spinosad determined previously. Most populations were susceptible to all three insecticides, but a population from Hawaii in 2003 showed high levels of resistance to indoxacarb. Instances of resistance to spinosad occurred in Hawaii (2000), Georgia (2001), and California (2002) as a consequence of a few years of extensive applications in each region. The collaborative monitoring program between university and industry scientists we discuss in this article has provided useful information to both parties as well as growers who use the products. These studies provide a baseline for developing a more effective resistance management program for diamondback moth.

  17. Sublethal Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Calling Behavior and Pheromone Production of Tortricid Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Gemeno, César

    2017-09-01

    In moths, sexual behavior combines female sex pheromone production and calling behavior. The normal functioning of these periodic events requires an intact nervous system. Neurotoxic insecticide residues in the agroecosystem could impact the normal functioning of pheromone communication through alteration of the nervous system. In this study we assess whether sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid, that competitively modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the dendrite, affect pheromone production and calling behavior in adults of three economically important tortricid moth pests; Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Thiacloprid significantly reduced the amount of calling in C. pomonella females at LC 0.001 (a lethal concentration that kills only 1 in 10 5 individuals), and altered its calling period at LC 1 , and in both cases the effect was dose-dependent. In the other two species the effect was similar but started at higher LCs, and the effect was relatively small in L. botrana. Pheromone production was altered only in C. pomonella, with a reduction of the major compound, codlemone, and one minor component, starting at LC 10 . Since sex pheromones and neonicotinoids are used together in the management of these three species, our results could have implications regarding the interaction between these two pest control methods.

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F

    2005-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation. (Author)

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2004-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation

  20. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  1. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  2. Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

  3. Cloning and functional characterization of three new pheromone receptors from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xingchuan; Wang, Guirong

    The highly specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of male moths can recognize blends of several pheromone components. In previous studies, a total of six candidate pheromone receptor (PR) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In the present work, we report on three novel candidate pheromone receptor genes: PxylOR8, PxylOR41, and PxylOR45 in the same species. Gene expression analysis revealed that PxylOR8 is specifically expressed in female adult antennae, while PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are expressed in antennae in both sexes, but with a male bias. In situ hybridization revealed that PxylOR8, PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are localized in long trichoid sensilla. Functional analyses on the three pheromone receptor genes were then performed using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. PxylOR41 was tuned to two minor pheromone components Z9-14:Ac, Z9-14:OH, and their analog Z9-14:Ald. PxylOR8 and PxylOR45 did not respond to any tested pheromone components and analogs. These results may contribute to clarifying how pheromone detection works in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of the chitinase genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z H; Kuo, T C; Kao, C H; Chou, T M; Kao, Y H; Huang, R N

    2016-12-01

    Chitinases have an indispensable function in chitin metabolism and are well characterized in numerous insect species. Although the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella, which has a high reproductive potential, short generation time, and characteristic adaptation to adverse environments, has become one of the most serious pests of cruciferous plants worldwide, the information on the chitinases of the moth is presently limited. In the present study, using degenerated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR strategies, four chitinase genes of P. xylostella were cloned, and an exhaustive search was conducted for chitinase-like sequences from the P. xylostella genome and transcriptomic database. Based on the domain analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic analysis of the catalytic domain sequences, we identified 15 chitinase genes from P. xylostella. Two of the gut-specific chitinases did not cluster with any of the known phylogenetic groups of chitinases and might be in a new group of the chitinase family. Moreover, in our study, group VIII chitinase was not identified. The structures, classifications and expression patterns of the chitinases of P. xylostella were further delineated, and with this information, further investigations on the functions of chitinase genes in DBM could be facilitated.

  5. Vibration receptive sensilla on the wing margins of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2010-03-01

    Bristles along the wing margins (wm-bristles) of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, were studied morphologically and electrophysiologically. The male moth has ca. 50 wm-bristles on each forewing and hindwing. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these wm-bristles are typical mechanosensilla. Leuco-methylene blue staining demonstrated that each wm-bristle has a single receptor neuron, which is also characteristic of the mechanosensillum. The receptor neuron responded to vibrating air currents but did not respond to a constant air current. The wm-bristles showed clear directional sensitivity to vibrating air currents. The wm-bristles were classified into two types, type I and type II, by their response patterns to sinusoidal movements of the bristle. The neuron in type I discharged bursting spikes immediately following stimulation onset and also discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle for frequencies less than ca. 60 Hz. The neuron in type II only responded to vibrations over 40 Hz and, specifically at 75 Hz, discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle throughout the stimulation period. These results suggest that the two types of wm-bristles are highly tuned in different ways to detect vibrations due to the wing beat. The roles of the wm-bristles in the wing beat are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Putative chemosensory receptors of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, identified by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs, which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect.

  8. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD 99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males. - Highlights: • Effects of gamma irradiation on Lobesia botrana mature larvae are examined. • Results showed that a dose of 200 Gy was sufficient to prevent adult emergence from mature larvae. • This dose (200 Gy) is less than the suggested generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidopteran larvae. • The dose is also much lower than the maximum allowed dose for irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables

  10. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2011-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the...

  11. Genetic divergence and evidence for sympatric host-races in the highly polyphagous brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.

    2014-01-01

    The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this

  12. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and related spore-forming bacteria from soil after application for gypsy moth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Elizabeth A. Mongeon; Michael B. Blackburn; Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) has been applied for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) control in forests in the northeastern U.S. for many years. The subspecies of Bt that is used (urstaki) is not common in U.S. soil. We attempted to recover Bt from...

  13. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Morey; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2013-01-01

    We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  14. Preliminary study of the quarantine treatment by gamma rays for codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples and pears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusef, Maria V.; Kaupert, Norma L.; Quintana, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    After irradiation, important variations have been observed in the behaviour and metabolism of the moth larvae that are clearly attributable to the effects of gamma rays. The variation includes the loss of the characteristic pink colour, partial or total loss of appetite, loss of turgidity, etc. (author)

  15. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  16. Methoprene and synergized pyrethrins as an aerosol treatment to control Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), the Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol insecticides (also known as ULV or fogging treatments) delivered through an ultra-low volume application system, are available commercially to control insect pests such as Plodia interpunctella Hübner, the Indianmeal moth. However, little is known about the susceptibility of eggs of P. inter...

  17. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  18. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  19. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF WINTER TURNIP MOTH IN AGROBIOCENOSES OF DAGESTAN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTION MODEL OF ITS STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. U. Misrieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the biology and ecology of the dominant species of phytophages is necessary for optimization of crop protection. The turnip moth (Agrotis segetum is one of these phytophages. It allows optimizing the existing approaches to limit the number of phytophages.

  20. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author)

  1. The preliminary studies on parasitization of Trichogramma chilonis on Helicoverpa armigera eggs and eggs from irradiated Helicoverpa armigera moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Endong; Lu Daguang; Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Liu Qiongru; Wang Huasong

    2002-01-01

    The parasitization rates of Trichogramma chilonis on 250 Gy irradiated and unirradiated fresh eggs of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were not significantly different. The parasitization rate on irradiated chill-stored eggs of H. armigera was lower than that on irradiated fresh eggs. The parasitization rates on eggs from 250 Gy irradiated H. armigera moths depended on their embryonated rates

  2. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juszczak, R.; Kuchar, L.; Leśny, J.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2012), s. 31-44 ISSN 0020-7128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : climate change * degree days * codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) * weather generator * WGENK Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.590, year: 2012

  3. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  4. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  5. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  6. Susceptibility of parent and interspecific Fl hybrid pine trees to tip moth damage in a coastal North Carolina planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxine T. Highsmith; John Frampton; David 0' Malley; James Richmond; Martesa Webb

    2001-01-01

    Tip moth damage arnong families of parent pine species and their interspecific F1 hybrids was quantitatively assessed in a coastal planting in North Carolina. Three slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti Engelm.), two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and four interspecific F1 hybrid pine families were used. The...

  7. Re-evaluation of the PBAN receptor molecule: characterization of PBANR variants expressed in the pheromone glands of moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is initiated following pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) activation. PBANR was initially cloned from pheromone glands (PGs) of Helicoverpa zea and Bombyx mori. The B. mori PBANR is characterized by a relatively long C-terminus that...

  8. Simulations on the role of the egg parasite, Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard), in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.W.; Williams, F.M.; Cameron, E.A.

    1983-04-01

    Computer simulations were run to examine the effects of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) parasitism on gypsy moth populations. Two difference equation models were used, one, a simple theoretical model containing only a few important components, the other, a more comprehensive model with component functions based on field data. The simulations of the first model showed that O. kuvanae cannot control gypsy moth populations by itself. Egg parasitism was most important during the outbreak and collapse phase of the gypsy moth population cycle, and was of little importance in the endemic phase. The endemic phase was, however, lower and lasted longer with O. kuvanae parasitism than without. Simulations with the second model generally supported these conclusions. The second set of simulations also demonstrated that due to the non-linearity of the density dependence of O. kuvanae parasitism, the gypsy moth population could be forced into a chaotic regime (unstable, aperiodic population behavior). The variation in parasitism rate from the simulations was compared with that of field populations and found to be essentially the same, indicating that the simulation models are realistic.

  9. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Kryukova, Natalia A; Tyurin, Maksim V; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Glupov, Viktor V

    2017-03-15

    Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test. In addition, the presence of H. hebetor females significantly (1.5-13 fold) increased the mycoses level in clusters of G. mellonella, with 40% of the larvae infected with fungal conidia. Envenomation by H. hebetor increased conidia germination on the cuticles of the wax moth larvae by 4.4 fold. An enhanced germination rate (2 fold) was registered in the n-hexane epicuticular extract of envenomated larvae compared to that of healthy larvae. Both envenomation and mycoses enhanced the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the integument of G. mellonella and, in contrast, decreased the encapsulation rate in hemolymphs. We hypothesize that changes in the integument property and inhibition of cellular immunity provide the highest infection efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi with H. hebetor. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Van Asch, M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  11. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Consistent codling moth population decline by two years of mating disruption in apple: a Flemish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2012-01-01

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is one of the most important pests in apple and pear. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards, largely due to a government subsidy and demonstrating projects aiming to widen the area treated by pheromones as large as possible. As a consequence, the mating disruption strategy was applied at approximately 7.500 ha, or half of the pip fruit area, in 2010 and 2011. The sudden large-scale implementation of this technique changed the codling moth management landscape. Here we present a case study of a commercially managed orchard that suffered from high codling moth pressures for many years, as did the surrounding area. The RAK3 mating disruption system was introduced at this location in 2010, and was continued in 2011. Systematic detailed codling moth flight data for this location are available for many years. In addition, comprehensive data on damage levels of chemically untreated windows spread all over the test orchard in a randomized block design were obtained in successive years, enabling us to thoroughly evaluate the effect of the changed codling moth management strategy. Data from 2011 included damage levels in chemically treated windows when the entire orchard was applied once at the flight peak of Cydia pomonella. In 2009, before introduction of mating disruption, a mean of 8.25 +/- 5.54% of the fruits were infested at harvest when assessed in completely untreated windows. After two years of mating disruption, supported with a full chemical support in 2010, except for the untreated assessment windows, and only one application on the flight peak of 2011, damage was reduced to less than 0.03% at harvest. This is a valuable case study to demonstrate the benefits of the mating disruption approach.

  13. Field trials in South China to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using radiation-induced sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Xia, D.; Gu, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our studies included mating characteristics, sterility of the F 1 generation, dispersal and recapture of irradiated moths, as well as control of DBM using SIT and F 1 sterility, and an economic evaluation of F 1 sterility to protect cabbage. Male DBM mated an average of 16 times and female DBM mated an average of 4 times. However, irradiated male DBM only mated an average of 7.2 times. Seventy percent of matings occurred from 18:00-24:00 h with an average duration of 80 min. Irradiated male moths and untreated male moths exhibited the same attraction to female moths. After 10 days, most (94.2%) of the released, sterile DBM were recaptured within 40 m of the release site. Only one DBM was recaptured at 120 m from the release site. The area of dispersal was calculated to be 696 m 2 during the first three days. In a field study to control DBM by releases of irradiated insects, the ratio of sterile to wild DBM was 4.7:1. During this study, the egg sterility in the F 1 and F 2 generations was 79.0% and 81.7%, respectively. The developmental times for the F 1 and F 2 generations were 4 and 12 days longer, respectively, than for DBM in the control area. Thus, the number of DBM generations was reduced in the treated field. With successive releases over two generations, the control effectiveness was 80.8% in the F 1 generation and 79.1% in the F 2 generation. The cost of using F 1 sterility to control DBM in a small field was similar to the cost of using pesticides. Therefore, the use of F 1 sterility should be an economically viable control strategy for DBM that also would help protect the environment from the overuse of pesticides. (author)

  14. Effects of a naturally occurring and a synthetic synergist on toxicity of three insecticides and a phytochemical to navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guodong; Pollock, Henry S; Lawrance, Allen; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-04-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive lepidopteran pest of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] and pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) in California and is a serious problem in figs (Ficus carica L.) and walnuts (Juglans spp.). In addition to direct damage, larval feeding leaves nuts vulnerable to infection by Aspergillus spp., fungi that produce toxic aflatoxins. A potentially safe and sustainable approach for managing navel orangeworm in orchards may be to use natural essential oil synergists to interfere with this insect's ability to detoxify insecticides and phytochemicals. We tested the effects of a naturally occurring plant-derived chemical, myristicin, and a synthetic inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), piperonyl butoxide, on the toxicity of three insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and methoxyfenozide [Intrepid]) and a phytochemical (xanthotoxin) to A. transitella. Piperonyl butoxide significantly synergized alpha-cypermethrin and tau-fluvalinate, whereas myristicin synergized only alpha-cypermethrin. Piperonyl butoxide synergized the toxicity of xanthotoxin as early as 72 h after exposure, whereas myristicin synergized xanthotoxin after 120 h. In view of these findings and the limited availability of environmentally safe synthetic insecticides for sustainable management, particularly in organic orchards, myristicin is a potential field treatment in combination with insecticides to reduce both navel orangeworm survival and aflatoxin contamination of nuts. In addition, this study demonstrates that in A. transitella the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide is not detoxified by P450s.

  15. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Degefu, Dawit; Wingfield, Michael John; Lawson, Simon; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2015-01-01

    The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis) has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH) from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc), E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc), Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio) and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a useful

  16. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Clement Bouwer

    Full Text Available The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS. Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc, E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc, Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a

  17. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv de Vries

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species—thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX, lateral complex (LX and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU, it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior

  18. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  19. The reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively. While in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4.500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5.000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population, resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot. (author)

  20. Reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-10-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively, while in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4,500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5,000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot.

  1. Site-specific cassette exchange systems in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and the Plutella xylostella moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Elaine Haghighat-Khah

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests.

  2. Mating competitiveness of irradiated males and females of the indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    One-day-old adults of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), were irradiated (I) with either 35 krad (a partially sterilizing dose) or 50 krad (a sterilizing dose) and combined with untreated (U) adults at numbers of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 25 treated males or females per pair of untreated adults. At 25 males per pair, egg hatch was reduced to 4.8 and 22.2% at 35 and 50 krad, respectively. The calculated degree of competitiveness showed that both males and females were more competitive after treatment with 35 krad than after treatment with 50 krad and that treated females were more competitive (based on percentage egg hatch) at both doses than corresponding males. Irradiated females were fully competitive at most release ratios, but I males were not fully competitive even at the higher release ratios, although the decreases were not large enough to seriously affect their use for field control. (author)

  3. MANAGING NEWLY ESTABLISHED PESTS: Growers, scientists and regulators collaborate on European grapevine moth program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cooper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first detection of the European grapevine moth in North America triggered the establishment of federal and state regulatory programs that (1 identified the insect's geographic range in California, (2 developed and implemented detection and management programs, (3 regulated the movement of plant material and equipment to minimize the threat of dispersal, (4 incorporated research-based information developed by subject-matter experts into policy decisions and (5 promoted a wide-reaching educational program for grape growers, the public and local officials. The action plan, developed and carried out through a coordinated program that included multiple government agencies, university scientists and the agricultural community, drastically reduced insect populations and limited the distribution in California vineyards such that some previously infested areas were removed from quarantine regulation.

  4. Plutella australiana (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), an overlooked diamondback moth revealed by DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-François; Hebert, Paul DN

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Plutella was thought to be represented in Australia by a single introduced species, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the diamondback moth. Its status as a major pest of cruciferous crops, and the difficulty in developing control strategies has motivated broad-ranging studies on its biology. Prior genetic work has generally supported the conclusion that populations of this migratory species are connected by substantial gene flow. However, the present study reveals the presence of two genetically divergent lineages of this taxonin Australia. One shows close genetic and morphological similarity with the nearly cosmopolitan Plutella xylostella. The second lineage possesses a similar external morphology, but marked sequence divergence in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene, coupled with clear differences in genitalia. As a consequence, members of this lineage are described as a new species, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, which is broadly distributed in the eastern half of Australia. PMID:24167421

  5. Sterilization of Helicoverpa armigera (hubner) moth (lepidoptera; Noctudae) by using Gamma rays radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subiyakto; Wari D Astati; Sunarto Dwi A

    1998-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at the Radiation Facility, National Atomic Energy, Jakarta and Entomology Laboratory of the Research Institute for Tobacco and Crops Malang in 1991. Sterilization of moth by radiating insect on pupae stage. The dosage were 0 (unradiated), 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,and 15 krad. The treatments were arranged in complete randomized design with three replications. Each treatments were made variation of copulation (1) two females radiated with a make unradiated (2) two females unradiated with a male radiated, and (3) two females radiated with a male radiated. The results showed that sub sterile dosage (LD 50 ) for male was 0.94 krad and 7.02 krad for female. The sterile dosage (LD 95 ) for male was 10.85 krad and 14.35 krad for female. Research of the competition for copulation between the male radiated and unradiated is needed. (author)

  6. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial...... frequency in the range 5-7 mu m(-1). A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed...... to a gradient effect causing the metal film to be antireflective, analogous to the mechanism in dielectrics and semiconductors. We find that the investigated nanostructures have too large spatial frequency to facilitate efficient coupling to the otherwise non-radiating surface plasmons. Applications...

  7. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  8. Plutella australiana (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), an overlooked diamondback moth revealed by DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-François; Hebert, Paul Dn

    2013-01-01

    The genus Plutella was thought to be represented in Australia by a single introduced species, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the diamondback moth. Its status as a major pest of cruciferous crops, and the difficulty in developing control strategies has motivated broad-ranging studies on its biology. Prior genetic work has generally supported the conclusion that populations of this migratory species are connected by substantial gene flow. However, the present study reveals the presence of two genetically divergent lineages of this taxonin Australia. One shows close genetic and morphological similarity with the nearly cosmopolitan Plutella xylostella. The second lineage possesses a similar external morphology, but marked sequence divergence in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene, coupled with clear differences in genitalia. As a consequence, members of this lineage are described as a new species, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, which is broadly distributed in the eastern half of Australia.

  9. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Field Performance of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), Males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2007-01-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), males 12-24 h. old were exposed to two gamma radiation doses (250 and 350 Gy) and released, in shade, in a 20x20 m square in the middle of an apple orchard (about 40 ha) and this experiment was repeated 3 times. The ability of irradiated males to disperse in the field and their response to the female sex pheromone were examined using pheromone taps placed in all four main directions of the release square for 300 m at 50 m intervals. The traps were examined daily for two weeks, caught males were counted, removed, their number was recorded and % of caught males to the total released ones was calculated. Results showed that irradiation negatively affected field dispersion of irradiated males and their response to the female sex pheromone. This calls for reducing the irradiation dose needed to sterilize released males as much as possible, provided that the given dose guarantees female sterility.

  10. Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among...... the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones...... well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths....

  11. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Hazaa, M.A.; Abd El-Rahman, H.A.; Hussein, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  12. Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.. We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator--the echolocating bat--whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense--clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona--that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation--the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack.

  13. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions.

  14. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhouibi, M.H.; Cheikh, T.; Cherni, M.; Ben Moussa, I.; Hawlitsky, N.; Zaaraoui, H.; Krisaane, T.

    2000-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae

  15. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  16. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial

  17. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhouibi, M H; Cheikh, T; Cherni, M; Ben Moussa, I [Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis Mahrajene (Tunisia); Hawlitsky, N [INRA Versaille (France); Zaaraoui, H; Krisaane, T [Groupement Interprofessionnel de Dattes de Toseur (Tunisia)

    2000-07-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae.

  18. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  19. Estimating Origin-Destination Matrices Using AN Efficient Moth Flame-Based Spatial Clustering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A. A.; Moayedi, A.; Abbaspour, R. Ali

    2017-09-01

    Automated fare collection (AFC) systems are regarded as valuable resources for public transport planners. In this paper, the AFC data are utilized to analysis and extract mobility patterns in a public transportation system. For this purpose, the smart card data are inserted into a proposed metaheuristic-based aggregation model and then converted to O-D matrix between stops, since the size of O-D matrices makes it difficult to reproduce the measured passenger flows precisely. The proposed strategy is applied to a case study from Haaglanden, Netherlands. In this research, moth-flame optimizer (MFO) is utilized and evaluated for the first time as a new metaheuristic algorithm (MA) in estimating transit origin-destination matrices. The MFO is a novel, efficient swarm-based MA inspired from the celestial navigation of moth insects in nature. To investigate the capabilities of the proposed MFO-based approach, it is compared to methods that utilize the K-means algorithm, gray wolf optimization algorithm (GWO) and genetic algorithm (GA). The sum of the intra-cluster distances and computational time of operations are considered as the evaluation criteria to assess the efficacy of the optimizers. The optimality of solutions of different algorithms is measured in detail. The traveler's behavior is analyzed to achieve to a smooth and optimized transport system. The results reveal that the proposed MFO-based aggregation strategy can outperform other evaluated approaches in terms of convergence tendency and optimality of the results. The results show that it can be utilized as an efficient approach to estimating the transit O-D matrices.

  20. ESTIMATING ORIGIN-DESTINATION MATRICES USING AN EFFICIENT MOTH FLAME-BASED SPATIAL CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated fare collection (AFC systems are regarded as valuable resources for public transport planners. In this paper, the AFC data are utilized to analysis and extract mobility patterns in a public transportation system. For this purpose, the smart card data are inserted into a proposed metaheuristic-based aggregation model and then converted to O-D matrix between stops, since the size of O-D matrices makes it difficult to reproduce the measured passenger flows precisely. The proposed strategy is applied to a case study from Haaglanden, Netherlands. In this research, moth-flame optimizer (MFO is utilized and evaluated for the first time as a new metaheuristic algorithm (MA in estimating transit origin-destination matrices. The MFO is a novel, efficient swarm-based MA inspired from the celestial navigation of moth insects in nature. To investigate the capabilities of the proposed MFO-based approach, it is compared to methods that utilize the K-means algorithm, gray wolf optimization algorithm (GWO and genetic algorithm (GA. The sum of the intra-cluster distances and computational time of operations are considered as the evaluation criteria to assess the efficacy of the optimizers. The optimality of solutions of different algorithms is measured in detail. The traveler's behavior is analyzed to achieve to a smooth and optimized transport system. The results reveal that the proposed MFO-based aggregation strategy can outperform other evaluated approaches in terms of convergence tendency and optimality of the results. The results show that it can be utilized as an efficient approach to estimating the transit O-D matrices.

  1. Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant. PMID:24130675

  2. Field performance of gamma irradiated and reared codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2003-04-01

    Marked males of codling moth, reared during immature stage on a local artificial diet, were released in two square plot (20 x 20 m) of two separate orchards. One of the orchard received sterile males exposed to 350 Gry (treatment), while the other received non-sterile males (control). To monitor the performance of sterile males compared to the control, pheromone traps were hung at certain distances (one trap/50 m) of the release site in each orchard, covering all four directions for 300 m. Traps up were checked daily for up to ten days after release. Results showed that number of control males was significantly less than sterile males at the first 50 m from the dispersion point (61.5% for control, 76.3% for treatment), Control males, however were captured more frequently at larger distance. For instance, the percentage for control and treated males were 17.2, 12.4% at 100 m, 10.4, 3.8% at 150 m and 7.2, 2.1% at 200 m respectively. A small percentage of control males (2.8%) reached 250 m, while treated males did not. These results indicate that sterile codling moth males exposed to a dose 350 Gy don't have the same dispersion ability as control ones. The results also show that the number of treated males responded to sex pheromone were less than control males in the first and second day after release, However they become more frequent in the third and fourth day, decreased in the fifth and stopped completely in day sixth. (author)

  3. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Optimal Predator Risk Assessment by the Sonar-Jamming Arctiine Moth Bertholdia trigona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J.; Wagner, Ryan D.; Conner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival) outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.). We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator – the echolocating bat – whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense – clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona– that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation – the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack. PMID:23671686

  5. Circadian rhythm of glycoprotein secretion in the vas deferens of the moth, Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvakharia B

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive systems of male moths contain circadian clocks, which time the release of sperm bundles from the testis to the upper vas deferens (UVD and their subsequent transfer from the UVD to the seminal vesicles. Sperm bundles are released from the testis in the evening and are retained in the vas deferens lumen overnight before being transferred to the seminal vesicles. The biological significance of periodic sperm retention in the UVD lumen is not understood. In this study we asked whether there are circadian rhythms in the UVD that are correlated with sperm retention. Results We investigated the carbohydrate-rich material present in the UVD wall and lumen during the daily cycle of sperm release using the periodic acid-Shiff reaction (PAS. Males raised in 16:8 light-dark cycles (LD showed a clear rhythm in the levels of PAS-positive granules in the apical portion of the UVD epithelium. The peak of granule accumulation occurred in the middle of the night and coincided with the maximum presence of sperm bundles in the UVD lumen. These rhythms persisted in constant darkness (DD, indicating that they have circadian nature. They were abolished, however, in constant light (LL resulting in random patterns of PAS-positive material in the UVD wall. Gel-separation of the UVD homogenates from LD moths followed by detection of carbohydrates on blots revealed daily rhythms in the abundance of specific glycoproteins in the wall and lumen of the UVD. Conclusion Secretory activity of the vas deferens epithelium is regulated by the circadian clock. Daily rhythms in accumulation and secretion of several glycoproteins are co-ordinated with periodic retention of sperm in the vas deferens lumen.

  6. Assessing species distribution using Google Street View: a pilot study with the Pine Processionary Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google Street View could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google Street View. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google Street View were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google Street View network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.

  7. Dynamical modeling of the moth pheromone-sensitive olfactory receptor neuron within its sensillar environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Gu

    Full Text Available In insects, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, surrounded with auxiliary cells and protected by a cuticular wall, form small discrete sensory organs--the sensilla. The moth pheromone-sensitive sensillum is a well studied example of hair-like sensillum that is favorable to both experimental and modeling investigations. The model presented takes into account both the molecular processes of ORNs, i.e. the biochemical reactions and ionic currents giving rise to the receptor potential, and the cellular organization and compartmentalization of the organ represented by an electrical circuit. The number of isopotential compartments needed to describe the long dendrite bearing pheromone receptors was determined. The transduction parameters that must be modified when the number of compartments is increased were identified. This model reproduces the amplitude and time course of the experimentally recorded receptor potential. A first complete version of the model was analyzed in response to pheromone pulses of various strengths. It provided a quantitative description of the spatial and temporal evolution of the pheromone-dependent conductances, currents and potentials along the outer dendrite and served to determine the contribution of the various steps in the cascade to its global sensitivity. A second simplified version of the model, utilizing a single depolarizing conductance and leak conductances for repolarizing the ORN, was derived from the first version. It served to analyze the effects on the sensory properties of varying the electrical parameters and the size of the main sensillum parts. The consequences of the results obtained on the still uncertain mechanisms of olfactory transduction in moth ORNs--involvement or not of G-proteins, role of chloride and potassium currents--are discussed as well as the optimality of the sensillum organization, the dependence of biochemical parameters on the neuron spatial extension and the respective contributions

  8. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  10. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the...

  13. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  14. Identification of the pheromone biosynthesis genes from the sex pheromone gland transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Da-Song; Dai, Jian-Qing; Han, Shi-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis damp...

  15. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia inferens, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; &...

  16. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  17. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Antoinette P; Knoetze, Rinus; Moore, Sean D

    2011-10-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the diversity and frequency of endemic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. The main aim of the survey was to obtain nematodes as biological control agents against false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, a key pest of citrus in South Africa. From a total of 202 samples, 35 (17%) tested positive for the presence of EPN. Of these, four isolates (11%) were found to be steinernematids, while 31 (89%) were heterorhabditids. Sequencing and characterisation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify all nematode isolates to species level. Morphometrics, morphology and biology of the infective juvenile (IJ) and the first-generation male were used to support molecular identification and characterisation. The Steinernema spp. identified were Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense and Steinernema citrae. This is the first report of S. yirgalemense in South Africa, while for S. citrae it is the second new steinernematid to be identified from South Africa. Heterorhabditis species identified include Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and an unknown species of Heterorhabditis. Laboratory bioassays, using 24-well bioassay disks, have shown isolates of all six species found during the survey, to be highly virulent against the last instar of FCM larvae. S. yirgalemense, at a concentration of 50IJs/FCM larva caused 100% mortality and 74% at a concentration of 200IJs/pupa. Using a sand bioassay, S. yirgalemense gave 93% control of cocooned pupae and emerging moths at a concentration of 20IJs/cm(2). This is the first report on the potential use of EPN to control the soil-borne life stages of FCM, which includes larvae, pupae and emerging moths. It was shown that emerging moths were infected with nematodes, which may aid in control and dispersal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Is the sex communication of two pyralid moths, Plodia interpunctella and Ephestia kuehniella, under circadia clock regulation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závodská, Radka; Fexová, Silvie; von Wowern, G.; Han, G.-B.; Doležel, David; Šauman, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 206-216 ISSN 0748-7304 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA ČR GP204/08/P579; GA AV ČR IAA500960802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : pyralid moth * sex communication * circadian rhythm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.229, year: 2012

  19. Potential use of F1 sterility and the parasitoid, Cotesia plutellae, to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, N.

    2002-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella males irradiated with 100 Gy and larval parasitoids (Cotesia plutellae) were studied for their potential to control DBM in cabbage fields of Nyaung-Le-Bin Township, Bago Division. The following treatments were evaluated as control tactics: release of irradiated male DBM, augmentative release of parasitoids, and combined release of irradiated male DBM and parasitoids. These treatments reduced the larval population of feral DBM. (author)

  20. The Dynamics of Pheromone Gland Synthesis and Release: a Paradigm Shift for Understanding Sex Pheromone Quantity in Female Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2018-05-10

    Moths are exemplars of chemical communication, especially with regard to specificity and the minute amounts they use. Yet, little is known about how females manage synthesis and storage of pheromone to maintain release rates attractive to conspecific males and why such small amounts are used. We developed, for the first time, a quantitative model, based on an extensive empirical data set, describing the dynamical relationship among synthesis, storage (titer) and release of pheromone over time in a moth (Heliothis virescens). The model is compartmental, with one major state variable (titer), one time-varying (synthesis), and two constant (catabolism and release) rates. The model was a good fit, suggesting it accounted for the major processes. Overall, we found the relatively small amounts of pheromone stored and released were largely a function of high catabolism rather than a low rate of synthesis. A paradigm shift may be necessary to understand the low amounts released by female moths, away from the small quantities synthesized to the (relatively) large amounts catabolized. Future research on pheromone quantity should focus on structural and physicochemical processes that limit storage and release rate quantities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that pheromone gland function has been modeled for any animal.

  1. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis by the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella: comparison of midgut proteinases from susceptible and resistant larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D E; Brookhart, G L; Kramer, K J; Barnett, B D; McGaughey, W H

    1990-03-01

    Midgut homogenates from susceptible and resistant strains of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, were compared for their ability to activate the entomocidal parasporal crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. The properties of midgut proteinases from both types of larvae were also examined. Electrophoretic patterns of crystal protein from B. thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (HD-1) and aizawai (HD-133 and HD-144) were virtually unchanged following digestion by either type of midgut homogenate. Changes in pH (9.5 to 11.5) or midgut homogenate concentration during digestion failed to substantially alter protein electrophoretic patterns of B. thuringiensis HD-1 crystal toxin. In vitro toxicity of crystal protein activated by either type of midgut preparation was equal toward cultured insect cells from either Manduca sexta or Choristoneura fumiferana. Electrophoresis of midgut extracts in polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin as substrate also yielded matching mobility patterns of proteinases from both types of midguts. Quantitation of midgut proteolytic activity using tritiated casein as a substrate revealed variation between midgut preparations, but no statistically significant differences between proteolytic activities from susceptible and resistant Indian meal moth larvae. Inhibition studies indicated that a trypsin-like proteinase with maximal activity at pH 10 is a major constituent of Indian meal moth midguts. The results demonstrated that midguts from susceptible and resistant strains of P. interpunctella are similar both in their ability to activate B. thuringiensis protoxin and in their proteolytic activity.

  2. Diversity, distribution pattern and seasonal variation in moth assemblages along altitudinal gradient in Gangotri landscape area, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

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    A.K. Sanyal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field survey was conducted at different altitudes and land-use areas in the two protected areas, viz., Gangotri National Park and Govind National Park of Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 475 specimens of moth representing 436 morphospecies were collected using light trap method during the survey conducted between September 2008-May 2010. Preliminary findings show a decreasing diversity with increasing altitude. Subalpine areas were least diverse and subtropical areas had the highest diversity of moths. The greatest number of specimens were collected during the summer and post-monsoon period. The lunar phase had a significant effect on catch success with new moon days resulting in the largest catches and full moon days resulting in the least number of species as well as individuals. Of the thirty two species mentioned in Appendix 1, nine species are first time record from the state Uttarakhand. Four species are new record from Western Himalaya within Indian Territory, and also first time recorded from entire Himalayan landscape. As there was no previous comprehensive study on the moth diversity of Gangotri landscape area, all the 32 species described could be regarded as new record from these two protected areas.

  3. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ignoring the irrelevant: auditory tolerance of audible but innocuous sounds in the bat-detecting ears of moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Jacobs, David S.

    2008-03-01

    Noctuid moths listen for the echolocation calls of hunting bats and respond to these predator cues with evasive flight. The African bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, feeds at flowers near intensely singing cicadas, Platypleura capensis, yet does not avoid them. We determined that the moth can hear the cicada by observing that both of its auditory receptors (A1 and A2 cells) respond to the cicada’s song. The firing response of the A1 cell rapidly adapts to the song and develops spike periods in less than a second that are in excess of those reported to elicit avoidance flight to bats in earlier studies. The possibility also exists that for at least part of the day, sensory input in the form of olfaction or vision overrides the moth’s auditory responses. While auditory tolerance appears to allow H. armigera to exploit a food resource in close proximity to acoustic interference, it may render their hearing defence ineffective and make them vulnerable to predation by bats during the evening when cicadas continue to sing. Our study describes the first field observation of an eared insect ignoring audible but innocuous sounds.

  5. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewusie, E.A.; Nkumsah, A.K.; Alimatu, S.; Osae, M.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F 1 ) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F 1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  6. Proteomic and properties analysis of botanical insecticide rhodojaponin III-induced response of the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella (L..

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    Xiaolin Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhodojaponin III, as a botanical insecticide, affects a wide variety of biological processes in insects, including reduction of feeding, suspension of development, and oviposition deterring of adults in a dose-dependent manner. However, the mode of these actions remains obscure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was adopted to examine the effect of rhodojaponin III on the Plutella xyllostella (L.. Following treating 48 hours, newly emergence moths were collected and protein samples were prepared. The proteins were separated by 2-DE, and total 31 proteins were significantly affected by rhodojaponin III compared to the control identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. These differentially expressed proteins act in the nervous transduction, odorant degradation and metabolic change pathways. Further, gene expression patterns in treated and untreated moths were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. RNAi of the chemosensory protein (PxCSP gene resulted in oviposition significantly increased on cabbage plants treated with rhodojaponin III. CONCLUSIONS: These rhodojaponin III-induced proteins and gene properties analysis would be essential for a better understanding of the potential molecular mechanism of the response to rhodojaponin III from moths of P. xylostella.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, in comparison with four other Noctuid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif "ATAGA" followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite "(AT)(7)", without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  8. Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyung Uk; Mun, Hye Yeon; Oh, Hyung Keun; Kim, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2010-08-01

    To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the diamondback moth was investigated on a Chinese cabbage leaf housed in a round plastic cage (Ø 10 x 6 cm). 72 h after spraying the cabbage leaf with LBB and NB cultures containing the bacterial strain, the mortalities of the larvae were determined to be 91.7% and 88.3%, respectively. In addition, the insecticidal activity on potted cabbage containing 14 leaves in a growth cage (165 x 83 x 124 cm) was found to be similar to that of the plastic cage experiment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the insecticidal activity of the liquid culture of a Serratia species against the diamondback moth.

  9. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Mauck, Kerry E; Balogh, Christopher M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2013-04-22

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds-including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores.

  10. Radiation induced F1 sterility in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and tropical army worm, Spodoptera litura F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, S.; Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutardji, D.; Rahayu, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 300 Gy dose of gamma irradiation can be used as the sterilizing dose for the diamond-back moth (DBM). This caused 90% sterility of the moths. Releases of irradiated moths into the normal populations (nine irradiated to one normal) in laboratory cages, field cages and small field plots reduced the F 1 population by 61, 55 and 42%, respectively. The effects of substerilizing doses of 175 and 200 Gy to the irradiated parents caused 26 and 36% sterilities, respectively. The dose of 175 Gy caused the levels of sterility of the male and female F 1 progeny to be 54 and 74%, respectively, while the dose of 200 Gy caused 56% sterility of the F 1 male and 71% of the F 1 female. The sterility of the F 2 population was nearly the same as that of the irradiated parents. At a radiation doses of 175 Gy the sterility of F 2 males was about 11% and of females 37%. At a dose of 200 Gy the levels of sterility of the males and females were 9 and 14%, respectively. Gamma irradiation did not affect the fecundity of the irradiated parents or of the F 1 and F 2 progeny. The average number of eggs produced by one pair of DBM moths was 180. The viabilities of unirradiated pupae, irradiated parents, F 1 and F 2 at a dose of 200 Gy were 94, 89, 54 and 65%, respectively. The effect of releasing F 1 sterile moths into untreated populations at a ratio of 45:1 could be a reduction in the population by 22%. Delta traps baited with the sex pheromone Sj showed the highest trapping efficiency. The highest population of DBMs in the dry season is in May and the lowest point is in July. The longevity of the tropical army worm was slightly affected by gamma irradiation. The dose of irradiation did not affect the viability of the pupae. A substerilizing dose of 100 Gy caused 43% parental sterility, 76% F 1 sterility and 54% F 2 sterility. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

    2002-07-01

    Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population

  12. Identification and behavioral evaluation of sex pheromone components of the Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis.

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    Xiang-Bo Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2-3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD, using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc, (Z-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr, and (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH. Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100:100:4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring

  13. Investigations on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of codling moth in an integrated pest control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, K.

    1978-10-01

    The diapause of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L., was studied in relation to various altitudes of origin. Altitudes of 350 m and 1300 m above sea level showed that low-altitude moths had a longer diapause. Altitude appears to affect the duration of larval diapause. Biological control by virus-induced granulosis was investigated, using 3 to 4 applications of the virus per tree per season, at the rate of 2x10 11 to 9x10 11 virus capsules per application. Codling moth infestation was reduced by 74.2% to 88.2%. Trichomma enecator and Ascogaster quadridentatus Wesm., both parasites of the codling moth, were both colonized in the laboratory, and population dynamics are being studied. Copulatory behaviour in the males of A. quadridentatus is elicited primarily by pheromones produced by the female. Males emit some sounds which appear primarily intended to convey territorial rights to other males. The frequencies produced by males and by females differ. Codling moth odours stimulate females to oviposit. The effect of pesticides on parasitation is being studied. Details of a planned mass-rearing facility for lepidopteran and other pests are given

  14. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  15. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki for managing gypsy moth populations under the Slow the Spread Program, 1996-2010, relative to the distributional range of threatened and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2011-01-01

    The Slow the Spread Program operates along the expanding population front of the gypsy moth, from Minnesota to North Carolina. The primary objective of the program is to eliminate newly-founded colonies that form ahead of the leading edge to reduce the gypsy moth's rate of spread and delay the costs associated with infestation and outbreaks. Although the majority...

  16. Differences in Foliage Affect Performance of the Lappet Moth, Streblote panda: Implications for Species Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D.; Molina, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  19. Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects.

  20. Sexual competitiveness of adult Indian meal moths irradiated as mature pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Brower, J.H.; Tilton, E.W.

    1976-01-01

    When 7-day-old pupae of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner) were treated with 50 krad γ irradiation, 94.5 percent of the resulting females mated with untreated males, but the few eggs laid were infertile. Also, resulting males were sterile when they were paired with untreated females. A ratio of 1:1:1 irradiated males, untreated males, and untreated females resulted in 28.5 percent infertile eggs. Ratios of irradiated to untreated males of 5:1, 15:1 or 25:1 produced 54.7, 61.6, and 91.8 percent infertile eggs, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were fully competitive only at a ratio of 25:1. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios of 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1:1, the percentages of infertile eggs were 54.1, 95.7, 81.0, and 100 percent, respectively, and competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio. Irradiation of 7-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth produced sexually competitive sterile adults when released at high flooding ratios, and results were better when both sexes were released together

  1. [Sex pheromone secondary components of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella in China. HU wenlil 2, DU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenli; Du, Jiawei

    2005-09-01

    Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is considered as an important insect pest infesting stored grains and other products in China. The major sex pheromone component of P. interpunctella, Z9, E12-14: OAc (TDA), has already been identified. Though the efficiency of male capture by using the bait with this component alone is quite good, the pheromone system is far from fully understood. The identification with capillary chromatographic analysis and GC-MS methods showed that there were four main components, i. e., Z9, E12-14: OAc(A), Z9, E12-14: OH (B), Z9, E12-14: Ald(C), and Z9-14: OAc(D), in the sex pheromone gland of female P. interpunctella, and the ratio of these four components was A: B: C:D= 100:22: 12:9. Wind tunnel experimental results suggested that the response of male P. interpunctella to a blend (A: B: C: D = 8:2:1:0.8) was not significantly different from that to female sex pheromone gland extracts.

  2. Ovicidal activity of acrolein vapors to Indian meal moth eggs of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr

    2007-09-01

    The effect of acrolein vapors against carefully aged eggs of Indian meal moth at 27 +/- 1 and 17 +/- 1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acrolein over various exposure times was determined. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. At both temperatures and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acrolein than other age groups. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acrolein developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17 +/- 1 to 27 +/- 1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acrolein. Overall, at 27 +/- 1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-fourth of the dosage required for control at 17 +/- 1 degrees C. Acrolein achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 3.80 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly reduced when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 32 mg L(-1) of acrolein for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17 +/- 1 or 27 +/- 1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  3. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  4. Long-term species loss and homogenization of moth communities in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Anu; Hirka, Anikó; Szőcs, Levente; Ayres, Matthew P; Roininen, Heikki; Csóka, György

    2017-07-01

    As global biodiversity continues to decline steeply, it is becoming increasingly important to understand diversity patterns at local and regional scales. Changes in land use and climate, nitrogen deposition and invasive species are the most important threats to global biodiversity. Because land use changes tend to benefit a few species but impede many, the expected outcome is generally decreasing population sizes, decreasing species richness at local and regional scales, and increasing similarity of species compositions across sites (biotic homogenization). Homogenization can be also driven by invasive species or effects of soil eutrophication propagating to higher trophic levels. In contrast, in the absence of increasing aridity, climate warming is predicted to generally increase abundances and species richness of poikilotherms at local and regional scales. We tested these predictions with data from one of the few existing monitoring programmes on biodiversity in the world dating to the 1960s, where the abundance of 878 species of macro-moths have been measured daily at seven sites across Hungary. Our analyses revealed a dramatic rate of regional species loss and homogenization of community compositions across sites. Species with restricted distribution range, specialized diet or dry grassland habitat were more likely than others to disappear from the community. In global context, the contrasting effects of climate change and land use changes could explain why the predicted enriching effects from climate warming are not always realized. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  5. Biological control of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on finished stored products using egg and larval parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2006-08-01

    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma deion Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for preventing infestations of P. interpunctella in coarse-ground cornmeal as well as the influence of packaging on parasitoid effectiveness. Treatments included one or both parasitoids and either cornmeal infested with P. interpunctella eggs or eggs deposited on the surface of plastic bags containing cornmeal. H. hebetor had a significant impact on the number of live P. interpunctella, suppressing populations by approximately 71% in both unbagged and bagged cornmeal. In contrast, T. deion did not suppress P. interpunctella in unbagged cornmeal. However, when released on bagged cornmeal, T. deion significantly increased the level of pest suppression (87%) over bagging alone (15%). When H. hebetor was added to bagged cornmeal, there was a significant reduction of live P. interpunctella compared with the control (70.6%), with a further reduction observed when T. deion was added (96.7%). These findings suggest that, in most situations, a combined release of both T. deion and H. hebetor would have the greatest impact; because even though packaging may protect most of the stored products, there are usually areas in the storage landscape where poor sanitation is present.

  6. New approaches for the management of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altindisli Ferhunde Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the key pest of grape in Turkey. It damages grape berries directly and requires strict control measures producing 3 or 4 generations per year. Since the ‘80s, farmers often preferred chemical control with organophosphorus insecticides against the pest because it is wieldy, very effective and cheap. Tendency to use environmentally friendly pesticides began at the beginning of the nineties because chemicals sprayed next to grape harvest threaten environment and consumer health, causing residue problem in export. Consequently, a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., was put into practice against the pest. Forecasting System timing according to the larvicides against EGVM was reviewed as a result of the registration of an ovicide at the end of nineties. Modifications have been made in standard biological efficacy test method and Forecasting System taking the biological stages of EGVM into account to get optimal results from ovicides. Mating disruption and auto-confusion techniques against EGVM were tested and put into practice for the first time in the Aegean Region to decrease insecticide applications. Since 2005, mating disruption has been gradually preferred by the growers and firms because it is very effective and easy to apply.

  7. Tracheal volume in the pupa of the Saturniid moth Hyalophora cecropia determined with inert gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C R; Kestler, P; Scheid, P

    1980-06-01

    Tracheal volume (VTr) was measured in pupae of the Giant silkworm moth Hyalophora cecropia (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera, Insecta) using inert gas wash-out techniques. The animal was placed in a small vessel that was continuously ventilated (rate, V) by a gas mixture containing 20% O2 in N2; the inflowing (F1) and outflowing gas fractions (FE) of the vessel could be continuously measured by a respiratory mass spectrometer. At the onset of a spiracular constriction period, which was evidenced from the FECO2 trace, the mixture was rapidly replaced by pure Ar. At the subsequent burst, the amount of N2 emerging from the animal, MN2, was calculated from V and the difference (FE--F1)N2. VTr was calculated from MN2 and the N2 concentration in the tracheal system before constriction (assumed to equal that in the ventilating gas before replacement by Ar). Measurements were repeated with N2 and Ar replacing each other. VTr average 48 microliter . g-1 (range 39 to 59) for animals of 5.8 g average body weight (range 3.4 to 9.9), when inert gas solubility in body fluids was accounted for. Both size and stage in pupal development appear to affect VTr. These values show reasonable agreement with literature data, mostly obtained by emptying the tracheal gas space by mechanical compression.

  8. Ultraviolet and gamma-radiation effect on the zymotic characteristics of turnip moth's granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakimova, M A

    1975-01-01

    Virus granules of the winter cutworm (Agrotis segetum Schiff) were used as agents for biological control of this pest of field and vegetable crops. The authors first studied the effect of uv and gamma radiation on granules of the cutworm. A purified suspension of winter moth granules, 0.5 mg of granules per mm/sup 3/, was irradiated with a BUV-15 lamp at a distance of 9 cm from the radiation source. The dose rate was 6.6x10/sup 3/ ergs/cm/sup 2/.sec. The results showed that a uv dose of 71.1x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ decreased the virulence of the granules by a factor of 3 compared to the original suspension (larval mortality of 27.5%) and a dose of 95x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ completely inactivated the granules. With gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) the inactivating dose was only 21.6x10/sup 5/ rads. The work indicated that cutworm granules are very resistant to uv and gamma radiation.

  9. Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Leal, Walter S.

    2008-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new α-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket

  10. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-02

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  11. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of shield-bearer moths (Lepidoptera: Adeloidea: Heliozelidae) highlights rich undescribed diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Liz; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Vijverberg, Ruben; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Wilcox, Stephen A; Halsey, Mike; Young, David A; Jones, Therésa M; Kallies, Axel; Hilton, Douglas J

    2018-03-01

    Heliozelidae are a widespread, evolutionarily early diverging family of small, day-flying monotrysian moths, for which a comprehensive phylogeny is lacking. We generated the first molecular phylogeny of the family using DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and COII) and two nuclear genes (H3 and 28S) from 130 Heliozelidae specimens, including eight of the twelve known genera: Antispila, Antispilina, Coptodisca, Heliozela, Holocacista, Hoplophanes, Pseliastis, and Tyriozela. Our results provide strong support for five major Heliozelidae clades: (i) a large widespread clade containing the leaf-mining genera Antispilina, Coptodisca and Holocacista and some species of Antispila, (ii) a clade containing most of the described Antispila, (iii) a clade containing the leaf-mining genus Heliozela and the monotypic genus Tyriozela, (iv) an Australian clade containing Pseliastis and (v) an Australian clade containing Hoplophanes. Each clade includes several new species and potentially new genera. Collectively, our data uncover a rich and undescribed diversity that appears to be especially prevalent in Australia. Our work highlights the need for a major taxonomic revision of the family and for generating a robust molecular phylogeny using multi-gene approaches in order to resolve the relationships among clades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-08-01

    Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum armatum against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S G Eswara; Chauhan, Urvashi; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is the most serious pest of cruciferous crops grown in the world causing economic yield loss. Several synthetic insecticides have been used against P. xylostella but satisfactory control was not achieved due to development of resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to screen different fractions of Zanthoxylum armatum for their insecticidal activities against second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Results indicate, all the fractions showed activity to P. xylostella. However, n-hexane fraction of Z. armatum showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum LC50 value of 2988.6 ppm followed by ethanol (LC50 = 12779.7 ppm) and methanol fraction (LC50 = 12908.8 ppm) whereas chloroform fraction was least toxic (LC50 = 16750.6 ppm). The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction of leaf extract showed maximum larvicidal activity, which may be due to two major compounds i.e. 2-undecanone (19.75%) and 2-tridecanone (11.76%).

  14. Global identification of microRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Li, Xiuxia; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2017-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most serious cruciferous pests and has developed high resistance to most insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Previous studies have reported several protein-coding genes that involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance, but research on resistance mechanisms at the post-transcription level is still limited. In this study, a global screen of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella was performed. The small RNA libraries for a susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole resistant strains (CHR, ZZ) were constructed and sequenced, and a total of 199 known and 30 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 23 miRNAs were differentially expressed between CHR and CHS, and 90 miRNAs were differentially expressed between ZZ and CHS, of which 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in both CHR and ZZ. Using miRanda and RNAhybrid, a total of 1,411 target mRNAs from 102 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted, including mRNAs in several groups of detoxification enzymes. The expression of several differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential targets was validated by qRT-PCR. The results may provide important clues for further study of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated chlorantraniliprole resistance in DBM and other target insects. PMID:28098189

  15. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations. Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  16. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  17. Structure and expression of sulfatase and sulfatase modifying factor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Li; He, Wei-Yi; Chen, Wei; Xu, Xue-Jiao; Qi, Wei-Ping; Zou, Ming-Min; You, Yan-Chun; Baxter, Simon W; Wang, Ping; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), uses sulfatases (SULF) to counteract the glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system that cruciferous plants have evolved to deter insect feeding. Sulfatase activity is regulated by post-translational modification of a cysteine residue by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). We identified 12 SULF genes (PxylSulfs) and two SUMF1 genes (PxylSumf1s) in the P. xylostella genome. Phylogenetic analysis of SULFs and SUMFs from P. xylostella, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens showed that the SULFs were clustered into five groups, and the SUMFs could be divided into two groups. Profiling of the expression of PxylSulfs and PxylSumfs by RNA-seq and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that two glucosinolate sulfatase genes (GSS), PxylSulf2 and PxylSulf3, were primarily expressed in the midgut of 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae. Moreover, expression of sulfatases PxylSulf2, PxylSulf3 and PxylSulf4 were correlated with expression of the sulfatases modifying factor PxylSumf1a. The findings from this study provide new insights into the structure and expression of SUMF1 and PxylSulf genes that are considered to be key factors for the evolutionary success of P. xylostella as a specialist herbivore of cruciferous plants. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Identification and developmental profiling of microRNAs in diamondback moth, Plutellaxylostella (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a group of small RNAs involved in various biological processes through negative regulation of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Although miRNA profiles have been documented in over two dozen insect species, few are agricultural pests. In this study, both conserved and novel miRNAs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., a devastating insect pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, were documented. High-throughput sequencing of a small RNA library constructed from a mixed life stages of P. xylostella, including eggs, 1st to 4th (last instar larvae, pupae and adults, identified 384 miRNAs, of which 174 were P. xylostella specific. In addition, temporal expressions of 234 miRNAs at various developmental stages were investigated using a customized microarray analysis. Among the 91 differentially expressed miRNAs, qRT-PCR analysis was used to validate highly expressed miRNAs at each stage. The combined results not only systematically document miRNA profiles in an agriculturally important insect pest, but also provide molecular targets for future functional analysis and, ultimately, genetic-based pest control practice.

  19. Characterization and expression of the cytochrome P450 gene family in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liying; Tang, Weiqi; He, Weiyi; Ma, Xiaoli; Vasseur, Liette; Baxter, Simon W; Yang, Guang; Huang, Shiguo; Song, Fengqin; You, Minsheng

    2015-03-10

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are present in almost all organisms and can play vital roles in hormone regulation, metabolism of xenobiotics and in biosynthesis or inactivation of endogenous compounds. In the present study, a genome-wide approach was used to identify and analyze the P450 gene family of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a destructive worldwide pest of cruciferous crops. We identified 85 putative cytochrome P450 genes from the P. xylostella genome, including 84 functional genes and 1 pseudogene. These genes were classified into 26 families and 52 subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed with three additional insect species shows extensive gene expansions of P. xylostella P450 genes from clans 3 and 4. Gene expression of cytochrome P450s was quantified across multiple developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) and tissues (head and midgut) using P. xylostella strains susceptible or resistant to insecticides chlorpyrifos and fiprinol. Expression of the lepidopteran specific CYP367s predominantly occurred in head tissue suggesting a role in either olfaction or detoxification. CYP340s with abundant transposable elements and relatively high expression in the midgut probably contribute to the detoxification of insecticides or plant toxins in P. xylostella. This study will facilitate future functional studies of the P. xylostella P450s in detoxification.

  20. Cross-resistance and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to indoxacarb in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Li, Dongyang; Wan, Hu; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    Indoxacarb belongs to a class of insecticides known as oxadiazines and is the first commercialized pyrazoline-type voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker. A moderate level of resistance to indoxacarb has evolved in field populations of Plutella xylostella from Central China. In the present study, cross-resistance, resistance stability and metabolic mechanisms of indoxacarb resistance were investigated in this moth species. A P. xylostella strain with a high level of resistance to indoxacarb was obtained through continuous selection in the laboratory. The strain showed cross-resistance to metaflumizone, beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr, but no resistance to cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, abamectin, chlorfluazuron, spinosad and diafenthiuron compared with the susceptible strain. Synergism tests revealed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (synergistic ratio, SR=7.8) and diethyl maleate (DEF) (SR=3.5) had considerable synergistic effects on indoxacarb toxicity in the resistant strain (F 58 ). Enzyme activity data showed there was an approximate 5.8-fold different in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a 6.8-fold different in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase between the resistant strain (F 58 ) and susceptible strain, suggesting that the increased activity of these two enzymes is likely the main detoxification mechanism responsible for the species' resistance to indoxacarb. These results will be helpful for insecticide resistance management strategies to delay the development of indoxacarb resistance in fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  2. Function of defensive volatiles in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) is tricked by the moth Tortrix viridana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Heller, Werner; Fladung, Matthias; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Schroeder, Hilke

    2012-12-01

    The indirect defences of plants are comprised of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that among other things attract the natural enemies of insects. However, the actual extent of the benefits of HIPV emissions in complex co-evolved plant-herbivore systems is only poorly understood. The observation that a few Quercus robur L. trees constantly tolerated (T-oaks) infestation by a major pest of oaks (Tortrix viridana L.), compared with heavily defoliated trees (susceptible: S-oaks), lead us to a combined biochemical and behavioural study. We used these evidently different phenotypes to analyse whether the resistance of T-oaks to the herbivore was dependent on the amount and scent of HIPVs and/or differences in non-volatile polyphenolic leaf constituents (as quercetin-, kaempferol- and flavonol glycosides). In addition to non-volatile metabolic differences, typically defensive HIPV emissions differed between S-oaks and T-oaks. Female moths were attracted by the blend of HIPVs from S-oaks, showing significantly higher amounts of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and (E)-β-ocimene and avoid T-oaks with relative high fraction of the sesquiterpenes α-farnesene and germacrene D. Hence, the strategy of T-oaks exhibiting directly herbivore-repellent HIPV emissions instead of high emissions of predator-attracting HIPVs of the S-oaks appears to be the better mechanism for avoiding defoliation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Efficient olfactory coding in the pheromone receptor neuron of a moth.

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    Lubomir Kostal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of coding efficiency holds that sensory neurons are adapted, through both evolutionary and developmental processes, to the statistical characteristics of their natural stimulus. Encouraged by the successful invocation of this principle to predict how neurons encode natural auditory and visual stimuli, we attempted its application to olfactory neurons. The pheromone receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus, for which quantitative properties of both the natural stimulus and the reception processes are available, was selected. We predicted several characteristics that the pheromone plume should possess under the hypothesis that the receptors perform optimally, i.e., transfer as much information on the stimulus per unit time as possible. Our results demonstrate that the statistical characteristics of the predicted stimulus, e.g., the probability distribution function of the stimulus concentration, the spectral density function of the stimulation course, and the intermittency, are in good agreement with those measured experimentally in the field. These results should stimulate further quantitative studies on the evolutionary adaptation of olfactory nervous systems to odorant plumes and on the plume characteristics that are most informative for the 'sniffer'. Both aspects are relevant to the design of olfactory sensors for odour-tracking robots.

  4. Identification and characterisation of multiple glutathione S-transferase genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2015-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests on crucifer crops worldwide. In this study, 19 cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were identified from the genomic and transcriptomic database for DBM (KONAGAbase) and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 19 GSTs were classified into six different cytosolic classes, including four in delta, six in epsilon, three in omega, two in sigma, one in theta and one in zeta. Two GSTs were unclassified. RT-PCR analysis revealed that most GST genes were expressed in all developmental stages, with higher expression in the larval stages. Six DBM GSTs were expressed at the highest levels in the midgut tissue. Twelve purified recombinant GSTs showed varied enzymatic properties towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and glutathione, whereas rPxGSTo2, rPxGSTz1 and rPxGSTu2 had no activity. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that expression levels of the 19 DBM GST genes were varied and changed after exposure to acephate, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin and spinosad. PxGSTd3 was significantly overexpressed, while PxGSTe3 and PxGSTs2 were significantly downregulated by all four insecticide exposures. The changes in DBM GST gene expression levels exposed to different insecticides indicate that they may play individual roles in tolerance to insecticides and xenobiotics. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  6. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  7. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation with Protecto on Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H.M.; Haiba, I.M.; Rizk, M.A.; Youssef, L.A.; Zahran, N.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on certain biological aspects of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella was studied. Five day old pupae were irradiated with sub sterilizing dose (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 Gy). Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of bacterial commercial product of Bacillus thuringiensis (Protecto) on the newly hatched larvae of Ph. operculella at four concentrations (0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 g/100 ml water). LC 50 value was calculated for protecto, significant positive relationship between dose levels and the percentage of adult emergence was obtained. The number of egg per female and the percentage of egg hatch of emerged adults were significantly decreased by the increase of gamma rays. In addition, dose levels of 50 and 100 Gy were completely inhibited the larval development. The larval mortality percentages were increased with the increase of concentrations as well as the period after the treatment of Protecto. The percentage of survived larvae to adult stage was reduced as the irradiation dose and Protecto concentrations increased, while larval and pupal durations were relatively longer. The longevity of adults was decreased by increasing the dose of radiation and concentration of Protecto. The percentage of malformation among adults was increased by increasing gamma rays doses and concentration of the Protecto

  8. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Abul Fadl, H.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x10 10 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x10 8 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  9. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management. PMID:27429560

  10. Host conservatism, geography, and elevation in the evolution of a Neotropical moth radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Forister, Matthew L; Parchman, Thomas L; Smilanich, Angela M; Miller, James S; Wilson, Joseph S; Walla, Thomas R; Tepe, Eric J; Richards, Lora A; Quijano-Abril, Mario Alberto; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2017-12-01

    The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics. Relationships among 107 taxa were reconstructed using one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. In addition, we used a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to generate 4641 SNPs for 137 taxa. Both datasets yielded similar phylogenetic histories, with relationships structured by host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation. While diversification of basal lineages often coincided with host clade shifts, more recent speciation events were more typically associated with shifts across bioregions or elevational gradients. Overall, patterns of diversification in Eois are consistent with the perspective that shifts across multiple adaptive zones synergistically drive diversification in hyper-diverse lineages. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2012-02-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations.

  12. The effect of gamma radiation on the rice moth, Corcyra Cephalonica (Staint). Part II irradiation of the eggs, pupae, and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatwiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The 1-3 days old eggs of the rice moth were exposed to gamma rays at 0, 3, 6, 12.5 and 25 krads. The LD 50 and LD 99 for eggs was estimated as 9 and 42 krads respectively. A dose of 25 krads caused 100% mortality in larvae irradiated as egg stage. Mixed ages of 1-7 days old pupae were subjected to 0, 6, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 Krads of gamma rays. Based on number of adults emerged, the LD 50 and LD 99 for pupae were estimated as 19 and 110 krads. Mixed sexes of 1-3 days old adult moths were also exposed to gamma rays. The LD 50 and LD 99 for adults appeared to be 60 and 170 krads respectively. Irradiation of both sexes of adult moths at 25 and 50 krads, led to complete infertility in eggs deposited

  13. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. A conserved odorant receptor detects the same 1-indanone analogs in a tortricid and a noctuid moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eGonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Odorant receptors (ORs interface animals with airborne chemical signals. They are under strong selection pressure and are therefore highly divergent in different taxa. Yet, some OR orthologs are highly conserved. These ORs may be tuned to odorants of broad importance, across species boundaries. Two widely distributed lepidopteran herbivores, codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae feeding in apples and pears, and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae, a moth feeding on foliage of a wide range of herbaceous plants, both express a receptor ortholog, OR19, which shares 58% amino acid identity and 69% amino acid similarity. Following heterologous expression in the empty neuron system of Drosophila melanogaster, we show by single sensillum recordings that CpomOR19 and SlitOR19 show similar affinity to several substituted indanes. Tests with a series of compounds structurally related to 1-indanone show that 2-methyl-1-indanone, 2-ethyl-1-indanone, 3-methyl-1-indanone and 1-indanone elicit a strong response from both ORs. A keto group in position 1 is essential for biological activity and so are both rings of the indane skeleton. However, there is an important difference in steric complementary of the indane rings and the receptor. Methyl substituents on the benzene ring largely suppressed the response. On the other hand, alkyl substituents at position 2 and 3 of the five-membered ring increased the response indicating a higher complementarity with the receptor cavity, in both CpomOR19 and SlitOR19. Our results demonstrate a conserved function of an odorant receptor in two moths that are phylogenetically and ecologically distant. It is conceivable that a conserved OR is tuned to signals that are relevant for both species, although their ecological roles are yet unknown. Our finding demonstrates that functional characterization of ORs leads to the discovery of novel semiochemicals that have not yet been found through chemical

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of root shape in the moth orchid Phalaenopsis sp.: a biomimicry methodology for robotic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anand Kumar; Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2018-04-25

    Within the field of biorobotics, an emerging branch is plant-inspired robotics. Some effort exists in particular towards the production of digging robots that mimic roots; for these, a deeper comprehension of the role of root tip geometry in excavation would be highly desirable. Here we demonstrate a photogrammetry-based pipeline for the production of computer and manufactured replicas of moth orchid root apexes. Our methods yields faithful root reproductions. This can be used either for quantitative studies aimed at comparing different root morphologies, or directly to implement a particular root shape in a biorobot.

  16. A new species of wasp-mimicking clearwing moth from Peninsular Malaysia with DNA barcode and behavioural notes (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Skowron Volponi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of clearwing moth, Pyrophleps ellawi Skowron Volponi, sp. n., is described from Peninsular Malaysia. Information on the habitat, time and conditions of occurrence, flight and mud-puddling behaviour, functional morphology, and DNA barcode are also provided. Photographs and a supplementary video from the wild demonstrate the postures and behaviour of this species of Pyrophleps, whose remaining members were described only on the basis of pinned specimens. This is the first record of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia.

  17. A pheromone-baited trap for monitoring the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, M A.; Dowdy, A K.

    2001-07-01

    A pheromone-baited trap was developed to monitor the Indian meal moth in grocery stores and similar areas where visible traps are not desirable. The trap can be used under shelves and against walls. As a shelf mount, the trap is in close proximity to the food packages and may capture emerging insects before they mate. The trap can also be used as a hanging trap similar to the Pherocon II. When used as a shelf or wall mount, it was as effective as the Pherocon II, but when used as a hanging trap significantly fewer insects were captured.

  18. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lep.:Tortricidae Control by Mating Disruption Method by Synthetic Pheromones in Khorasan Razavi Province

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    Hashem Kamali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella is one of the key pests of apple in Khorasan Razavi province which annually causes severe fruit damage to apple crop. There are several ways that are used to control and prevent injury to apple products in the world. The most successful and widespread use of pheromones has been in monitoring traps. Mating disruption method by pheromones takes place when enough artificial sources of pheromone are placed in the area that the chance of finding a female by a male is high. Mating, and laying viable eggs is reduced below the point where economically significant damage occurs. Large-scale mating disruption implementation trials have yielded significant reduction in pesticide use while keeping crop damage levels acceptably low. Mating disruption works best if large areas are treated with the pheromones. Currently, chemical control is the most common method of the pest control by using insecticides. In this research, with the goal of eliminating codling moth and minimizing the use of chemical compounds on the apple fruits, the ability of artificial sex pheromones in controlling the codling moth based on mating disruption method was investigated and compared with chemical control in Ghochan County, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in 20 replicates based on a CRB design. The treatments were mating disruption with pheromone dispensers mating disruption + chemical control and chemical control based on the local method. Adult moth was sampled using Delta traps with a sticky insert. 1000 pheromone, which is a two-strand wire rod was produced has been installed on trees per hectare. Pheromones were installed before the first appearance of male moths. 20 to 25 days after each pest generation, randomly 25 fruits were selected and recorded from different directions and heights base on healthy and infected fruits. Results and Discussion: The mating disruption

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth Cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 * 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  20. The ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism of a moth: when do males and females grow apart?

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    R Craig Stillwell

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.

  1. Evidence of repeated and independent saltational evolution in a peculiar genus of sphinx moths (Proserpinus: Sphingidae.

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    Daniel Rubinoff

    Full Text Available Saltational evolution in which a particular lineage undergoes relatively rapid, significant, and unparalleled change as compared with its closest relatives is rarely invoked as an alternative model to the dominant paradigm of gradualistic evolution. Identifying saltational events is an important first-step in assessing the importance of this discontinuous model in generating evolutionary novelty. We offer evidence for three independent instances of saltational evolution in a charismatic moth genus with only eight species.Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian search criteria offered congruent, well supported phylogenies based on 1,965 base pairs of DNA sequence using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the nuclear genes elongation factor-1 alpha and wingless. Using a comparative methods approach, we examined three taxa exhibiting novelty in the form of Batesian mimicry, host plant shift, and dramatic physiological differences in light of the phylogenetic data. All three traits appear to have evolved relatively rapidly and independently in three different species of Proserpinus. Each saltational species exhibits a markedly different and discrete example of discontinuous trait evolution while remaining canalized for other typical traits shared by the rest of the genus. All three saltational taxa show insignificantly different levels of overall genetic change as compared with their congeners, implying that their divergence is targeted to particular traits and not genome-wide.Such rapid evolution of novel traits in individual species suggests that the pace of evolution can be quick, dramatic, and isolated--even on the species level. These results may be applicable to other groups in which specific taxa have generated pronounced evolutionary novelty. Genetic mechanisms and methods for assessing such relatively rapid changes are postulated.

  2. Evidence of repeated and independent saltational evolution in a peculiar genus of sphinx moths (Proserpinus: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    Saltational evolution in which a particular lineage undergoes relatively rapid, significant, and unparalleled change as compared with its closest relatives is rarely invoked as an alternative model to the dominant paradigm of gradualistic evolution. Identifying saltational events is an important first-step in assessing the importance of this discontinuous model in generating evolutionary novelty. We offer evidence for three independent instances of saltational evolution in a charismatic moth genus with only eight species. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian search criteria offered congruent, well supported phylogenies based on 1,965 base pairs of DNA sequence using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the nuclear genes elongation factor-1 alpha and wingless. Using a comparative methods approach, we examined three taxa exhibiting novelty in the form of Batesian mimicry, host plant shift, and dramatic physiological differences in light of the phylogenetic data. All three traits appear to have evolved relatively rapidly and independently in three different species of Proserpinus. Each saltational species exhibits a markedly different and discrete example of discontinuous trait evolution while remaining canalized for other typical traits shared by the rest of the genus. All three saltational taxa show insignificantly different levels of overall genetic change as compared with their congeners, implying that their divergence is targeted to particular traits and not genome-wide. Such rapid evolution of novel traits in individual species suggests that the pace of evolution can be quick, dramatic, and isolated--even on the species level. These results may be applicable to other groups in which specific taxa have generated pronounced evolutionary novelty. Genetic mechanisms and methods for assessing such relatively rapid changes are postulated.

  3. A flight sensory-motor to olfactory processing circuit in the moth Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual P Bradley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits projecting information from motor pathways to sensory pathways are common across sensory domains. These circuits typically modify sensory function as a result of motor pattern activation; this is particularly so in cases where the resultant behavior affects the sensory experience or its processing. However, such circuits have not been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway in any species despite well characterized active sampling behaviors that produce reafferent mechanical stimuli, such as sniffing in mammals and wing beating in the moth Manduca sexta. In this study we characterize a circuit that connects a flight sensory-motor center to an olfactory center in Manduca. This circuit consists of a single pair of histamine immunoreactive (HA-ir neurons that project from the mesothoracic ganglion to innervate a subset of ventral antennal lobe (AL glomeruli. Furthermore, within the AL we show that the Manduca sexta histamine B receptor (MsHisClB is exclusively expressed by a subset of GABAergic and peptidergic LNs, which broadly project to all olfactory glomeruli. Finally, the HA-ir cell pair is present in fifth stage instar larvae; however, the absence of MsHisClB-ir in the larval antennal center (LAC indicates that the circuit is incomplete prior to metamorphosis and importantly prior to the expression of flight behavior. Although the functional consequences of this circuit remain unknown, these results provide the first detailed description of a circuit that interconnects an olfactory system with motor centers driving flight behaviors including odor-guided flight.

  4. Non-canonical dorsoventral patterning in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata

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    Karl R. Wotton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are of central importance for dorsal–ventral (DV axis specification. They are core components of a signalling cascade that includes the BMP ligand decapentaplegic (DPP and its antagonist short gastrulation (SOG in Drosophila melanogaster. These components are very ancient, with orthologs involved in DV patterning in both protostomes and deuterostomes. Despite such strong conservation, recent comparative work in insects has revealed interesting differences in the way the patterning function of the DV system is achieved in different species. Results In this paper, we characterise the expression patterns of the principal components of the BMP DV patterning system, as well as its signalling outputs and downstream targets, in the non-cyclorrhaphan moth midge Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae. We previously reported ventral expression patterns of dpp in the pole regions of C. albipunctata blastoderm embryos. Strikingly, we also find ventral sog and posteriorly restricted tkv expression, as well as expanded polar activity of pMad. We use our results from gene knock-down by embryonic RNA interference to propose a mechanism of polar morphogen shuttling in C. albipunctata. We compare these results to available data from other species and discuss scenarios for the evolution of DV signalling in the holometabolan insects. Conclusions A comparison of gene expression patterns across hemipteran and holometabolan insects reveals that expression of upstream signalling factors in the DV system is very variable, while signalling output is highly conserved. This has two major implications: first, as long as ligand shuttling and other upstream regulatory mechanisms lead to an appropriately localised activation of BMP signalling at the dorsal midline, it is of less importance exactly where the upstream components of the DV system are expressed. This, in turn, explains why the early-acting components of

  5. Incorporation of diapause into codling moth mass rearing: Production advantages and insect quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Stephanie; Calkins, Carrol O.; Bloem, Ken A.

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a widely distributed species and the key pest of apples and pears in orchards of the Pacific Northwest. CM possesses facultative diapause and the mature 5th instar larva is the overwintering stage (Brown 1991). British Columbia, Canada, is attempting to eradicate CM using the sterile insect technique (SIT). The Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) Program began releasing sterile CM in 1994 (Dyck et al. 1993, Bloem and Bloem 1996) and results in recent years have been excellent. Despite the fact that standard rearing operations have gone extremely well, and weekly CM production has increased from 8.7 million CM per week in 1994 to 14.2 million per week in 1997, the ability to mass rear diapausing CM holds a number of advantages that are currently not available. The ability to stockpile CM larvae in diapause throughout the fall and winter months when the mass rearing facility is underutilised would: 1) provide additional CM for release during the spring/summer field season, 2) provide back-up material to guard against colony losses due to operational failures and/or pathogen outbreaks, 3) allow for a potentially more cost-effective use of the facility by maintaining production year round, 4) facilitate the development of mass rearing techniques for key parasitoids that attack the overwintering stage, 5) allow for the easy shipment (and sale) of CM to researchers around the world. Here we outline the current standard CM mass rearing procedures and discuss research that has allowed diapausing CM to be mass reared (Bloem et al. 1997). We also discuss research that suggests diapaused CM are more competitive than standard non-diapaused CM (Bloem et al. 1998)

  6. Evidence for strong intralocus sexual conflict in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zenobia; Wedell, Nina; Hunt, John

    2011-07-01

    Males and females share a genome and express many shared phenotypic traits, which are often selected in opposite directions. This generates intralocus sexual conflict that may constrain trait evolution by preventing the sexes from reaching their optimal phenotype. Furthermore, if present across multiple loci, intralocus sexual conflict can result in a gender load that may diminish the benefits of sexual selection and help maintain genetic variation for fitness. Despite the importance of intralocus sexual conflict, surprisingly few empirical studies conclusively demonstrate its operation. We show that the pattern of multivariate selection acting on three sexually dimorphic life-history traits (development time, body size, and longevity) in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, is opposing for the sexes. Moreover, we combined our estimates of selection with the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) to predict the evolutionary response of the life-history traits in the sexes and showed that the angle between the vector of responses and the vector of sexually antagonistic selection was almost orthogonal at 84.70°. Thus, G biases the predicted response of life-history traits in the sexes away from the direction of sexually antagonistic selection, confirming the presence of strong intralocus sexual conflict in this species. Despite this, sexual dimorphism has evolved in all of the life-history traits examined suggesting that mechanism(s) have evolved to resolve this conflict and allow the sexes to reach their life-history optima. We argue that intralocus sexual conflict is likely to play an important role in the evolution of divergent life-history strategies between the sexes in this species. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanost, Michael R.; Arrese, Estela L.; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G.; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L.; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C.; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B.; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M.; Clarke, David F.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Ferguson, Laura C.F.; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H.J.; Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R.; Kuwar, Suyog S.; Lee, Sandy L.; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; McCulloch, Kyle J.; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M.; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J.; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Hansson, Bill S.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S.; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K.; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G.; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects. PMID:27522922

  8. Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia: an initial molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausmann Axel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species, deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total, and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33 superfamilies and 55 (of 100 families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis. Results Our trees show broad concordance with previous morphological hypotheses of ditrysian phylogeny, although most relationships among superfamilies are weakly supported. There are also notable surprises, such as a consistently closer relationship of Pyraloidea than of butterflies to most Macrolepidoptera. Monophyly is significantly rejected by one or more character sets for the putative clades Macrolepidoptera as currently defined (P P ≤ 0.005, and nearly so for the superfamily Drepanoidea as currently defined (P Separate analyses of mostly synonymous versus non-synonymous character sets revealed notable differences (though not strong conflict, including a marked influence of compositional heterogeneity on apparent signal in the third codon position (nt3. As available model partitioning methods cannot correct for this variation, we assessed overall phylogeny resolution through separate examination of trees from each character set. Exploration of "tree space" with GARLI, using grid computing, showed that hundreds of searches are typically needed to find the best-feasible phylogeny estimate for these data. Conclusion Our results (a corroborate the broad outlines of the current working phylogenetic hypothesis for Ditrysia, (b demonstrate that some prominent features of that hypothesis, including the position of the butterflies, need revision, and (c resolve the majority of family and subfamily relationships within superfamilies as thus far

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  10. Genome-based identification of spliceosomal proteins in the silk moth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarelli, Jason A; Mesa, Annia; Fuller, Myron E; Torres, Jacqueline O; Rodriguez, Carol E; Ferrer, Christina M; Herrera, Rene J

    2010-12-01

    Pre-messenger RNA splicing is a highly conserved eukaryotic cellular function that takes place by way of a large, RNA-protein assembly known as the spliceosome. In the mammalian system, nearly 300 proteins associate with uridine-rich small nuclear (sn)RNAs to form this complex. Some of these splicing factors are ubiquitously present in the spliceosome, whereas others are involved only in the processing of specific transcripts. Several proteomics analyses have delineated the proteins of the spliceosome in several species. In this study, we mine multiple sequence data sets of the silk moth Bombyx mori in an attempt to identify the entire set of known spliceosomal proteins. Five data sets were utilized, including the 3X, 6X, and Build 2.0 genomic contigs as well as the expressed sequence tag and protein libraries. While homologs for 88% of vertebrate splicing factors were delineated in the Bombyx mori genome, there appear to be several spliceosomal polypeptides absent in Bombyx mori and seven additional insect species. This apparent increase in spliceosomal complexity in vertebrates may reflect the tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing requirements in vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of 15 eukaryotic taxa using the core splicing factors suggest that the essential functional units of the pre-mRNA processing machinery have remained highly conserved from yeast to humans. The Sm and LSm proteins are the most conserved, whereas proteins of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle are the most divergent. These data highlight both the differential conservation and relative phylogenetic signals of the essential spliceosomal components throughout evolution. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Retention of memory through metamorphosis: can a moth remember what it learned as a caterpillar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Blackiston

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis experience enormous changes in both morphology and lifestyle. The current study examines whether larval experience can persist through pupation into adulthood in Lepidoptera, and assesses two possible mechanisms that could underlie such behavior: exposure of emerging adults to chemicals from the larval environment, or associative learning transferred to adulthood via maintenance of intact synaptic connections. Fifth instar Manduca sexta caterpillars received an electrical shock associatively paired with a specific odor in order to create a conditioned odor aversion, and were assayed for learning in a Y choice apparatus as larvae and again as adult moths. We show that larvae learned to avoid the training odor, and that this aversion was still present in the adults. The adult aversion did not result from carryover of chemicals from the larval environment, as neither applying odorants to naïve pupae nor washing the pupae of trained caterpillars resulted in a change in behavior. In addition, we report that larvae trained at third instar still showed odor aversion after two molts, as fifth instars, but did not avoid the odor as adults, consistent with the idea that post-metamorphic recall involves regions of the brain that are not produced until later in larval development. The present study, the first to demonstrate conclusively that associative memory survives metamorphosis in Lepidoptera, provokes intriguing new questions about the organization and persistence of the central nervous system during metamorphosis. Our results have both ecological and evolutionary implications, as retention of memory through metamorphosis could influence host choice by polyphagous insects, shape habitat selection, and lead to eventual sympatric speciation.

  12. Host Plant Species Differentiation in a Polyphagous Moth: Olfaction is Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchou, Lucie; Anderson, Peter; Birgersson, Göran

    2017-08-01

    Polyphagous herbivorous insects need to discriminate suitable from unsuitable host plants in complex plant communities. While studies on the olfactory system of monophagous herbivores have revealed close adaptations to their host plant's characteristic volatiles, such adaptive fine-tuning is not possible when a large diversity of plants is suitable. Instead, the available literature on polyphagous herbivore preferences suggests a higher level of plasticity, and a bias towards previously experienced plant species. It is therefore necessary to take into account the diversity of plant odors that polyphagous herbivores encounter in the wild in order to unravel the olfactory basis of their host plant choice behaviour. In this study we show that a polyphagous moth, Spodoptera littoralis, has the sensory ability to distinguish five host plant species using olfaction alone, this being a prerequisite to the ability to make a choice. We have used gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) in order to describe host plant odor profiles as perceived by S. littoralis. We find that each plant emits specific combinations and proportions of GC-EAD active volatiles, leading to statistically distinct profiles. In addition, at least four of these plants show GC-EAD active compound proportions that are conserved across individual plants, a characteristic that enables insects to act upon previous olfactory experiences during host plant choice. By identifying the volatiles involved in olfactory differentiation of alternative host plants by Spodoptera littoralis, we set the groundwork for deeper investigations of how olfactory perceptions translate into behaviour in polyphagous herbivores.

  13. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  14. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Sun, Botong; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; Xue, Minqian; You, Minsheng

    2018-01-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella , while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  15. Studies on Biology and Ecology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.; Kaewchoung, P.; Malakrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1 st and 2 nd instar, 3 rd instar and 4 th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2 nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (λ)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4 th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1 st and 2 nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4 th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)

  16. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kermani

    Full Text Available Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵ at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92% at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50% and 25°C (26%. Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM.

  17. Characterization and expression profiling of serine protease inhibitors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hailan; Lin, Xijian; Zhu, Jiwei; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Xia, Xiaofeng; Yao, Fengluan; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2017-02-14

    Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in all living organisms and play significant roles in digestion, development and innate immunity. In this study, we present a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SPI genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a major pest of cruciferous crops with global distribution and broad resistance to different types of insecticides. A total of 61 potential SPI genes were identified in the P. xylostella genome, and these SPIs were classified into serpins, canonical inhibitors, and alpha-2-macroglobulins based on their modes of action. Sequence alignments showed that amino acid residues in the hinge region of known inhibitory serpins from other insect species were conserved in most P. xylostella serpins, suggesting that these P. xylostella serpins may be functionally active. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that P. xylostella inhibitory serpins were clustered with known inhibitory serpins from six other insect species. More interestingly, nine serpins were highly similar to the orthologues in Manduca sexta which have been demonstrated to participate in regulating the prophenoloxidase activation cascade, an important innate immune response in insects. Of the 61 P.xylostella SPI genes, 33 were canonical SPIs containing seven types of inhibitor domains, including Kunitz, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Antistasin, WAP and Pacifastin. Moreover, some SPIs contained additional non-inhibitor domains, including spondin_N, reeler, and other modules, which may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Gene expression profiling showed gene-differential, stage- and sex-specific expression patterns of SPIs, suggesting that SPIs may be involved in multiple physiological processes in P. xylostella. This is the most comprehensive investigation so far on SPI genes in P. xylostella. The characterized features and expression patterns of P. xylostella SPIs indicate that the SPI family genes may be involved in innate immunity

  18. Preference‒performance linkage in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella , and implications for its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Marchioro; Foerster, Luís Amilton

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference‒performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference–performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella . Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella . Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella , favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing. PMID:25368041

  19. Relevance of reproductive correlates in response of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae to plant quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soufbaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationships between leaf nitrogen and the reproductive potential of diamondback moth, all reproductive parameters of this pest raised on two canola cultivars were evaluated. A standardized regression coefficient (β was used as an index for nitrogen-reproduction relationship strength. The only difference between net fecundity rate and net fertility rate is hx’s effect, but the difference in their standardized regression coefficients was not significant [β=+0.934 (R2=0.87, F1,4=27.34, P=0.006 and β=+0.922 (R2=0.85, F1,4=22.825, P=0.009]. Accordingly, gross fecundity rate and gross fertility rate differ only in hx’s effect, but the difference in standardized regression coefficients again was not significant [β=0.895 (R2=0.8, F1,4=16.159, P=0.016-0.890 (R2=0.79, F1,4=15.266, P=0.017=0.005]. As gross fecundity rate differs from net fecundity rate only in midpoint survivorship (Lx’s effect, it is understood that survivorship could affect the plant nitrogen–fecundity relation considerably (standardized coefficients difference=0.044 and could be a critical parameter in insectplant interactions. But, the terms of reproductive parameters, i.e. Lx and hx, showed the same effect on the strength of nitrogen-fecundity regression statistically, even though Lx has been selected frequently by many researchers as an important fitness correlate. Measuring the hatch rate could be recommended in trophic interactions studies due to its being easier to apply, more robust, and quicker to accomplish than measurement of survivorship; however, it is important as an indicator in combination with brood size for determining the initial population size of an insect herbivore.

  20. Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanchun; Xie, Miao; Ren, Nana; Cheng, Xuemin; Li, Jianyu; Ma, Xiaoli; Zou, Minming; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2015-03-05

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides. A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis. To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance Development in the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhendi; Chen, Huanyu; Yin, Fei; Li, Zhenyu; Dong, Xiaolin; Zhang, Deyong; Ren, Shunxiang; Feng, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella has developed a high level of resistance to the latest insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A better understanding of P. xylostella’s resistance mechanism to chlorantraniliprole is needed to develop effective approaches for insecticide resistance management. Principal Findings To provide a comprehensive insight into the resistance mechanisms of P. xylostella to chlorantraniliprole, transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system were performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The transcriptome analysis of the susceptible strain (SS) provided 45,231 unigenes (with the size ranging from 200 bp to 13,799 bp), which would be efficient for analyzing the differences in different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella stains. DGE analysis indicated that a total of 1215 genes (189 up-regulated and 1026 down-regulated) were gradient differentially expressed among the susceptible strain (SS) and different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella strains, including low-level resistance (GXA), moderate resistance (LZA) and high resistance strains (HZA). A detailed analysis of gradient differentially expressed genes elucidated the existence of a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment at the molecular level. The genes related to insecticide resistance, such as P450, GST, the ryanodine receptor, and connectin, had different expression profiles in the different chlorantraniliprole-resistant DGE libraries, suggesting that the genes related to insecticide resistance are involved in P. xylostella resistance development against chlorantraniliprole. To confirm the results from the DGE, the expressional profiles of 4 genes related to insecticide resistance were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions The obtained transcriptome information provides large gene resources available for further studying the resistance development of P. xylostella to pesticides. The DGE data provide

  2. Transcriptome analysis of chlorantraniliprole resistance development in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

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    Qingsheng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella has developed a high level of resistance to the latest insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A better understanding of P. xylostella's resistance mechanism to chlorantraniliprole is needed to develop effective approaches for insecticide resistance management. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To provide a comprehensive insight into the resistance mechanisms of P. xylostella to chlorantraniliprole, transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression (DGE system were performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The transcriptome analysis of the susceptible strain (SS provided 45,231 unigenes (with the size ranging from 200 bp to 13,799 bp, which would be efficient for analyzing the differences in different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella stains. DGE analysis indicated that a total of 1215 genes (189 up-regulated and 1026 down-regulated were gradient differentially expressed among the susceptible strain (SS and different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella strains, including low-level resistance (GXA, moderate resistance (LZA and high resistance strains (HZA. A detailed analysis of gradient differentially expressed genes elucidated the existence of a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment at the molecular level. The genes related to insecticide resistance, such as P450, GST, the ryanodine receptor, and connectin, had different expression profiles in the different chlorantraniliprole-resistant DGE libraries, suggesting that the genes related to insecticide resistance are involved in P. xylostella resistance development against chlorantraniliprole. To confirm the results from the DGE, the expressional profiles of 4 genes related to insecticide resistance were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained transcriptome information provides large gene resources available for further studying the resistance development of P. xylostella to pesticides. The DGE data

  3. Cloning, ligand-binding, and temporal expression of ecdysteroid receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

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    Tang Baozhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors. Result In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM. In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous. Conclusions Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists to their targets (ecdysone receptors leads to an adaptive response (resistance, is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.

  4. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.

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    Xiaofeng Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes, Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria, and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella, while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  5. Toxicity of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. chloroform extract against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

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    Imtithal I., J.; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Idris A., B.

    2018-04-01

    The potential of using plant and plant-derived products as deterrent against pest of crops in the field and during postharvest period, is gaining increasing attention, due to rapid development of resistance to the synthetic insecticides and couple with the fact that natural insecticides constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are safe and biodegradable into non-toxic products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the insecticidal effects of chloroform extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. leaves against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella under laboratory conditions. The medicinal plants were collected around Kampong Sungai Siput, Lubok China, Malacca, Malaysia. The leaf disc immersion method was used to assess the insecticidal effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. leaves extract on the larvae as well as duration of the larval phase following feeding of the second instar larvae of diamondback on the treated leaf discs for 24 h at various concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/ml). Larval mortality was evaluated every 24 hours for a period of three days. Highest larval percent was observed at 72hrs post exposure with 86.67 % mortality at 8mg/ml concentration LC50 and LC90 value was calculated against different concentrations. It was recorded that lowest LC50 and LC90 values were observed after 72 h of exposure followed by 48 h at 2.84 mg/ml and 17.59 mg/ml respectively and 3.36 mg/ml and 28.59 mg/ml respectively at 48 h of exposure time. Both larvae mortality and duration of exposure were found to be directly related to the concentration of Pandan amaryllifolius L. leaves extract and inversely related to fecundity. The present study indicates that phytochemicals derived from Pandanus amaryllifolius L. leaf extracts are effective DBM control agent and the plant extracts may be useful for further IPM program.

  6. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

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    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity.

  7. Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Patrick Strutzenberger

    Full Text Available Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp from one mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited

  8. Sexual communication in castniid moths: Males mark their territories and appear to bear all chemical burden.

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    Carmen Quero

    Full Text Available Castniid moths (Lepidoptera: Castniidae display a butterfly-like reproductive behavior, i.e., they use visual stimuli for mate location and females have apparently lost their pheromone glands in an evolutionary context. In this paper we report for the first time the identification of three new compounds, namely n-octadecyl acetate, (Z-9-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate, in males of the Castniid Palm Borer, Paysandisia archon, which could be involved in its short-range courtship behavior, and also shed light on recent controversies on the sexual behavior of the species. The compounds are produced in a ring-shaped gland of the male terminalia and have occasionally been detected in very minor amounts (ng in ovipositor extracts of females, but only while mating or just after copulation. We also report that males use the already known (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienol to mark their territory by rubbing their midlegs against the upper side of nearby leaves, especially palm leaves. This compound, produced in large amounts, is mostly concentrated in the midleg basitarsi and its maximum production is detected on the sexually mature 1-day-old specimens. In addition, analysis of male wings extracts confirms the presence of Z,E and E,E-farnesals, which are mostly produced in the median band of hindwings of 48-53 h-old insects. The biological significance of farnesals in this species is unknown. Our results point out that the chemical communication of P. archon relies mostly on males, which appear to bear all chemical burden in this respect.

  9. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  10. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  11. Fossilized biophotonic nanostructures reveal the original colors of 47-million-year-old moths.

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    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Wedmann, Sonja; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany). The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle) achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene.

  12. Fossilized biophotonic nanostructures reveal the original colors of 47-million-year-old moths.

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    Maria E McNamara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera, which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany. The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene.

  13. The effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhouibi, M.H.; Abderahmane, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated various effects of gamma radiation on the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, treated with 200-600 Gy at different pupal ages. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of adult emergence. This effect was both dose and age dependent. At 500 and 600 Gy, no pupae developed into normal adults when treated at the age of 4-5 days. Only 6% normal adults emerged when the pupae were treated at the age of 6-7 days with 500 Gy. When 8-9 d old pupae were irradiated with 500 and 600 Gy, 30% and 10% normal adults emerged, respectively. Other emerged moths exhibited various malformations, mostly wing deformities. When pupae were treated with 400 or 500 Gy, fecundity and fertility of both untreated females mated with irradiated males or irradiated females mated with untreated males were drastically reduced. When 9-10 d old pupae were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy, adult morphology, fecundity, fertility and egg hatch were slightly affected. Mating behaviour of irradiated males also was affected. Competitiveness of males irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses varied depending on irradiation dose and number of insects present in the mating cages. A significant reduction of competitiveness was observed in males treated with ≤300Gy. (author)

  14. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  15. The effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhouibi, M H; Abderahmane, C T [Laboratoire d' Entomologie de l' Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis Mahrajene (Tunisia)

    2002-04-01

    We investigated various effects of gamma radiation on the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, treated with 200-600 Gy at different pupal ages. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of adult emergence. This effect was both dose and age dependent. At 500 and 600 Gy, no pupae developed into normal adults when treated at the age of 4-5 days. Only 6% normal adults emerged when the pupae were treated at the age of 6-7 days with 500 Gy. When 8-9 d old pupae were irradiated with 500 and 600 Gy, 30% and 10% normal adults emerged, respectively. Other emerged moths exhibited various malformations, mostly wing deformities. When pupae were treated with 400 or 500 Gy, fecundity and fertility of both untreated females mated with irradiated males or irradiated females mated with untreated males were drastically reduced. When 9-10 d old pupae were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy, adult morphology, fecundity, fertility and egg hatch were slightly affected. Mating behaviour of irradiated males also was affected. Competitiveness of males irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses varied depending on irradiation dose and number of insects present in the mating cages. A significant reduction of competitiveness was observed in males treated with {<=}300Gy. (author)

  16. Population dynamics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in northern China: the effects of migration, cropping patterns and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liuhong; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Shufa; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Zalucki, Myron P; Wu, Qingjun; Yin, Xianhui

    2018-02-08

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the most widely distributed pest of Brassica vegetables. Control of P. xylostella has relied on insecticides and it has developed resistance to most insecticides. Although research has clarified the resistance status of P. xylostella and the mechanisms of its resistance in northern China, little work has been conducted on long-term population dynamics in the key vegetable-growing areas of the region. We reviewed and summarized the history of P. xylostella field management practices in northern China (Haidian, Changping, Xuanhua and Zhangbei). Moths were caught in pheromone traps throughout the cropping season and P. xylostella phenology and the general trends in abundance were analysed using DYMEX modelling software. The initial input in the spring determined population size in all years. The seasonal phenology and variation in abundance in most years and sites were simulated, suggesting that the suitable climate creates the conditions for population outbreaks, and growers' actual management level (spraying and crop hygiene) influenced population abundance. Based on climate and using the timing of the initial peak in pheromone trap captures as a biofix, the timing of emergence of the next generation can be forecast, and more effective scouting and regional management strategies against this pest can be developed. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE AND ITS PARASITOID DIADEGMA SEMICLAUSUM (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan, Nilly Christalia, F.X. Susilo1, and Nur Yasin .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential Impact of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and Its Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae.  Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the Metarhizium anisopliae against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid, Diadegma  semiclausum. A completely randomized design consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of conidial suspension: 5 x 104, 3.5 x 105, 2.5 x 106, 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml and control was used.  The results indicated that the mortality of P. xylostella larvae were significantly induced by the fungal treatments.  A significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence of P. xylostella was also detected in all treatments when compared with that in the control. The fungus might also result in a male-biased sex ratio of the surviving P. xylostella. When applied at a concentration of 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml, M.  anisopliae might significantly reduce the survival of the parasitoid, D. semiclausum. Thus, despite its potential as a biological control agent against P. xylostella, the entomomogenous fungus M. anisopliae was also detrimental to the larvae parasitoid D. semiclausum.

  18. Changes of sex pheromone communication systems associated with tebufenozide and abamectin resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Cao, Guang-Chun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Many insect pests have evolved resistance to insecticides. Along with this evolution, the sex pheromone communication system of insects also may change, and subsequently reproductive isolation may occur between resistant and susceptible populations. In this study of the diamondback moth, we found that resistant females (especially Abamectin resistant females) produced less sex pheromone and displayed a lower level of calling behavior. Resistant males showed higher EAG responsiveness to the sex pheromone mixture of females, and responded to a broader range of ratios between the two major components compared to the responses of susceptible moths. In addition, wind tunnel experiments indicated that changes associated with insecticide resistance in the Abamectin resistant strain (Aba-R) significantly reduced female attractiveness to susceptible males. Furthermore, mating choice experiments confirmed that non-random mating occurred between the two different strains. Aba-R females with an abnormal pheromone production and blend ratio exhibited significantly lower mating percentages with males from either their own strain or other strains, which corroborates the results obtained by the wind tunnel experiments. The implications of this non-random mating for insect speciation and insecticide resistance management are discussed.

  19. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  20. Identification of the pheromone biosynthesis genes from the sex pheromone gland transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Song; Dai, Jian-Qing; Han, Shi-Chou

    2017-11-24

    The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis dampens our understanding of the ratio diversity of pheromone compounds. Here, we constructed a transcriptomic library from the DBM pheromone gland and identified genes putatively involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis, pheromones functional group transfer, and β-oxidation enzymes. In addition, odorant binding protein, chemosensory protein and pheromone binding protein genes encoded in the pheromone gland transcriptome, suggest that female DBM moths may receive odors or pheromone compounds via their pheromone gland and ovipositor system. Tissue expression profiles further revealed that two ALR, three DES and one FAR5 genes were pheromone gland tissue biased, while some chemoreception genes expressed extensively in PG, pupa, antenna and legs tissues. Finally, the candidate genes from large-scale transcriptome information may be useful for characterizing a presumed biosynthetic pathway of the DBM sex pheromone.

  1. Individual Neurons Confined to Distinct Antennal-Lobe Tracts in the Heliothine Moth: Morphological Characteristics and Global Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Zhao, Xin C.; Lande, Andreas; Berg, Bente G.

    2016-01-01

    To explore fundamental principles characterizing chemosensory information processing, we have identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the heliothine moth, including several neuron types not previously described. Generally, odor information is conveyed from the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, to higher brain centers via projection neuron axons passing along several parallel pathways, of which the medial, mediolateral, and lateral antennal-lobe tract are considered the classical ones. Recent data have revealed the projections of the individual tracts more in detail demonstrating three main target regions in the protocerebrum; the calyces are innervated mainly by the medial tract, the superior intermediate protocerebrum by the lateral tract exclusively, and the lateral horn by all tracts. In the present study, we have identified, via iontophoretic intracellular staining combined with confocal microscopy, individual projection neurons confined to the tracts mentioned above, plus two additional ones. Further, using the visualization software AMIRA, we reconstructed the stained neurons and registered the models into a standard brain atlas, which allowed us to compare the termination areas of individual projection neurons both across and within distinct tracts. The data demonstrate a morphological diversity of the projection neurons within distinct tracts. Comparison of the output areas of the neurons confined to the three main tracts in the lateral horn showed overlapping terminal regions for the medial and mediolateral tracts; the lateral tract neurons, on the contrary, targeted mostly other output areas in the protocerebrum. PMID:27822181

  2. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  3. Study of genetic variation at the level of DNA between normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males (phthorimaea operculella, zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilized males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 μg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  4. Respiratory allergy to moth: the importance of sensitization to Bombyx mori in children with asthma and rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Laura M L; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Riedi, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to prepare a silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) antigenic extract and to perform skin prick tests with this extract in patients with allergic respiratory diseases; to evaluate serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to Bombyx mori using ImmunoCAP® system and to report the frequency of positivity between the two methods and with clinical data. this was a cross-sectional study with 99 children and adolescents diagnosed with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis, who had skin reactivity to at least one of the six aeroallergens tested. Clinical data were evaluated: skin prick tests with Bombyx mori in-house extract, and total and specific IgE analysis using ImmunoCAP® were performed. the frequency of Bombyx mori specific IgE was found to be 52.5% and 60% using the skin prick test and ImmunoCAP®, respectively. An association between a positive skin test for Bombyx mori and the presence of allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria was observed, but the same was not true for asthma or allergic conjunctivitis. There was no relation with the severity of asthma or rhinitis symptoms. a high frequency of sensitization to Bombyx mori was observed in a selected population of patients with respiratory allergic diseases in the city of Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil. The extract prepared from the wings of this moth species is effective in demonstrating this sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  6. Study Of Genetic Variation At The Level Of DNA Between Normal And Steriled Potato Tuber Moth Males (Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilize males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 Mg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  7. Insecticide resistance may enhance the response to a host-plant volatile kairomone for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauphanor, Benoît; Franck, Pierre; Lasnier, Thérèse; Toubon, Jean-François; Beslay, Dominique; Boivin, Thomas; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Renou, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The behavioral and electroantennographic responses of Cydia pomonella (L.) to the ripe pear volatile ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate (Et- E, Z-DD), were compared in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant populations originating from southern France. A dose-response relationship to this kairomonal attractant was established for antennal activity and did not reveal differences between susceptible and resistant strains. Conversely, males of the laboratory strains expressing metabolic [cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidases (mfo)] or physiological (kdr-type mutation of the sodium-channel gene) resistance mechanisms exhibited a significantly higher response to Et- E, Z-DD than those of the susceptible strain in a wind tunnel experiment. No response of the females to this kairomone could be obtained in our wind-tunnel conditions. In apple orchards, mfo-resistant male moths were captured at significantly higher rates in kairomone-baited traps than in traps baited with the sex pheromone of C. pomonella. Such a differential phenomenon was not verified for the kdr-resistant insects, which exhibited a similar response to both the sex pheromone and the kairomonal attractant in apple orchards. Considering the widespread distribution of metabolic resistance in European populations of C. pomonella and the enhanced behavioral response to Et- E, Z-DD in resistant moths, the development of control measures based on this kairomonal compound would be of great interest for the management of insecticide resistance in this species.

  8. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  9. Z linkage of female promiscuity genes in the moth Utetheisa ornatrix: support for the sexy-sperm hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Vikram K; Reeve, Hudson K

    2010-05-01

    Female preference genes for large males in the highly promiscuous moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) have previously been shown to be mostly Z-linked, in accordance with the hypothesis that ZZ-ZW sex chromosome systems should facilitate Fisherian sexual selection. We determined the heritability of both female and male promiscuity in the highly promiscuous moth U. ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) through parent-offspring and grandparent-offspring regression analyses. Our data show that male promiscuity is not sex-limited and either autosomal or sex-linked whereas female promiscuity is primarily determined by sex-limited, Z-linked genes. These data are consistent with the "sexy-sperm hypothesis," which posits that multiple-mating and sperm competitiveness coevolve through a Fisherian-like process in which female promiscuity is a kind of mate choice in which sperm-competitiveness is the trait favored in males. Such a Fisherian process should also be more potent when female preferences are Z-linked and sex-limited than when autosomal or not limited.

  10. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  11. Isolation and partial characterization of gypsy moth BTR-270, an anionic brush border membrane glycoconjugate that binds Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with high affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Jeremy L. Jenkins; Mi Kyong Lee; Donald H. Dean; Karen J. Garner

    2001-01-01

    BTR-270, a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) brush border membrane molecule that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins with high affinity, was purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antibodies specific for the Bt toxin-binding molecule were raised. Attempts to label BTR-270 by protein-directed techniques were...

  12. Evaluating the potential of suppressing codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. field populations by the use of the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies were done to evaluate the possibility of using the sterile insect technique for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., eradication from Syria. Data accumulated during these studies indicate that codling moth has two distinct generations (spring and summer generation) in the country. Spring generation starts from mid April to early May, reaches its peak about one month later, then declines rapidly soon after. Adults of summer generation start their activity in July, peak in August and wild moths disappear by late September to early October. A very small percentage of spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of summer generation larvae and all of hose maturing in September do so. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females). Studies on population density and rate of increase show that it ranged between 2.4 and 11.05 larvae/tree in commercial and neglected apple orchards respectively. The results also indicate that codling moth summer generation increased about three times more than spring generation. In the radiosensitivity studies, it is clear that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to irradiation treatment than males. A dose of 15 krad caused 100% sterility in treated females and reduced fecundity to less than 1% This dose (35 Krad) had no adverse effect on male longevity and competitiveness under laboratory conditions. However, males exposed to a dose of 25 or 35 Krad mated less times than control males and recovered some of their fertility overtime. (author)

  13. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  14. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  15. Line-Trapping of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): A Novel Approach to Improving the Precision of Capture Numbers in Traps Monitoring Pest Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C G; McGhee, P S; Schenker, J H; Gut, L J; Miller, J R

    2017-08-01

    This field study of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), response to single versus multiple monitoring traps baited with codlemone demonstrates that precision of a given capture number is alarmingly poor when the population is held constant by releasing moths. Captures as low as zero and as high as 12 males per single trap are to be expected where the catch mode is three. Here, we demonstrate that the frequency of false negatives and overestimated positives for codling moth trapping can be substantially reduced by employing the tactic of line-trapping, where five traps were deployed 4 m apart along a row of apple trees. Codling moth traps spaced closely competed only slightly. Therefore, deploying five traps closely in a line is a sampling technique nearly as good as deploying five traps spaced widely. But line trapping offers a substantial savings in time and therefore cost when servicing aggregated versus distributed traps. As the science of pest management matures by mastering the ability to translate capture numbers into estimates of absolute pest density, it will be important to employ a tactic like line-trapping so as to shrink the troublesome variability associated with capture numbers in single traps that thwarts accurate decisions about if and when to spray. Line-trapping might similarly increase the reliability and utility of density estimates derived from capture numbers in monitoring traps for various pest and beneficial insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field tested over several ...

  17. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  18. Monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: sampling methods and statistical properties of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Mason; H.G. Paul

    1994-01-01

    Procedures for monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience in sampling these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a...

  19. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  20. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  1. Characterization of Odorant Receptors from a Non-ditrysian Moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella Sheds Light on the Origin of Sex Pheromone Receptors in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Jothi Kumar; Corcoran, Jacob A; Andersson, Martin N; Newcomb, Richard D; Anderbrant, Olle; Löfstedt, Christer

    2017-11-01

    Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remains unknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-called non-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromones that are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestral pheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles. Hence, we identified the odorant receptors (ORs) from a non-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella (Eriocraniidae, Lepidoptera), and performed functional characterization of ORs using HEK293 cells. We report the first receptors that respond to Type 0 pheromone compounds; EsemOR3 displayed highest sensitivity toward (2S, 6Z)-6-nonen-2-ol, whereas EsemOR5 was most sensitive to the behavioral antagonist (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. These receptors also respond to plant volatiles of similar chemical structures, but with lower sensitivity. Phylogenetically, EsemOR3 and EsemOR5 group with a plant volatile-responding receptor from the tortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana (EposOR3), which together reside outside the previously defined lepidopteran PR clade that contains the PRs from more derived lepidopteran families. In addition, one receptor (EsemOR1) that falls at the base of the lepidopteran PR clade, responded specifically to β-caryophyllene and not to any other additional plant or pheromone compounds. Our results suggest that PRs for Type 0 pheromones have evolved from ORs that detect structurally-related plant volatiles. They are unrelated to PRs detecting pheromones in more derived Lepidoptera, which, in turn, also independently may have evolved a novel function from ORs detecting plant volatiles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  3. Development of dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker linked with plume moth (Exelastis atomosa Walsingham 1886 resistance in pigeon-pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya R Mishra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mode of gene action governing resistance to plume moth (Exelastis atomosa Walsingham 1886 derived from pigeon-pea (Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Thouars accession ICPW-94 has been determined and the resistance alleles have been designated as PPM1. The progenies of F2 population and F3 families derived from an interspecific cross C. cajan (L. Huth ('ICP-26' x C. scarabaeoides (accession ICPW-94 revealed monogenic gene action for resistance to plume moth, and the dominant control by single locus or cluster of tightly linked alleles. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA of 116 F2 progenies by using 143 parental polymorphic RAPD primers could identify a fragment OPA09(910 associated with plume moth resistance in coupling phase of linkage. Further single plant analysis of the 116 F2 mapping population revealed OPA09(910 was linked to PPMi locus conferring host resistance to plume moth with recombination fraction (rf value of 0.125 (12.7 cM of Kosambi function. The resistance specific fragment OPA09(910 was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker, SCOPA09(942, which was also closely associated (10.3 cM with the locus PPMl with rf value 0.102. BLAST analysis with pigeon-pea genome sequence also confirmed its occurrence in CcLG02 (Scafseq.LG_V5.0fa and contig 01597 (AFSP01.fsa1. This SCAR marker showed reasonable screening efficiency in the F2, F3, and BC1F1 lines, thus it can be used as genetic handle in marker-assisted introgression of the genomic fragment conferring plume moth resistance and screening of breeding lines in pigeon-pea.

  4. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

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    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  5. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  6. Nonsensical choices? Fall armyworm moths choose seemingly best or worst hosts for their larvae, but neonate larvae make their own choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Rojas

    Full Text Available Selecting optimal host plants is critical for herbivorous insects, such as fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, an important maize pest in the Americas and Africa. Fall armyworm larvae are presumed to have limited mobility, hence female moths are presumed to be largely responsible for selecting hosts. We addressed host selection by fall armyworm moths and neonate and older (3rd-instar larvae, as mediated by resistance and herbivory in maize plants. Thus, we compared discrimination among three maize cultivars with varying degrees of resistance to fall armyworm, and between plants subjected or not to two types of herbivory. The cultivars were: (i susceptible, and deficient in jasmonic acid (JA production and green leaf volatiles (GLV emissions (inbred line B73-lox10; (ii modestly resistant (B73, and; (iii highly resistant (Mp708. The herbivory types were: (i ongoing (= fall armyworm larvae present, and; (ii future (= fall armyworm eggs present. In choice tests, moths laid more eggs on the highly resistant cultivar, and least on the susceptible cultivar, though on those cultivars larvae performed poorest and best, respectively. In the context of herbivory, moths laid more eggs: (i on plants subject to versus free of future herbivory, regardless of whether plants were deficient or not in JA and GLV production; (ii on plants subject versus free of ongoing herbivory, and; (iii on plants not deficient in compared to deficient in JA and GLV production. Neonate larvae dispersed aerially from host plants (i.e. ballooned, and most larvae colonized the modestly resistant cultivar, and fewest the highly resistant cultivar, suggesting quasi-directional, directed aerial descent. Finally, dispersing older larvae did not discriminate among the three maize cultivars, nor between maize plants and (plastic model maize plants, suggesting random, visually-oriented dispersal. Our results were used to assemble a model of host selection by fall armyworm moths and

  7. Bee moth (Galleria mellonella) allergic reactions are caused by several thermolabile antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, D; Martelli, P; Mistrello, G; Roncarolo, D; Zanoni, D

    2004-09-01

    Exposure and contact with bee moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae (Gm) can cause an allergic reaction both in anglers and breeders. We described the case of an amateur fisherman who experienced an allergic reaction using Gm but not using heat-treated Gm (h-Gm) (mummies). The aim of this study was to demonstrate by immunoblotting and radioallergosorbent test (RAST)-inhibition experiments the loss of allergenic epitopes in h-Gm extracts. Galleria mellonella larvae and h-Gm were homogenized and extracted at 10% (w/v) in 0.5 M phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4 containing 0.5% NaN(3) for 16 h at 4 degrees C. Gm and h-Gm extracts were electrophoresed in a 10% polyacrylamide precast Nupage Bis-Tris gel at 180 mA for 1 h and the resolved proteins stained with 0.1% Coomassie brilliant blue and the molecular weight calculated. For the immunoblotting detection of allergenic components the resolved extracts were transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and incubated with the patient's serum. Bound specific-IgE was detected by peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgE. RAST inhibition experiments were performed according to the Ceska method. The protein profile of Gm and h-Gm extracts resulted markedly different in number, intensity and the position of bands, indicating that heat-treatment modifies the chemical-physical characteristics of the protein contents. The Gm extract showed a strong-coloured band at 73 kDa and more than 20 components ranging from 12 to 133 kDa; h-Gm showed two main band at 77 and 38 kDa and about 15 faint bands between 20 and 133 kDa apparently without any correspondence to the bands present in the Gm extract. Immunoblotting with the patient's serum demonstrated several bands of reactivity with the Gm extract ranging from 20 to 100 kDa and no recognizable bands, but only a diffuse smear with h-Gm. When used in a RAST inhibition experiment the h-Gm extract demonstrated an inability to compete with the Gm one for the binding to patient's IgE serum. The h

  8. Resolving Relationships among the Megadiverse Butterflies and Moths with a Novel Pipeline for Anchored Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinholt, Jesse W; Earl, Chandra; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Xiao, Lei; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2018-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has allowed for thecollection of large portions of the genome for phylogenetic analysis. Hybrid enrichment and transcriptomics are two techniques that leverage next-generation sequencing and have shown much promise. However, methods for processing hybrid enrichment data are still limited. We developed a pipeline for anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) read assembly, orthology determination, contamination screening, and data processing for sequences flanking the target "probe" region. We apply this approach to study the phylogeny of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), a megadiverse group of more than 157,000 described species with poorly understood deep-level phylogenetic relationships. We introduce a new, 855 locus AHE kit for Lepidoptera phylogenetics and compare resulting trees to those from transcriptomes. The enrichment kit was designed from existing genomes, transcriptomes, and expressed sequence tags and was used to capture sequence data from 54 species from 23 lepidopteran families. Phylogenies estimated from AHE data were largely congruent with trees generated from transcriptomes, with strong support for relationships at all but the deepest taxonomic levels. We combine AHE and transcriptomic data to generate a new Lepidoptera phylogeny, representing 76 exemplar species in 42 families. The tree provides robust support for many relationships, including those among the seven butterfly families. The addition of AHE data to an existing transcriptomic dataset lowers node support along the Lepidoptera backbone, but firmly places taxa with AHE data on the phylogeny. Combining taxa sequenced for AHE with existing transcriptomes and genomes resulted in a tree with strong support for (Calliduloidea $+$ Gelechioidea $+$ Thyridoidea) $+$ (Papilionoidea $+$ Pyraloidea $+$ Macroheterocera). To examine the efficacy of AHE at a shallow taxonomic level, phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on a sister group representing

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e−5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were

  10. KONAGAbase: a genomic and transcriptomic database for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouraku, Akiya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Urio, Masahiro; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Kurita, Kanako; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Noda, Hiroaki

    2013-07-09

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests for crucifer crops worldwide. DBM has rapidly evolved high resistance to most conventional insecticides such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, fipronil, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diamides. Therefore, it is important to develop genomic and transcriptomic DBM resources for analysis of genes related to insecticide resistance, both to clarify the mechanism of resistance of DBM and to facilitate the development of insecticides with a novel mode of action for more effective and environmentally less harmful insecticide rotation. To contribute to this goal, we developed KONAGAbase, a genomic and transcriptomic database for DBM (KONAGA is the Japanese word for DBM). KONAGAbase provides (1) transcriptomic sequences of 37,340 ESTs/mRNAs and 147,370 RNA-seq contigs which were clustered and assembled into 84,570 unigenes (30,695 contigs, 50,548 pseudo singletons, and 3,327 singletons); and (2) genomic sequences of 88,530 WGS contigs with 246,244 degenerate contigs and 106,455 singletons from which 6,310 de novo identified repeat sequences and 34,890 predicted gene-coding sequences were extracted. The unigenes and predicted gene-coding sequences were clustered and 32,800 representative sequences were extracted as a comprehensive putative gene set. These sequences were annotated with BLAST descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Pfam descriptions, respectively. KONAGAbase contains rich graphical user interface (GUI)-based web interfaces for easy and efficient searching, browsing, and downloading sequences and annotation data. Five useful search interfaces consisting of BLAST search, keyword search, BLAST result-based search, GO tree-based search, and genome browser are provided. KONAGAbase is publicly available from our website (http://dbm.dna.affrc.go.jp/px/) through standard web browsers. KONAGAbase provides DBM comprehensive transcriptomic and draft genomic sequences with

  11. The pivotal role of aristaless in development and evolution of diverse antennal morphologies in moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Toshiya; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Kojima, Tetsuya

    2018-01-25

    Antennae are multi-segmented appendages and main odor-sensing organs in insects. In Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), antennal morphologies have diversified according to their ecological requirements. While diurnal butterflies have simple, rod-shaped antennae, nocturnal moths have antennae with protrusions or lateral branches on each antennal segment for high-sensitive pheromone detection. A previous study on the Bombyx mori (silk moth) antenna, forming two lateral branches per segment, during metamorphosis has revealed the dramatic change in expression of antennal patterning genes to segmentally reiterated, branch-associated pattern and abundant proliferation of cells contributing almost all the dorsal half of the lateral branch. Thus, localized cell proliferation possibly controlled by the branch-associated expression of antennal patterning genes is implicated in lateral branch formation. Yet, actual gene function in lateral branch formation in Bombyx mori and evolutionary mechanism of various antennal morphologies in Lepidoptera remain elusive. We investigated the function of several genes and signaling specifically in lateral branch formation in Bombyx mori by the electroporation-mediated incorporation of siRNAs or morpholino oligomers. Knock down of aristaless, a homeobox gene expressed specifically in the region of abundant cell proliferation within each antennal segment, during metamorphosis resulted in missing or substantial shortening of lateral branches, indicating its importance for lateral branch formation. aristaless expression during metamorphosis was lost by knock down of Distal-less and WNT signaling but derepressed by knock down of Notch signaling, suggesting the strict determination of the aristaless expression domain within each antennal segment by the combinatorial action of them. In addition, analyses of pupal aristaless expression in antennae with various morphologies of several lepidopteran species revealed that the aristaless expression

  12. Is the sex communication of two pyralid moths, Plodia interpunctella and Ephestia kuehniella, under circadian clock regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závodská, Radka; Fexová, Silvie; von Wowern, Germund; Han, Gui-Biao; Dolezel, David; Sauman, Ivo

    2012-06-01

    Females of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, and females of the Mediterranean flour month, Ephestia kuehniella (both Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), exhibit daily rhythms in calling behavior. The peak in P. interpunctella calling occurs at dusk, whereas E. kuehniella calls preferentially at dawn. This behavior turned arrhythmic in P. interpunctella females in constant darkness (DD) and remained arrhythmic in constant light (LL), whereas E. kuehniella females showed a persistent rhythm in DD and suppression of the behavior in LL, indicating regulation by a circadian clock mechanism. The rhythm of male locomotor activity corresponded well with the sexual activity of females, reaching the peak at dusk in P. interpunctella and at dawn in E. kuehniella. An immunohistochemical study of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, corazonin, and pigment dispersing factor revealed distinct sets of neurons in the brain-subesophageal complex and in the neurohemal organs of the 2 species.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy of the development of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens within its host moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudek, J A; Crook, A M; Hubbard, S F; Hunter, G

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy was used to image the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) within larval and pupal instars of its host, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The images were obtained using gradient-echo and chemical shift selective pulse sequences and clearly showed the location and shapes of the parasitoid as it developed from the L1 larva to a pupal stage within the host. The digestive, nervous, and tracheal systems of the host were identified and changes were observed as the host underwent metamorphosis. Destruction of the host tissues by the parasitoid was visible. It was found that the parasitoid first ate the fat body and digestive system of the host, allowing the host to continue to grow, and only progressed to the vital organs when its own development had neared pupation.

  14. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. The brain extract showed increasing dose-dependent effects on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and trypsin secretion in the larval midgut. The extract was further characterised and partially purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Several peptides were determined in the brain extract regulating hydrolase activities in the larval midgut of the pest.

  15. Isolation and purification of a granulosis virus from infected larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweeten, K A; Bulla, L A; Consigli, R A

    1977-09-01

    A procedure was developed for purification of a granulosis virus inclusion body produced in vivo in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Purification was accomplished by differential centrifugation, treatment with sodium deoxycholate, and velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients. The adequacy of the procedure was confirmed by mixing experiments in which uninfected, radioactively labeled larvae were mixed with infected, unlabeled larvae. After purification, the virus was shown to be free of host tissue, to retain its physical integrity, and to be highly infectious per os. Preparations of purified virus consisted of homogeneous populations of intact inclusion bodies (210 by 380 nm) whose buoyant density was 1.271 g/cm3 when centrifuged to equilibrium in sucrose gradients. Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned virus or of virus sequentially disrupted on electron microscope grids demonstrated three components: protein matrix, envelope, and nucleocapsid.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  17. The Influence of Selected Companion Crops on Diamond Black Moth (Plutella Xylostella): Development and Investation on Cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raini, R.K

    2002-01-01

    Diamond black moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most serious pest of brassica in Kenya. Resistance to chemicals has been reported from various parts of the country. This research investigated brassica and non-brassica crops potential in 'push-pull' strategy toward developing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for DBM in Kenya. The study focused on evaluating the potential influence of selected crops on DBM oviposition, development and infestation on cabbage. Results indicate that DBM preferred to oviposition on brassica crops. No significant differences were observed on DBM development on host plants that supported full development. Minimum development was recorded on non-brassica crop Cleome gynandra, L. In field trials, the mustard, cloeme and coriander intercrops recorded significantly low infestation compared to other intercrops and demonstrated qulities which could be utilized in the development of IPM-option for the DBM

  18. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  19. Le rôle des citations chez La Mothe Le Vayer: érudition et éclectisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Manea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Plutarch because of the erudition which he uses in his works, La Mothe Le Vayer is nevertheless accused of pedantry by some of his contemporaries. The quotations which he inserts in his works are disliked by the writers who believe that French alone should be used in literary works. However, the quotations which he owes exclusively to his scholarly leisure allow him to express his eclectic thinking. Deeply influenced by Pyrrhonism, he is not interested in drawing permanent conclusions and in choosing one amongst the different opinions on the same natural or moral phenomenon. The quotations make it possible for him to gather various interpretations of the same natural or moral phenomena which have been considered the most plausible at a certain moment and place.

  20. Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:19809544